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Course code: EA310

Course Title: AERODYNAMICS I

PURPOSE:

To develop an understanding of low-speed aerodynamics and an introduction to


compressible flows.

Objectives:

Introduce concepts in incompressible aerofoil theory, including symmetric and


cambered aerofoils using analytical and numerical approaches.
Explain incompressible wing theory, and its applications of fundamentals to the
design of a wing to meet given performance criteria.
Discuss elementary gas dynamics, including expansion waves and shock waves, as
well as thin aerofoils in compressible flows.

COURSE CONTENT

1. AERODYNAMICS: Some Introductory Thoughts


o Importance of Aerodynamics :Historical Examples
o Aerodynamics: Classification and Practical Objectives
o Some Fundamental Aerodynamic Variables
o Aerodynamics Forces and Moments
o Centre of Pressure
o Dimensional Analysis: The Buckingham Pi Theorem
o Flow Similarity
o Types of Flow
o Applied Aerodynamics: Aerodynamic Coefficients- Their magnitudes and variations

2. FIXED-WING AERODYNAMICS
o Properties of atmosphere,
o Types of lift and drag;
o Bernoullis principle;
o Aerodynamic forces on aircraft in flight;
o Flight at high lift conditions; stability and control.

3. AERODYNAMICS: Some Fundamental Principles and Equations


o Review of Vector Relations
o Models of the Fluid: Control Volumes and Fluid Elements
o Continuity Equation
o Momentum Equation
o An application of the Momentum Equation: Drag of a Two-Dimensional Body
o Energy Equation
o Substantial Derivative
o Fundamental Equations in terms of the Substantial Derivative
o Pathlines, Streamlines, and Streaklines of a Flow
o Angular Velocity, Vorticity, and Strain
o Circulation
o Stream Function
o Velocity Potential

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o Relationship between the Stream Function and Velocity Potential

4. INTRODUCTION TO HIGH SPEED AERODYNAMICS


o Compressible and incompressible flows;
o Flight speed ranges (subsonic and transonic flights);
o Supersonic airflow (Normal, oblique and expansion waves)

5. WIND TUNNEL EXPERIMENTS


o Usage an elliptical wing plan form model,
o Investigation of lift, drag, and pitching moment characteristics at various airspeeds
(Re effect) and angles of attack.
o Preparation of a report .

6. AEROFOIL AND WING DESIGN


o Subsonic aerofoil design and analysis,
o subsonic wing design and analysis,
o swept and delta wings,
o vortex lift,
o transonic flow methods,
o viscous transonic phenomena,
o transonic aerofoil and wing design,
o supersonic wing design,
o Optimization.

7. FUNDAMENTALS OF INVISCID, INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW [end here]

8. BASIC ROTOR-WING AERODYNAMICS

o Basic aerodynamics features of helicopters


o helicopter equations of motion
o Lift and torque,
o Autorotation and blade stall,
o ground effect;

LEARNING OUTCOMES

By the end of this course, the students should be able to:


Explain and evaluate the generation of lift, drag and pitching moment on a body from
pressure and shear stresses.
Integrate the pressures on an aerofoil to compute the lift and pitching moment.
Differentiate between centre of pressure and pitching moment.
Discuss the difference between form drag and skin friction drag.
Explain and write down the continuity, momentum, and energy equations.
Apply the momentum equation to evaluate the drag of a two-dimensional body from
wake measurements. Define streamlines.
Relate Bernoulli's equation to changes in pressure and velocity in incompressible
flow.

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Describe the elementary flows and combine them to generate different simple
physical flows.
Explain the fundamental differences between aerofoil and wing flows.

SUMMARYASSESSMENT (%)
o Written exam 60
o Coursework 30
o Practical 10

READING LISTS

1. J.D. Anderson, Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, 5th edition, McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-


0073398105.
2. A.M. Kuethe and C.-Y. Chow, Foundations of Aerodynamics, 5th edition, Wiley,
1997.
3. J. Moran, An Introduction to Theoretical and Computational Aerodynamics, Wiley,
1984.
4. R.T. Jones, Wing Theory, Princeton, 1990.
5. E.L Houghton and P.W Carpenter, Aerodynamics for Engineering Students, 6th
edition

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