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# Statics: Applied forces induce internal forces, which induce stresses

## Applied forces internal forces stresses

Statics into kinematics: Stresses produce deformations because real materials are not
infinitely rigid. Deformations are measured by strains. Integration of strains through space
gives displacements, which measure motions of the particles of the body (structure). As a
result the body changes size and shape
Stresses strains displacements size & shape changes
Conversely, if the displacements are given, one can get strains by differentiation, from strains
to stresses using material laws such as Hookes law for elastic materials, and from stresses to
internal forces
Displacements strains stresses internal forces
The relation between strains and stresses, which is given by material properties codified into
the so-called constitutive equations
In general terms, strain is a macroscopic measure of deformation
Strain: Classification
Normal vs. Shear.
Normal strain measures changes in length along a specific direction. It is also called
extensional strain as well as dimensional strain. Shear strain measures changes in angles with
respect to two specific directions.
Mechanical vs. Thermal.
Mechanical strain is produced by stresses. Thermal strains are produced by temperature
changes.
Shear Strains
Shear strains measure changes of angles as the material distorts in response to shear stress. To
define shear strains it is necessary to look at two directions that form the plane that undergoes
shear distortion. Therefore a one-dimensional view is insufficient to describe what happens. It
takes two to shear
STRESS-STRAIN DIAGRAM
The ratio of the strain in lateral direction to the strain in axial direction is known as the
Poissons ratio which is a dimensionless quantity.
= (Lateral strain) / (Axial strain)
Normally for steels, Poissons ratio is 0.3

Longitudinal or axial stress is the normal stress acting parallel to the longitudinal axis of the
pipe. This may be caused by an internal force acting axially within the pipe.
SL = FAX / AM
Where SL = Longitudinal stress
FAX = internal axial force acting on cross section
Am = metal cross section area of pipe
= (do2 di2) / 4
= dm t
do = Outer dia
di = Inner dia
dm = Mean dia = (do+ di) / 2

## Another example of longitudinal stress is that due to internal pressure.

SL = FAX / AM = PAi / AM
Where P = Design pressure
Ai = internal area of pipe = di2 / 4
Hence SL = P( di2 /4) / (do2 di2) / 4
= P(di2 ) / (do2 di2)
= P(di2 ) / (do+ di)(do di)
= P(di2 ) / (2dm)(2t)
= P(di2 ) / (4dmt)
For convenience, the longitudinal pressure stress is often approximated as

SL= Pdo/ 4t
Bending stress is zero at the neutral axis of the pipe and varies linearly across the cross
section from the maximum compressive outer fibre to the maximum tensile outer fibre.
Calculating the stress as linearly proportional to the distance from the neutral axis
S L = Mb c / I
Where Mb = bending moment acting at the cross section
c = distance of point of interest from the neutral axis
I = moment of inertia of the cross section = (do4 di4) /64

Maximum bending stress occurs where c is greatest where it is equal to the outer radius
Smax = Mb Ro / I = Mb / Z
where Ro = outer radius of pipe
Z = section modulus of pipe = I / Ro
Summing up all components of longitudinal normal stress :
SL = (Fax / Am) + (Pdo/ 4t) + (Mb / Z)
Hoop Stress
There are other normal stresses present in the pipe, applied in a directional orthogonal to the
axial direction.
One of these stresses caused by internal pressure, is called hoop stress.
This stress acts in a direction parallel to the pipe circumference.
The magnitude of the hoop stress varies through the pipe wall and can be calculated by
Lames equation as
SH = P (ri2 + ri2 ro2 / r2 ) / (ro2 - ri2)
where SH = hoop stress due to pressure
ri = inner radius of the pipe
ro = outer radius of the pipe
r = radial position where stress is being considered.
The hoop stress can be conservatively approximated for thin walled cylinders, by assuming
that the pressure force, applied over an arbitrary length of pipe, (F=P di ), is resisted
uniformly by the pipe wall over that same arbitrary length (Am = 2 t ), or
SH = P di / 2 t = P di / 2 t or conservatively
S H = P do / 2 t
Radial stress is the third normal stress present in the pipe wall.
It acts in the third orthogonal direction, parallel to the pipe radius.
Radial stress which is caused due to internal pressure, varies between a stress equal to the
internal pressure at the pipes inner surface and a stress equal to the atmospheric pressure at
the pipes external surface.
Radial stresses may be calculated as :
SR = P (ri2 - ri2 ro2 / r2 ) / (ro2 - ri2)
Where SR = radial stress due to pressure.
Note that radial stress is zero at the outer radius of the pipe where the bending stresses are
maximized.
For this reason, this component has been traditionally been ignored during the stress
calculation.

## Elasticity theory is a mathematical model of material deformation. Using principles of

continuum mechanics, it is formulated in terms of many different types of field variables
specified at spatial points in the body under study. Some examples include:
Scalars - Single magnitude
mass density , temperature T, modulus of elasticity E, . . .
Vectors Three components in three dimensions
displacement vector
Matrices Nine components in three dimensions
stress matrix

## Other Variables with more than nine components

Examples of Continuum Motion & Deformation

## Small Deformation Theory

r r - r u - u o

u P'
P
r r'
o
u
Po
P'o

(Undeformed) (Deformed)

u u u u u u
u uo rx ry rz rx rx rxo rx ry rz
x y z x y z
v v v v v v
v v o rx ry rz ry ry ryo rx ry rz ri ui , j rj
x y z x y z
w w w w w w
w wo rx ry rz rz rz rzo rx ry rz
x y z x y z
u u u
x y z

v v v 1 1
ui , j (ui , j u j ,i ) (ui , j u j ,i ) eij ij
x y z 2 2
w w w

x y z
1
eij (ui , j u j ,i ) , strain tensor
2
1
ij (ui , j u j ,i ) , rotation tensor
2
Strain-Displacement Relations
1
eij (ui , j u j ,i )
2

u v w
ex , ey , ez
x y z
1 u v
exy eyx ex exy exz
2 y x
Strain Tensor eij exy ey eyz
1 v w exz
eyz ezy eyz ez
2 z y
1 w u
ezx exz
2 x z

u
dy
y D'
C'

v(x,y+dy)

y C D B'
A'
dy v
dx
v(x,y) x
A dx B u(x+dx,y)

u(x,y)

x
Determine the displacement gradient, strain and rotation tensors for the following displacement
field: u Ax 2 y , v Byz , w Cxz3 , where A, B, and C are arbitrary constants. Also calculate
the dual rotation vector = (1/2)(u).

2 Axy Ax 2 0

ui , j 0 Bz By
Cz 3 0 3Cxz 2

2 Axy Ax 2 / 2 Cz 3 / 2

eij ui , j u j ,i Ax 2 / 2
1
Bz By / 2
2
Cz 3 / 2 By / 2 3Cxz 2

0 Ax 2 / 2 Cz 3 / 2

ij ui , j u j ,i Ax 2 / 2
1
0 By / 2
2
Cz 3 / 2 By / 2 0

e1 e2 e3
1
2
1
2
1
u /x /y /z Bye1 Cz 3e 2 Ax 2e3
2

Ax 2 y Byz Cxz 3

y
y'

x'

cos sin 0
x
Qij sin cos 0
0 0 1

## ex ex cos 2 ey sin 2 2exy sin cos

ey ex sin 2 ey cos 2 2exy sin cos
exy ex sin cos ey sin cos exy (cos 2 sin 2 )

Transforms to
ex ey ex e y
ex cos 2 exy sin 2
2 2
ex ey ex ey
ey cos 2 exy sin 2
2 2
ey ex
exy sin 2 exy cos 2
2
(General Coordinate System)
y
ex exy exz

eij exy ey eyz
exz eyz ez

No Shear Strains
1
e1 0 0
eij 0 e2 0
0 0 e3

## Two-Dimensional Stress Transformation

y
y'

x'

cos sin 0
Qij sin 0
x
cos
0 0 1
x x cos 2 y sin 2 2 xy sin cos
y x sin 2 y cos 2 2 xy sin cos
xy x sin cos y sin cos xy (cos 2 sin 2 )

x y x y
x cos 2 xy sin 2
2 2
x y x y
y cos 2 xy sin 2
2 2
y x
xy sin 2 xy cos 2
2
Example:
For the given state of stress below, determine the principal stresses and directions and find the
traction vector on a plane with unit normal n = (0,1,1)/2.

3 1 1
ij 1 0 2

1 2 0

The principal stress problem is started by calculating the three invariants, giving the result
I1 = 3, I2 = -6, I3 = -8. This yields the following characteristic equation

3 3 2 6 8 0

The roots of this equation are found to be = 4, 1, -2. Back-substituting the first root into the
fundamental system (1.6.1) gives

## n1(1) n2(1) n3(1) 0

n1(1) 4n2(1) 2n3(1) 0
n1(1) 2n2(1) 4n3(1) 0

Solving this system, the normalized principal direction is found to be n(1) = (2, 1, 1)/6. In
similar fashion the other two principal directions are n(2) = (-1, 1, 1)/3, n(3) = (0, -1, 1)/2.
The traction vector on the specified plane is calculated using the relation

3 1 1 0 2 / 2

Ti n
1 0 2 1 / 2 2 / 2
1 2 0 1 / 2 2 / 2
Equilibrium Equations

x yx zx
Fx 0
x y z
xy y zy
Fy 0
x y z
xz yz z
Fz 0
x y z

## Equilibrium Equations in Cylindrical Coordinates

x3

z
z

z
r
rz

r

x2
r d

x1
dr

r 1 r rz 1
( r ) Fr 0
r r z r
r 1 z 2
r F 0
r r z r
rz 1 z z 1
rz Fz 0
r r z r
Equilibrium Equations in Spherical Coordinates

x3

R
R

R

x2

x1

R 1 R 1 R 1
(2 R R cot ) FR 0
R R R sin R
r 1 1 1
[( ) cot 3 R ] F 0
R R R sin R
r 1 1 1
(2 cot 3 R ) F 0
R R R sin R

## Anisotropy - Differences in material properties under different directions. Materials

like wood, crystalline minerals, fiber-reinforced composites have such behavior.
Although many materials exhibit non-homogeneous and anisotropic behavior, we will
primarily restrict our study to isotropic solids. For this case, material response is
independent of coordinate rotation

E (GPa)
Aluminum 68.9
Concrete 27.6
Cooper 89.6
Glass 68.9
Nylon 28.3
Rubber 0.0019
Steel 207
Young's modulus is a measure of the ability of a material to withstand changes in
length when under lengthwise tension or compression.
The modulus of elasticity (also known as the elastic modulus, the tensile modulus, or
Young's modulus) is a number that measures an object or substance's resistance to being
deformed elastically (i.e., non-permanently) when a force is applied to it. and in another words
Young's modulus measures the resistance of a material to elastic(recoverable) deformation

## Themodulus of elasticity of steel is many times higher than that of

rubber.Bydefinition, a stiffer material has a higher modulus of
elasticity.The modulus of elasticity of a material is a measure of its stiffness.

## Which is more elastic steel or rubber

and why?
Steel. Elasticity is measured as ratio of stress to strain. For a given stress (stretching force per
unit area) strain is much smaller in steel than in rubber
Elasticity as "resistance to change". The greater the resistance to change, the greater is the
elasticity of the material
Huge stress is needed to bring a little deformation in steel so its elasticity is high. On the other
hand very little stress can bring big strain (change in lenght or area or volume), so its elasticity is
smaller.

## Steel is more elastic than Rubber

The definition of elastic in physics is unfortunately inverse of common sense elastic. The more
difficult it is to stretch, the more elastic a material is called to be because elasticity is defined by
the ratio stress to strain and not vice versa.