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ET-IV (2008-09)

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Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. formed in October, 2000, is World's 7th largest
Telecommunications Company providing comprehensive range of telecom services in
India: Wire line, CDMA mobile, GSM Mobile, Internet, Broadband, Carrier service,
MPLS-VPN, VSAT, VoIP services, IN Services etc.

Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (known as BSNL, India Communications Corporation

Limited) is a public sector communications company in India. It is the India's largest
telecommunication company with 24% market share. Its headquarters are at Bharat
Sanchar Bhawan, New Delhi. It has the status of Mini-ratna - a status assigned to
reputed Public Sector companies in India.BSNL has installed Quality Telecom
Network in the country and now focusing on improving it, expanding the network,
introducing new telecom services with ICT applications in villages and wining
customer's confidence. Today, it has about 47.3 million line basic telephone capacity,
4 million WLL capacity, 20.1 Million GSM Capacity, more than 37382 fixed
exchanges, 18000 BTS, 287 Satellite Stations, 480196 Rkm of OFC Cable, 63730
Rkm of Microwave Network connecting 602 Districts, 7330 cities/towns and 5.5
Lakhs villages. BSNL is the only service provider, making focused efforts and
planned initiatives to bridge the Rural-Urban Digital Divide ICT sector. In fact there
is no telecom operator in the country to beat its reach with its wide network giving
services in every nook & corner of country and operates across India except Delhi &
Mumbai including inaccessible areas of Siachen glacier and North-eastern region of
the country.

BSNL cellular service, CellOne, has more than 17.8 million cellular customers,
garnering 24 percent of all mobile users as its subscribers. That means that almost
every fourth mobile user in the country has a BSNL connection. In basic services,
BSNL is miles ahead of its rivals, with 35.1 million Basic Phone subscribers i.e. 85
per cent share of the subscriber base and 92 percent share in revenue terms. BSNL has
more than 2.5 million WLL subscribers and 2.5 million Internet Customers who
access Internet through various modes viz. Dial-up, Leased Line, DIAS, and Account
Less Internet (CLI). BSNL has been adjudged as the NUMBER ONE ISP in the

BSNL has set up a world class multi-gigabit, multi-protocol convergent IP

infrastructure that provides convergent services like voice, data and video through the
same Backbone and Broadband Access Network. At present there are 0.6 million
DataOne broadband customers. The company has vast experience in Planning,
Installation, network integration and Maintenance of Switching & Transmission
Networks and also has a world class ISO 9000 certified Telecom Training Institute.
BSNL plans to expand its customer base from present 73 millions lines to 125 million
lines and infrastructure investment plan to the tune of Rs. 733 crores (US$ 16.67
million) in the next three years. Today, BSNL is India's largest Telco and one of the
largest Public Sector Undertaking with estimated market value of $ 100 Billion. The
company is planning an IPO with in 6 months to offload 10% to public in the Rs 300-
400 range valuing the company at over $100 billion.

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Mobile Section
In this section we learnt how mobile communication takes place.
There are two ways by which mobile communication takes place,


The basic transmission procedure:

1. BSC: Base Station Controller

2. BTS: Base Station TRANSCEIVER
3. MSC: Mobile Switching Center
4. HLR: Home Location Register
5. VLR: Visitor Location Register
6. AUC: Authentication Center
7. EIR: Equipment Identity Register
8. SC: Short Message Center
9. OMC: Operation and Maintenance Center


Here we came to know about function of:--

OMC: -- Operation maintenance centre.

OC:--Monitoring unit.
ETA:--Frequency sender and receiver.
URM:--Multiplex connection unit.(5 unit)
CSE:--Subscriber connection unit.
DSF:--Stand by charge unit.
MR:--Multiresistor (5 unit)
MQ:--Marker (2 unit)
TR:--Translator (2 unit)
TX:--Tax (charging unit) (2 unit)
RLM:--Remote lining unit.
COM:--Switching module.
CX: -- Switching unit.

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TAX (Trunk auto exchange)

This section deals when a caller picks up the receiver, gets the dial tone and how
the call is made and processed.


The call is transmitted from telephone to:


There are two types of media:

• Guided Media (OFC)

• Un-Guided Media.

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A trend of changes in telecommunication technology is very fast. The
need of hour is large bandwidth and its optimum utilization at reasonable cost.
Any data access rate more than 2Mbps is considered as broadband access.
As per the recent broadband policy of govt. of India, access rate over
256kbps will come under category of broadband access.

Equipment's required in customer premises are

• Filter:-The filter separates out the signal for telephone. (Called as

• Modem:-The modem directs the signal to PC and TV.
• Set Top Box (STB)-The STB converts the digital IP based signal to a
form compatible with the TV set.
• PC and TV

What is DSL?
• A high speed digital communication line
• Has several advantages over other high speed communication
• DSL runs on existing copper
• DSL helps carriers reduce congestion on their voice-switching
• Very high speed.

Data Card

There are two type of data card:

1. IX data card (speed -144kbps (max))
2. E-VDO data card (speed - 2Mbps)

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• OCB stands for organ control bhersion.
• Digital switching system developed by CIT ALCATEL of France.
• OMC & S/N duplicated.
• Varieties of service provided are: basic telephony, ISDN, Mobile, Videotext
• Supports different types of signaling system.
• Max. no. of junctions may be 60000 and 35 types of cards can be used.
• Less space requirement.
• Automatic fault recovery and remote monitoring.
• Environmental requirement is not very stringent.


Subscriber Connection Unit (CSN)

A CSN basically consists of 1 basic rack and 3 extension racks capacity of CSN is
5000.Subs may be analog and digital.


It is the interface between switching network and junctions from other exchanges
(or remote connection unit).


The Switching matrix is a single stage ‘t’ made up of host switching matrix and
branch selection & amplification function, SMX is duplicated.



It consists of frequency receiver/generator conference call CCTS, tone generators


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The six control units are as under:

• Multi register (MR) for connecting and disconnecting calls.
• Translator (TR) for storing exchange database.
• Charging unit (TX) for carrying out charging jobs.
• Marker (MQ) for performing connection & disconnection of subscribers.
• Ccs-7 controller (PC) for carrying out routing & traffic management
• Matrix system handler (GX) for monitoring connection in S/N.


It is OMC for supervising functions of different units and for taking suitable
actions at the event of faults. Magnetic disks each of capability 1.2 GB for various

In the field of telecommunications, a telephone exchange or telephone switch is a

system of electronic components that connects telephone calls. A central office is
the physical building used to house inside plant equipment including telephone
switches, which make phone calls "work" in the sense of making connections and
relaying the speech information


Mobile phones send and receive radio signals with any number of cell site base
stations fitted with microwave antennas. These sites are usually mounted on a tower,
pole or building, located throughout populated areas, then connected to a cabled
communication network and switching system. The phones have a low-power
transceiver that transmits voice and data to the nearest cell sites, normally not more
than 8 to 13 km (approximately 5 to 8 miles) away.

When the mobile phone or data device is turned on, it registers with the mobile
telephone exchange, or switch, with its unique identifiers, and can then be alerted by
the mobile switch when there is an incoming telephone call. The handset constantly
listens for the strongest signal being received from the surrounding base stations, and
is able to switch seamlessly between sites. As the user moves around the network, the
"handoffs" are performed to allow the device to switch sites without interrupting the

Cell sites have relatively low-power (often only one or two watts) radio transmitters
which broadcast their presence and relay communications between the mobile
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handsets and the switch. The switch in turn connects the call to another subscriber of
the same wireless service provider or to the public telephone network, which includes
the networks of other wireless carriers. Many of these sites are camouflaged to blend
with existing environments, particularly in scenic areas.

The dialogue between the handset and the cell site is a stream of digital data that
includes digitized audio (except for the first generation analog networks). The
technology that achieves this depends on the system which the mobile phone operator
has adopted. The technologies are grouped by generation. The first-generation
systems started in 1979 with Japan, are all analog and include AMPS and NMT.
Second-generation systems, started in 1991 in Finland, are all digital and include

The nature of cellular technology renders many phones vulnerable to 'cloning':

anytime a cell phone moves out of coverage (for example, in a road tunnel), when the
signal is re-established, the phone sends out a 're-connect' signal to the nearest cell-
tower, identifying itself and signaling that it is again ready to transmit. With the
proper equipment, it's possible to intercept the re-connect signal and encode the data it
contains into a 'blank' phone -- in all respects, the 'blank' is then an exact duplicate of
the real phone and any calls made on the 'clone' will be charged to the original

Third-generation (3G) networks, which are still being deployed, began in 2001. They
are all digital, and offer high-speed data access in addition to voice services and
include W-CDMA (known also as UMTS), and CDMA2000 EV-DO. China will
launch a third generation technology on the TD-SCDMA standard. Operators use a
mix of predesignated frequency bands determined by the network requirements and
local regulations.

In an effort to limit the potential harm from having a transmitter close to the user's
body, the first fixed/mobile cellular phones that had a separate transmitter, vehicle-
mounted antenna, and handset (known as car phones and bag phones) were limited to
a maximum 3 watts Effective Radiated Power. Modern handheld cell phones which
must have the transmission antenna held inches from the user's skull are limited to a
maximum transmission power of 0.6 watts ERP. Regardless of the potential biological
effects, the reduced transmission range of modern handheld phones limits their
usefulness in rural locations as compared to car/bag phones, and handhelds require
that cell towers be spaced much closer together to compensate for their lack of
transmission power.

Some handhelds include an optional auxiliary antenna port on the back of the phone,
which allows it to be connected to a large external antenna and a 3 watt cellular
booster. Alternately in fringe-reception areas, a cellular repeater may be used, which
uses a long distance high-gain dish antenna or yagi antenna to communicate with a
cell tower far outside of normal range, and a repeater to rebroadcast on a small short-
range local antenna that allows any cell phone within a few meters to function

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Global System for Mobile communications (GSM: originally from Groupe Special
Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. Its promoter, the
GSM Association, estimates that 82% of the global mobile market uses the standard.
GSM is used by over 3 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories.
Its ubiquity makes international roaming very common between mobile phone
operators, enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world. GSM
differs from its predecessors in that both signaling and speech channels are digital,
and thus is considered a second generation (2G) mobile phone system. This has also
meant that data communication was easy to build into the system.

The ubiquity of the GSM standard has been an advantage to both consumers (who
benefit from the ability to roam and switch carriers without switching phones) and
also to network operators (who can choose equipment from any of the many vendors
implementing GSM). GSM also pioneered a low-cost, to the network carrier,
alternative to voice calls, the Short message service (SMS, also called "text
messaging"), which is now supported on other mobile standards as well. Another
advantage is that the standard includes one worldwide Emergency telephone number,
112. This makes it easier for international travellers to connect to emergency services
without knowing the local emergency number. Newer versions of the standard were
backward-compatible with the original GSM phones. For example, Release '97 of the
standard added packet data capabilities, by means of General Packet Radio Service
(GPRS). Release '99 introduced higher speed data transmission using Enhanced Data
Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE).

GSM is a cellular network, which means that mobile phones connect to it by

searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. GSM networks operate in four different
frequency ranges. Most GSM networks operate in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands.
Some countries in the Americas (including Canada and the United States) use the 850
MHz and 1900 MHz bands because the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency bands were
already allocated.

The rarer 400 and 450 MHz frequency bands are assigned in some countries, notably
Scandinavia, where these frequencies were previously used for first-generation

GSM-900 uses 890–915 MHz to send information from the mobile station to the base
station (uplink) and 935–960 MHz for the other direction (downlink), providing 124
RF channels (channel numbers 1 to 124) spaced at 200 kHz. Duplex spacing of 45
MHz is used. In some countries the GSM-900 band has been extended to cover a
larger frequency range. This 'extended GSM', E-GSM, uses 880–915 MHz (uplink)
and 925–960 MHz (downlink), adding 50 channels (channel numbers 975 to 1023 and
0) to the original GSM-900 band. Time division multiplexing is used to allow eight
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full-rate or sixteen half-rate speech channels per radio frequency channel. There are
eight radio timeslots (giving eight burst periods) grouped into what is called a TDMA
frame. Half rate channels use alternate frames in the same timeslot. The channel data
rate is 270.833 kbit/s, and the frame duration is 4.615 ms.

The transmission power in the handset is limited to a maximum of 2 watts in

GSM850/900 and 1 watt in GSM1800/1900.

GSM has used a variety of voice codecs to squeeze 3.1 kHz audio into between 5.6
and 13 kbit/s. Originally, two codecs, named after the types of data channel they were
allocated, were used, called Half Rate (5.6 kbit/s) and Full Rate (13 kbit/s). These
used a system based upon linear predictive coding (LPC). In addition to being
efficient with bit rates, these codecs also made it easier to identify more important
parts of the audio, allowing the air interface layer to prioritize and better protect these
parts of the signal.

GSM was further enhanced in 1997 with the Enhanced Full Rate (EFR) codec, a
12.2 kbit/s codec that uses a full rate channel. Finally, with the development of
UMTS, EFR was refactored into a variable-rate codec called AMR-Narrowband,
which is high quality and robust against interference when used on full rate channels,
and less robust but still relatively high quality when used in good radio conditions on
half-rate channels.

There are five different cell sizes in a GSM network—macro, micro, pico, femto and
umbrella cells. The coverage area of each cell varies according to the implementation
environment. Macro cells can be regarded as cells where the base station antenna is
installed on a mast or a building above average roof top level. Micro cells are cells
whose antenna height is under average roof top level; they are typically used in urban
areas. Picocells are small cells whose coverage diameter is a few dozen meters; they
are mainly used indoors. Femtocells are cells designed for use in residential or small
business environments and connect to the service provider’s network via a broadband
internet connection. Umbrella cells are used to cover shadowed regions of smaller
cells and fill in gaps in coverage between those cells.

Cell horizontal radius varies depending on antenna height, antenna gain and
propagation conditions from a couple of hundred meters to several tens of kilometers.
The longest distance the GSM specification supports in practical use is 35 kilometers
(22 mi). There are also several implementations of the concept of an extended cell,
where the cell radius could be double or even more, depending on the antenna system,
the type of terrain and the timing advance.

Indoor coverage is also supported by GSM and may be achieved by using an indoor
picocell base station, or an indoor repeater with distributed indoor antennas fed
through power splitters, to deliver the radio signals from an antenna outdoors to the
separate indoor distributed antenna system. These are typically deployed when a lot of
call capacity is needed indoors, for example in shopping centers or airports. However,
this is not a prerequisite, since indoor coverage is also provided by in-building
penetration of the radio signals from nearby cells.

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The modulation used in GSM is Gaussian minimum-shift keying (GMSK), a kind of

continuous-phase frequency shift keying. In GMSK, the signal to be modulated onto
the carrier is first smoothed with a Gaussian low-pass filter prior to being fed to a
frequency modulator, which greatly reduces the interference to neighboring channels
(adjacent channel interference).

Network structure
The network behind the GSM system seen by the customer is large and complicated
in order to provide all of the services which are required. It is divided into a number
of sections and these are each covered in separate articles.

• The Base Station Subsystem (the base stations and their controllers).
• The Network and Switching Subsystem (the part of the network most similar
to a fixed network). This is sometimes also just called the core network.
• The GPRS Core Network (the optional part which allows packet based
Internet connections).
• All of the elements in the system combine to produce many GSM services
such as voice calls and SMS

The structure of a GSM network.

Subscriber Identity Module

One of the key features of GSM is the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM), commonly
known as a SIM card. The SIM is a detachable smart card containing the user's
subscription information and phone book. This allows the user to retain his or her
information after switching handsets. Alternatively, the user can also change operators
while retaining the handset simply by changing the SIM. Some operators will block

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this by allowing the phone to use only a single SIM, or only a SIM issued by them;
this practice is known as SIM locking, and is illegal in some countries.

Many operators lock the mobiles they sell. This is done because the price of the
mobile phone is typically subsidized with revenue from subscriptions, and operators
want to try to avoid subsidizing competitor's mobiles. The locking applies to the
handset, identified by its International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number, not
to the account (which is identified by the SIM card). In some countries such as India,
all phones are sold unlocked.

GSM security
GSM was designed with a moderate level of security. The system was designed to
authenticate the subscriber using a pre-shared key and challenge-response.
Communications between the subscriber and the base station can be encrypted. The
development of UMTS introduces an optional USIM, that uses a longer authentication
key to give greater security, as well as mutually authenticating the network and the
user - whereas GSM only authenticated the user to the network (and not vice versa).
The security model therefore offers confidentiality and authentication, but limited
authorization capabilities, and no non-repudiation. GSM uses several cryptographic
algorithms for security. The A5/1 and A5/2 stream ciphers are used for ensuring over-
the-air voice privacy. A5/1 was developed first and is a stronger algorithm used
within Europe and the United States; A5/2 is weaker and used in other countries.
Serious weaknesses have been found in both algorithms: it is possible to break A5/2
in real-time with a cipher text-only attack, and in February 2008, Pico Computing, Inc
revealed its ability and plans to commercialize FPGAs that allow A5/1 to be broken
with a rainbow table attack. The system supports multiple algorithms so operators
may replace that cipher with a stronger one.

Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

Base Transceiver Station (BTS) is the equipment which facilitates the wireless
communication between user equipments (UE) and the network. UEs are devices like
mobile phones (handsets), WLL phones, computers with wireless internet
connectivity, WiFi and WiMAX gadgets etc. The network can be that of any of the
wireless communication technologies like GSM, CDMA, WLL , WAN, WiFi,
WiMAX etc. BTS is also referred to as RBS (Radio Base Station), Node B (in 3G
Networks) or simply BS (Base Station).

Though the term BTS can be applicable to any of the wireless communication
standards, it is generally and commonly associated with mobile communication
technologies like GSM and CDMA. In this regard, a BTS forms part of the Base
Station Subsystem (BSS) developments for system management. It may also have
equipments for encrypting and decrypting communications, spectrum filtering tools
(band pass filters) etc. Antennas may also be considered as components of BTS in
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general sense as they facilitate the functioning of BTS. Typically a BTS will have
several transceivers (TRXs) which allow it to serve several different frequencies and
different sectors of the cell (in the case of sectorised base stations). A BTS is
controlled by a parent Base Station Controller via the Base station Control Function
(BCF). The BCF is implemented as a discrete unit or even incorporated in a TRX in
compact base stations. The BCF provides an Operations and Maintenance (O&M)
connection to the Network management system (NMS), and manages operational
states of each TRX, as well as software handling and alarm collection. The basic
structure and functions of the BTS remains the same regardless of the wireless

Broadband in telecommunications refers to a signaling method that includes or
handles a relatively wide range of frequencies, which may be divided into channels or
frequency bins. Broadband is always a relative term, understood according to its
context. The wider the bandwidth, the greater the information-carrying capacity. In
radio, for example, a very narrow-band signal will carry Morse code; a broader band
will carry speech; a still broader band is required to carry music without losing the
high audio frequencies required for realistic sound reproduction. A television antenna
described as "normal" may be capable of receiving a certain range of channels; one
described as "broadband" will receive more channels. In data communications a
modem will transmit a bandwidth of 56 kilobits per seconds (kbit/s) over a telephone
line; over the same telephone line a bandwidth of several megabits per second can be
handled by ADSL, which is described as broadband (relative to a modem over a
telephone line, although much less than can be achieved over a fiber optic circuit, for

In data communications

Broadband in data communications can refer to broadband networks or broadband

Internet and may have the same meaning as above, so that data transmission over a
fiber optic cable would be referred to as broadband as compared to a telephone
modem operating at 56,000 bits per second.

However, broadband in data communications is frequently used in a more technical

sense to refer to data transmission where multiple pieces of data are sent
simultaneously to increase the effective rate of transmission, regardless of actual data
rate. In network engineering this term is used for methods where two or more signals
share a medium.

In video

Broadband in analog video distribution is traditionally used to refer to systems such as

cable television, where the individual channels are modulated on carriers at fixed
frequencies. In this context, baseband is the term's antonym, referring to a single

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channel of analog video, typically in composite form with an audio subcarrier. The act
of demodulating converts broadband video to baseband video.

However, broadband video in the context of streaming Internet video has come to
mean video files that have bitrates high enough to require broadband Internet access
in order to view them.

Broadband video is also sometimes used to describe IPTV Video on demand.


The various forms of Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) services are broadband in the
sense that digital information is sent over a high-bandwidth channel above the
baseband voice channel on a single pair of wires.

In Ethernet

A baseband transmission sends one type of signal using a medium's full bandwidth, as
in 100BASE-T Ethernet. Ethernet, however, is the common interface to broadband
modems such as DSL data links, and has a high data rate itself, so is sometimes
referred to as broadband. Ethernet provisioned over cable modem is a common
alternative to DSL

BSNL is in the process of commissioning of a world class, multi-gigabit, multi-

protocol, convergent IP infrastructure through National Internet Backbone-II (NIB-II),
that will provide convergent services through the same backbone and broadband
access network. The Broadband service will be available on DSL technology (on the
same copper cable that is used for connecting telephone), on a countrywide basis
spanning 198 cities.

In terms of infrastructure for broadband services NIB-II would put India at par with
more advanced nations. The services that would be supported includes always-on
broadband access to the Internet for residential and business customers, Content based
services, Video multicasting, Video-on-demand and Interactive gaming, Audio and
Video conferencing, IP Telephony, Distance learning, Messaging: plain and feature
rich, Multi-site MPLS VPNs with Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees. The subscribe
will be able to access the above services through Subscriber Service Selection System

• To provide high speed Internet connectivity (upto 8 Mbps)
• To provide Virtual Private Network (VPN) service to the broadband customers
• To provide dial VPN service to MPLS VPN customers.
• To provide multicast video services, video-on-demand, etc. through the
Broadband Remote Access Server (BRAS).
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• To provide a means to bill for the aforesaid services by either time-based or

volume-based billing. It shall provide the customer with the option to select
the services through web server
• To provide both pre-paid and post paid broadband services.

The Broadband Service will be given through the state of the art Multi Protocol
Label Switching (MPLS) based IP Infrastructure, which is designed to provide
reliable routes to cover all possible destinations within and outside the country.
Layer 1 of the network will consist of a high speed Backbone comprising of 24
powerful Core Routers connected with high speed 2.5 Gbps (STM-16) links. The
routers are located on the national DWDM network interfacing at STM-16 optical
level to provide for high transmission speeds.

Advantage of MPLS over other Technologies

MPLS VPN is a technology that allows a service provider like BSNL to have
complete control over parameters that are critical to offering its customers service
guarantees with regard to bandwidth throughputs, latencies and availability.

Services available through Broadband

• High speed Internet Access: This is the always-on Internet access service with
speed ranging from 256 kbps to 8 Mbps.
• Bandwidth on Demand: This will facilitate customer to change bandwidth as
per his / her requirement. For example a customer with 256 kbps can change
to 1 Mbps during the video Conferencing session.
• Multicasting: This is to provide video multicast services for application in
distance education, telemedicine etc
• Dial VPN Service: This service allows remote users to access their private
network securely over the NIB-II infrastructure.
• Video and Audio Conferencing:
• Content based Services: Like Video on Demand, Interactive Gaming, Live and
time shifted TV

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