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A

PRESENTATION
ON
JET ENGINE

PRESENTED BY:

KM. SHIVA KATIYAR


ROLL NO.: CSJMA12001390289
MEE- 2K12
Introduction

Jet engines move the airplane forward with a great force that is
produced by a tremendous thrust and causes the plane to fly very
fast.

Thrust is the forward force that


pushes the engine and therefore
the airplane forward.

Fig.1. Jet Engine [5]

A rearward channeled explosion can propel a machine forward at a


great speed.
Working Principle

Jet engine is nothing but a Gas turbine.


It works under the principle of Newtons third law
It states that For every acting force there is an equal and
opposite force.
Gas turbine operates like toy balloon

Fig.2. Toy balloon [1]


Jet Propulsion

Operating principle based on Newtons laws of motion.


2Vinlet
Propulsive Efficiency p =
Vinlet + Vexit

Propulsion means to push forward or drive an object forward.

Vexit Vinlet

Fig.3. Newtons 3rd law of motion [1]


History

DR . HANS VON OHAN SIR FRANK M. WHITTLE

Ohans jet was first to fly Franks jet flew first in


in 1939. 1941 however he had
patent his idea in 1930.
Parts of jet engine

FAN
COMPRESSOR
COMBUSTOR
TURBINE
MIXER
NOZZLE Fig.4. Parts of jet engine [2]
How a jet engine works ?

Fig.5. Working of jet engine [2]


Strictly speaking, energy is not consumed, but rather is
converted into different forms.
How air flows through the engine ?

Fig.6. Air flow through the engine [2]

The image above shows how the air flows through the engine. The
air goes through the core of the engine as well as around the core.
This causes some of the air to be very hot and some to be cooler.
The cooler air then mixes with the hot air at the engine exit area.
Continued . . .

AIR INTAKE FUEL BURNER

Sucked in by the Fuel is mixed with the air,


compressor and electric sparks light the
air, causing it to combust.
COMPRESSOR COMBUSTION CHAMBER

Compressor speed and The air is burnt.


temperature increases
Increase in the temperature
gradually
of the air, thus increases
the pressure inside the
engine.
Continued . . .
TURBINE

Works like a windmill


The blades gain energy from the hot gases moving past them.
This movement is used to power the compressor.

JET PIPE AND PROPELLING NOZZLE

The hot air rushes out of the nozzle.


High pressure
Hot air rushes out at very high speed
Piston Engine vs Jet Engine

Unsteady flow Steady flow

Fig.7. Piston Engine [3] Fig.8. Gas turbine Engine [1]

RATE OF MASS AND RATE OF FLOW OF


ENERGY FLOW IS NOT MASS AND ENERGY
CONSTANT. IS CONSTANT.
working
Gas Turbine Plant Layout
Fuel
Fuel(Heat)
Combustion
chamber

Propeller shaft
Work output

Compressor Turbine
Shaft

Air in Exhaust

Fig.9. Open cycle gas turbine [3]


Simplistic gas turbines working principles

Fig.10. Ideal Brayton cycle [3]

1-2 Isentropic compression (in a compressor); h2-h1 = mCp(T2-T1)


2-3 Constant pressure heat addition (in a combustor); h3-h2 = mCp(T3-T2)
3-4 Isentropic expansion (in a turbine); h3-h4 = mCp(T3-T4)
4-1 Constant pressure heat rejection
Types of Jet Engine

1. Turbojet

The turbojet engine is a reaction


engine.

Substantial increases in thrust


can be obtained by employing an
afterburner

Fig.11. Turbojet [5]


2. Turboprop

A turboprop engine is a jet


engine attached to a propeller.

Modern turboprop engines are


equipped with propellers that have
a smaller diameter but a larger
number of blades for efficient
operation at much higher flight
speeds

Fig.12. Turboprop [5]


3. Turbofan

The objective of this sort of bypass


system is to increase thrust without
increasing fuel consumption.

It achieves this by increasing the


total air-mass flow and reducing the
velocity within the same total energy
supply.

Fig.13. Turbofan [5]


4. Ramjet

It has no moving parts.

Combustion occurs at subsonic


speed of airflow.

Guided-missile systems, in
defense sector used this type of jet.

Mach 0.8 to Mach 5, efficient at


high speed (> Mach 2.0 )
Fig.14. Ramjet [5]
5. Scramjet

Scramjet (Supersonic Combustion Ramjet)


A variant of Ramjet Air-breathing jet engine where
combustion occurs in supersonic airflow.
Few mechanical parts, can operate at very high Mach numbers
(Mach 8 to 15) with good efficiencies.

Fig.15. Scramjet [5]


Factor Affecting Thrust

Flat Rating

Thrust
Thrust

Tropopause
Troposphere

Stratosphere

Tft Air Temp. Increasing Altitude

Fig.16. Temp. effect on thrust [1] Fig.17. Altitude effect on thrust [1]
Thrust Continued

Pressure

Fig.19. Pressure effect on thrust [1] Fig.20. Airspeed effect on thrust [1]
Applications

IN AIRCRAFT- Fighter plane, Missiles, Rocket, Airplane.


Jet propulsion, land and sea transport, racing car.
The first use of the jet engine was to power military aircraft.
The General electric company used a turboprop jet engine to
run an electric generator.
The jet engine is not only used on aircraft but on boats, where
water jets are used to propel the boat forward.
Normal type of jet engine is used for domestic purpose i.e.
Traveling, carrying goods etc.
Advantages
High power to weight ratio.
Very high speed therefore saves times.
Mechanical efficiency of jet engine is high as compared to I.C.
engine.

Disadvantages
High fuel consumption.
It is difficult to design a turbine that will work in high temperature
with high speed.
Thermal efficiency of Jet engine is low compared to IC engine.
Conclusion

Jet engine works on laws of basic thermodynamics as steady


flow energy equation and Brayton cycle empowering the
thought that natural resources air can be used according to
human mind for the benefit of world.

Ram type of jet engines is used only in Defence sector.


Because it travels at supersonic speed and generally high level
of training is required. Since it travels at such a high speed it
cannot be used for traveling.

Net work output of a jet propulsion cycle is zero.


Future Vision

To develop materials that can withstand extremely high


temperatures and stresses required by more powerful engines.
Future engineers will find many opportunities to develop engines
with increased efficiency, reduced mass, and exotic materials.
New fuels, reduced noise, and reductions in pollution a wait
further study, testing, and design.
As NASA seeks to return humans to space, as air travel continues
to expand, and as humans seek to fly higher, faster, and farther,
propulsion will play a major role in the design for the vehicles of
the future.

Engineers and engine designers are never content to stop


pushing the envelope in aviation propulsion.
References
[1]. R.D. Flack, Fundamentals of Jet Propulsion,
Cambridge University Press, 2005.

[2]. J.L. Kerrebrock, Aircraft Engines and Gas Turbines,


MIT Press, 1992.

[3]. R.K. Rajput, Thermal Engineering, Laxmi


Publications, 9th edition, 2013, 754-795.

[4]. Y. A. Cengel and M. A. Boles. Thermodynamics, Mc


Graw Hill, 7th edition, 2011, 484-535, 844-893.

[5]. H.Cohen, G.F.C. Rogers, and H.I.H. Saravanamutto,


Gas Turbine Theory, 5th edition, New York: Wiley, 2003.
Thank you