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DISSIPATORS

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR

1

SPILLWAY

2

LEARNING OUTCOME

used in dams and their design guide lines

(2). Apply the design guide lines for the design of selected

Spillway

References:

Khatsuria, R. M., Hydraulics of Spillways and Energy Dissipators,

Novak, A.I.B. Moffat, C. Nalluri, R. Narayanan, Hydraulic Structures, 4th Ed. CRC Press

Santosh, K. G., Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures, Khanna Publishers

BULU, A., Lecture noted of water resources, Istanbul Technical University

3

SPILLWAY

A spillway is a structure

designed to 'spill' flood waters

under controlled (i.e. safe)

conditions.

Uncontrolled (Normally)

Controlled

normally incorporate an over-fall

or crest spillway, but

embankment dams generally

require a separate side-channel

or shaft spillway structure

located adjacent to the dam.

Sketch of conventional weir/spillway

4

CLASSIFICATION OF SPILLWAYS

I. According to the most II. According to Function

prominent feature

A. Service spillway

A. Ogee spillway

B. Auxiliary spillway

B. Chute spillway

C. Fuse plug or emergency

C. Side channel spillway spillway

D. Shaft spillway III. According to Control

E. Siphon spillway Structure

F. Straight drop or overfall A. Gated spillway

spillway

B. Ungated spillway

G. Tunnel spillway/Culvert

C. Orifice of sluice spillway

spillway

H. Labyrinth spillway

I. Stepped spillway

5

CLASSIFICATION

OF SPILLWAY

Francisco,1988). 6

ANALYSIS OF EXISTING STRUCTURES

Semenkov (1979) analyzed more than 400 projects in terms of

parameters L/H and N for the three main types of spillways: gravity

spillways, chute spillways, and tunnel spillways for concrete and

earth-fill dams.

Where, L and H are the length and height of the dam crest respectively, and

N is the power of the flow

Chute spillways, G: Gravity spillways (Semenkov, 1979).

7

VARIOUS ASPECTS INVOLVED IN A

SPILLWAY DESIGN

The following aspects are involved in the design of spillways:

1. Hydrology

Estimation of inflow design flood

Selection of spillway design flood

Determination of spillway outflow discharge

Determination of frequency of spillway use

2. Topography and geology

Type and location of spillway

3. Utility and operational aspects

Serviceability

4. Constructional and structural aspects

Cost-effectiveness

8

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

spillway, B: Minimum cost: ungated spillway (USBR,1960).

9

SPILLWAY DESIGN FLOOD

Probable Maximum Flood (PMF)

This is the flood that may be expected from the most severe

combination of critical meteorological and hydrological conditions that

are reasonably possible in the region. This is computed by using the

Probable Maximum Storm.

This is the flood that may be expected from the most severe

combination of hydrological and meteorological factors that are

considered reasonably characteristic of the region and is computed by

using the Standard Project Storm (SPS).

In US, generally, large dams are designed for PMF, intermediate for

SPF/PMF, and small dams for floods of return period of 100 years to

SPF.

10

ESTIMATION OF SPILLWAY DESIGN FLOOD

The estimation of spillway design flood or the inflow design flood is an

exercise involving diverse disciplines of hydrology, meteorology,

statistics and probability.

exceptional floods and their characteristics. ICOLD (1992) groups all

these methods under the two main categories:

2. Methods based mainly on rainfall data.

11

SPILLWAY DESIGN

Ogee or Overflow Spillways

12

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

The ogee or overflow spillway is the most common type of spillway. It

has a control weir that is Ogee or S-shaped. It is a gravity structure

requiring sound foundation and is preferably located in the main river

channel.

13

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

The basic shape of the overfall (ogee) spillway is derived from the

lower envelope of the overall nappe flowing over a high vertical

rectangular notch with an approach velocity, Vo,=0 and a fully aerated

space beneath the nappe (p=po)

14

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

DISCHARGE CHARACTERISTICS

Similar to the crest profile, the discharge characteristics of the standard

spillway can also be derived from the characteristics of the sharp

crested weir. The weir equation in the form:

Q = C 2 g LH e3 / 2

He

If the discharge, Q, is used as the design discharge in above Eq, then the term

He will be the corresponding design head (Hd) plus the velocity head (Ha). i.e.,

He= Hd +Ha

For high ogee spillways, the velocity head is very small, and He Hd.

15

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

Overflow spillways are named as high-overflow, and low-overflow

depending upon to the relative upstream depth P/HD.

velocity is generally negligible.

the shape of the crest and the discharge coefficients.

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

Figure gives variation of CD, the value of C when H equals the design

head HD, with the relative upstream depth P/HD. Here P is the height of

the spillway crest with respect to the channel bed.

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

Overflow spillways

frequently use undershot

radial gates for releases

over the dam. The

governing equation for

gated flows:

Where C is a coefficient of

discharge, and H1 and H2

are total heads to the

bottom and top of the gate

opening. The coefficient C

is a function of geometry

and the ratio d/H1, where d

is the gate aperture.

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

THE SPILLWAY CREST PROFILE

On the crest shape based on a design head, HD, when the actual head

is less than HD, the trajectory of the nappe falls below the crest profile,

creating positive pressures on the crest, thereby reducing the

discharge. On the other hand, with a higher than design head, the

nappe-trajectory is higher than crest, which creates negative pressure

pockets and results in increased discharge.

H=HD

H>HD

H<HD

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

THE SPILLWAY CREST PROFILE

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

THE SPILLWAY CREST PROFILE

Accordingly, it is considered desirable to under design the crest shape

of a high overflow spillway for a design head, HD, less than the head on

the crest corresponding to the maximum reservoir level, He (~Hmax).

However, with too much negative pressure, cavitation may occur. The

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (1988) recommendation has been that

He/HD should not exceed 1.33.

spillway crest be designed so that the maximum expected head will

result in an average pressure on the crest no lower than (-4.50m) of

water head (U.S. Department of Army, 1986). Pressures of (-4.50m)

can be approximated by the following equations (Reese and Maynord,

1987).

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

THE SPILLWAY CREST PROFILE

He/HD <=1.33

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

THE SPILLWAY CREST PROFILE

Crest shapes have been studied extensively in the USBR hydraulic

laboratories with various approach depths. On the basis of the USBR

data, the US Army Corps of Engineers, WES (1952)** has developed

several standard shapes, designated as WES standard spillway

shapes, represented on the downstream of the crest axis by the

equation:

**WES Spillway for Genegantslet dam,. New York, Tech Memo 2351, 1952.

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

THE SPILLWAY CREST PROFILE (typical values)

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

In the revised procedure developed by Murphy (1973), using the same

basic data of USBR, the upstream quadrant was shaped as an ellipse

with the equation

design head

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

In a high-overflow section, the crest profile merges with the straight

downstream section of slope , as shown in Fig. (i.e., dy/dx = ).

Differentiation and expressing that in terms of x

yield the distance to the position of downstream tangent as follows:

where

xDT = Horizontal distance from

the apex to the downstream

tangent point

face.

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

With respect to origin at the apex, the equation of the elliptical shape

for upstream quadrant is expressed as,

where

x = Horizontal coordinate, positive to the right

y = Vertical coordinate, positive downward

A, B = One-half of the ellipse axes, as given in Fig. above for various

values of approach depth and design head.

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

For a inclined upstream face of slope

FS, the point of tangency with elliptical

shape can be determined by the

following equation.

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

The coefficient of discharge (or say discharge) is influenced by a

number of factors such as

(1) the relation of the actual crest shape to the ideal nappe shape,

(2) the depth of approach,

(3) the inclination of the upstream face,

(4) the contraction caused by the crest piers and abutment,

(5) the interference due to downstream apron, and

(6) the submergence of the crest due to downstream water level.

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

(1). The relation of the

actual crest shape to the

ideal nappe shape,

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

(2) the depth of approach

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

(3) the inclination of the upstream face

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

(4) The effective length (L) of Ogee spillway

Crest piers and abutments cause contraction of the flow, reduction in

the effective length of the crest, and cause reduction in the discharge

as compared to that of an otherwise uncontrolled crest. The following

relationship applies:

The values of KP and Ka depend mainly upon the shape of the piers

and that of the abutments.

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

(5 & 6): Submerged Discharge on Overflow Spillways

The coefficient of discharge decreases under the condition of

submergence. Submergence can result from either excessive tailwater

depth or changed crest profile.

depends upon the degree of submergence defined by hd/He and the

downstream apron position, (hd+d)/He shown in Fig. (7.5).

coefficient depends on the factor (hd+d)/He and is independent of hd/He

as shown in Fig. (7.5.a), i.e., it is subject to apron effects only.

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

(5 & 6): Submerged Discharge on Overflow Spillways

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

When (hd+d)/He is above 5,

the reduction depends only

on hd/He as shown in Fig.

(7.4.b), i.e., tailwater effects

control.

For (hd+d)/He between 2 and

5, the reduction of the

coefficient depends on both

factors, given in Fig. (7.5.c).

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

SPILLWAY TOE

The spillway toe is the junction between the discharge channel and the

energy dissipator. Its function is to guide the flow passing down the

spillway and smoothly in the energy dissipator

A minimum radius of 3 times the depth of flow entering the toe is

recommended.

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

EXAMPLE 7.1: Design an overflow spillway section for a design

discharge of 1500 m3/sec. The upstream water surface level is at

elevation 240m and the upstream channel floor is at 200 m. The

spillway, having a vertical face, is 50 m long.

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

Solution:

1. Assuming a high overflow spillway section, for P/HD 3, discharge

coefficient CD =0.49 from Fig.

2. From the discharge equation

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

5. Calculate height of the crest,

P = 40.00 5.73 = 34.27m

6. Calculate design head

Since He=5.76 m<10m

Design head=HD=0.7He=0.7*5.76=4.03m

7. Calculate P/HD

P/HD=34.27/4.03=8.5 >1.33 high overflow

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

8. Shape of downstream quadrant

Therefore,

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

Coordinates of the downstream shape computed by the equation

are as follows:

From Eq.

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

10. Shape of upstream quadrant:

Eq.

Therefore ,

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

Coordinates of the downstream shape computed by

the equation are as follows:

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

EXAMPLE 7.2: A spillway has been designed for a head of 2.80 m with

a length 200 m. The discharge coefficient is C = 0.49. Calculate the

discharge for this head.

What will the discharge be for heads of 0.20 m and 1.50 m?

What is the maximum discharge that can be passed over this spillway

without cavitation?

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

Solution:

At the design head,

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

Similarly,

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

Maximum head:

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

EXAMPLE 7.3: Determine the length of an overflow spillway to pass 60

m3/s with a depth of flow upstream not to exceed 1.50 m above the

crest. The spillway is 2.50 m high. The upstream face is sloped 1/1. For

60 m3/s, the tailwater rises 1.00 m above the crest. The spillway is

designed for the maximum head.

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

1. Since the spillway is designed for maximum head,

HD= He = 1.50 (without the approach velocity head)

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

Problem 1:

Design a suitable section for the overflow portion of a concrete gravity

dam having the downstream face sloping at a slope of 0.7H: 1V. The

design discharge for the spillway is 8,000 m3/s. The height of the

spillway crest is kept at RL 204.0 m. The average river bed level at the

site is 100.0 m. Thickness of each pier may be taken to be 2.5 m.

(Take He=HD)

OGEE OR OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

Problem 2:

Design a suitable section for the overflow portion of a concrete gravity

dam having the downstream face sloping at a slope of 0.7H: 1V. The

design discharge for the spillway is 8,000 m3/s. The height of the

spillway crest is kept at RL 204.0 m. The average river bed level at the

site is 100.0 m. The spillway length consists of 6 spans having a clear

width of 10 m each. Thickness of each pier may be taken to be 2.5 m.

(Take He=HD)

THANK YOU

Slides are prepared from various sources(References). It may have

discrepancies/ inconsistency. If you find any, kindly rechecked with

sources list in references .

64

ENERGY DISSIPATERS

(STILLING BASIN)

LEARNING OUTCOME

used in hydraulic structures and their design guide lines

(2). Apply the design guide lines for the design of selected

energy dissipators

References:

Khatsuria , R. M., Hydraulics of Spillways and Energy Dissipators,

Novak, A.I.B. Moffat, C. Nalluri, R. Narayanan, Hydraulic Structures, 4th Ed. CRC Press

Santosh, K. G., Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures, Khanna Publishers

Mays, L. W., Hydraulic design handbook (CHAPTER 18), Mcgraw hills

66

ENERGY DISSIPATION

V1=(2gH1)0.5

y1=q/V1

Low velocity

Dissipation of the kinetic energy generated at the base of a spillway is

essential for bringing the flow into the downstream river to the normal

almost pre-dam condition in as short of a distance as possible.

This is necessary, not only to protect the riverbed and banks from

erosion, but also to ensure that the dam itself and adjoining structures

like powerhouse, canal, etc. are not undermined by the high velocity

turbulent flow.

67

ENERGY DISSIPATION

CLASSIFICATION

1. Based on hydraulic action: Turbulence and internal friction as in

hydraulic jump stilling basins, roller buckets, and impact and pool

diffusion as with ski jump buckets and plunge pools.

jump, vertical as with ski jump buckets/free jets, and oblique as with

spatial and cross flows. The vertical dissipation may be in the downward

direction as with free jets and plunge pools and in upward direction as

with roller buckets.

sudden expansion, contraction, counter acting flows, impact, etc.

employs hydraulic jump with or without appurtenances like chute blocks,

baffle piers, etc. Buckets (ski jump or flip buckets) include special

shapes like serrated, dentated buckets, and roller buckets that are either

solid roller bucket or slotted buckets.

68

ENERGY DISSIPATION

PRINICIPAL TYPES OF ENERGY DISSIPATORS

The energy dissipators for spillways can be grouped under the following

five categories:

1. Hydraulic jump stilling basins

2. Free jets and trajectory buckets

3. Roller buckets

4. Dissipation by spatial hydraulic jump

5. Impact type energy dissipators

69

ENERGY DISSIPATION

ANALYSIS OF PARAMETERS

Energy equation:

yo + = y1 + = y2 + + E

2g 2g 2g

u/s and d/s

Mass conservation:

Q1=Q2=Q3

70

ENERGY DISSIPATION

In case of hydraulic jump at the d/s

V1=(2gH1)0.5

y1=q/V1

Thus, q/y1=(2gH1])0.5

Energy dissipation

V22 V22

E == y2 + y +

2 g 1 2g

71

ENERGY DISSIPATION

Hence, for a given discharge intensity and given height of spillway, y1 is

fixed and thus y2 (required for the formation of hydraulic jump) is also

fixed.

But the availability of a depth equal to y2 in the channel on the d/s cannot

be guaranteed as it depends upon the tail water level, which depends

upon the hydraulic dimensions and slope of the river channel at d/s.

found by plotting the following curves:

Tail Water Curve (TW Curve): A graph plotted between q and tail water

depth,

Jump Height Curve (JH Curve) also called y2 curve: A curve plotted on

the same graph, between q and y2,

72

ENERGY DISSIPATION

(1)

IdeaI condition

73

ENERGY DISSIPATION

74

ENERGY DISSIPATION

(1). When TW curve coincides with y2 curve

This is the most ideaI condition for jump formation. The hydraulic

jump will form at the toe of the spillway at all discharges. In such a case,

a simple concrete apron of length equivalent to length of jump (e.g.,5 [y2

- y1]) is generally sufficient to provide protection

75

ENERGY DISSIPATION

(A). When TW curve is above the y2 curve

When y2 is always below the tail water, the jump forming at toe will be

drowned out by the tail water, and little energy will be dissipated.

The problem can be solved by:

(i). constructing a sloping apron above the river bed level

(ii). providing a roller bucket type of energy dissipator

76

ENERGY DISSIPATION

iii. Providing a higher apron level followed by a drop

ENERGY DISSIPATION

(B). When TW curve is below the y2 curve

When the tail water depth is insufficient or low at all discharges, the

following solution can be applied:

(i). Ski jump bucket type: This type of energy dissipator requires

sound and rocky river bed, because a part of the energy dissipation

takes place by impact, although some of the energy is dissipated in air

by diffusion and aeration

78

ENERGY DISSIPATION

(ii). Providing of a sloping apron as below the river bed

79

ENERGY DISSIPATION

(iii). Constructing a subsidiary dam below the main dam

80

ENERGY DISSIPATION

(iv) Providing upward slope

ENERGY DISSIPATION

(D). When TW curve is above the y2 curve at low discharges and

below the y2 curve at high discharges: In this case, at low

discharges, the jump will be drowned and at high discharges, tail water

depth is insufficient. The following solutions can be applied by:

(i). Providing a sloping apron partly above and partly below the river bed

(ii). A combination of energy dissipator performing as a hydraulic jump

apron for low discharges and flip bucket for high discharges

will form on the apron above

the river bed.

Similarly, at high discharges,

the jump will form on the

apron below the river bed

82

ENERGY DISSIPATION

(C). When TW curve is below the y2 curve at low discharges and

above the y2 curve at high discharges (inverse of case D)

(i). Sloping-cum-horizontal apron such that the

jump forms on the horizontal portion for low

discharges and on the sloping portion for high

discharges

83

ENERGY DISSIPATION IN HYDRAULIC JUMP

Hydraulic jump can be used as Energy Dissipator

V1=(2gH1)0.5

y1=q/V1

Thus, q/y1=(2gH1])0.5

V = q/ y

V2 V2

E = y2 + 2 y1 + 2

2 g 2 g

y y

E = 2 1

4 y1 y2

V

F =

gy

However, the real problem in the design of stilling basins, is not the absolute

dissipation of energy, but is the dissipation of this energy in as short a length

as possible.

84

STILLING BASIN

In general, a stilling basin may be defined, as a structure in which the

energy dissipating action is confined.

If the phenomenon of hydraulic jump is basically used for dissipating

this energy; it may be called a hydraulic jump type of stilling basin.

The auxiliary devices may be used as additional measures for

controlling the jump, etc.

Stilling basins are placed at the ends of dam spillways and at the

ends of steep-sloped canal sections where elevation change has

generated high kinetic energy.

Stilling basin come in a variety of types and can either contain a

straight drop to a lower elevation or an inclined chute

Inclined chutes are the most common design for stilling basins

and the most used inclined chutes are: USBR Stilling Basins

Type II-IV, SAF Stilling Basins

85

STILLING BASIN

In practice, the following types are highly recommended:

USBR Type II basin for large structures and Fr > 4.5;

USBR Type III basin and the SAF basin for small structures;

USBR Type IV basin for oscillating jump flow conditions

The designs are selected based on the Froude Number of the flow and

the flow velocity:

V

Fr1 = 1

gy

1

q

V1 =

y1

86

STANDARD STILLING BASINS

Elements of Stilling Basin

Chute blocks

Baffle blocks

End sill or Dentated Sill

87

STANDARD STILLING BASINS

Chute blocks -concrete blocks built into the inclined sections of the

spillway. These features are commonly placed at the head of the

stilling basin to create turbulence prior to the hydraulic jump

These blocks are only used for flows <20m/s due to the high force

they are subjected to and the potential for cavitation

End sills -a built-up lip at the tail of the basin, with or without blocks.

The sill height has the most significant impact on energy dissipation

and taller sills are used to reduce the overall length of the stilling

basin

88

STANDARD STILLING BASINS

USBR Stilling Basin Type II

Fr1 > 4.5

89

STANDARD STILLING BASINS

USBR Stilling Basin Type III

Fr1 > 4.5 & V<18m/s

D1=y1

90

STANDARD STILLING BASINS

USBR Stilling Basin Type IV

Fr1=2.5-4.5

91

STANDARD STILLING BASINS

Saint Anthony Falls

Effective for Fr1= 1.7 and 17

92

STANDARD STILLING BASINS

Summary

d=y1

dconj=y2

93

ENERGY DISSIPATION

DEFLECTOR BUCKETS

Sometimes it is convenient to direct spillway into the river without

passing through a stilling basin. This is accomplished with a deflector

bucket designed so that the jet strikes the riverbed a safe distance from

the spillway and dam. This type of spillway is often called a flip bucket

or ski jump spillway.

94

ENERGY DISSIPATION

The trajectory of the jump

Where,

hv = Velocity head

d = Thickness of the jump

When the free jet discharging from the deflection bucket falls into an

erodible riverbed, a plunge pool is eroded to a depth, D, given by:

95

THANK YOU

Slides are prepared from various sources(References). It may have

discrepancies/ inconsistency. If you find any, kindly rechecked with

sources list in references .

96

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