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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 19, NO.

2, MAY 2004 1159

Guidelines for Power System Restoration


in the Brazilian System
Paulo Gomes, Antonio Carlos Siqueira de Lima, Member, IEEE, and Antonio de Pdua Guarini

AbstractThis work presents the main aspects and criteria in Brazil are located in the southeast. The total amount of in-
adopted by the Brazilian independent system operator (ISO) for terrupted load was above 10 000 MW. After these disturbances,
power system restoration due to total or partial collapses. Guide- some frequent problems were identified such as congestion of
lines to avoid or minimize the occurrence of drawbacks during
the restoring process are also outlined. It presents a summary of communication links, difficulties in identifying the postdistur-
the recommendations and procedures. To exemplify the overall bance configuration, halt in substation supervisions due to over-
procedures, the restoration in the Rio de Janeiro area is presented flow alarms, high overvoltages limiting a complete restoration,
including a possible alternative in case of a blackout in this area. loss of communications between operating centers of intercon-
Index TermsPower system control, power system modeling, nected utilities, and a lack of a strategic plan for restoring the
power system restoration. system as a whole.
To solve or minimize these problems, a restoration task force
was created in 1989 to establish guidelines and criteria for the
I. INTRODUCTION
restoration of the main grid which were later implemented in

R ESTORATION processes deal with a broad range of phe-


nomena involving from load flow to electromagnetic and
electromechanical transients analysis. Therefore, a large variety
all of the utilities in the south/southeast/middle west. In 1996,
a major blackout hit Southeast Brazil, leading to the creation
of a new working group to review and update the restoration
of programs and models is needed and an extensive analysis procedures.
is demanded to provide a set of viable solutions to restore the The last major blackouts occurred in 1999 and in 2002 and
power after an outage [1], [2]. Although the probability of a were initiated in the 440-kV system. The former began in the
global outage is rather small, a few occurred in Brazil (in 2002 Bauru substation in So Paulo (southeast region) and caused
and 1999) and in other countries, for instance, the West Coast in the islanding of two power plants, Jupi and Ilha Solteira, af-
the U.S. (in 1996) [3] bringing severe consequences to the so- fecting all of the 440 kV of So Paulo and causing the switching
ciety, which has grown very dependable on electricity. Indepen- off of the 765-kV (ac) and the 600-kV (HVDC) systems with
dent of how well planned, designed, or operated, any electrical an almost total collapse of the south/southeast and middle west
system is prone to power outages; thus creating an interest in regions and the latter also begun in the 440-kV system at the
restoration procedures, tools, and models. Araraquara substation, again almost all of the 440-kV system
In Brazil, the restoration procedures are intimately related to went down, causing the partial collapse of the 500-kV trans-
the evolution of the Electric Transmission System. The Southern mission system in the southeast. Some important areas in Brazil
part of the system, until the late 1970s, was dependent on the were subjected to a loss of supply for more than 4 h. In both
power supply from the Southeast through a weak 230-kV in- cases, the amount of interrupted load was around 24 000 MW.
tertie. This configuration caused a large number of severe dis- These last blackouts have shown that in terms of system op-
turbances leading to the development of an underfrequency load eration, the southeast presents a challenge where unexpected
shedding scheme to prevent system collapse. While the utilities switchings may lead to voltage collapse. This is in part due to the
in the South felt the need for decentralized restoration proce- topological structure of the Brazilian system where the 440-kV
dures aiming for a faster load pickup rate, other utilities in Brazil system supplies the largest loads in the southeast and is sur-
adopted an operation centers-based procedure being therefore rounded by a 500 kV with, usually, a lighter load.
centralized. Furnas (a transmission and generation utility re- ANEEL (the Brazilian regulatory agency) urged the Brazilian
sponsible for most of the transmission system in the Southeast ISO (ONS) to carry out a thorough review of all restoration pro-
and Midwest regions of Brazil) was an exception. In 1982, it cedures [5]. The priority procedure in the most affected areas in
started adopting a decentralized procedure. In 1984 and 1985, these last two blackouts (Rio de Janeiro, So Paulo, and Mato
there were three large disturbances in the Southeast area causing Grosso do Sul) was reassessed and alternatives restorations were
outages in several metropolitan regions with drastic economical proposed in case of unavailability in priority procedures.
and social impact [4]. One must remember that most industries The restoration processes, be it partial or total, are defined
nowadays by the grid code which states all of the responsibil-
Manuscript received April 29, 2003.
P. Gomes and A. de Pdua Guarini are with the Operador Nacional do Sistema ities of operators, utilities operating centers, and the ISO re-
Eltrico, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20091-000, Brazil (e-mail: pgomes@ons.org.br; gional and national operating centers. This document is updated
guarini@ons.org.br). constantly since any topology change, be it a connection of a
A. C. S. de Lima is with the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de
Janeiro, RJ 21945-970, Brazil (e-mail: acsl@dee.ufrj.br). new generating plant, transmission path, or any other procedure,
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPWRS.2004.825862 implies in the change of restoration processes, partial or total.
0885-8950/04$20.00 2004 IEEE
1160 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 19, NO. 2, MAY 2004

This demands a continuous assessment and validation through III. STAGES IN RESTORATION PROCESS
a set of studies carried out by the ISO and the utilities. From
these studies, new restoration procedures are implemented by In the bulk Brazilian power system, the restoration processes
the National Operating Center (owned by the Brazilian ISO). have two stages: fluent and coordinated. In the former, there is
no need for communication among the parts involved, while
in the latter, several prior conditions must be reached. The
National Operating Center is responsible for the coordination
II. RESTORATION CRITERIA of the whole process. In other words, during fluent restoration,
an operator need not communicate with any other substations.
The restoration studies take into account some main aspects:
His or her function is to check whether the voltage conditions
balance between load and generation with black start [2], defini-
are met and if all of the reactors needed are connected and then
tion of voltage limits, and availability of load blocks that can be
switch on the transmission line. In the coordinated process, the
picked up maintaining the system reliability. Moreover, in any
operator has to contact an operating center of higher hierarchy
restoration procedures an alternative solution should be taken
and wait for instructions of what to maneuver. Moreover, in
into account in case of equipment unavailability so the overall
fluent restoration, it is assumed that the system is completely
process is not affected.
de-energised, except for any prescheduled islanding. The
The strategy must be such that the agents, who own the gen- restoration procedure is started by high reliability hydropower
erating units, start the restoration, providing the operators with units. The actual restoration process is started through the
information regarding the amount of active power to be deliv- startup and synchronization of the generating units, energiza-
ered to priority loads. The restoration strategy must keep the tion of the transmission lines, and priority load pickup, with
active power balance to avoid large frequency deviations and the least level of communication. For the restoration of the
protection schemes misoperation. main grid of the Brazilian bulk power system, there are some
The main restoration criteria come from load-flow analysis, recommendations and guidelines to establish the procedures
the results of the electromechanical and electromagnetic for fluent restoration.
transients are applied only at a later stage defining whether the
restoration sequence is viable. The load-flow analysis uses the For each fluent restoration process, startup voltage
concept of geoelectrical areas together with another index, the level and the minimum amount of generators must be
reliability degree, which defines the reliability of units capable established.
of black-start. It gives qualitative information about the overall The priority load pickup must be predefined keeping in
capability of using determined generation units during the mind the balance between generation and load and not
restoration process. exceed either the transmission paths and transformation
available.
The maximum amount of power in each priority load
A. Geo-Electrical Areas pickup for each geo-electrical area must be predefined.
The concept of the geo-electrical areas is not much different The load pickup is carried out in steps giving preference to
from the power restoration line used in Italy [6] where there is reduced amounts; the apparent increase in restoration time
a predefined partitioning of the network. Therefore, geo-elec- is compensated for the increase in reliability and safety
trical areas are minimum grid configurations containing one or which is crucial in the fragile starting stage.
more generating units allowing the restoration of priority loads It should consider extreme load configurations such as
in the fastest and safest way. In other words, they represent the maximum and minimum (heavy and light loads) to ensure
minimum of island configuration where the power supply is still that the restoration process can be carried out at any time.
attained within the normal limits. If there are no restrictions, hydropower units should
keep the highest number of units in operation during
restoration.
B. Reliability Degree Financial issues should not come into consideration during
This index is used to define a geo-electrical area, it gives qual- the restoration process.
itative information whether any specific units can be used for Thermal power plants are usually considered last in the
the restoration process. This degree can be classified in the fol- restoration procedure, although, if possible, they should be
lowing way: high reliabilityunits capable of black start inde- equipped with black start and islanding schemes to supply
pendently of any external supply and can be started up from part of the system after a disturbance.
standstill; medium reliabilitycapable of supplying their auxil- To avoid overvoltage during outages, capacitor banks are
iary systems with terminal voltage in the generating units, must to be de-energized and transformer taps are operated in
be kept rotating and excited after a disturbance occurs. Low Re- such a way as to minimize this risk.
liabilityunits that require an external supply from auxiliary sys- Synchronous or static compensators are not to be involved
tems. A geo-electrical area must contain at least one generating in the general voltage control criteria unless the equipment
unit capable of black-start (i.e., at least a single high-reliability usage is thoroughly defined in the operating procedure.
unit). Medium and low reliability units can participate in the first In the case of a total collapse, the coordinated stage starts after
stages of the restoration as voltage and power support. The fre- some geo-electrical areas are restored. In the case of a partial
quency control is carried out by the units with high reliability. collapse, there will not be a fluent but only a coordinated stage.
GOMES et al.: GUIDELINES FOR POWER SYSTEM RESTORATION IN THE BRAZILIAN SYSTEM 1161

The national and regional operating centers coordinate the avoid high overvoltage due to Ferranti effects in the transmis-
load shedding and closing of loops or parallelling of systems in sion paths. The reactive power supply provided by the gener-
distinct geo-electrical areas that were restored during the fluent ating units must comply with the machine capability curve. The
restoration. The geo-electrical areas are first restored in a prac- amount of priority load to be picked up in any geo-electrical
tically independent manner during the fluent phase. There are area is therefore defined from the total available active and re-
restoration procedures that involve, in the beginning, only fluent active power delivery by the generating units. During all of the
process and later on, start the coordinated one, while there can stages of the restoration process, the voltage control is such that
be a procedure where even the first steps in restoration are taken the maximum allowed overvoltage is 110% of nominal voltage
in a coordinated manner. and the minimum is 90%. During normal operation, the range is
The restoration can also be coordinated when there is any narrower, 105% for the maximum and 95% for the minimum.
sort of impediment that requires the action of a group of dis-
tinct operating centers or a higher hierarchical entity. Hierarchy C. Electromechanical Transients
is defined in a way that the utilities operating centers are co- Electromechanical transients studies are carried out to ana-
ordinated by the ISO regional operating center which, in turn, lyze the behavior of frequency and voltage oscillations during
is controlled by the National Operating Center. The utilities are load pickup and load rejection. In those studies, it is manda-
responsible for the load pickup within predefined parameters tory to represent the voltage and speed regulators of the units
and this procedure can only begin after the following demands equipped with black start.
are met: nonexistence of equipment overload in the coordinated In restoration studies, frequency deviations from 55 up to
area; frequency stabilization; compatible voltage levels; connec- 65 Hz can be accepted as minimum and maximum limits, re-
tion of geo-electrical areas should only be done when the two spectively. For thermal units, these limits are narrower, around
areas involved present a stable configuration. 58 and 62 Hz, respectively. This limitation is a question of de-
sign, the units nowadays operating in Brazil are not capable of
IV. RESTORATION STUDIES large frequency excursions. Besides the frequency oscillation,
Together with the index of generator reliability, the power- there is another issue related to the reactive power capability of
flow studies are done to assess the system conditions throughout thermal units. Typically, a thermal unit could energize around
all of the restoration stages, verifying equipment load, voltage 150 to 200 km of a 500-kV transmission line. In Brazil, the main
profiles, and capabilities of the generating units prior, during, distance far exceeds this limit ranging from 600 up to 800 km.
and after switchings. Therefore, those studies are responsible to For dynamic voltage, the maximum and minimum acceptable
check whether or not a certain restoration procedure meets all are 85% and 125% (or 5% lower than the overvoltage protection
of the standards defined in the grid code. limit). The electromechanical studies also help to evaluate the
likeness of self-excitation in case a load rejection occurs during
A. Initial Power Availability the early stages of the restoration process when the system is es-
sentially unloaded. This phenomenon is a function of the elec-
The first criteria is the availability of generating units
trical parameters of the machine, including speed and voltage
equipped with black start (i.e., the amount of pickup load
regulators, and the total impedance of the network to be re-
cannot exceed the initial active power capability for each re-
stored, considering also the load. Therefore, the electrical ma-
gion). The second criteria is the minimum amount of generating
chines model must be as extensive as possible, including a pos-
units that can be considered, taking into account maintenance
sible protection scheme that might be used by the equipment.
and electrical parameters. If on the one hand, the number of
The priority loading during the fluent part of the restora-
generating units must be such that overload or self-excitation
tion is carried out in steps, in which each represents an amount
are avoided; on the other hand, the overall restoration time has
of load that does not compromise either voltage or frequency
to be less than the maximum operating time that any machine
throughout the system. In an ideal scenario, the load pickup
can operate unloaded. Therefore, for ( ) generating units or
ought to be done in steps of 20%50% of the available active
the minimum number of generating units available, equipped
power.
with blackstart, the initial power availability for a geo-electrical
The load pickup in the restoration process is not to be done
area is defined by
in time intervals less than 1 min so the voltage and frequency
(1) oscillation due to the prior load can be stabilized with the action
of voltage and speed regulators.
where is the number of generating units, is the nominal For voltage levels prior to 230 kV whenever a loop or parallel
power actually available. If a geo-electrical area has more than is closed, the dynamic overvoltage must be evaluated as well
one generation block equipped with black start and is partici- as mechanical aspects of the machines in the process and the
pating in the fluent restoration process, the frequency control is electromechanical stability of the system. Prior to the closing of
carried out by only one of these generating blocks. any parallel or loop, the following limits are considered: max-
imum frequency deviation; maximum phase difference of 10 ;
B. Voltage Control in Geo-Electrical Areas During Fluent maximum overvoltage up to 10% of nominal voltage.
Restoration It should also be noted that the voltage difference is not re-
Shunt reactors are used together with the reactive power of strictive, the threshold is defined by the grid code. If for any
the generating units to provide a reasonable voltage profile and reason it is not possible to achieve the phase angles within the
1162 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 19, NO. 2, MAY 2004

Fig. 1. Single-line diagram for the restoration in Rio de Janeiro area.

limits, the loop can be closed if either the voltage levels are
below the recommended values or if there is an equipment over-
load. Whenever an outage occurs, the machines in the affected
area must not participate in the automatic generation control.

D. Electromagnetic Transients
Electromagnetic transients studies define maximum voltage
for equipment energization and if it is possible to energze the
equipment without any risk considering transient overvoltages
or system resonance. They are used to verify short-term condi- Fig. 2. Self-excitation at Marimbondo during restoration.
tions such as line, transformer energization, and load rejection.
The priority loads are supplied after the transformer energiza-
tion, which is done through the high voltage side and, therefore,
during the fluent part of restoration, since, in this stage, the
more troublesome since there is a greater interaction between
black start units are still separated in geo-electrical areas with
the capacitance of the transmission lines and the inductances of
rather different characteristics and sometimes without sufficient
the transformer itself and the system. Furthermore, the losses
generation, prone to higher overvoltages due to load rejections.
in the high side of the system are smaller giving transients with
lower damping. For the transmission lines, the studies contem-
plate the line energization with or without a fault at the receiving V. RESTORATION IN THE RIO DE JANEIRO AREA
end of the transmission line. For the transformer, the results also The main operative procedure for a power restoration in
provided the inrush current that can be useful for a protection the Rio de Janeiro Area is done through the Marimbondo
system. power plant with a local generation support from a 138-kV
As it is nowadays, these studies follow this strategy: obtain system in the main Rio de Janeiro Area which is used to
the load flow of the system; adjust the initial conditions of the increase the system stability during the restoration. This local
transient case so the load-flow conditions are met. The load-flow generation is owned by Light (local distribution company
results represent a prior to fault scenario for the transient case. A in Rio de Janeiro while the Marimbondo and the associated
statistical case is done to obtain which is the worst case scenario. transmission system belong to Furnas). Fig. 1 shows the
The load rejection studies define the levels of maximum load geo-electrical area for the restoration configuration and the
pickup during the restoration process as well as the minimum associated voltages in per unit. At the Grajau substation, there
configuration of reactors for the system under study. There is also a synchronous compensator connected through a step-up
are two possible problems in terms of load rejection during (13,8 kV:500-kV) transformer. The synchronous compensator
restoration that can happen, either one being very harmful for is used only after the main load is restored. The total capability
the whole restoration procedure. The first one is related with of the Marimbondo power plant is 1488 MW (eight units of
undue operation of surge arresters because of load rejection 186 MW). The minimum quantity of units at the Marimbondo
overvoltages. The second one is related to misoperation of over- power plant was defined by electromechanical studies consid-
voltage protection schemes causing unwanted disconnection of ering the minimum amount that would avoid self-excitation
already restored parts of the system. This leads to the repetition after a load rejection. To further illustrate these tests, Fig. 2
of prior steps demanding an interference from the operation shows the voltage at the 500-kV bus (Marimbondo Substation)
center dealing with the process. Both problems lead to a delay during a restoration process where load rejection occurs at each
and, in some cases, a reset of the whole restoration procedure. step during the process. From the aforementioned figure, one
The aforementioned problems ought to be taken carefully can see that with one machine at Marimbondo, it is impossible
GOMES et al.: GUIDELINES FOR POWER SYSTEM RESTORATION IN THE BRAZILIAN SYSTEM 1163

Fig. 4. Restoration of the Rio de Janeiro area with the south system.

A. Alternative Restoration in Rio de Janeiro Area


In case of any problem during the restoration of the main
path, there is one alternative whether there are at least three
machines at Marimbondo: restoration through the geo-elec-
trical area formed by Marimbondo and Itaipu, therefore using
the 765 kV and south systems, as shown in Fig. 4. In this
configuration, the restoration of the Rio de Janeiro area could
Fig. 3. Voltage at Tijuco Preto 765 kV after the transformer energization
without the south system.
be carried out a priori through the parallelling of 500-kV corri-
dors MarimbondoCachoeira Paulista and the 765-kV system.
However, this is not feasible since dangerous overvoltages
to even reach the next substation (Araraquara 500 kV) without would appear in case of a load rejection and the machines in
risking self excitation. To reach the Poos de Caldas 500-kV Itaipu would be subjected to self-excitation. To maintain the
substation, three machines are needed at Marimbondo; there- voltage control, one must use some ballast loads in Campinas
fore, to reach the substations of Graja, Adrianpolis, and So 138 kV, Cachoeira Paulista 138 kV, and Terminal Leste 345 kV
Jos, totaling 740 km of 500-kV transmission lines without to keep the voltage profile. That is the reason why the parallel of
risking self excitation, the Marimbondo power plant must be Campinas and Tijuco Preto through the 345-kV system must be
operated with five machines. executed prior to the parallelling of the 500-kV and the 765-kV
The initial amount of power available during the restora- system at Tijuco Preto. These loads are normally restored by
tion in the case of five machines in Marimbondo is of different geo-electrical areas; therefore, this alternative also
. The startup voltage at the 13.8-kV bus interferes with other restoration procedures. One alternative to
at Marimbondo is equal to the lower limit of the automatic using the extra loads is to install another 136 Mvar at Cachoeira
voltage regulator (AVR) 90%, the stepup transformer has Paulista 500-kV substation, however, this would demand a new
a fixed tap at 100%, even though in normal operation, it is substation layout to allow the equipment to be installed.
equipped with a load tap changer (OLTC). For this system, From Itaipu to Tijuco Preto, the total length of the 765-kV
the voltage at Graja, Adrianpolis, and So Jos must be system to be energized is of 892 km. This configuration
below 110%. Prior to adjusting the amount of load to be has a high Ferranti effect even though there is a 50% shunt
supplied, one must define the minimum reactor configuration compensation in the lines, the total amount of shunt compen-
to make sure that during the entire process, there is not any sation required during the restoration of the 765-kV system
equipment with a steady-state voltage higher than 110%. For is 3270 Mvar. This configuration is so critical that, for in-
the system in Fig. 1, four line reactors are used: two 73-Mvar stance, without a 180-Mvar tertiary reactor at 765/550/69 kV,
reactors at Marimbondo Adrianpolis and at AraquaraPoos 1650-MVA transformer at Ivaipor 765-kV substation one
de Caldas, and two 136-Mvar reactors at Poos de Caldas cannot energize the last part of the 765-kV circuit between
Cachoeira Paulista and Cachoeira PaulistaAdrianpolis. Itaber and Tijuco Preto. In normal operation, to avoid the
Another 136-Mvar reactor at Cachoeira Paulista 500 kV is also excessive high transient and steady-state voltages due to this
needed. To maintain the voltage control at Poos de Caldas energization, the last part of the 765 kV is energized through
345 kV, to avoid high voltage during the energization of the Tijuco Preto 765-kV bus. To further illustrate this situation,
500-kV Cachoeira PaulistaAdrianpolis transmission line, Fig. 3 shows the energization of the 1500 MVA, 765/345/20 kV
and to detune the system resonance frequency so the load at Tijuco Preto through the high voltage side, the energization
transformers can be energized, another reactor is used at the leads to an overvoltage above the transformer limits, shown in
tertiary of the 500/345/13.8-kV transformer at Poos de Caldas. the figure as straight lines. Without the south system voltage
The maximum load was defined through electromagnetic support, one cannot energize this transformer accordingly to
studies so there is no equipment risk during load rejection, it the operational limits.
reaches 420 MW (360 MW for the Light Company and 60 MW The extra generation provided by Itaipu reaches 1800 MW
for CERJ (distribution company of Great Rio de Janeiro). In (minimum three units) and the extra load pickup adds only up
this restoration process, one point is clearly seen, even though to 470 MW. Despite an apparent gain in generation, the peculiar-
one has almost 600-MW generation, it can only supply 60% of ities imposed by circuit configuration in Brazil lead to the con-
that amount due to the circuit limitations. clusion that this alternative represents no gain for the restoration
1164 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 19, NO. 2, MAY 2004

in the Rio de Janeiro area since the amount of load pickup is es- station with five machines without interference from any other
sentially the same. Fig. 4 shows the one-line diagram for this geo-electrical area.
alternative restoration procedure.
Another possible restoration alternative for the Rio de REFERENCES
Janeiro area deals with using three distinct geo-electrical areas: [1] M. Adibi, Ed., Power System Restoration Methodologies and Imple-
one from Marimbondo until Poos de Caldas, the 765-kV mentation Strategies. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2000.
system, and the area that supplies the capital of Minas Gerais, [2] B. Delfino, G. Denegri, E. Bonini, R. Marconato, and P. Scarpellini,
Black start and restoration of a part of the Italian HV network: Mod-
Belo Horizonte, and Great So Paulo. This scenario presents eling and simulation of a field test, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 11,
the longest restoration duration time and affects the load pick pp. 13711379, Aug. 1996.
up of other large load centers. The total load supplied to the [3] D. Kosterev, C. Taylor, and W. Mittelstadt, Model validation for the
August 10, 1996 wscc system outage, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol.
Rio de Janeiro Area is 360 MW if there is a local reactive 14, pp. 967979, Aug. 1999.
compensation at the 138-kV bus and 270 MW otherwise. This [4] GCOI, Restoration Philosophy for the South-Southeast and Mid-
alternative also presents no gain to the main procedure and is to west, (in Portuguese), ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 01/97,
1997.
be used only when there is a problem in the main procedure. [5] ONS, Reevaluation of Restoration Procedures in the North and North-
east Region, (in Portuguese), ONS, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Tech. Rep.
ons-3 073/2001, 2001.
VI. CONCLUSION [6] E. Mariani, F. Mastroianni, and V. Romano, Field experiences in reen-
ergization of electrical networks from thermal power plant, IEEE Trans.
The restoration process in Brazil is a technical challenge, the Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-103, pp. 17071713, July 1984.
generation is located far from the consumer load, as shown in the
paper, for the Rio de Janeiro Area, this distance may range from
740 km (in the main procedure using five units at Marimbondo)
Paulo Gomes was born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on August 25, 1948. He grad-
up to almost 2000 km (in the case of the alternative using the uated from the Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1973,
765kV system). This situation puts high stress at the reactive and received the Master of Science and Doctor of Science degrees from Itajub
power compensation throughout the whole process, it must help Federal University, Itajub, Brazil, in 1976 and 2000, respectively. He received
the MBA degree from Fundao Getlio Vargas, Rio de Janeiro, in 1995.
in the prevention of self-excitation and prevent excessively high Currently, he is in charge of the ONS Special Studies, Protection and Control
steady-state voltages. The absence of a single-line reactor may Area with the Operador Nacional do Sistema Eltrico, Rio de Janeiro, where he
invalidate a corridor demanding cooperation between different has been since 1999. He was also with ELETROBRS, Rio de Janeiro, from
1976 to 1996, and Power Security and Quality Company, Rio de Janeiro. He has
geo-electrical areas to attend the load. The concept of geo-elec- been teaching power system dynamics at the Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio
trical area helps the definition of which power plant must supply de Janeiro, since 1979.
a specific load center. Only hydro units are considered since the
line charging for the geo-electrical areas far exceeds the capa-
bility of any existing thermal unit in Brazil. Antonio Carlos Siqueira de Lima (S95M00) was born in Rio de Janeiro,
In most of the restoration studies, only steady-state and sta- Brazil in 1971. He received the B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical
engineering from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) in 1995, 1997,
bility cases are considered, nonetheless all of the restorations in and 1999, respectively.
Brazil have shown the necessity of incorporating electromag- Currently, he is an Associate Professor with the Electrical Engineering De-
netic transients studies; otherwise, unrealistic results may occur partment of the UFRJ where he has been since 2002. In 1998, he was a Visiting
Scholar with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the Uni-
leading to an inefficient and risky restoration process as is the versity of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. From 2000 to 2002, he was
case of the Rio de Janeiro Area presented here. It seems valid with the Brazilian Independent System Operator, ONS, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,
to conclude that for a system where the transmission distance dealing with electromagnetic transient studies for the Brazilian National Grid.
is high, over 400 km, there must be a careful analysis of the
performance concerning not only steady-state and stability but
also electromagnetic transient studies. The load shedding was Antonio de Pdua Guarini was born in Monte Sio, Brazil, in 1951. He re-
ceived the B.S.E.E. degree in 1974 from the Federal University of Itajub, Ita-
defined as a function of safety of the voltage and the level of jub, Brazil, and the M.S.E.E. degree from the Federal University of Rio de
reactive compensation in the LIGHT area. Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1981.
An alternative restoration process can only be chosen if it Currently, he is with the Brazilian Independent System Operator, ONS, Rio
de Janeiro, Brazil, dealing with power system restoration and protection spe-
presents a minimum interference with the other processes. The cial system studies for the Brazilian National Grid. He was with CEPEL from
load pickup capability in Rio de Janeiro area does not increase 1974 to 1996, first acting in the area of transmission line projects and since
with a higher amount of generation nor does this imply a faster 1976 in the HVDC and static compensator systems (SVC), transients, and power
quality areas. His main interests are HVDC/SVC specification and studies, es-
restoration procedure for this area. The fastest restoration pro- pecially ac/dc harmonics filters/capacitor banks in regards to reactive power
cedure is the one carried out only by the Marimbondo power compensation.