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International Journal of Chemical Engineering


Volume 2012, Article ID 858329, 10 pages
doi:10.1155/2012/858329

Research Article
Laminar Mixing in Stirred Tank Agitated by an Impeller Inclined

Koji Takahashi,1 Yoshiharu Sugo,1 Yasuyuki Takahata,1


Hitoshi Sekine,2 and Masayuki Nakamura2
1 Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa 992-8510, Japan
2 Process
Engineering Laboratory, Corporate R&D Department, Central Research Laboratories, DIC Co., Ltd., Sakura,
Chiba 285-8668, Japan

Correspondence should be addressed to Koji Takahashi, koji@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp

Received 29 February 2012; Revised 18 May 2012; Accepted 18 May 2012

Academic Editor: Naoto Ohmura

Copyright 2012 Koji Takahashi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

The mixing performance in a vessel agitated by an impeller that inclined itself, which is considered one of the typical ways to
promote mixing performance by the spatial chaotic mixing, has been investigated experimentally and numerically. The mixing
time was measured by the decolorization method and it was found that the inclined impeller could reduce mixing time compared
to that obtained by the vertically located impeller in laminar flow region. The eect of eccentric position of inclined impeller on
mixing time was also studied and a significant reduction of mixing time was observed. To confirm the experimental results, the
velocity profiles were calculated numerically and two novel numerical simulation methods were proposed.

1. Introduction In contrast, the chaotic degree can also be increased by


spatial terms, for example, by reducing the circumferential
In recent years, many theoretical and experimental studies symmetry and shifting the complexity in normal mixing
have been carried out for laminar chaotic mixing and have equipment. While this spatial method does not improve
provided much beneficial information on how laminar mix- the mixing performance as impressively as the temporal
ing can be enhanced. However, it has also been recognized method, it places less demanding requirements on the
that the mixing in periodic flows is not necessarily complete, machinery. Consequently, this approach has been widely
because such systems often display coexisting chaotic and used in industry.
nonchaotic regions. Fluids can neither penetrate nor leave
these islands of unmixed fluids by regular motion. Therefore, The special measures employed in an agitated vessel
the isolated mixing regions may become barriers to mixing. related to spatial chaotic mixing include baes, o-center
In the pioneering studies in this field, Lamberto et al. [1] impeller mounting, and uncircumferentially symmetrical
first attempted to solve this problem using time-dependent tanks. The baes can enhance the mixing performance
rotational velocity to enhance the mixing in a stirred tank remarkably and have been widely used, the o-center
equipped with ordinary small impellers. After that, several mounting has also been investigated thoroughly [4, 5] and
experimental studies have been also undertaken [2, 3] to the uncircumferentially symmetrical tanks have recently
demonstrate that the mixing performance can be improved been studied [68]. However, the most desirable method is
markedly by increasing the chaotic degree in temporal to know how to insert the traditional impeller into a vessel
terms. While the chaotic degree can be increased eectively because it does not cost so much. Therefore, in the present
by temporal terms, the approach is restricted to practical study, the mixing performance is investigated in a vessel
applications because of the restriction of the motor and the agitated by an impeller inclined itself, which has rarely been
speed reducer machine to drive the impeller. In practice, the studied. The eectiveness of setting the impeller inclined is
temporal approach has rarely been employed in the mixing verified through the comparison of mixing time obtained
industry except for washing machines. for vertical setting impeller. Two novel numerical simulation
2 International Journal of Chemical Engineering

Y T = 0.24 m w = 0.019 m
H = 0.3 m = 0

X D = 0.119 m = 15
c = 0.15 m = 30

Z Z

X +X Y +Y

D
c

Figure 1: Experimental setup.

=0 = 15 = 30

Figure 2: Isolated mixing regions observed (50 min1 , DT), Re = 16.2.

methods were proposed to confirm the experimental results in Figure 1. The experimental conditions conducted in this
obtained in this work. work are summarized in Table 1. The vessel was a transparent
acrylic resin of 0.24 m inner diameter, T, with a liquid
2. Mixing Time for Inclined Impeller depth, H, of 1.25T and has a 2 : 1 semiellipse dish shape
bottom. The impellers used are a Rushton turbine (DT) and
2.1. Experimental. The experimental setup consists of a a 6 bladed pitched paddle rotated to create downward flow
cylindrical vessel with four baes and an impeller, as shown (PP). The impeller-to-vessel diameter ratio, D/T, was 0.5 and
International Journal of Chemical Engineering 3

106 106

105 105

Ntm ()
Ntm ()

104 104

103 103

102 102
101 102 101 102
Re () Re ()
DT 0 PP 0
DT 15 PP 15
DT 30 PP 30
(a) (b)

Figure 3: Relationship between dimensionless mixing time and Re number for disk turbine and pitched paddle.

Table 1: Experimental condition. Rushton turbine set vertical and inclined 15 degree, the eect
of impeller eccentricity on mixing time was also investigated.
[Pas] 1.051.30
In this case, the impeller was moved to front and back of
N [min1 ] 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 inclined side (denoted x and +x) and to the perpendicular
[ ] 0, 15, 30 direction (denoted y), where the distance from center of
e/R [] 0, 0.2, 0.25, 0.33, 0.5 impeller to the center line of tank was changed from 0 to
0.5 of radius of vessel. Newtonian aqueous solutions of corn
106 syrup with viscosities of about 1 Pa s and water were used
as test liquids. The mixing was carried out at the Reynolds
number from 10 to 100.
The mixing time was measured by the decoloration
105
method adopting the reaction between iodine and thiosul-
fate. The optimum equivalent ratio of thiosulfate to iodine
Ntm ()

1.4 [9] is selected to measure the mixing times. The mixing


104 time was defined as the time required to destroy the isolated
mixing regions, where the streaks observed on the vessel wall
at the end of mixing were ignored when determining the
103 mixing time.

2.2. Mixing Time Measured


102
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
2.2.1. Eect of Inclination of Impeller on Mixing Time.
e/R
Figure 2 shows the photographs of isolated mixing regions
0 observed after 15 min for dierent inclined angles of
15 , +x impeller. It is well known that the doughnut rings are formed
15 , y above and below the impeller at relatively low Reynolds
15 , y numbers for ordinary small impellers [1, 5]. As expected, the
Figure 4: Relationship between dimensionless mixing time and doughnut rings were observed above and below the impeller
eccentric ratio. not only for the vertical impeller ( = 0) but also inclined
impellers ( = 15 or 30). However, the volume of the isolated
regions reduces with an increase in the inclined angle of
the o bottom clearance of impeller was 0.5H. Four baes of impeller.
width 0.19 m were set on the vessel wall. The impeller was set The relationship between the dimensionless mixing time
vertically and inclined at 15 or 30 degrees, so as to the center measured and the Reynolds number is shown in Figure 3, for
of impeller is consistent with the middle of vessel. Only for impellers of dierent inclination. This figure shows that the
4 International Journal of Chemical Engineering

Velocity distribution (Y -Z) Velocity distribution (X-Z) Axial velocity distribution (Y -Z) Axial velocity distribution (X-Z)
0.125 0.03
0.1187 0.027
0.1125 0.024
0.1063 0.021
0.1 0.018
0.0938 0.015
0.0875 0.012
0.0812 0.009
50 min 1

0.075 0.006
0.0688 0.003
0.0625 0
0.0562 0.003
0.05 0.006
0.0437 0.009
0.0375 0.012
0.0313 0.015
0.025 0.018
0.0188 Z 0.021
0.024 Z Z
0.0125 Z Y X
Y X
0.0063 Y X 0.027 Y X
0 0.03

Velocity vectors colored by velocity magnitude (m/s) Sep 06, 2007 Velocity vectors colored by Z velocity (m/s) Sep 06, 2007
FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, lam) FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, lam)

0.25 0.06
0.2375 0.054
0.225 0.048
0.2125 0.042
0.2 0.036
0.1875 0.03
0.175 0.024
0.1625 0.018
100 min 1

0.15 0.012
0.1375 0.006
0.125 0
0.1125 0.006
0.1 0.012
0.0875 0.018
0.075 0.024
0.0625 0.03
0.05 0.036
0.0375 0.042
0.025 Z Z 0.048 Z
Z
0.0125 Y X Y X 0.054 Y X
0.06 Y X
0

Velocity vectors colored by velocity magnitude (m/s) Sep 06, 2007 Velocity vectors colored by Z velocity (m/s) Sep 06, 2007
FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, lam) FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, lam)

0.75 0.18
0.7125 0.162
0.675 0.144
0.6375 0.126
0.6 0.108
0.5625 0.09
0.525 0.072
0.4875 0.054
0.45 0.036
300 min 1

0.4125 0.018
0.375 0
0.018
0.3375
0.036
0.3
0.054
0.2625
0.072
0.225
0.09
0.1875
0.108
0.15
0.126
0.1125
Z 0.144
0.075 Z
Z Y X 0.162 Z
0.0375 Y X
Y X 0.18 Y X
0

Velocity vectors colored by velocity magnitude (m/s) Sep 06, 2007 Velocity vectors colored by Z velocity (m/s) Sep 06, 2007

FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, lam) FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, lam)

Figure 5: Three-dimensional flow velocity and axial velocity distribution (vertical located impeller). The rate vector was overlapped with
each figure. The range of coloring was displayed in proportion to the rotational speed.

dimensionless mixing time decreases with an increase in the more eective inclination on mixing time was obtained
Reynolds number for all impellers and with an increase for a Rushton turbine than for a pitched paddle.
in inclined angle of impeller. This result may indicate that For both impellers, the power consumption was mea-
the inclination of the impeller can promote the mixing sured but there was no eect of impeller inclination on
performance in laminar flow regions. The eect of impeller power.
inclination on mixing time is stronger for Rushton turbine
than that for pitched paddle. A Rushton turbine creates radial 2.2.2. Eect of Eccentricity on Mixing Time. Figure 4 shows
flow to vessel wall but a pitched paddle axial one to bottom the relationship between the dimensionless mixing time
of vessel. Because of distance of impeller to vessel wall is measured and the Reynolds number for dierent eccentrici-
shorter than that of impeller to bottom and the flow created ties. It is clearly seen from the figure the promotion of mixing
by Rushton turbine is stronger than that by pitched paddle, by eccentricity is more eective than that by inclination. For
International Journal of Chemical Engineering 5

Velocity distribution (Y -Z) Velocity distribution (X-Z) Axial velocity distribution (Y -Z) Axial velocity distribution (X-Z)
0.125 0.03
0.1187 0.027
0.1125 0.024
0.1063 0.021
0.1 0.018
0.0938 0.015
0.0875 0.012
50 min 1

0.0812 0.009
0.075 0.006
0.0688 0.003
0.0625 0
0.0562 0.003
0.05 0.006
0.0437 0.009
0.0375 0.012
0.0313 0.015
0.025 0.018
0.0188 Z 0.021 Z
0.0125 Z Y X 0.024 Y X
Z
0.0063 Y X 0.027 Y X
0 0.03

Velocity vectors colored by velocity magnitude (m/s) Sep 06, 2007 Velocity vectors colored by Z velocity (m/s) Sep 06, 2007
FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, lam) FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, lam)

0.25 0.06
0.2375 0.054
0.225 0.048
0.2125 0.042
0.2 0.036
0.1875 0.03
0.175 0.024
0.1625 0.018
100 min 1

0.15 0.012
0.1375 0.006
0.125 0
0.1125 0.006
0.1 0.012
0.0875 0.018
0.075 0.024
0.0625 0.03
0.05 0.036
0.0375 0.042
0.025 0.048 Z
Z Z Z
0.0125 Y 0.054 Y X
Y X X Y
0 0.06 X

Velocity vectors colored by velocity magnitude (m/s) Sep 06, 2007 Velocity vectors colored by Z velocity (m/s) Sep 06, 2007
FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, lam) FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, lam)

0.75 0.18
0.7125 0.162
0.675 0.144
0.6375 0.126
0.6 0.108
0.5625 0.09
0.525 0.072
0.4875 0.054
300 min 1

0.45 0.036
0.4125 0.018
0.375 0
0.3375 0.018
0.3 0.036
0.2625 0.054
0.225 0.072
0.1875 0.09
0.15 0.108
0.1125 0.126
0.144 Z
0.075 Z Z
Z 0.162 Y X Y X
0.0375 Y X
Y X
0 0.18

Velocity vectors colored by velocity magnitude (m/s) Sep 06, 2007 Velocity vectors colored by Z velocity (m/s) Sep 06, 2007
FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, lam) FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, lam)

Figure 6: Three-dimensional flow velocity and axial velocity distribution (impeller inclined at 15 ). The rate vector was overlapped with
each figure. The range of coloring was displayed in proportion to the rotational speed.

vertical impeller, the mixing time decreases gradually with Thus, in order to get the information of the flow field in a ves-
an increase in eccentricity as reported by Takahashi et al. [5]. sel agitated by an inclined impeller, the flow simulation was
For impeller inclined 15 degree moved to front of inclined carried out. The impeller simulated is a Rushton turbine
side (denoted X) and the perpendicular direction (denoted because the more eective inclination on mixing was
Y), the mixing times change with almost the same with those obtained for Rushton turbine than for pitched paddle, as is
of vertical impeller. On the other hand, for impeller inclined indicated in the previous section.
moved to back of inclined side decreases drastically with a The geometries of mixing vessel and impeller provided
small change of eccentricity and then become constant at the for the numerical calculations are similar to those used in
eccentricity more than 0.25. the experiment. The velocity profiles were calculated for the
3. Flow Simulation impeller inclined at 15 and 30 degrees to the vertical axis. For
comparison, the velocity profiles created by vertically located
3.1. Simulation Method. In literature, there is no data on impeller in a vertical vessel were also calculated. The simula-
velocity profiles in a vessel agitated by an inclined impeller. tion was conducted at the rotational speeds of 50, 100, and
6 International Journal of Chemical Engineering
Velocity distribution (Y -Z) Velocity distribution (X-Z) Axial velocity distribution (Y -Z) Axial velocity distribution (X-Z)
0.125 0.03
0.1187 0.027
0.1125 0.024
0.1063 0.021
0.1 0.018
0.0938 0.015
0.0875 0.012
50 min 1

0.0812 0.009
0.075 0.006
0.0688 0.003
0.0625 0
0.0562 0.003
0.05 0.006
0.0437 0.009
0.0375 0.012
0.0313 0.015
0.025 0.018
0.0188 0.021
Z Z Z Z
0.0125 0.024 Y
Y X Y X Y X X
0.0063 0.027
0 0.03
Velocity vectors colored by velocity magnitude (m/s) Sep 06, 2007 Velocity vectors colored by Z velocity (m/s) Sep 06, 2007
FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, lam) FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, lam)
0.25 0.06
0.2375 0.054
0.225 0.048
0.2125 0.042
0.2 0.036
0.1875 0.03
0.175 0.024
0.1625 0.018
100 min 1

0.15 0.012
0.1375 0.006
0.125 0
0.1125 0.006
0.1 0.012
0.0875 0.018
0.075 0.024
0.0625 0.03
0.05 0.036
0.0375 Z Z 0.042 Z Z
0.025 Y X Y X 0.048 Y X Y X
0.0125 0.054
0 0.06

Velocity vectors colored by velocity magnitude (m/s) Sep 06, 2007 Velocity vectors colored by Z velocity (m/s) Sep 06, 2007
FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, lam) FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, lam)
0.75 0.18
0.7125 0.162
0.675 0.144
0.6375 0.126
0.6 0.108
0.5625 0.09
0.525 0.072
0.4875 0.054
300 min 1

0.45 0.036
0.4125 0.018
0.375 0
0.3375 0.018
0.3 0.036
0.2625 0.054
0.225 0.072
0.1875 0.09
0.15 0.108
0.1125 0.126
0.075 Z Z 0.144 Z Z
0.0375 Y X Y X 0.162 Y X Y X
0 0.18

Velocity vectors colored by velocity magnitude (m/s) Sep 06, 2007 Velocity vectors colored by Z velocity (m/s) Sep 06, 2007
FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, lam) FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, lam)

Figure 7: Three-dimensional flow velocity and axial velocity distribution (impeller inclined at 30 ). The rate vector was overlapped with
each figure. The range of coloring was displayed in proportion to the rotational speed.

300 rpm, which correspond to the Reynolds numbers of inclined impellers, the three-dimensional flow velocity and
16.5, 33.0, and 99.0, respectively. The viscosity and density the axial velocity distributions obtained for Y-Z and X-Z
of liquid was set at 1 Pa s and 1400 kg/m3 . The fluid flow cross section are completely dierent from each other. It is
is solved using the three-dimensional finite-volume method clearly seen from these figures, with an increase in inclined
software FLUENT developed by Fluent Inc. in the USA. A angle of impeller and with an increase in rotational speed, the
steady flow field on a rotating frame of reference fixed on the velocity becomes high and the area of high velocity regions
impeller is adopted. increases, especially near free surface and bottom of vessel.
The simulated results may indicate the higher the mixing
3.2. Flow Field Simulated. Figures 5, 6, and 7 show the three- performance, the larger the inclined angle of impeller.
dimensional flow velocity distributions and the axial ones,
those are the most important components to consider for
the mixing, calculated in the Y-Z and X-Z cross sections 4. Estimation of Mixing Performance by
(see Figure 1), where Y-Z cross section is perpendicular Numerical Simulation
to and X-Z one parallel to impeller shaft. There is no
dierence in velocity distribution in Y-Z and X-Z cross In order to evaluate the dispersive mixing performance, two
sections for vertical impeller, regardless whether it is three- unique simulation methods were proposed based on the flow
dimensional flow velocity or axial velocity distributions. For simulation results obtained above. One is the simulation of
International Journal of Chemical Engineering 7

138222 574
131463 545
124704 517
117945 488
111187 459
104428 430
97669 402
90910 373
84151 344
77392 316
70634 287
63875 258
57116 230
50357 201
43598 172
36839 144
30080 115
23322 86
16563 57
9804 29
3045 0
(a) (b)

Figure 8: Simulation result of particle dispersion ( = 0 ).

138222 361
131463 343
325
124704
307
117945
289
111187
104428 271
97669 253
90910 235
84151 217
77392 199
70634 180
63875 162
57116 144
50357 126
43598 108
36839 90
30080 72
23322 54
16563 36
9804 18
3045 0
(a) (b)

Figure 9: Simulation result of particle dispersion ( = 30 ).

particles dispersion and another is that of mixing of two intervals throughout the tank, where the particles are
miscible liquids. supposed to have the same density with the liquid.
(2) The movement of the particles was calculated accord-
4.1. Particle Dispersion. To quantify the mixing performance, ing to the flow generated by impeller for 30 seconds
the dispersion of particles is calculated for the vertical and after the start of agitation, where the particles are
30 degree inclined impeller. If the flow is dispersive, the assumed to move exactly with liquid.
neighboring particles will be separated from each other. (3) For six particles placed adjacently from the marked
Based on this concept, the analysis was carried out according particle (2 particles in each coordinate), the distances
to the following procedure. from the marked particle were calculated. If the
distances become longer more than 7 mm (original
(1) Initially, the particles were positioned at all inter- distance of 5 mm + another 2 mm), the particles were
sections of the X, Y, and Z lines at every 5 mm removed from the image.
8 International Journal of Chemical Engineering

0.2
0.19
0.18
0.17
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.1
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
Contours of mass fraction of tracer (Time = 0.0000e + 00) Sep 26, 2007 Fraction of tracer (Time = 0.0000e + 00) Sep 26, 2007 Fraction of tracer (Time = 0.0000e + 00) Sep 26, 2007
FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, spe, lam, unsteady) FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, spe, lam, unsteady) FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, spe, lam, unsteady)

t = 0s
0.2
0.19
0.18
0.17
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.1
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
Contours of mass fraction of tracer (Time = 0.0000e + 00) Sep 26, 2007 Fraction of tracer (Time = 0.0000e + 00) Sep 26, 2007 Fraction of tracer (Time = 0.0000e + 00) Sep 26, 2007
FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, spe, lam, unsteady) FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, spe, lam, unsteady) FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, spe, lam, unsteady)

t = 1s
0.2
0.19
0.18
0.17
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.1
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
Contours of mass fraction of tracer (Time = 0.0000e + 00) Sep 26, 2007 Fraction of tracer (Time = 0.0000e + 00) Sep 26, 2007 Fraction of tracer (Time = 0.0000e + 00) Sep 26, 2007
FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, spe, lam, unsteady) FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, spe, lam, unsteady) FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, spe, lam, unsteady)

t = 2s
0.2
0.19
0.18
0.17
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.1
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
Contours of mass fraction of tracer (Time = 0.0000e + 00) Sep 26, 2007 Fraction of tracer (Time = 0.0000e + 00) Sep 26, 2007 Fraction of tracer (Time = 0.0000e + 00) Sep 26, 2007
FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, spe, lam, unsteady) FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, spe, lam, unsteady) FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, spe, lam, unsteady)

t = 5s

Figure 10: Continued.


International Journal of Chemical Engineering 9

0.2
0.19
0.18
0.17
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.1
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
Contours of mass fraction of tracer (Time = 0.0000e + 00) Sep 26, 2007 Fraction of tracer (Time = 0.0000e + 00) Sep 26, 2007 Fraction of tracer (Time = 0.0000e + 00) Sep 26, 2007

FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, spe, lam, unsteady) FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, spe, lam, unsteady) FLUENT 6.2 (3d, segregated, spe, lam, unsteady)

t = 10 s

Figure 10: Simulation result of mixing of two miscible liquids.

(4) In order to get a clear image, 99% of remaining par- inclined impeller creates an eective flow pattern for mixing
ticle were also removed at random from the image. by reducing the size of the isolated mixing regions in the
vessel. The results of the numerical simulations showed a
(5) The number of remaining particles on the image was
complex flow and high ability of particle dispersion in the
counted for both conditions.
inclined impeller condition. Therefore, the flow control of
The results of the simulations are shown in Figures 8 and the inclined impeller agitation introduced in this paper
9. In these figures, the colors indicate the initial positions should be applicable to a wide range of processes.
of the particles in axial direction, where red indicates top
position and blue bottom one. Figures 8(a) and 9(a) are the
results after removing the particles whose distances become
Nomenclature
longer than 7 mm and Figures 8(b) and 9(b) ones after c: O-bottom clearance of impeller [m]
eliminating 99% particles. In Figures 8(b) and 9(b), 574 D: Diameter of impeller [m]
particles remained in the vertical impeller condition, and 367 e: Distance from shaft to center line of tank [m]
particles remained in the inclined impeller condition. The H: Liquid depth [m]
smaller number of particle, the higher the ability particle N: Impeller speed [s1 ]
dispersion. Thus, it is confirmed that the inclined impeller R: Radius of tank [m]
condition exhibited a high dispersion ability. Re: Reynolds number []
T: Tank diameter [m]
4.2. Mixing of Two Miscible Liquids. Based on the flow tm : Mixing time [s]
simulation, the mixing process of two miscible liquids was w: Bae width [m]
simulated for the vertical and inclined 15 and 30 degree : Liquid viscosity [Pa s]
impellers. Two miscible liquids of same viscosity and density : Liquid density [m s3 ]
were set in a vessel: blue one 90% lower and red one 10% : Inclined angle of impeller [].
upper in a vessel. The calculation was conducted for 10
seconds.
References
The results are shown in Figure 10. It is clearly seen from
the figure, with an increase in inclined angle, the mixing [1] D. J. Lamberto, F. J. Muzzio, P. D. Swanson, and A. L.
proceeds quickly throughout vessel. Especially, it should Tonkovich, Using time-dependent RPM to enhance mixing
be noted that the entrainment of liquid near free surface in stirred vessels, Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 51, no. 5,
has easily taken place for inclined impellers. In the process pp. 733741, 1996.
industries, solids lighter than liquid are commonly required [2] T. Nomura, T. Uchida, and K. Takahashi, Enhancement of
to be dispersed into liquid [10]. For such purposes, the mixing by unsteady agitation of an impeller in an agitated
inclined impeller may be adequate to use. vessel, Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan, vol. 30, no.
5, pp. 875879, 1997.
[3] W. G. Yao, H. Sato, K. Takahashi, and K. Koyama, Mixing
5. Conclusions performance experiments in impeller stirred tanks subjected
to unsteady rotational speeds, Chemical Engineering Science,
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