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University of Sharjah

Dept. of Civil and Env. Engg.

0401544 - HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES

CHAPTER 7: SPILLWAY AND ENERGY


DISSIPATORS

DR. MOHSIN SIDDIQUE


ASSISTANT PROFESSOR

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SPILLWAY

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LEARNING OUTCOME

After taking this lecture, students should be able to:

(1). Obtain in-depth knowledge on various types of spillways


used in dams and their design guide lines

(2). Apply the design guide lines for the design of selected
Spillway

References:
Khatsuria, R. M., Hydraulics of Spillways and Energy Dissipators,
Novak, A.I.B. Moffat, C. Nalluri, R. Narayanan, Hydraulic Structures, 4th Ed. CRC Press
Santosh, K. G., Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures, Khanna Publishers
BULU, A., Lecture noted of water resources, Istanbul Technical University

3
SPILLWAY
A spillway is a structure
designed to 'spill' flood waters
under controlled (i.e. safe)
conditions.

 The Spillways can be


 Uncontrolled (Normally)
 Controlled

 Note: Concrete dams


normally incorporate an over-fall
or crest spillway, but
embankment dams generally
require a separate side-channel
or shaft spillway structure
located adjacent to the dam.
Sketch of conventional weir/spillway

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CLASSIFICATION OF SPILLWAYS
I. According to the most II. According to Function
prominent feature
A. Service spillway
A. Ogee spillway
B. Auxiliary spillway
B. Chute spillway
C. Fuse plug or emergency
C. Side channel spillway spillway
D. Shaft spillway III. According to Control
E. Siphon spillway Structure
F. Straight drop or overfall A. Gated spillway
spillway
B. Ungated spillway
G. Tunnel spillway/Culvert
C. Orifice of sluice spillway
spillway
H. Labyrinth spillway
I. Stepped spillway

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CLASSIFICATION
OF SPILLWAY

Classification of Spillway (Vischer et al, San


Francisco,1988). 6
ANALYSIS OF EXISTING STRUCTURES
Semenkov (1979) analyzed more than 400 projects in terms of
parameters L/H and N for the three main types of spillways: gravity
spillways, chute spillways, and tunnel spillways for concrete and
earth-fill dams.
Where, L and H are the length and height of the dam crest respectively, and
N is the power of the flow

Types of spillways for concrete and earth-fill dams. T: Tunnel spillways, C:


Chute spillways, G: Gravity spillways (Semenkov, 1979).

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VARIOUS ASPECTS INVOLVED IN A
SPILLWAY DESIGN
The following aspects are involved in the design of spillways:
1. Hydrology
Estimation of inflow design flood
Selection of spillway design flood
Determination of spillway outflow discharge
Determination of frequency of spillway use
2. Topography and geology
Type and location of spillway
3. Utility and operational aspects
Serviceability
4. Constructional and structural aspects
Cost-effectiveness

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ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

Comparative costs: spillway-dam combinations. A:Minimum cost: gated


spillway, B: Minimum cost: ungated spillway (USBR,1960).

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SPILLWAY DESIGN FLOOD
Probable Maximum Flood (PMF)
This is the flood that may be expected from the most severe
combination of critical meteorological and hydrological conditions that
are reasonably possible in the region. This is computed by using the
Probable Maximum Storm.

Standard Project Flood (SPF)


This is the flood that may be expected from the most severe
combination of hydrological and meteorological factors that are
considered reasonably characteristic of the region and is computed by
using the Standard Project Storm (SPS).

In US, generally, large dams are designed for PMF, intermediate for
SPF/PMF, and small dams for floods of return period of 100 years to
SPF.

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ESTIMATION OF SPILLWAY DESIGN FLOOD
The estimation of spillway design flood or the inflow design flood is an
exercise involving diverse disciplines of hydrology, meteorology,
statistics and probability.

There is a great variety of methods used around the world to determine


exceptional floods and their characteristics. ICOLD (1992) groups all
these methods under the two main categories:

1. Methods based mainly on flow data.


2. Methods based mainly on rainfall data.

(discussion on the methods is not scope of this course)

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SPILLWAY DESIGN
Ogee or Overflow Spillways

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OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
The ogee or overflow spillway is the most common type of spillway. It
has a control weir that is Ogee or S-shaped. It is a gravity structure
requiring sound foundation and is preferably located in the main river
channel.

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OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
The basic shape of the overfall (ogee) spillway is derived from the
lower envelope of the overall nappe flowing over a high vertical
rectangular notch with an approach velocity, Vo,=0 and a fully aerated
space beneath the nappe (p=po)

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OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
DISCHARGE CHARACTERISTICS
Similar to the crest profile, the discharge characteristics of the standard
spillway can also be derived from the characteristics of the sharp
crested weir. The weir equation in the form:

Q = C 2 g LH e3 / 2

He

If the discharge, Q, is used as the design discharge in above Eq, then the term
He will be the corresponding design head (Hd) plus the velocity head (Ha). i.e.,
He= Hd +Ha
For high ogee spillways, the velocity head is very small, and He Hd.

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OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
Overflow spillways are named as high-overflow, and low-overflow
depending upon to the relative upstream depth P/HD.

In high-overflow spillways, this ratio is (P/HD>1.33) and the approach


velocity is generally negligible.

Low spillways have appreciable approach velocity, which affects both


the shape of the crest and the discharge coefficients.
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

Definition sketch of overflow spillway cross-section


OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

Figure gives variation of CD, the value of C when H equals the design
head HD, with the relative upstream depth P/HD. Here P is the height of
the spillway crest with respect to the channel bed.
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
Overflow spillways
frequently use undershot
radial gates for releases
over the dam. The
governing equation for
gated flows:

Where C is a coefficient of
discharge, and H1 and H2
are total heads to the
bottom and top of the gate
opening. The coefficient C
is a function of geometry
and the ratio d/H1, where d
is the gate aperture.
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
THE SPILLWAY CREST PROFILE
On the crest shape based on a design head, HD, when the actual head
is less than HD, the trajectory of the nappe falls below the crest profile,
creating positive pressures on the crest, thereby reducing the
discharge. On the other hand, with a higher than design head, the
nappe-trajectory is higher than crest, which creates negative pressure
pockets and results in increased discharge.

H=HD
H>HD
H<HD
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
THE SPILLWAY CREST PROFILE
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
THE SPILLWAY CREST PROFILE
Accordingly, it is considered desirable to under design the crest shape
of a high overflow spillway for a design head, HD, less than the head on
the crest corresponding to the maximum reservoir level, He (~Hmax).

However, with too much negative pressure, cavitation may occur. The
U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (1988) recommendation has been that
He/HD should not exceed 1.33.

The Corps of Engineers (COE) has accordingly recommended that a


spillway crest be designed so that the maximum expected head will
result in an average pressure on the crest no lower than (-4.50m) of
water head (U.S. Department of Army, 1986). Pressures of (-4.50m)
can be approximated by the following equations (Reese and Maynord,
1987).
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
THE SPILLWAY CREST PROFILE

He/HD <=1.33
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
THE SPILLWAY CREST PROFILE
Crest shapes have been studied extensively in the USBR hydraulic
laboratories with various approach depths. On the basis of the USBR
data, the US Army Corps of Engineers, WES (1952)** has developed
several standard shapes, designated as WES standard spillway
shapes, represented on the downstream of the crest axis by the
equation:

**WES Spillway for Genegantslet dam,. New York, Tech Memo 2351, 1952.
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
THE SPILLWAY CREST PROFILE (typical values)
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
In the revised procedure developed by Murphy (1973), using the same
basic data of USBR, the upstream quadrant was shaped as an ellipse
with the equation

origin at the base of apex

and the downstream profile conformed to the equation

For vertical u/s face

Where K is a parameter depending on the ratio approach depth and


design head
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

Figure. Coordinate coefficients for spillway crest (USACE, 1986)


OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

Typical WES crest profiles.


OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
In a high-overflow section, the crest profile merges with the straight
downstream section of slope , as shown in Fig. (i.e., dy/dx = ).
Differentiation and expressing that in terms of x
yield the distance to the position of downstream tangent as follows:

where
xDT = Horizontal distance from
the apex to the downstream
tangent point

= Slope of the downstream


face.
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
With respect to origin at the apex, the equation of the elliptical shape
for upstream quadrant is expressed as,

where
x = Horizontal coordinate, positive to the right
y = Vertical coordinate, positive downward
A, B = One-half of the ellipse axes, as given in Fig. above for various
values of approach depth and design head.
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
For a inclined upstream face of slope
FS, the point of tangency with elliptical
shape can be determined by the
following equation.
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
The coefficient of discharge (or say discharge) is influenced by a
number of factors such as
(1) the relation of the actual crest shape to the ideal nappe shape,
(2) the depth of approach,
(3) the inclination of the upstream face,
(4) the contraction caused by the crest piers and abutment,
(5) the interference due to downstream apron, and
(6) the submergence of the crest due to downstream water level.
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
(1). The relation of the
actual crest shape to the
ideal nappe shape,

R. M. Khatsuria, Hydraulics of Spillways and Energy Dissipators,


OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
(2) the depth of approach

R. M. Khatsuria, Hydraulics of Spillways and Energy Dissipators,


OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
(3) the inclination of the upstream face

R. M. Khatsuria, Hydraulics of Spillways and Energy Dissipators,


OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
(4) The effective length (L) of Ogee spillway
Crest piers and abutments cause contraction of the flow, reduction in
the effective length of the crest, and cause reduction in the discharge
as compared to that of an otherwise uncontrolled crest. The following
relationship applies:

The values of KP and Ka depend mainly upon the shape of the piers
and that of the abutments.

R. M. Khatsuria, Hydraulics of Spillways and Energy Dissipators,


OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
(5 & 6): Submerged Discharge on Overflow Spillways
The coefficient of discharge decreases under the condition of
submergence. Submergence can result from either excessive tailwater
depth or changed crest profile.

The effect of tailwater submergence on the coefficient of discharge


depends upon the degree of submergence defined by hd/He and the
downstream apron position, (hd+d)/He shown in Fig. (7.5).

For a value of (hd+d)/He up to approximately 2, the reduction in the


coefficient depends on the factor (hd+d)/He and is independent of hd/He
as shown in Fig. (7.5.a), i.e., it is subject to apron effects only.
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
(5 & 6): Submerged Discharge on Overflow Spillways

Atl BULU, Lecture noted of water resources, Istanbul Technical University


OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
When (hd+d)/He is above 5,
the reduction depends only
on hd/He as shown in Fig.
(7.4.b), i.e., tailwater effects
control.
For (hd+d)/He between 2 and
5, the reduction of the
coefficient depends on both
factors, given in Fig. (7.5.c).
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
SPILLWAY TOE
The spillway toe is the junction between the discharge channel and the
energy dissipator. Its function is to guide the flow passing down the
spillway and smoothly in the energy dissipator
A minimum radius of 3 times the depth of flow entering the toe is
recommended.
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
EXAMPLE 7.1: Design an overflow spillway section for a design
discharge of 1500 m3/sec. The upstream water surface level is at
elevation 240m and the upstream channel floor is at 200 m. The
spillway, having a vertical face, is 50 m long.
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
Solution:
1. Assuming a high overflow spillway section, for P/HD 3, discharge
coefficient CD =0.49 from Fig.
2. From the discharge equation
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
5. Calculate height of the crest,
P = 40.00 5.73 = 34.27m
6. Calculate design head
Since He=5.76 m<10m

Design head=HD=0.7He=0.7*5.76=4.03m

7. Calculate P/HD
P/HD=34.27/4.03=8.5 >1.33 high overflow
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
8. Shape of downstream quadrant

for P/HD=8.5 K= 2 (from Fig)

Therefore,
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
Coordinates of the downstream shape computed by the equation
are as follows:

9. Calculate point of tangency: Assume a downstream slope of (2/1).


From Eq.
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
10. Shape of upstream quadrant:
Eq.

Therefore ,
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
Coordinates of the downstream shape computed by
the equation are as follows:
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

sketch of overflow spillway cross-section


OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
EXAMPLE 7.2: A spillway has been designed for a head of 2.80 m with
a length 200 m. The discharge coefficient is C = 0.49. Calculate the
discharge for this head.
What will the discharge be for heads of 0.20 m and 1.50 m?
What is the maximum discharge that can be passed over this spillway
without cavitation?
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
Solution:
At the design head,
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
Similarly,
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
Maximum head:
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
EXAMPLE 7.3: Determine the length of an overflow spillway to pass 60
m3/s with a depth of flow upstream not to exceed 1.50 m above the
crest. The spillway is 2.50 m high. The upstream face is sloped 1/1. For
60 m3/s, the tailwater rises 1.00 m above the crest. The spillway is
designed for the maximum head.
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
1. Since the spillway is designed for maximum head,
HD= He = 1.50 (without the approach velocity head)

2. From the given figure,

>2 but <5


OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
Problem 1:
Design a suitable section for the overflow portion of a concrete gravity
dam having the downstream face sloping at a slope of 0.7H: 1V. The
design discharge for the spillway is 8,000 m3/s. The height of the
spillway crest is kept at RL 204.0 m. The average river bed level at the
site is 100.0 m. Thickness of each pier may be taken to be 2.5 m.
(Take He=HD)
OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
Problem 2:
Design a suitable section for the overflow portion of a concrete gravity
dam having the downstream face sloping at a slope of 0.7H: 1V. The
design discharge for the spillway is 8,000 m3/s. The height of the
spillway crest is kept at RL 204.0 m. The average river bed level at the
site is 100.0 m. The spillway length consists of 6 spans having a clear
width of 10 m each. Thickness of each pier may be taken to be 2.5 m.
(Take He=HD)
THANK YOU
Slides are prepared from various sources(References). It may have
discrepancies/ inconsistency. If you find any, kindly rechecked with
sources list in references .

64
ENERGY DISSIPATERS
(STILLING BASIN)
LEARNING OUTCOME

After taking this lecture, students should be able to:

(1). Obtain knowledge on energy dissipators (stilling basin)


used in hydraulic structures and their design guide lines
(2). Apply the design guide lines for the design of selected
energy dissipators

References:
Khatsuria , R. M., Hydraulics of Spillways and Energy Dissipators,
Novak, A.I.B. Moffat, C. Nalluri, R. Narayanan, Hydraulic Structures, 4th Ed. CRC Press
Santosh, K. G., Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures, Khanna Publishers
Mays, L. W., Hydraulic design handbook (CHAPTER 18), Mcgraw hills

66
ENERGY DISSIPATION

V1=(2gH1)0.5
y1=q/V1

Low velocity

Very high velocity


Dissipation of the kinetic energy generated at the base of a spillway is
essential for bringing the flow into the downstream river to the normal
almost pre-dam condition in as short of a distance as possible.
This is necessary, not only to protect the riverbed and banks from
erosion, but also to ensure that the dam itself and adjoining structures
like powerhouse, canal, etc. are not undermined by the high velocity
turbulent flow.

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ENERGY DISSIPATION
CLASSIFICATION
1. Based on hydraulic action: Turbulence and internal friction as in
hydraulic jump stilling basins, roller buckets, and impact and pool
diffusion as with ski jump buckets and plunge pools.

2. Based on the mode of dissipation: Horizontal as in the hydraulic


jump, vertical as with ski jump buckets/free jets, and oblique as with
spatial and cross flows. The vertical dissipation may be in the downward
direction as with free jets and plunge pools and in upward direction as
with roller buckets.

3. Based on geometry or form of the main flow: Situations involving


sudden expansion, contraction, counter acting flows, impact, etc.

4. Based on the geometry or form of the structure: Stilling basin


employs hydraulic jump with or without appurtenances like chute blocks,
baffle piers, etc. Buckets (ski jump or flip buckets) include special
shapes like serrated, dentated buckets, and roller buckets that are either
solid roller bucket or slotted buckets.
68
ENERGY DISSIPATION
PRINICIPAL TYPES OF ENERGY DISSIPATORS
The energy dissipators for spillways can be grouped under the following
five categories:
1. Hydraulic jump stilling basins
2. Free jets and trajectory buckets
3. Roller buckets
4. Dissipation by spatial hydraulic jump
5. Impact type energy dissipators

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ENERGY DISSIPATION
ANALYSIS OF PARAMETERS
Energy equation:

Vo2 V22 V22


yo + = y1 + = y2 + + E
2g 2g 2g

E= Energy dissipation between


u/s and d/s
Mass conservation:
Q1=Q2=Q3

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ENERGY DISSIPATION
In case of hydraulic jump at the d/s

V1=(2gH1)0.5
y1=q/V1
Thus, q/y1=(2gH1])0.5

Assumption of Horizontal bed !!!


Energy dissipation
V22 V22

E == y2 + y +
2 g 1 2g

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ENERGY DISSIPATION
Hence, for a given discharge intensity and given height of spillway, y1 is
fixed and thus y2 (required for the formation of hydraulic jump) is also
fixed.

But the availability of a depth equal to y2 in the channel on the d/s cannot
be guaranteed as it depends upon the tail water level, which depends
upon the hydraulic dimensions and slope of the river channel at d/s.

The problem should, therefore, be analyzed before any solution can be


found by plotting the following curves:
Tail Water Curve (TW Curve): A graph plotted between q and tail water
depth,
Jump Height Curve (JH Curve) also called y2 curve: A curve plotted on
the same graph, between q and y2,

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ENERGY DISSIPATION

(1)

IdeaI condition

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ENERGY DISSIPATION

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ENERGY DISSIPATION
(1). When TW curve coincides with y2 curve

This is the most ideaI condition for jump formation. The hydraulic
jump will form at the toe of the spillway at all discharges. In such a case,
a simple concrete apron of length equivalent to length of jump (e.g.,5 [y2
- y1]) is generally sufficient to provide protection

75
ENERGY DISSIPATION
(A). When TW curve is above the y2 curve
When y2 is always below the tail water, the jump forming at toe will be
drowned out by the tail water, and little energy will be dissipated.
The problem can be solved by:
(i). constructing a sloping apron above the river bed level
(ii). providing a roller bucket type of energy dissipator

76
ENERGY DISSIPATION
iii. Providing a higher apron level followed by a drop
ENERGY DISSIPATION
(B). When TW curve is below the y2 curve
When the tail water depth is insufficient or low at all discharges, the
following solution can be applied:
(i). Ski jump bucket type: This type of energy dissipator requires
sound and rocky river bed, because a part of the energy dissipation
takes place by impact, although some of the energy is dissipated in air
by diffusion and aeration

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ENERGY DISSIPATION
(ii). Providing of a sloping apron as below the river bed

79
ENERGY DISSIPATION
(iii). Constructing a subsidiary dam below the main dam

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ENERGY DISSIPATION
(iv) Providing upward slope
ENERGY DISSIPATION
(D). When TW curve is above the y2 curve at low discharges and
below the y2 curve at high discharges: In this case, at low
discharges, the jump will be drowned and at high discharges, tail water
depth is insufficient. The following solutions can be applied by:
(i). Providing a sloping apron partly above and partly below the river bed
(ii). A combination of energy dissipator performing as a hydraulic jump
apron for low discharges and flip bucket for high discharges

At low discharges, the jump


will form on the apron above
the river bed.
Similarly, at high discharges,
the jump will form on the
apron below the river bed

82
ENERGY DISSIPATION
(C). When TW curve is below the y2 curve at low discharges and
above the y2 curve at high discharges (inverse of case D)

The following solutions can be applied:


(i). Sloping-cum-horizontal apron such that the
jump forms on the horizontal portion for low
discharges and on the sloping portion for high
discharges

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ENERGY DISSIPATION IN HYDRAULIC JUMP
Hydraulic jump can be used as Energy Dissipator

V1=(2gH1)0.5
y1=q/V1
Thus, q/y1=(2gH1])0.5

V = q/ y

V2 V2
E = y2 + 2 y1 + 2
2 g 2 g

y y
E = 2 1
4 y1 y2
V
F =
gy

However, the real problem in the design of stilling basins, is not the absolute
dissipation of energy, but is the dissipation of this energy in as short a length
as possible.
84
STILLING BASIN
In general, a stilling basin may be defined, as a structure in which the
energy dissipating action is confined.
If the phenomenon of hydraulic jump is basically used for dissipating
this energy; it may be called a hydraulic jump type of stilling basin.
The auxiliary devices may be used as additional measures for
controlling the jump, etc.
Stilling basins are placed at the ends of dam spillways and at the
ends of steep-sloped canal sections where elevation change has
generated high kinetic energy.
Stilling basin come in a variety of types and can either contain a
straight drop to a lower elevation or an inclined chute
Inclined chutes are the most common design for stilling basins
and the most used inclined chutes are: USBR Stilling Basins
Type II-IV, SAF Stilling Basins

85
STILLING BASIN
In practice, the following types are highly recommended:
USBR Type II basin for large structures and Fr > 4.5;
USBR Type III basin and the SAF basin for small structures;
USBR Type IV basin for oscillating jump flow conditions

The designs are selected based on the Froude Number of the flow and
the flow velocity:
V
Fr1 = 1
gy
1
q
V1 =
y1

86
STANDARD STILLING BASINS
Elements of Stilling Basin

Chute blocks
Baffle blocks
End sill or Dentated Sill

87
STANDARD STILLING BASINS

Chute blocks -concrete blocks built into the inclined sections of the
spillway. These features are commonly placed at the head of the
stilling basin to create turbulence prior to the hydraulic jump

Baffle blocks -freestanding concrete blocks built in the main basin.


These blocks are only used for flows <20m/s due to the high force
they are subjected to and the potential for cavitation

End sills -a built-up lip at the tail of the basin, with or without blocks.
The sill height has the most significant impact on energy dissipation
and taller sills are used to reduce the overall length of the stilling
basin

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STANDARD STILLING BASINS
USBR Stilling Basin Type II
Fr1 > 4.5

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STANDARD STILLING BASINS
USBR Stilling Basin Type III
Fr1 > 4.5 & V<18m/s

D1=y1
90
STANDARD STILLING BASINS
USBR Stilling Basin Type IV
Fr1=2.5-4.5

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STANDARD STILLING BASINS
Saint Anthony Falls
Effective for Fr1= 1.7 and 17

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STANDARD STILLING BASINS
Summary

d=y1
dconj=y2

93
ENERGY DISSIPATION
DEFLECTOR BUCKETS
Sometimes it is convenient to direct spillway into the river without
passing through a stilling basin. This is accomplished with a deflector
bucket designed so that the jet strikes the riverbed a safe distance from
the spillway and dam. This type of spillway is often called a flip bucket
or ski jump spillway.

94
ENERGY DISSIPATION
The trajectory of the jump

Where,
hv = Velocity head
d = Thickness of the jump
When the free jet discharging from the deflection bucket falls into an
erodible riverbed, a plunge pool is eroded to a depth, D, given by:

95
THANK YOU
Slides are prepared from various sources(References). It may have
discrepancies/ inconsistency. If you find any, kindly rechecked with
sources list in references .

96