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Smart test devices for reliable electric power systems

Smart test devices for reliable electric power systems

Transformer Testing Using DV Power Devices Maid Dzambic, Application Engineer 2 | © 2016 DV

Transformer Testing

Using DV Power Devices

Maid Dzambic, Application Engineer

Transformer Testing Using DV Power Devices Maid Dzambic, Application Engineer 2 | © 2016 DV Power

DV Power Devices Transformer Group

Winding resistance measurement and OLTC analysis DC current

RMO-T series

RMO-TW

RMO-TD

RMO-TT

TWA series

TWA25A

TWA40D

Turns ratio test AC voltage

TRT series

TRT03

TRT30

TRT33

TRT4x

TRT63

TRT series – TRT03 – TRT30 – TRT33 – TRT4x – TRT63 3 | © 2016

Transformer Tests using DV Power Devices

TYPES OF MEASUREMENTS

Winding resistance measurement (IEC 60076-1)

Analysis of On-Load Tap changers (IEC 60214-1)

Heat run test (IEC 60076-2)

Demagnetization process

Turns ratio measurement of power transformers (IEC 60076-1)

Turns ratio verification of instrument transformers (IEC 60076-1)

Excitation current measurement

Phase angle measurement

Vector group detection

Demagnetization status verification

Magnetic balance test

RMO-T, TWAstatus verification • Magnetic balance test RMO-T, TWA RMO-T RMO-T, TWA, DEM TRT TRT TRT TRT

RMO-T, TWAstatus verification • Magnetic balance test RMO-T, TWA RMO-T RMO-T, TWA, DEM TRT TRT TRT TRT

RMO-T• Magnetic balance test RMO-T, TWA RMO-T, TWA RMO-T, TWA, DEM TRT TRT TRT TRT TRT

RMO-T, TWA, DEM• Magnetic balance test RMO-T, TWA RMO-T, TWA RMO-T TRT TRT TRT TRT TRT TRT TRT

TRTbalance test RMO-T, TWA RMO-T, TWA RMO-T RMO-T, TWA, DEM TRT TRT TRT TRT TRT TRT

TRTbalance test RMO-T, TWA RMO-T, TWA RMO-T RMO-T, TWA, DEM TRT TRT TRT TRT TRT TRT

TRTtest RMO-T, TWA RMO-T, TWA RMO-T RMO-T, TWA, DEM TRT TRT TRT TRT TRT TRT 4

TRTtest RMO-T, TWA RMO-T, TWA RMO-T RMO-T, TWA, DEM TRT TRT TRT TRT TRT TRT 4

TRTtest RMO-T, TWA RMO-T, TWA RMO-T RMO-T, TWA, DEM TRT TRT TRT TRT TRT TRT 4

TRTtest RMO-T, TWA RMO-T, TWA RMO-T RMO-T, TWA, DEM TRT TRT TRT TRT TRT TRT 4

TRTtest RMO-T, TWA RMO-T, TWA RMO-T RMO-T, TWA, DEM TRT TRT TRT TRT TRT TRT 4

test RMO-T, TWA RMO-T, TWA RMO-T RMO-T, TWA, DEM TRT TRT TRT TRT TRT TRT TRT

RMO-T and TWA Family of Devices

RMO-T and TWA Family of Devices
RMO-T and TWA Family of Devices

Transformer Tests using DV Power Devices

TYPES OF TESTS (RMO-T and TWA family)

Winding resistance measurement

Analysis of On-Load Tap changers

Heat run test

Demagnetization process

RMO-T, TWATap changers • Heat run test • Demagnetization process RMO-T, TWA RMO-T RMO-T, TWA, DEM 6

RMO-T, TWA• Heat run test • Demagnetization process RMO-T, TWA RMO-T RMO-T, TWA, DEM 6 | ©

RMO-Trun test • Demagnetization process RMO-T, TWA RMO-T, TWA RMO-T, TWA, DEM 6 | © 2016

RMO-T, TWA, DEM• Heat run test • Demagnetization process RMO-T, TWA RMO-T, TWA RMO-T 6 | © 2016

• Demagnetization process RMO-T, TWA RMO-T, TWA RMO-T RMO-T, TWA, DEM 6 | © 2016 DV

Device Series Development Evolution

RMO-TW series winding resistance measurement

Evolution RMO-TW series winding resistance measurement RMO-TD series + tap changer analysis (DVtest) + OLTC

RMO-TD series

+ tap changer analysis (DVtest)

+ OLTC motor current measurement

+ demagnetization process

+ OLTC motor current measurement + demagnetization process The most advanced on the market TWA40D +

The most advanced on the market

+ demagnetization process The most advanced on the market TWA40D + connection of all 8 (or

TWA40D

+ connection of all 8 (or 6) bushings at once

+ OLTC synchronization measurement

+ simultaneous three-phase measurement

+ fast measurement

RMO-TT series

+ temperature measurement channels

+ fast measurement RMO-TT series + temperature measurement channels 7 | © 2016 DV Power All

Winding Resistance Measurement

Winding Resistance Measurement Why is it important? • Winding and connection damages • OLTC contact malfunctions

Why is it important?

Winding and connection damages

OLTC contact malfunctions

Defined by standard

How is it performed?

Injecting DC current, measuring voltage drop,

calculating resistance R = U / I

Should be done for all phases and every tap position

Compared to reference measurement, across phases

and every tap position • Compared to reference measurement, across phases 8 | © 2016 DV

Winding Resistance Measurement

How difficult it can be?

Time to inject DC current to a winding (charging)

Stabilization time

Time to inject DC current to a winding (charging) • Stabilization time 9 | © 2016
Time to inject DC current to a winding (charging) • Stabilization time 9 | © 2016

Winding Resistance Measurement

Charging time

Volt-seconds needed

100 kV winding at 50 Hz needs 450 Vs

100 kV winding at 60 Hz needs 375 Vs

Thus, 50 Hz winding needs 75 s at 6 V

Or, ≈8 s at 60 V

Residual flux makes time 0.25 1.7 times longer

All our devices have charging voltage up to 55 V DC!

– 1.7 times longer All our devices have charging voltage up to 55 V DC! 10

Winding Resistance Measurement

Stabilization time

Depends on time constant L/R

Eliminate inductance influence

By saturating the core

L/R • Eliminate inductance influence • By saturating the core 11 | © 2016 DV Power
L/R • Eliminate inductance influence • By saturating the core 11 | © 2016 DV Power
L/R • Eliminate inductance influence • By saturating the core 11 | © 2016 DV Power

Winding Resistance Measurement

How to saturate the core

Use high current

Low current may not saturate the core in a reasonable time

High current may heat up the winding

Higher current => better saturation => lower L => shorter time

Higher current => better saturation => lower L => shorter time 12 | © 2016 DV

Winding Resistance Measurement

How to saturate the core

To get saturation 1.2 x Iex = 1.2 x 2-5% In

To avoid heating of the wire <10% In

10% of nominal current

Current cannot be reached? Winding resistance too high Device power limit reached, lower the current value

Our instruments can generate up to 100 A DC!

lower the current value Our instruments can generate up to 100 A DC! 13 | ©

Winding Resistance Measurement

Measuring at LV side may take very long time

LV side may have very low resistance

Therefore large time constant L/R

On large units stabilization may take 15-60 minutes

Sometimes even 100 A might not be enough to significantly shorten the time

Use HV winding as an additional help for faster saturation!

the time Use HV winding as an additional help for faster saturation! 14 | © 2016

Winding Resistance Measurement

Saturation by one or two windings?

Winding Resistance Measurement Saturation by one or two windings? 15 | © 2016 DV Power All
Winding Resistance Measurement Saturation by one or two windings? 15 | © 2016 DV Power All

Winding Resistance Measurement

Measuring at LV side by saturating core from HV side

Less current required

Need more cables on top of the transformer (if using single-phase

devices)

Need a little more thinking prior to the test (if using single-phase devices)

On a large GSU transformers this can speed up the measurement 10 to 20 times!

a large GSU transformers this can speed up the measurement 10 to 20 times! 16 |

Tap Changer DVtest Method

Why is it important?

New method (used and approved by MR and ABB)

Detecting problems within tap changer

No need to extract tap changer from the transformer

How is it performed?

Injecting and recording DC current through winding

Changes of current reflect changes of resistance/reactance

winding • Changes of current reflect changes of resistance/reactance 17 | © 2016 DV Power All
winding • Changes of current reflect changes of resistance/reactance 17 | © 2016 DV Power All

Tap Changer DVtest Method

Cooperation with MR tap changers

Maschinenfabrik Reinhausen the one of the

biggest tap changer manufecturer in the world

of the biggest tap changer manufecturer in the world Link for the brochure 18 | ©
of the biggest tap changer manufecturer in the world Link for the brochure 18 | ©

The Result is a Graph

The Result is a Graph 19 | © 2016 DV Power All Rights Reserved.
The Result is a Graph 19 | © 2016 DV Power All Rights Reserved.

The Result is a Graph

The Result is a Graph 20 | © 2016 DV Power All Rights Reserved.
The Result is a Graph 20 | © 2016 DV Power All Rights Reserved.

Why bother?

“Give me one good reason to test!”

I will give you 4

bother? • “Give me one good reason to test!” • I will give you 4 21

Reason 1

40% of problems in transformers

Reason 1 • 40% of problems in transformers 22 | © 2016 DV Power All Rights
Reason 1 • 40% of problems in transformers 22 | © 2016 DV Power All Rights

Reason 2

“About one in 20 OLTC failures lead to transformer main tank failure”

- Presentation on OLTC diagnostics, Laurent Allard, ABB Secheron, Euro TechCon Chester UK 2010

diagnostics, Laurent Allard, ABB Secheron, Euro TechCon Chester UK 2010 23 | © 2016 DV Power

Reason 3

“HQ study showed 12% require maintenance before manufacturer’s suggested period.”

- WECC Substation WG meeting minutes, Vancouver Washington, May 2006

- WECC Substation WG meeting minutes, Vancouver Washington, May 2006 24 | © 2016 DV Power

Reason 4

“About 33% of OLTC failures are caused by incorrect maintenance and bad reassembly.”

- P.Kang, D. Birthwistle, et al. "Non invasive on line condition monitoring of OLTC", IEEE proceedings January 2000, Generation, transmission and distribution, Volume 3,

pp.2223-2228

2000, Generation, transmission and distribution, Volume 3, pp.2223-2228 25 | © 2016 DV Power All Rights

Heat Run Test

Why is it important?

Detecting winding hot spot temperature

Performed by transformer manufacturer

How is it performed?

Measuring winding resistance during transformer cooling

Measuring ambient temperature, top and bottom oil layer

temperature

Extrapolating resistance curve

top and bottom oil layer temperature • Extrapolating resistance curve 26 | © 2016 DV Power

Demagnetization

Why is it important? Remanent magnetism can cause various problems:

High amplitude inrush current at start-up of power transformer,

Incorrect operation of protective relays,

Erroneous results during electrical measurements on transformer (FRA test, excitation current measurement)

measurements on transformer (FRA test, excitation current measurement) 27 | © 2016 DV Power All Rights
measurements on transformer (FRA test, excitation current measurement) 27 | © 2016 DV Power All Rights

Causes of Transformer Magnetization

When disconnecting a transformer from service

Consequence of high fault currents

Test using DC current

service • Consequence of high fault currents • Test using DC current 28 | © 2016

Inrush Current

Comparison of maximum inrush current with and without

residual flux

• Comparison of maximum inrush current with and without residual flux 29 | © 2016 DV
• Comparison of maximum inrush current with and without residual flux 29 | © 2016 DV

Calculation

It was shown that inrush currents calculated at the head of the feeder were reduced by about

60% when a power transformer was previously

demagnetized.

- B. Kovan, F. de Leon, D. Czarkowski, Z. Zabar, L. Birnebaum, 2011: "Mitigation of Inrush Currents in Network Transformers by Reducing the Residual Flux With an Ultra-Low-Frequency Power Source", IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 26 issue 3, 1563-1570.

IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 26 issue 3, 1563-1570. 30 | © 2016 DV Power

How?

DV Power has developed a simple and very effective

demagnetization method:

Internally changing the polarity of a controlled DC current

Current is supplied at decreasing magnitude for each step

Safely discharges the energy and guarantees the current magnitude

step − Safely discharges the energy and guarantees the current magnitude 31 | © 2016 DV

How?

Every next step, value of current will be 60% of the

previous value This will continue until 5 mA value is reached

of the previous value • This will continue until 5 mA value is reached 32 |
of the previous value • This will continue until 5 mA value is reached 32 |

Alternate direction

Lower the magnitude

Bring flux to 0

Theory

Alternate direction • Lower the magnitude • Bring flux to 0 Theory 33 | © 2016
Alternate direction • Lower the magnitude • Bring flux to 0 Theory 33 | © 2016

Why demagnetization

Before AC tests to avoid bad results due to remnant

magnetism

Before putting a transformer back in service to avoid high inrush currents

Requires some additional time for tests, but improves safety

currents • Requires some additional time for tests, but improves safety 34 | © 2016 DV

Winding Ohmmeters

RMO-TW series

RMO10TW

RMO20TW

RMO30TW

RMO50TW

• RMO10TW • RMO20TW • RMO30TW • RMO50TW 35 | © 2016 DV Power All Rights
• RMO10TW • RMO20TW • RMO30TW • RMO50TW 35 | © 2016 DV Power All Rights
• RMO10TW • RMO20TW • RMO30TW • RMO50TW 35 | © 2016 DV Power All Rights

Winding Ohmmeters

RMO-TW series

RMO100TD

Max. current

Max. charging voltage

Typical accuracy

Resolution

RMO10TW

10 A DC

55 V DC

0,1%

0,1 μΩ

RMO20TW

20 A DC

55 V DC

0,1%

0,1 μΩ

RMO30TW

30 A DC

55 V DC

0,1%

0,1 μΩ

RMO50TW

50 A DC

55 V DC

0,1%

0,1 μΩ

RMO50TW • 50 A DC • 55 V DC • 0,1% • 0,1 μΩ 36 |

Tap Changer Analyzers & Winding Ohmmeters

RMO-TD series

RMO25TD

RMO40TD

RMO60TD

RMO-TD series • RMO25TD • RMO40TD • RMO60TD 37 | © 2016 DV Power All Rights
RMO-TD series • RMO25TD • RMO40TD • RMO60TD 37 | © 2016 DV Power All Rights

Tap Changer Analyzers &

Winding Ohmmeter

RMO-TD series

O00TD

Max. current

Max. charging voltage

Typical accuracy

Resolution

Built-in TC control

• 25 A DC • 55 V DC • 0,1% • 0,1 μΩ • Optional

25 A DC

55 V DC

0,1%

0,1 μΩ

Optional

• 40 A DC • 55 V DC • 0,1% • 0,1 μΩ • Optional

40 A DC

55 V DC

0,1%

0,1 μΩ

Optional

RMO25TD RMO60TT RMO40TD

RMO60TD

60 A DC

55 V DC

0,1%

0,1 μΩ

Included

60 A DC • 55 V DC • 0,1% • 0,1 μΩ • Included 38 |

Tap Changer Analyzers &

Winding Ohmmeters

RMO-TT series

RMO40TT

RMO60TT

RMO100TT

RMO-TT series • RMO40TT • RMO60TT • RMO100TT 39 | © 2016 DV Power All Rights
RMO-TT series • RMO40TT • RMO60TT • RMO100TT 39 | © 2016 DV Power All Rights

Tap Changer Analyzers &

Winding Ohmmeter

RMO-TT series

Max. current

Max. charging voltage

Typical accuracy

Resolution

Temperature channels

Built-in TC control

• 40 A DC • 55 V DC • 0,1% • 0,1 μΩ • 3

40 A DC

55 V DC

0,1%

0,1 μΩ

3

Included

• 60 A DC • 55 V DC • 0,1% • 0,1 μΩ • 3

60 A DC

55 V DC

0,1%

0,1 μΩ

3

Included

RMO40TT RMO60TT RMO60TT

RMO100TT

100 A DC

55 V DC

0,1%

0,1 μΩ

6

Included

• 55 V DC • 0,1% • 0,1 μΩ • 6 • Included 40 | ©

Tap Changer & Winding Analyzer

TWA40D

Three-phase instrument

One-time connection of all 6-8 bushingss

All 6 resistances measured in one test

Max. 25 A per phase in step by step test

Max. 40 A, 13 A per phase in OLTC synchronization test

by step test • Max. 40 A, 13 A per phase in OLTC synchronization test 41

Tap Changer & Winding Analyzer

TWA series

Max. current

Max. charging voltage

Typical accuracy

Resolution

Motor current mes.

Quick YN test

TPC Analysis

TWA25A

25 A DC

55 V DC

0,1%

0,1 μΩ

No

No

Verification (4 ms)

TWA40D TRT03C

40 A DC

55 V DC

0,1%

0,1 μΩ

Yes

Yes

DVtest (0.1 ms)

0,1% • 0,1 μΩ • Yes • Yes • DVtest (0.1 ms) 42 | © 2016

Summarized TWA40D Features

Three tests in one device

One time connection system

Unique transformer saturation method

Quick YN test (TWA40D)

Synchronization test (TWA40D)

Tap changer motor current measurement (TWA40D)

Three-phase demagnetization

Combined transformer testing with TWA and TRT

3 years warranty

• Combined transformer testing with TWA and TRT • 3 years warranty 43 | © 2016

Three-Phase Transformer

Demagnetizer DEM60C

Basic technical data:

Transformer Demagnetizer DEM60C Basic technical data: • Demagnetization current : 5 mA - 60 A DC

Demagnetization current :

5 mA - 60 A DC

Weight: 13,5 kg

Demagnetization graph recording

A, B, C, N connectors One- time cable setup
A, B, C, N connectors
One- time cable setup
graph recording A, B, C, N connectors One- time cable setup 44 | © 2016 DV

TRT series

TRT series 45 | © 2016 DV Power All Rights Reserved.

Transformer Tests using DV Power Devices

TYPES OF TESTS (TRT):

Power transformers turns ratio measurement

Excitation current measurement

Phase angle measurement

Vector group detection

Instrument transformers turns ratio verification

Instrument transformers polarity check

Demagnetization status verification

transformers polarity check • Demagnetization status verification 46 | © 2016 DV Power All Rights Reserved.

Development Evolution

TRT03 series Single phase voltage

Development Evolution TRT03 series Single phase voltage TRT30 series + true three phase voltage TRT33 series

TRT30 series

+ true three phase voltage

phase voltage TRT30 series + true three phase voltage TRT33 series + test voltage 1 V

TRT33 series

+ test voltage 1 V

(instrument transformers testing)

TRT4x series

+ 125 V max. voltage

(Together with CVT40 it can

output 5 kV AC for testing CVTs)

Most advanced

TRT63 series

+ 250 V test voltage

5 kV AC for testing CVTs) Most advanced TRT63 series + 250 V test voltage 47

Turns Ratio Measurement

Why is it important?

Detecting winding defects

How is it performed?

Voltage ratio between primary and

secondary windings is measured for

each transformer leg, applying voltage

at HV side and measuring on LV side

Phase by phase with single-phase

voltage

All phases at once with true three- phase

with single-phase voltage • All phases at once with true three- phase 48 | © 2016
with single-phase voltage • All phases at once with true three- phase 48 | © 2016

Single-phase vs. true three-phase voltage

What the international standards say?

IEC doesn’t stipulate which of these to use

ANSI stipulates single-phase voltage, but allows true three- phase where single-phase is not applicable (“In the case of

three-phase transformers, when each phase is independent

and accessible, single-phase power should be used; although, when convenient, three-phase power may be used.”, ANSI C57.12.90-1999)

when convenient, three-phase power may be used.” , ANSI C57.12.90-1999) 49 | © 2016 DV Power

Single-phase vs. true three-phase voltage

What is the right choice?

The best is to have both options

Exactly what we offer both options in the same unit

No additional modules, no additional cables needed

User can perform single-phase only, true three-phase only,

or both tests

User can perform single-phase only, true three-phase only, or both tests 50 | © 2016 DV

Excitation Current Measurement

Why is it important?

Detecting short-circuited turns

Core lamination shorts

Core de-laminations

Verification of demagnetization process

How is it performed?

Verification of demagnetization process How is it performed? • Excitation current is transformer primary no load

Excitation current is transformer primary no load current, or magnetizing current (with open secondary) tested at reduced voltage

Results are compared to values obtained under same test voltage values

Results should follow specific pattern based on transformer construction type

should follow specific pattern based on transformer construction type 51 | © 2016 DV Power All

Phase Angle Measurement

Why is it important?

Can indicate problems in windings and/or magnetic core

Measuring displacement of transformers with specific vector groups (phase shifting, rectifier, arc furnace and traction transformers)

Verifying polarity of instrument transformers

How is it performed?

Comparing sine waves of AC voltage(s) on HV side and AC voltage(s) induced on LV side

sine waves of AC voltage(s) on HV side and AC voltage(s) induced on LV side 52

Vector Group Detection

Why is it important?

Verification of transformer vector group

During/after manufacturing

During/after reparation

Looking for incorrect connections

reparation • Looking for incorrect connections How is it performed? • Using proprietary algorithm &

How is it performed?

Using proprietary algorithm & software solution loaded in TRT

Completely automatic

algorithm & software solution loaded in TRT • Completely automatic 53 | © 2016 DV Power
algorithm & software solution loaded in TRT • Completely automatic 53 | © 2016 DV Power

Demagnetization Status Verification

Why is it important?

Confirmation that transformer has been successfully demagnetized

How is it performed?

By comparing excitation currents before and after demagnetization

• By comparing excitation currents before and after demagnetization 54 | © 2016 DV Power All
• By comparing excitation currents before and after demagnetization 54 | © 2016 DV Power All

Combined Measurement System

TRT TWA
TRT
TWA
Combined Measurement System TRT TWA 55 | © 2016 DV Power All Rights Reserved.

One measuring system TRT & TWA

Interchangeable test leads only one cable set needed

One time connection saves time

7 tests at once:

Turns ratio in all tap positions

Excitation current

Phase angle

Magnetic balance test

Winding resistances in all tap positions

On load tap changer dynamic resistance

Demagnetization

positions – On load tap changer dynamic resistance – Demagnetization 56 | © 2016 DV Power

True three-phase transformer turns ratio testers

TRT63 series

Additional 250 V test voltage

Important for comparing excitation currents obtained with mains voltage

Improved ratio accuracy, up to

0,03%

Higher ratio range, up to 50 000

Improved ratio accuracy, up to 0,03% – Higher ratio range, up to 50 000 57 |
Improved ratio accuracy, up to 0,03% – Higher ratio range, up to 50 000 57 |

Summarized TRT63 Features

High test voltage 250 V

True three-phase test

Test plan

Better accuracytest voltage 250 V • True three-phase test • Test plan Testing transformer with non-standard vector

V • True three-phase test • Test plan Better accuracy Testing transformer with non-standard vector group
V • True three-phase test • Test plan Better accuracy Testing transformer with non-standard vector group

Testing transformer with non-standard vector group

(phase-shifting, rectifier, furnace Preparation the test in office

)

Automated test mode

Automatic measurement and tap position changingPreparation the test in office ) • Automated test mode • Combined operation with TWA Saving

Combined operation with TWA

measurement and tap position changing • Combined operation with TWA Saving the time and money •

Saving the time and money

3 years warranty

operation with TWA Saving the time and money • 3 years warranty 58 | © 2016
Questions? 59 | © 2016 DV Power All Rights Reserved.

Questions?

Questions? 59 | © 2016 DV Power All Rights Reserved.

Thank you for your attention!

Thank you for your attention! 60 | © 2016 DV Power All Rights Reserved.