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What to Know About Protective Relays http://www.ecmweb.

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What to Know About Protective Relays http://www.ecmweb.com/content/what-know-about-protective-relays

Protective relays are arguably the


least understood component of
medium voltage (MV) circuit
protection. In fact, somebelieve that
MV circuit breakers operate by
themselves, without direct
initiation by protective relays.
Others think that the operation and
coordination of protective relays is
much too complicated to
understand. Let's get into the details and eliminate these misbeliefs.

The IEEE Standard Dictionary defines a circuit breaker as follows.

"A device designed to open and close a circuit by nonautomatic means, and
to open the circuit automatically on a predetermined overload of current
without injury to itself when properly applied within its rating."

By this definition, MV breakers are not true circuit breakers, since they do
not open automatically on overcurrent. They are electrically operated
power-switching devices, not operating until directed by some external
device to open or close. This is true whether the unit is an air, oil, vacuum,
or [SF.sub.6] circuit breaker. Sensors and relays are used to detect the
overcurrent or other abnormal or unacceptable condition and to signal the
switching mechanism to operate. The MV circuit breakers are the brute-
force switches while the sensors and relays are the brains that direct their
functioning.

The sensors can be current transformers (CTs), potential transformers


(PTs), temperature or pressure instruments, float switches, tachometers, or
any device or combination of devices that will respond to the condition or
event being monitored. In switchgear application, the most common sensors
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A common misconception is that vibration analysis will always tell you


when theres an alignment problem with a motor installation. Although
vibration analysis is essential to a good motor maintenance program and
will reveal most alignment issues, it doesnt tell the whole story.

If you own a car or truck, youve probably taken it in for an alignment. If


youve done this a few times, youve probably been surprised at least once
that the alignment was out of spec. The car drives just fine! I never noticed
any vibration. Yet, you can read the alignment data for yourself. Theres a
big difference between before and after. You drive home, and dont notice
any difference from the drive in there.

Couplings are typically designed to compensate for minor misalignments.


They compensate by changing the angle of applied force. If you were to draw
the vectors on paper, youd see the mechanical equivalent of power factor.

In this case, its not capacitance or inductance changing the vector angle and
thus reducing the real power. Its mechanical redirection of the force,
reducing the real torque. So the motor must turn a little harder to drive
the same load, just as with power factor.

To borrow terms from power factor analysis, the difference between the
real torque and the apparent torque is rotational energy that is
converted to waste heat.

To ensure you dont have an alignment problem, you need to test the
alignment. Minor misalignments can go undetected for a very long time, all
the while wasting energy and reducing overall reliability.

Unfortunately, alignments take time. If you want them done right, they also
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Accelerating growth in residential improvement and repair


expenditures is anticipated through the third quarter of 2018, according to
the Leading Indicator of Remodeling Activity (LIRA) recently released by
the Remodeling Futures Program at the Joint Center for Housing Studies of
Harvard University. The LIRA projects that annual gains in home
renovation and repair spending will increase from 6.3% in the fourth
quarter of 2017 to 7.7% by the third quarter of next year.

Recent strengthening of the U.S. economy, tight for-sale housing


inventories, and healthy home equity gains are all working to boost home
improvement activity, says Chris Herbert, managing director of the Joint
Center for Housing Studies. Over the coming year, owners are projected to
spend in excess of $330 billion on home upgrades and replacements, as well
as routine maintenance.

According to Abbe Will, research associate in the Remodeling Futures

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Arlington Industries, Inc. Scranton, PA, and Bridgeport Fittings Inc.,


Stratford, CT, today announced that they have reached an agreement that
settles all litigation currently pending between the companies. In connection
with this settlement, Arlington has received payment of $1.37 million for the
judgment in case No. 3:06-cv-1105 in the Middle District of Pennsylvania
against Bridgeports 3838ASP and 3838SP Whipper-Snap Duplex
connectors. Bridgeport has dismissed its appeal from that judgment and
Arlington has dismissed its cross-appeal seeking attorneys fees. This
settlement also resolves Arlingtons contempt allegations against Bridgeport
in case No. 3:02-cv-00134 in the Middle District of Pennsylvania. All other
terms of the parties settlement are confidential. This recent payment brings
Arlingtons recovery for violations of its Snap-Tite and Snap2It Patents to
$12 million.

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Emergency electrical disconnects for fuel dispensing systems shall be


installed not less than ___, nor more than ___ from the fuel dispenser.

A) 6 ft / 30 ft
B) 20 ft / 100 ft
C) 30 ft / 100 ft
D) 30 ft / 150 ft

Answer: B

As noted in the first two

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