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Instructor’s Power Point for Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices

Second Edition

A Complete Course in Power Point

Chapter 1

Second Edition A Complete Course in Power Point Chapter 1 ISBN-10: 0133081753 Second Edition Version 1.0237

ISBN-10: 0133081753

Second Edition Version 1.0237

[29 January 2013]

S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the

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Updates and

Corrected Slides

Class Demonstrations

Class Problems

Check author’s website

http://optoelectronics.usask.ca

Email errors and corrections to

safa.kasap@yahoo.com

S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

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Copyright Information and Permission: Part I This Power Point presentation is a copyrighted supplemental material

Copyright Information and Permission: Part I

This Power Point presentation is a copyrighted supplemental material to the textbook Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles & Practices, Second Edition, S. O. Kasap, Pearson Education (USA), ISBN-10: 0132151499, ISBN-13: 9780132151498. © 2013 Pearson Education. Permission is given to instructors to use these Power Point slides in their lectures provided that the above book has been adopted as a primary required textbook for the course. Slides may be used in research seminars at research meetings, symposia and conferences provided that the author, book title, and copyright information are clearly displayed under each figure. It is unlawful to use the slides for teaching if the

textbook is not a required primary book for the course. The slides cannot be distributed

in any form whatsoever, especially on the internet, without the written permission of Pearson Education.

Please report typos and errors directly to the author: safa.kasap@yahoo.com

S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

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PEARSON

Copyright Information and Permission: Part II

This Power Point presentation is a copyrighted supplemental material to the textbook Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles & Practices, Second Edition, S. O. Kasap, Pearson Education (USA), ISBN-10: 0132151499, ISBN-13: 9780132151498. © 2013 Pearson Education. The slides cannot be distributed in any form whatsoever,

electronically or in print form, without the written permission of Pearson Education. It is

unlawful to post these slides, or part of a slide or slides, on the internet.

Copyright © 2013, 2001 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 07458. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is

protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to

any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department.

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Important Note

You may use color illustrations from this Power Point

in your research-related seminars or research-related

presentations at scientific or technical meetings, symposia or conferences provided that you fully cite the following reference under each figure

From: S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education, USA

Practices , Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education, USA S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and

S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

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Chapter 1 Wave Nature of Light

Chapter 1 Wave Nature of Light S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices , Second

S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

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Light is an electromagnetic wave

Light is an electromagnetic wave An electromagnetic wave is a traveling wave that has time-varying electric

An electromagnetic wave is a traveling wave that has time-varying electric and magnetic fields that are perpendicular to each other and the direction of propagation z.

S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

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E x = E o cos(tkz + )

E x = Electric field along x at position z at time t k = Propagation constant = 2/  = Wavelength = Angular frequency = 2u(u=frequency) E o = Amplitude of the wave = Phase constant; at t = 0 and z = 0, E x may or may not necessarily be zero depending on the choice of origin.

(tkz + ) = = Phase of the wave

This is a monochromatic plane wave of infinite extent traveling in the positive z direction.

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Wavefront

A surface over which the phase of a wave is constant is

referred to as a wavefront

A wavefront of a plane wave is a plane perpendicular to the

direction of propagation

The interaction of a light wave with a nonconducting medium (conductivity = 0) uses the electric field component E x rather than B y .

Optical field refers to the electric field E x .

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A plane EM wave traveling along z , has the same E x (or B

A plane EM wave traveling along z, has the same E x (or B y ) at any point in a given xy plane. All electric field vectors in a given xy plane are therefore in phase. The xy planes are of infinite extent in the x and y directions.

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Phase Velocity

The time and space evolution of a given phase , for example that corresponding to a maximum field is described by

= tkz + = constant

During a time interval t, this constant phase (and hence the maximum field) moves a distance z. The phase velocity of this wave is therefore z/t. The phase velocity v is

v =

 z
z

t

=

v =  z  t =  k = u

k

=

u

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Phase change over a distance z

= tkz +

= kz

The phase difference between two points separated

by z is simply kz since t is the same for each point

If this phase difference is 0 or multiples of 2then the two points are in phase. Thus, the phase difference can be expressed as kz or 2z/

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Exponential Notation

Recall that

cos= Re[exp(j)]

where Re refers to the real part. We then need to take the real part of any complex result at the end of calculations. Thus,

E x (z,t) = Re[E o exp(j )expj(tkz)]

or

E x (z,t) = Re[E c expj(tkz)]

where E c = E o exp(jo ) is a complex number that represents the amplitude of the wave and includes the constant phase information o .

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Wave Vector or Propagation Vector

Direction of propagation is indicated with a vector k, called the wave vector, whose magnitude is the propagation constant, k = 2/. k is perpendicular to constant phase planes.

When the electromagnetic (EM) wave is propagating along some arbitrary direction k, then the electric field E(r,t) at a point r on a plane perpendicular to k is

E (r,t) = E o cos(tkr + )

If propagation is along z, kr becomes kz. In general, if k has components k x , k y and k z along x, y and z, then from the definition of the dot product, kr = k x x + k y y + k z z.

S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

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Wave Vector k

Wave Vector k E ( r , t ) = E o cos(  t 

E (r,t) = E o cos(tkr + )

A traveling plane EM wave along a direction k

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Maxwell’s Wave Equation

 2 E  2 E  2 E  2 E   2
2 E
2 E
2 E
2 E
 
2
2
2
o
r
o
2
 x
 y
 z
 t

= 0

A plane wave is a solution of Maxwell’s wave equation

E x = E o cos(tkz + )

Substitute into Maxwell’s Equation to show that this is a solution.

S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

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Spherical Wave

E =

A

r

cos(

t

kr)

Spherical Wave E = A r cos( t   kr ) S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and

S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

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Examples of possible EM waves Optical divergence refers to the angular separation of wave vectors

Examples of possible EM waves

Optical divergence refers to the angular separation of wave

vectors on a given wavefront.

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Gaussian Beam

The radiation emitted from a laser can be approximated by a Gaussian beam. Gaussian beam approximations are widely used in photonics.

Gaussian beam approximations are widely used in photonics. Wavefronts of a Gaussian light beam S.O. Kasap,

Wavefronts of a Gaussian light beam

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Gaussian Beam

The intensity across the beam follows a Gaussian distribution

intensity across the beam follows a Gaussian distribution Beam axis Intensity = I ( r,z )
intensity across the beam follows a Gaussian distribution Beam axis Intensity = I ( r,z )
intensity across the beam follows a Gaussian distribution Beam axis Intensity = I ( r,z )

Beam axis

Intensity = I(r,z) = [2P/(w 2 )]exp(2r 2 /w 2 )

q= w/z = /(w o )

2q = Far field divergence

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The Gaussian Intensity Distribution is Not Unusual

The Gaussian intensity distribution is also used in fiber optics

The fundamental mode in single mode fibers can be approximated with a

Gaussian intensity distribution across the fiber core

with a Gaussian intensity distribution across the fiber core I ( r ) = I (0)exp(

I(r) = I(0)exp(2r 2 /w 2 )

fiber core I ( r ) = I (0)exp(  2 r 2 / w 2

S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

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Gaussian Beam

2q = Far field divergence

In optics and especially laser science, the Rayleigh length or Rayleigh range is the distance along the propagation direction of a beam from

the waist to the place

where the area of the cross section is

doubled. [1] A related parameter is

the confocal parameter, b, which is twice the Rayleigh length.

parameter , b , which is twice the Rayleigh length. z o =  w o

z o = w o 2 /

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Gaussian Beam

2  w o z = Rayleigh range o  1/2 1/2 2 2 
2
w
o
z
=
Rayleigh range
o
1/2
1/2
2
2
z
2
w
=
2
w 
1
 
 z  
2
w
=
2
w 
1
 
 
o
o
2
z
w
o
o

S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

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Real and Ideal Gaussian Beams

Real and Ideal Gaussian Beams Definition of a beam quality factor M 2 M = w

Definition of a beam quality factor M 2

M

=

w

o

q

=

2

q r

w or

w q or r (   / )
w
q
or
r
(
 
/
)


w or

1/2

 

   z

M

2

 

2

 

2

w r

= 2

w

or

1

2

S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

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Real Gaussian Beam

Real beam
Real beam
Real Gaussian Beam Real beam 1/2 2  2  z  M  2 =
1/2 2  2  z  M  2 = 2 w  1
1/2
2
2
 z
 M
2
= 2
w
1
 
w r
or
2
 w
 
 
or
 

Correction note: Page 10 in textbook, Equation (1.11.1), w should be w r as above and w or should be squared in the parantheses.

S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

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Gaussian Beam in an Optical Cavity

Gaussian Beam in an Optical Cavity Two spherical mirrors reflect waves to and from each other.

Two spherical mirrors reflect waves to and from each other. The optical cavity contains a Gaussian beam. This particular optical cavity is symmetric and confocal; the two focal points coincide at F.

S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

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     z o 1.24 m  w  o 1 

  

 

z

o 1.24 m

w

o

1

z  

 

2

 

1/2

2

w

o

z

=

(1mm)

25m

2

w

= 2

= 20 mm

 

z

o

S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

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Refractive Index

When an EM wave is traveling in a dielectric

medium, the oscillating electric field polarizes the

molecules of the medium at the frequency of the wave

The stronger is the interaction between the field and the dipoles, the slower is the propagation of the

wave

S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

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Refractive Index

Refractive Index S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices , Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson

S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the

publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or

likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Maxwell’s Wave Equation in an isotropic medium

2

E

x

2

2

E

y

2

2

E

z

2

 

o

r

o

2

E

t

2

= 0

A plane wave is a solution of Maxwell’s wave equation

E x = E o cos(tkz + )

The phase velocity of this plane wave in the medium is given by

v =

k

=

1  o r o
1

o
r
o

The phase velocity in vacuum is

c =

k

o

=

1   o o
1
 
o
o

S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

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publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or

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Phase Velocity and r

The relative permittivity r measures the ease with which the medium becomes polarized and hence it indicates the extent

of interaction between the field and the induced dipoles.

For an EM wave traveling in a nonmagnetic dielectric medium of relative permittivity r , the phase velocity v is given by

ν =

1

ν = 1   r o o

 

r

o

o

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Refractive Index n

Phase Velocity and r

Refractive index n

definition

ν =

1

ν = 1   r o o

 

r

o

o

n =

c

n = c v r = 

v

r
r

=

S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

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Optical frequencies

Typical frequencies that are involved in

optoelectronic devices are in the infrared (including

far infrared), visible, and UV, and we generically refer to these frequencies as optical frequencies

Somewhat arbitrary range:

Roughly 10 12 Hz to 10 16 Hz

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Low frequency (LF) relative permittivity r (LF) and refractive index n.

permittivity  r ( LF) and refractive index n . S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles

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Refractive Index and Propagation Constant

k

k

o

o

o

Free-space propagation constant (wave vector) 2π/ Free-space wavelength

k Propagation constant (vave vector) in the medium

Wavelength in the medium

n =

k

k

o

In noncrystalline materials such as glasses and liquids, the

material structure is the same in all directions and n does not depend on the direction. The refractive index is then isotropic

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Refractive Index and Wavelength

It is customary to drop the subscript o on k and 

k medium = nk

the subscript o on k and  k medium = n k In free space 

In free space

medium = /n

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Refractive Index and Isotropy

Crystals, in general, have nonisotropic, or

anisotropic, properties

Typically noncrystalline solids such as glasses and liquids, and cubic crystals are optically isotropic; they possess only one refractive index for all directions

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n depends on the wavelength

Dispersion relation: n = n()

Sellmeier Equation

2 2 2  A  A  1 2 3 n 2 = 1
2
2
2
A
A
1
2
3
n
2 = 1
 A
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
3

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n depends on the wavelength

Cauchy dispersion relation n = n(u)

n = n -2 (hu) -2 + n 0 + n 2 (hu) 2 + n 4 (hu) 4

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n depends on the wavelength

n depends on the wavelength  S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices , Second

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S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices , Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education
S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices , Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

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S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices , Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

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Group Velocity and Group Index

There are no perfect monochromatic

waves

We have to consider the way in which a group of waves differing slightly in

wavelength travel along the z-direction

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Group Velocity and Group Index

When two perfectly harmonic waves of frequencies  and +  and wavevectors kk and k + k interfere, they generate a wave packet which contains an oscillating field at the mean frequency that is amplitude modulated by a slowly varying field of frequency . The maximum amplitude moves with a wavevector k and thus with a group velocity that is given by

v g = ddk

v g = d  dk

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Group Velocity

Group Velocity Two slightly different wavelength waves traveling in the same direction result in a wave

Two slightly different wavelength waves traveling in the same direction result in a wave packet that has an amplitude variation that travels at the group velocity.

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d v = g dk
d
v
=
g
dk

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Group Velocity

Consider two sinusoidal waves that are close in frequency, that is, they have frequencies  and + . Their wavevectors will be kk and k + k. The resultant wave is

E x (z,t) = E o cos[()t(kk)z] + E o cos[(+ )t(k + k)z]

By using the trigonometric identity

cosA + cosB = 2cos[ 1 / 2 (AB)]cos[ 1 / 2 (A + B)] we arrive at

E x (z,t) = 2E o cos[()t(k)z][cos(tkz)]

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E x (z,t) = 2E o cos[()t(k)z][cos(tkz)]

This represents a sinusoidal wave of frequency . This is amplitude modulated by a very slowly varying sinusoidal of frequency . This system of waves, i.e. the modulation, travels along z at a speed determined by the modulating term, cos[()t(k)z]. The maximum in the field occurs when [()t(k)z] = 2m= constant (m is an integer), which travels with a velocity

dz =  dt k
dz
= 
dt
k

or

v =

g

d

dk

This is the group velocity of the waves because it determines the

speed of propagation of the maximum electric field along z.

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The group velocity therefore defines the speed with which

energy or information is propagated.

v g = d dk

v g = d  dk

= 2c/o and k = 2n/o , o is the free space wavelength. Differentiate the above d= (2c/o 2 )do

dk

= 2

n

(1/

2

o

)

d

o

(2

 

/

o

)

dn

 

d

o

d

o

dk

=(2 /

 

o

2

dn

)

o

n

d

o

d

o

v =

d

=

(2

 

c

/

o

2

)

d

o

 



g

dk

(2

 

/

o

2

) n

o

dn

d

o

d

o

=

c

n

o

dn

d

o

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Group Velocity and Group Index

where n = n() is a function of the wavelength. The group velocity v g in a medium is given by,

v g (medium) = d dk

v g (medium) = d  dk = c n   d n d 

=

c

n dn

v g (medium) = d  dk = c n   d n d 

d

This can be written as

v g (medium) =

c

v g (medium) = c N g

N g

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Group Index

N g = n dn

N g = n   d n d 

d

is defined as the group index of the medium

In general, for many materials the refractive index n and hence the group index N g depend on the wavelength of light. Such materials are called dispersive

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Refractive Index and Group Index

Refractive Index and Group Index Refractive index n and the group index N g of pure

Refractive index n and the group index N g of pure SiO 2 (silica) glass as a function of wavelength.

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Magnetic Field, Irradiance and Poynting Vector

The magnetic field (magnetic induction) component B y always accompanies E x in an EM wave propagation.

If v is the phase velocity of an EM wave in an isotropic dielectric medium and n is the refractive index, then

c

n

E x

= vB =

y

B y

where v = (o r o ) 1/2 and n = 1/2

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EM wave carries energy along the direction of propagation k. What is the radiation power flow per unit area?

k . What is the radiation power flow per unit area? A plane EM wave traveling

A plane EM wave traveling along k crosses an area A at right angles to the direction of propagation. In time t, the energy in the cylindrical volume At (shown dashed) flows through A.

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Energy Density in an EM Wave

Energy Density in an EM Wave

As the EM wave propagates in the direction of the wavevector k, there is an energy flow in this direction. The

wave brings with it electromagnetic energy.

The energy densities in the E x and B y fields are the same,

1 2 2 1 E  = B r x y 2 o 2 
1
2
2
1 E

=
B
r
x
y
2 o
2
o

The total energy density in the wave is therefore o r E x 2 .

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Poynting Vector and EM Power Flow

If S is the EM power flow per unit area,

S = Energy flow per unit time per unit area

S =

2

(

A

v

t

)(

 

o

r

E

x

)

 

A

t

=

v

 

o

r

2

x

E

=

v

2

 

o

r

E

x

B

y

In an isotropic medium, the energy flow is in the direction of wave propagation. If we use the vectors E and B to represent

the electric and magnetic fields in the EM wave, then the EM

power flow per unit area can be written as

S = v 2 o r EB

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Poynting Vector and Intensity

where S, called the Poynting vector, represents the energy flow per unit time per unit area in a direction determined by

EB (direction of propagation). Its magnitude, power flow

per unit area, is called the irradiance (instantaneous irradiance, or intensity).

The average irradiance is

I = S

average

=

1

I = S average = 1 2 v  o r 2 o E

2

v

o

r

2

o

E

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Average Irradiance or Intensity Since v = c/n and  r = n 2 we

Average Irradiance or Intensity

Since v = c/n and r = n 2 we can write

2  3 2 I = S =  nE = (1.33  10 )
2
 3
2
I
= S
=
nE
=
(1.33
10
)
nE
average
1 2 c
o
o
o

The instantaneous irradiance can only be measured if the power meter can respond more quickly than the oscillations

of the electric field. Since this is in the optical frequencies

range, all practical measurements yield the average irradiance because all detectors have a response rate much slower than the frequency of the wave.

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Irradiance of a Spherical Wave Perfect spherical wave I = P o 4  r

Irradiance of a Spherical Wave

Irradiance of a Spherical Wave Perfect spherical wave I = P o 4  r 2

Perfect spherical wave

I =

P

o

4

r

2

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Irradiance of a Spherical Wave Spherical wave front Source O AA 4A 9A P o

Irradiance of a Spherical Wave

Spherical wave front Source O AA 4A 9A P o r 2r 3r
Spherical wave front
Source
O
AA
4A
9A
P
o
r
2r
3r

I =

P

o

4

r

2

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A Gaussian Beam
A Gaussian Beam

I(r,z) = [2P/(w 2 )]exp(2r 2 /w 2 )

q o = w/z = /(w o )

2q o = Far field divergence

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and
and

Power in a Gaussian Beam

2 2 2 I ( r ) = I (0) exp[  2( r /
2
2
2
I
(
r
)
= I
(0) exp[
2(
r
/
w
)
]

Area of a circular thin strip (annulus) with radius r is 2rdr. Power passing through this strip is proportional to I(r) (2r)dr

=

w

I )

(

r

2  rdr
2
rdr

0

 

0

I )2

r

(

rdr

= 0.865

Fraction of

optical power

within 2w

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S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices , Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education
S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices , Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

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Snell’s Law or Descartes’s Law?

Snell’s Law or Descartes’s Law? S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices , Second Edition,

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Snell's Law

sin q n i 2 = sin q n t 1
sin
q
n
i
2
=
sin
q
n
t
1

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Derivation of Snell’s Law

Derivation of Snell’s Law A light wave traveling in a medium with a greater refractive index

A light wave traveling in a medium with a greater refractive index (n 1 > n 2 ) suffers reflection and refraction at the boundary. (Notice that t is slightly longer than .)

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Snell’s Law

We can use constructive interference to show that there can only be one reflected wave which occurs at an angle equal to the incidence angle. The two waves along A i and B i are in phase.

When these waves are reflected to become waves A r and B r then they must still be in phase, otherwise they will interfere destructively and destroy each other. The only way the two waves can stay in phase is if q r = q i . All other angles lead to the waves A r and B r being out of phase and interfering destructively.

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Snell’s Law

Unless the two waves at Aand Bstill have the same phase, there will be no transmitted wave. Aand Bpoints on the front are only in phase for one particular transmitted angle, q t .

It takes time t for the phase at B on wave B i to reach BBB= v 1 t = ct/n 1

During this time t, the phase A has progressed to AAA= v 2 t = ct/n 2

Aand Bbelong to the same front just like A and B so that AB is perpendicular to k i in medium 1 and ABis perpendicular to k t in medium 2. From geometrical considerations,

AB= BB/sinq i and AB= AA/sinq t so that

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or

AB=

v 1 t v 2 t =
v 1 t
v 2 t
=

sinq i

sinq t

sinq i sinq t
sinq i
sinq t

=

v 1

sinq i sinq t = v 1 v 2 = n 2 n 1

v 2

= n 2

sinq i sinq t = v 1 v 2 = n 2 n 1

n 1

n sinq

1

i

=

n sinq

2

t

n sinq = constant

This is Snell's law which relates the angles of incidence and refraction to the refractive indices of the media.

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n sinq

1

i

=

n sinq

2

t

When n 1 > n 2 then obviously the transmitted angle is greater than the incidence angle as apparent in the figure. When the refraction angle q t reaches 90°, the incidence angle is called the critical angle q c which is given by

sin

q =

c

n 2 n 1
n
2
n
1

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Snell’s Law

sin

q

c

=

n

2

n

1

When the incidence angle q i

transmitted wave but only a reflected wave. The latter phenomenon is called total internal reflection (TIR). TIR phenomenon that leads to the propagation of waves in a dielectric medium surrounded by a medium of smaller refractive index as in optical waveguides, e.g. optical fibers.

exceeds q c then there is no

Although Snell's law for q i > q c shows that sinq t > 1 and hence q t is an "imaginary" angle of refraction, there is however an attenuated wave called the evanescent wave.

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Total Internal Reflection

Total Internal Reflection Light wave traveling in a more dense medium strikes a less dense medium.

Light wave traveling in a more dense medium strikes a less dense medium. Depending on the incidence angle with respect to q c , which is determined by the ratio of the refractive indices, the wave may be transmitted (refracted) or reflected. (a) q i < q c (b) q i = q c (c) q i > q c and total internal reflection (TIR).

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Prisms

Prisms S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices , Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

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Lateral Displacement

  d cos q i = sin 1   q i  L
d
cos
q
i
=
sin
1
q i 
L
2
2
(
n
/
n
)
sin
q
o
i

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Lateral Displacement

Lateral Displacement S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices , Second Edition, © 2013

S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

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Light travels by total internal reflection in optical fibers

Light travels by total internal reflection in optical fibers An optical fiber link for transmitting digital

An optical fiber link for transmitting digital information in communications. The fiber core has a higher refractive index so that the light travels along the fiber inside the fiber core by total internal reflection at the core-cladding interface.

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A small hole is made in a plastic bottle full of water to generate a
A small hole is made in a plastic bottle full of water to generate a

A small hole is made in a plastic bottle full of water to generate a water jet. When the hole is illuminated with a laser beam (from a green laser pointer), the light is guided by total internal reflections along the jet to the tray. The light guiding by a water jet was first demonstrated by Jean-Daniel Colladan, a Swiss scientist (Water with air bubbles was used to increase the visibility of light. Air bubbles scatter light.) [Left: Copyright: S.O. Kasap, 2005][Right: Comptes Rendes, 15, 800802, October 24, 1842; Cnum, Conservatoire Numérique des Arts et Métiers, France

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S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices , Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education

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Fresnel's Equations

Fresnel's Equations Light wave traveling in a more dense medium strikes a less dense medium. The

Light wave traveling in a more dense medium strikes a less dense medium. The plane of incidence is the plane of the paper and is perpendicular to the flat interface between the two media. The electric field is normal to the direction of propagation. It can be resolved into perpendicular and parallel components.

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Fresnel's Equations

Describe the incident, reflected and refracted waves by the

exponential representation of a traveling plane wave, i.e.

E i = E io expj(tk i r)

E r = E ro expj(tk r r)

E t = E to expj(tk t r)

Incident wave

Reflected wave

Transmitted wave

These are traveling plane waves

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Fresnel's Equations

where r is the position vector, the wave vectors k i , k r and k t describe the directions of the incident, reflected and transmitted waves and E io , E ro and E to are the respective amplitudes.

Any phase changes such as r and t in the reflected and transmitted waves with respect to the phase of the incident wave are incorporated into the complex amplitudes, E ro and E to . Our objective is to find E ro and E to with respect to E io .

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Fresnel's Equations

The electric and magnetic fields anywhere on the wave must be perpendicular to each other as a requirement of electromagnetic wave theory. This means that with E // in the EM wave we have a magnetic field B associated with it such that, B =(n/c)E // . Similarly E will have a magnetic field B // associated with it such that B // =(n/c)E .

We use boundary conditions

E tangential (1) = E tangential (2)

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Fresnel's Equations

Mon-magnetic media (relative permeability, r = 1),

B tangential (1) = B tangential (2)

Using the above boundary conditions for the fields at y = 0, and the relationship between the electric and magnetic fields, we can find the reflected and transmitted waves in terms of the incident wave.

The boundary conditions can only be satisfied if the reflection and incidence angles are equal, q r = q i and the angles for the transmitted and incident wave obey Snell's law, n 1 sinq 1 = n 2 sinq 2

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Fresnel's Equations

Fresnel's Equations Incident wave E i = E i o expj(  t  k i

Incident wave

E i = E io expj(tk i r)

Reflected wave

Transmitted wave

E r = E ro expj(tk r r)

E t = E to expj(tk t r)

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Fresnel's Equations

Applying the boundary conditions to the EM wave going from medium 1 to 2, the amplitudes of the reflected and transmitted waves can be readily obtained in terms of n 1 , n 2