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7E Quick Quiz

7
On your answer sheet, write in or circle the correct letter for each question. E

7Ea 3 The hazard warning signs on chemical


tankers:
1 Acids taste:
A tell the driver of the lorry what the
A sweet.
maximum safe driving speed is.
B bitter.
B tell other drivers the distance to stay
C sharp. back from the lorry.
D salty. C allow the police to check the speed of
2 The name of an acid in lemon juice is: the tanker.
A citric acid. D help the emergency services deal with a
B hydrochloric acid. spillage if there is an accident.
C sulphuric acid. 4 Alkalis:
D acetic acid. A are much safer than acids.
3 Which of these foods will contain B can be more dangerous than acids.
most acid? C are always more dangerous than acids.
A frozen peas D are not allowed to be transported
B rice pudding by road.
C pickled onions
7Ec
D chips
1 Litmus can be used as an indicator
4 Which list has three foods which all
because it:
contain vitamin C (ascorbic acid)?
A is an acid.
A peas, oranges, cabbage
B is an alkali.
B bread, peas, baked beans
C changes colour.
C oranges, bread, baked beans
D comes from a plant.
D oranges, bread, cabbage
2 Which one of these is an acid?
7Eb A tap water
1 What does this sign mean? B salt water


C vinegar
D soap
3 Which one of these is an alkali?
A flammable A lemon juice
B harmful B toothpaste
C poisonous C vinegar
D explosive D tap water

2 Acids: 4 Which of these is not neutral?


A are always dangerous. A salty water
B are more dangerous when concentrated B sugary water
than when diluted. C tap water
C are more dangerous when diluted than D soapy water
when concentrated.
D can be made safe by heating them.
Page 1 of 2
Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 201 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7E Quick Quiz (continued)

7
E 7Ed 3 If you took a solution of pH 5 and diluted
it with water, the pH number would:
1 The pH scale indicates
A go down by one or two.
A how hot something is.
B stay the same.
B how acid or alkaline something is.
C go up by one or two.
C how long something is.
D go up by three or four.
D how much substance is dissolved in
a solution. 4 If you mixed a solution of pH 4 with one
of pH 8, the final pH could be:
2 The pH number of a strong acid is:
A 2
A 1
B 6
B 5.5
C 10
C 7
D 12
D 9
3 The pH number of a weak alkali is:
A 1
B 5.5
C 7
D 9
4 What colour will universal indicator turn
when mixed with a strong alkali?
A red
B orange
C green
D purple

7Ee
1 A wasp sting has a pH of about 10. You
could treat it best using:
A a strong acid.
B a weak acid.
C a weak alkali.
D a strong alkali.
2 The word which best describes what
happens when an acid reacts with
an alkali is:
A acidification.
B evaporation.
C neutralisation.
D alkification.

Page 2 of 2
Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 202 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7E Target Sheet
Name Class 7
E
Topic Targets Before the unit I have learned this I have revised this
7Ea 1 Know the main ingredients in
fizzy drinks.
2 Know the taste of acids.

3 Know the names of some acids.

4 Know why acids are used in


pickling foods.
7Eb 1 Know why some acids are more
dangerous than others.
2 Know the meanings of some
safety symbols.
3 Know that alkalis are another type of
dangerous chemical.
4 Know how to interpret the Hazchem
warning signs.
7Ec 1 Know what an indicator is.

2 Know some examples of common


laboratory acids.
3 Know some examples of common
alkalis.
4 Know what a neutral substance is.

7Ed 1 Know what the pH scale measures.

2 Know the pH numbers of strong


and weak acids.
3 Know the pH numbers of strong
and weak alkalis.
4 Know what a neutral substance is.

7Ee 1 Know what is meant by neutralisation.

2 Know how to neutralise an acid or


an alkali.
3 Know some practical examples of
neutralisation.
4 Know how the pH will change if an
acid or alkali is diluted.

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 203 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7E Word Sheets
7
E Word sheets that include new words from the Focus on: pages are available on the
Exploring Science website.

7Ea Tangy tastes


Word Pronunciation Meaning
acetic acid a-see-tick The old name for ethanoic acid. It is the acid in vinegar.
acid A substance that turns litmus red. It has a pH of less than 7.
ascorbic acid a-score-bick Chemical name for vitamin C.
citric acid sit-rick The acid in citrus fruits.
ethanoic acid eth-an-know-ic The acid in vinegar.
gas Something made of particles that are very spread out and have no bonds between
them.
sweetener A substance that makes things taste sweeter. Sugar is a natural sweetener.

7Eb Diamonds are for safety


Word Pronunciation Meaning
corrosive cor-row-sive Substances that attack metals, stonework and skin are called corrosive.
harmful Another word for irritant.
hydrochloric acid A common acid that is also found in your stomach.
irritant Something that irritates the skin and eyes.
nitric acid A common acid.
sulphuric acid A common acid. Used in car batteries.

7Ec In the red/Making an ash of it


Word Pronunciation Meaning
alkali alk-al-lie Substance that turns litmus blue. Has a pH of more than 7.
indicator ind-ic-ay-ter A dye that will change colour in acids and alkalis.
litmus A simple kind of indicator. It turns red in acids and blue in alkalis.
neutral Substance that is not an acid or an alkali. Has a pH of 7.

Page 1 of 2
Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 204 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7E Word Sheets (continued)

7
E
7Ed Mixing a rainbow
Word Pronunciation Meaning
antacid ant-ass-id A medicine containing an alkali used to cancel out some of the acid in the stomach to
treat heartburn.
pH scale A numbered scale from 114 showing the strengths of acids and alkalis. Numbers
below 7 are acids. Numbers above 7 are alkalis. pH 7 is neutral.
universal indicator A mixture of indicators giving a different colour depending on how weak or strong an
acid or alkali is.

7Ee Finding the balance


Word Pronunciation Meaning
burette bew-rett A tube with a tap at the bottom and a measuring scale on its side. Used to add a
measured quantity of a liquid to another one.
dilute die-loot We dilute a solution by adding more of the solvent to it.
neutralisation When something is neutralised.
neutralise When an acid is added to a base (or alkali) a neutral substance is produced.

Page 2 of 2
Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 205 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7E End of Unit Test
7
E Name Class

1 Put a circle around the three things in this list that are acidic.
tap water sugar orange juice salt
vinegar flour lemonade mineral water
[3 marks]

   
2

A B C D
Which of these hazard warnings means that a chemical:
a is flammable
[1 mark]
b is poisonous
[1 mark]
c is corrosive
[1 mark]
d is an irritant?
[1 mark]
e What does flammable mean?

[1 mark]
f Which of the hazard symbols would you be most likely to find on a:
i concentrated acid?
ii dilute acid?
[2 marks]

Page 1 of 3
Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 206 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7E End of Unit Test (continued)

7
3 Sarah tested a number of substances with red cabbage juice to see if they were E
acids or alkalis. She tried lemonade, tap water, toothpaste, vinegar and washing
powder. When she mixed the lemonade with the red cabbage juice it went red.

a Name one other substance that would also make the cabbage juice go red.

[1 mark]

b Name one substance in the list that is an alkali.

[1 mark]

c What name do we give to substances like red cabbage that can change colour
when mixed with acids and alkalis?

[1 mark]

d Name another substance that Sarah could have used instead of red cabbage
that would also change colour.

[1 mark]

e What colour would this substance be in an acid?


[1 mark]

f What name do we give to substances that are neither acid nor alkali?

[1 mark]
g Sarah had a pen which had purple ink in it. She wondered if the ink might
work as an indicator. Explain how she could do a simple test to find out.

[2 marks]

Page 2 of 3
Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 207 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7E End of Unit Test (continued)

7
E 4 Asif wanted to find out whether
the acid or the alkali was Volume of acid pH
stronger. added (cm ) 3

He put 5 cm3 of alkali in a tube. Start (no acid) 10.5

NITRIC ACID

AMMONIA
Caution:Alkali
He added acid 1 cm3 at a time. 1 10.5
Each time he added acid, he 2 10.0
measured the pH of the solution.
3 9.5
His results are in the table. 4 7.5
5 5.0
a Suggest a way in which Asif could have measured
the pH of the solution. 6 4.0
7 3.5
8 3.5
9 3.0
[1 mark] 10 3.0

b Plot these results on the pH


graph paper.
11
Join up the points with a
smooth line. 10

[3 marks] 9

8
c How much acid did Asif
need to make the solution 7
neutral? Tick the correct 6
answer.
5
[1 mark]
4
Exactly 4 cm3 3
Between 4 and 5 cm3 2

Exactly 5 cm3 1

More than 5 cm3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


Volume of acid (cm3)

d Which was stronger, the acid or the alkali? Explain your reasoning.

[2 marks]

Page 3 of 3
Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 208 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7E Summary Sheet
Acids and alkalis 7
Indicators are coloured dyes which often come from plants such as red cabbage and E
beetroot. Acids make indicators change colour. Litmus is an indicator which turns
red in acids. Common acids include vinegar and lemon juice. Fizzy drinks, pickles and
spicy sauces also contain acids. Stronger acids such as sulphuric and nitric acids can be
more dangerous. Often they are corrosive.

Alkalis have a different effect on indicators to acids. Litmus turns blue in alkalis.
Alkalis can also be corrosive. Weak alkalis include soap and toothpaste.

Bottles in the laboratory and tankers carrying chemicals on the road all have to carry
hazard warning labels to show when there is a chemical hazard. Some of the common

  
warning signs are:

toxic (poisonous) harmful (irritant) corrosive flammable

The strengths of acids and alkalis can be measured on the pH scale, which runs from
1 to 14. pH numbers 1 to 6 are acids, 7 is neutral, and 8 to 14 are alkalis. You can
find out the pH number using a universal indicator, or by using a pH meter.

strong acid weak acid neutral weak alkali strong alkali

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

stomach vinegar skin pure indigestion washing oven


acid water powders powder cleaner

lemon fizzy milk blood toothpaste


juice drinks

Alkalis can cancel out acids, making them neutral.

Neutralising reactions can be important:


in gardening and agriculture, to make sure the soil is the correct pH
when dealing with insect stings and bites
to control indigestion caused by excess acid in the stomach
to keep foods such as jam at the correct pH.

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 209 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7E Mark schemes
7
E
Quick Quiz Matching End of Unit Test marks to NC levels
Question Answers Marks Level Marks Cumulative Suggested
available total threshold to
Topic 1 2 3 4
achieve level
7Ea C A C A 4
3 4 4 4
7Eb B B D B 4
4 8 2 8
7Ec C C B D 4
5 7 19 14
7Ed B A D D 4
6 3 22 18
7Ee B C C B 4
7 3 25 23

End of Unit Test marks


Question Level Answer Mark scheme
1 3/4 orange juice, vinegar, lemonade 3 marks 1 for each circled
2 3 aD 1 mark
3 bA 1 mark
4 cC 1 mark
4 dB 1 mark
4 e catches fire 1 mark
4 fC 1 mark allow corrosive
4 gB 1 mark allow irritant
3 4 a vinegar 1 mark
5 b toothpaste 1 mark
5 c indicator 1 mark
5 d litmus 1 mark allow alternatives, e.g. blackberry juice
5 e red 1 mark mark consequentially depending on d
6 f neutral 1 mark
5 g Mix the ink with an acid and note the colour 1 mark accept a named acid such as vinegar or lemon juice
7 Then mix the ink with an alkali and note the colour 1 mark accept a named alkali such as toothpaste or washing
powder
4 5 a Using universal indicator, or using a pH meter 1 mark do not accept litmus, or indicator
4/5 b correctly plotted graph 2 marks for correctly plotted points
Remove one mark if more than three points incorrectly plotted,
no marks if six incorrectly plotted
7 smooth curve of best fit 1 mark
For a bar chart, award 1 mark in total if all the bars are correct
6 c Between 4 and 5 cm3 1 mark
6 d Acid 1 mark
7 Less than 5 cm3 of acid needed to neutralise 1 mark accept any other relevant reason linked to the data
5 cm3 of alkali, or and/or graph
When equal volumes of acid and alkali had been
mixed, pH was less than 7

Exploring Science for QCA Teachers Guide 7 Pearson Education 2002 119
7Ea/1 Taste tests 1
7
E Name Class
a


P Apparatus
Blindfold
Make sure that you keep
Substances to test
all the apparatus clean.
Straw

Method
1 Work with a partner.
2 One person puts on the blindfold and puts their tongue out.
3 The second person takes a few drops of one of the liquids in a straw.
4 Drop the liquid on to the tongue of the blindfolded person.
5 Describe the taste. Can you guess what the liquid is?
6 Do the test again with the other liquids.

Recording your results

Liquid Words to describe the taste I think that this liquid is


A

Considering your results/conclusions


Write the names of all the acids that you used

What sort of taste do all the acids have?

S observing, considering

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 210 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Ea/2 Taste tests 2
7
E


P Apparatus
a
Blindfold
Make sure that you keep
Substances to test
all the apparatus clean.
Straw

Method
1 Work with a partner.
2 One person puts on the blindfold and puts their tongue out.
3 The second person takes a few drops of one of the liquids in a straw.
4 Drop the liquid on to the tongue of the blindfolded person.
5 Describe the taste and see if you can guess what the liquid is.
6 Do the test again with the other liquids.

Recording your results


1 Design a table to record your results. The table could show:
the letter of the liquid
some words to describe the taste of the liquid
what you think the liquid might be
whether you think the liquid is an acid or not.

Considering your results


2 What sort of taste do all the acids have in common?

Optional extra
3 Were some parts of your tongue better at detecting the different types of taste?
Find out, or plan an experiment to investigate which part of the tongue is best
at detecting the taste of acids.

S observing, presenting, considering

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 211 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Ea/3 Acids in the home 1
7
E Name Class
a
Activity 1
The chart shows the names of some substances you find in the home.

Five of them are acids, five are not. Write acid or not an acid in each blank box.
One has been done for you.

vinegar toothpaste picked onions orange juice washing powder

soap lemonade bleach milk of magnesia hair perming lotion


acid

Activity 2
Make a display showing the examples of acids that you use in your home.

You could:
cut out the pictures from the table
use labels from cans, jars and bottles
cut out pictures from magazine adverts
use computer graphics.

S knowledge, research

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 212 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Ea/4 Acids in the home 2
7
Many things you use in your home are acids. Make a display showing examples of E
food and household products. Group all the acids together on one page of your book a
or one side of the poster. Put all the other substances in another section of the display.
You could:
draw pictures showing the different uses
use labels from cans, jars and bottles
cut out pictures from magazine adverts
use computer graphics.
Some examples of products containing acids that you could include in your display are:
fruit juices, lemonade, cola, vinegar, pickles, tomato ketchup.

S knowledge

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 213 Pearson Education Limited 2002

7Ea/4 Acids in the home 2


Many things you use in your home are acids. Make a display showing examples of
food and household products. Group all the acids together on one page of your book
or one side of the poster. Put all the other substances in another section of the display.
You could:
draw pictures showing the different uses
use labels from cans, jars and bottles
cut out pictures from magazine adverts
use computer graphics.
Some examples of products containing acids that you could include in your display are:
fruit juices, lemonade, cola, vinegar, pickles, tomato ketchup.

S knowledge

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 213 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Ea/5 Acids in the home 3
7 Activity 1
E Make a display showing examples of acids that you use in your home.
a You could:
draw pictures showing the different uses
use labels from cans, jars and bottles
cut out pictures from magazine adverts
use computer graphics.
Some examples of products that you could include in your display are:
fruit juices, lemonade, cola, vinegar, pickles, tomato ketchup.

You will need to look at the labels on these products to help you decide if they are
acids or not. Group the acids together on your display.

Activity 2: acids in the environment


Find examples of situations where acids cause pollution in the environment. Write a
brief account in your books, or produce a second poster to illustrate what you have
found out.

S knowledge, research

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 214 Pearson Education Limited 2002

7Ea/5 Acids in the home 3


Activity 1
Make a display showing examples of acids that you use in your home.
You could:
draw pictures showing the different uses
use labels from cans, jars and bottles
cut out pictures from magazine adverts
use computer graphics.
Some examples of products that you could include in your display are:
fruit juices, lemonade, cola, vinegar, pickles, tomato ketchup.

You will need to look at the labels on these products to help you decide if they are
acids or not. Group the acids together on your display.

Activity 2: acids in the environment


Find examples of situations where acids cause pollution in the environment. Write a
brief account in your books, or produce a second poster to illustrate what you have
found out.

S knowledge, research

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 214 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Eb/1 Spot the hazard 1
7
Name Class E
b
In this experiment you will be comparing three different acids. You will find out
which is the most hazardous.

P Apparatus
Test tube rack Test tubes 
Eye protection
Acids A, B and C 3 pieces of magnesium should be worn.
3 marble chips Thermometer
Eye protection

Method
1 Fill a test tube about one third full of acid A, as
shown in the diagram.
2 Put one of the pieces of magnesium into the tube.
3 Watch what happens. Write the results in the table.
4 When the fizzing stops, measure the temperature
of the liquid.
5 Put acid B into a second tube.
6 Put another piece of magnesium into this tube.
Record your results.
7 Now put acid C into a third tube.
8 Do the experiment again using acid C. Record your results.
9 When the tests are finished, pour all the liquid away.
10 Refill the three tubes with fresh acid: A, B and C.
11 Do the tests again, using a marble chip instead of the magnesium.

Page 1 of 2
Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 215 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Eb/1 Spot the hazard 1 (continued)

7
E Recording your results
b
Acid Solid What happened? Temperature at the end
of the experiment (C)
A magnesium

B magnesium

C magnesium

A marble chip

B marble chip

C marble chip

Considering your results


I think the most hazardous acid was

The least hazardous acid was

I could tell this because

S observing, considering

Page 2 of 2
Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 216 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Eb/2 Spot the hazard 2
7
In this experiment you will be comparing different acids. You will carry out some tests E
to find out which is the most hazardous. b

P Apparatus
Test tube rack Samples of different acids 
Eye protection
Test tubes Pieces of magnesium should be
Marble chips Sodium hydroxide solution worn.
Thermometer Eye protection

Method
1 Fill a test tube about one third full of acid A,
as shown in the diagram.
2 Put one of the pieces of magnesium into the tube
and watch what happens.
3 Measure the temperature of the liquid when the
reaction stops.
4 Repeat the tests with magnesium using the other
acids. Compare the reaction.
5 Pour the liquid away, and refill the tubes with
fresh acid.
6 Repeat the tests again, using a marble chip instead
of the magnesium.
7 Carry out a third test by mixing a third of a tube of acid with a third of a tube
of sodium hydroxide solution. In this test the temperature change will be the
most important observation.

Recording your results


1 Design a table to display your results. This should show:
the letter of the acid that you used
the results of the tests with magnesium, marble chips, and sodium hydroxide
any temperature changes that took place.

Considering your results


2 Put the acids in order, from the most hazardous to the least hazardous.
3 Explain how you arrived at your decision.

S observing, presenting, considering

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 217 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Eb/3 What hazard?
7
E Cut out the boxes on the sheet.
b
Match the warning symbol to the hazard, and find the correct example.

Stick the correct sets into your book.

S knowledge

 Hazard:
flammable
Example:
concentrated
sulphuric acid

 Example:
dilute sulphuric acid
Hazard:
irritant

Hazard:
toxic

 Example:
petrol

Example:
mercury
Hazard:
corrosive


Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 218 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Eb/4 Cracking the
Hazchem Code 1 7
E
?

   
b

A B C D

1 Which of these hazard warnings means that a chemical is:


a flammable b poisonous c corrosive d an irritant?
2 The Hazchem Code tells the police and fire
services about the hazards of a chemical in a

tanker. Look at the Hazchem symbol. Collect
a copy of Worksheet 7Eb/6. Use this sheet to
help you answer the questions.
2P
a What chemical is being carried in the tanker? sulphuric acid
b What is the number on the Hazchem Hazchem code on a tanker.
warning sign?
c What word matches this number on the code chart?
d How should the fire brigade put out a fire on this tanker? Choose from:
A use jets of water
B use a fine spray mist of water
C use a dry powder.
e What is the letter on the Hazchem warning sign?
f The V means that there could be a violent reaction with the chemical. Is
this a problem with the sulphuric acid?
g The fire brigade will either have to wear breathing apparatus and gloves
(BA) or a FULL protective suit. Which should they wear in this case?
h A spillage of the chemical may be able to be washed away (DILUTE). Some
chemicals need to be collected up (CONTAIN). Which should the fire
brigade do in this case?
i Does the warning sign have an E in the code?
j Should the police clear the area, or is it safe for people to stay where
they are?
k How do you know?

S knowledge

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 219 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Eb/5 Cracking the
7
Hazchem Code 2
E The Hazchem Code tells the police and fire services
b about the hazards of a chemical in a tanker. Look at

the Hazchem symbol. Collect a copy of Worksheet
7Eb/6. Use the sheet to help you answer the questions. 2P
sulphuric acid

? 1 a Look at the number on the Hazchem warning sign. Use the code chart
to decide how the fire brigade should put out a fire on this tanker.
Choose from:
A use jets of water
B use a fine spray mist of water
C use a special foam
D use dry powder or carbon dioxide gas.
b What is the letter on the Hazchem warning sign?
2 Match the letter on the warning sign to the information on the code chart to
answer these questions.
a Is there a problem of a violent reaction of other chemicals with the
sulphuric acid?
b Should the fire brigade wear breathing apparatus and gloves only (BA) or
a FULL protective suit?
c Could a spillage of the chemical be washed away down the drains
(DILUTE), or collected up for safe disposal elsewhere (CONTAIN)?
d Should the police and fire brigade evacuate the area, or is it safe for
people to stay where they are?
3 Use the Hazchem code to recommend the appropriate safety precautions for
the following chemicals:
a methanol: code 2PE
b phosphorus: code 2WE.

S knowledge

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 220 Pearson Education Limited 2002

7Eb/6 Hazchem code 7Eb/6 Hazchem code
information sheet information sheet
The number code: The number code:
1 Jets 3 Foam 1 Jets 3 Foam
2 Fog 4 Dry agent 2 Fog 4 Dry agent
P V FULL P V FULL
R R
DILUTE DILUTE
S V BA S V BA
T T
W V FULL W V FULL
X X
CONTAIN CONTAIN
Y V BA Y V BA
Z Z
E consider evacuation E consider evacuation

What the numbers mean: What the numbers mean:


1 Jets means that the fire can be put out using jets of water 1 Jets means that the fire can be put out using jets of water
from a hose. from a hose.
2 Fog means that the fire brigade can still use water. It has to 2 Fog means that the fire brigade can still use water. It has to
be a fine mist or spray rather than full power jets. be a fine mist or spray rather than full power jets.
3 Foam means that the tanker needs to be sprayed with a 3 Foam means that the tanker needs to be sprayed with a
layer of thick foam to smother the flames. layer of thick foam to smother the flames.
4 Dry agent means that water must NOT be used on this fire. 4 Dry agent means that water must NOT be used on this fire.
It has to be kept dry. Examples of dry agents are sand, It has to be kept dry. Examples of dry agents are sand,
powders, or carbon dioxide gas. powders, or carbon dioxide gas.

S knowledge S knowledge

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 221 Pearson Education Limited 2002 Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 221 Pearson Education Limited 2002
E
7

b
7Ec/1 Red cabbage
7
indicator 1
E
Part 1: Making the indicator
c
P Apparatus
Pestle and mortar Filter paper and a filter funnel
Red cabbage leaves Boiling tube or conical flask
Hot water

Method
1 Put some red cabbage leaves into the mortar.
2 Add a little hot water.
3 Grind up the leaves so that you get as much
of the colour out as possible.

4 Filter the mixture and collect the liquid in a tube or flask.

Part 2: Using your indicator

P Apparatus substance
being tested
Red cabbage juice Dropping pipette
Spotting tile Substances to test

Method
1 Put one of the substances into a circle on the
spotting tile. Write the name of the substance
in a table. cabbage
juice
2 Add a few drops of your cabbage juice.
3 Write the colour in your table.
4 Do this again with another substance.

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 222 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Ec/2 Red cabbage
indicator 2 7
Name Class E
c

? 1 Label diagram 1 with the words:


pestle
water
red cabbage leaves
mortar

2 Label diagram 2 with the words:


filter funnel
conical flask
cabbage leaves
cabbage juice

3 Fill in the missing words, using the words in the box.


dissolves
a In this experiment the is the solvent.
filtering
b Some of the red colour in the water.
insoluble
c The rest of the cabbage leaves do not dissolve. They are
water
.
d The cabbage juice is separated from the leaves by .

Recording your results


4 Draw a results table in your book like this. Leave room for at least ten different
substances to go into the table.

Name of substance Colour of red cabbage juice

5 Now use your indicator to test different substances.

Considering your results/conclusions


6 Write a list of all the things which made the cabbage juice turn red.
7 Make a list of all the things which made the cabbage juice turn blue or green.

S observing, knowledge

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 223 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Ec/3 Red cabbage
7
indicator 3
E
c ? Make your red cabbage indicator and then answer these questions.

1 Draw and label a diagram of the apparatus you used to grind up the red
cabbage.
2 Describe how you made you indicator. Explain why:
you use hot water rather than cold water
you grind the cabbage up rather than just stirring it.
3 Draw and label a diagram to show how you separated the cabbage juice
from the bits of cabbage.
4 Explain how the filtering method works. Why do you need filter paper
rather than ordinary paper?

Recording your results


5 Draw a results table in your book like this. Leave room for at least ten different
substances to go into the table.

Name of substance Colour of red cabbage juice

Now use your indicator to test different substances.

Considering your results/conclusions


6 Write a list of all the things which made the cabbage juice turn red.
7 Make a list of all the things which made the cabbage juice turn blue or
green.
8 Which of these lists contains all the acids?

S knowledge, observing, considering

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 224 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Ec/4 Indicators
at home 1 7
Name Class E
c
In this experiment you will be looking to see if there are any things that you can find
around your home that could be used as indicators.

Remember that an indicator will:


blackcurrant or blackberry juices
be coloured
change colour when mixed with acid or alkali. cold tea
beetroot juice
Here are some suggestions. Put a tick by the things
crushed berries
that you have in your home that you could try.
food colourings

You will need an acid to test your indicator choose from vinegar or lemon juice.

I will use as my acid.

You will also need an alkali you might use bicarbonate of soda, or toothpaste.

I will use as my alkali.

P Method
1 Write in the name of the coloured substance that you are going to test in
the table.
2 Write down its normal colour.
3 Mix a little of your substance with the acid. Write the colour in the table.
4 Now mix the indicator with the alkali. Write down the colour.
5 In the last column of the table, say whether you think the substance that
youve chosen is a good indicator.
6 Repeat the test with other substances.

Substance Natural Colour Colour Is it a good


colour in acid in alkali indicator?

S observing, considering

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7Ec/5 Indicators
7
at home 2
E In this experiment you will be looking to see if there are any things that you
c might find around your home that could be used as indicators.

Remember that an indicator will:


be coloured
change colour when mixed with acid or alkali.

Here are some suggestions for things that you might try out:
fruit juices (especially darker colours like blackcurrant)
beetroot juice
cold tea
crushed berries
food colourings.

You will need to choose a suitable acid to test your indicator you could use
vinegar or lemon juice.

You will also need an alkali you might use bicarbonate of soda, or toothpaste.
Most soaps are also alkaline.

P Method
1 Draw a table like this for your results.

Substance Natural Colour Colour Is it a good Reason


colour in acid in alkali indicator?

2 Write in the name of the coloured substance that you are going to test, and
write down its colour.
3 Mix a little of your substance with your chosen acid. Write the colour in
the table.
4 Now mix the indicator with the alkali. Write down the colour.
5 In the last column of the table, say whether you think the substance that
you have chosen is a good indicator, and explain why.
6 Repeat the test with other coloured substances.

S observing, considering

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 226 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Ec/6 Indicators
at home 3 7
In this experiment you will be looking to see if there are any things that you can find E
around your home that could be used as indicators. c
Remember that an indicator will:
be coloured
change colour when mixed with acid or alkali.

Planning
1 Suggest some coloured substances that you have in your home that you could test
to see if they could be good indicators.
2 You will need an acid and an alkali to test your indicator. From the work you have
done in class, suggest some acids and alkalis that you have at home that would be
safe to use in this experiment. Will you also need to test your indicator using a
neutral substance? What will you use in this case?
3 How will you carry out your test to show if each of the coloured substances that
you are trying behaves as an indicator?

Recording your results


4 You should design a table or chart to show:
the name of the substance that you are testing
if it changes colour when you mix it with chemicals that are acidic, alkaline
or neutral.

Considering your results


5 Which of the substances that you tested is the best indicator? How have you
reached this decision?
6 Which other substances would also work as indicators?
7 Are there any substances that you have tested that are no good as indicators?
Why not?

S planning, observing, considering

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 227 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Ec/7 Alkalis in the home
7
E Make a display showing examples of alkalis that you use in your home.
c
You could:
draw pictures showing the different uses
use labels from cans, jars and bottles
cut out pictures from magazine adverts
use computer graphics.

Some examples of products containing alkalis that you could use in your display are:
toothpaste, oven cleaner, soda crystals, any products containing ammonia (e.g.
kitchen cleaners or hair perming lotion), many indigestion remedies (e.g. milk
of magnesia)

S knowledge

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 Pearson Education Limited 2002

7Ec/7 Alkalis in the home


Make a display showing examples of alkalis that you use in your home.

You could:
draw pictures showing the different uses
use labels from cans, jars and bottles
cut out pictures from magazine adverts
use computer graphics.

Some examples of products containing alkalis that you could use in your display are:
toothpaste, oven cleaner, soda crystals, any products containing ammonia (e.g.
kitchen cleaners or hair perming lotion), many indigestion remedies (e.g. milk
of magnesia)

S knowledge

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 228 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Ed/1 pH testing 1
7
Name Class E
d


P Apparatus
Universal indicator solution Dropping pipette
Wear eye
pH colour chart Substances to test
protection.
Spotting tile Eye protection

Method
1 Put one of the substances into a circle on the spotting tile. Write the name
of the substance in the table.
2 Add two drops of universal indicator.
3 Write the colour into the table.
4 Look up the pH number using the colour chart. Write it into the table.
5 Do this again with another substance.

Recording your results

Name of substance Colour of universal indicator pH number Type of substance

Considering your results/conclusion


Check in the textbook to find out if each of the substances you have tested is:
a strong acid a weak acid neutral
a weak alkali a strong alkali.
Write your answer in the column of the table marked Type of substance.

S knowledge, observing

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 229 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Ed/2 pH testing 2
7
E


d P Apparatus
Universal indicator solution Dropping pipette
Wear eye
pH colour chart Substances to test
protection.
Spotting tile (or a rack of test tubes) Eye protection

Method
1 Draw a table in your books with these headings:

Name of substance Colour of universal indicator pH number Type of substance

2 Put one of the substances into a circle on the spotting tile.


3 Add a few drops of universal indicator.
4 Write the colour into the table.
5 Repeat with other substances.

Recording your results


6 Look up the pH number using the colour chart. Write it
into the table, and complete the last column to show
whether the substance is a strong acid, weak acid, neutral,
weak alkali or strong alkali.

S observing

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 230 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Ed/3 Making a pH chart
7
Use the whole of a piece of paper to draw the pH scale running from 1 to 14. E
d
Add the colours to show how universal indicator would change colour.

Label the chart by drawing arrows from each substance to the correct pH number.
You may be able to draw pictures or find photos in a magazine that you could cut out
and stick onto your chart.

Substance pH Substance pH
battery acid 1.0 mineral water 8.0
bee sting 3.5 oven cleaner 13.0
blood 7.5 skin 5.5
distilled water 6.0 tap water 7.0
egg white 9.0 toothpaste 9.5
fizzy drinks 4.5 vinegar 3.0
indigestion powder 8.5 washing up liquid 5.0
kitchen surface cleaner 11.0 washing powder 10.5
lemon juice 2.5 washing soda 11.5
milk 6.5 wasp sting 10.0

S knowledge

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 231 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Ed/4 More about
7
indicators 1
E There are many different substances that can be used as indicators.
d Different indicators change colour at different pH numbers.

This table shows the pH numbers at which some indicators change colour.

Indicator First colour pH number when it Second colour


(more acid) changes colour (more alkaline)
Methyl violet yellow 1 blue
Methyl orange red 4 yellow
Methyl red red 5 yellow
Litmus red 7 blue
Thymol blue yellow 9 blue
Phenolphthalein colourless 9 red
Alizarin yellow yellow 12 red

Exploring Science Copymaster File 1 Pearson Education Limited 2002

7Ed/4 More about


indicators 1
There are many different substances that can be used as indicators.
Different indicators change colour at different pH numbers.

This table shows the pH numbers at which some indicators change colour.

Indicator First colour pH number when it Second colour


(more acid) changes colour (more alkaline)
Methyl violet yellow 1 blue
Methyl orange red 4 yellow
Methyl red red 5 yellow
Litmus red 7 blue
Thymol blue yellow 9 blue
Phenolphthalein colourless 9 red
Alizarin yellow yellow 12 red

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 232 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Ed/5 More about
indicators 2 7
You will need worksheet 7Ed/4 to answer the questions on this sheet. E
d
? 1 State the pH number at which each of these indicators changes colour:
a phenolphthalein
b alizarin yellow
c methyl red.

2 What colour is:


a methyl red in alkali
b thymol blue in acid
c methyl violet in weak acid?

3 Copy out a pH colour chart like this:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

a In the first row, colour in the boxes to show the colour change for
methyl red.
b In the second row, colour in the boxes to show the colour change for
thymol blue.
c In the third row, colour in the boxes to show what would happen if you
mixed the two indicators together.
4 What colour would a mixture of thymol blue and phenolphthalein go if the
following solutions were added:
a hydrochloric acid
b salt water
c sodium hydroxide?

5 a Choose three indicators from the table that would mix together to give a
good universal indicator.
b How many different colours would your indicator would go? Name them.
c Draw a colour chart for your indicator, showing the colour at each pH
number.

S knowledge

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 233 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Ed/6 Are pH balanced
7
products really
E
d
better for your skin?
This is an exercise in planning.

Many products now advertise the fact that they are pH balanced or match our skin pH
of 5.5. Are these products really better for us, or is it just another advertising trick to get
us to spend more money when a cheaper product would do the job just as well?

This is a scientific question, because it can be investigated using an experiment.

It is not easy to plan this type of investigation because:


it involves using people rather than test tubes or apparatus
the results would take a long time to gather
it is difficult to make it a fair test.

The questions on this sheet will help you to think about how you could set up a fair
test. You probably wont be able to actually carry out the experiment, unless you have
friends or family who are very patient!

? 1 Would it be fair to test the product on only one person? Why not?
2 How many people would you need to involve in your test to make sure you
had a large enough sample? Would the age or gender be important? Suggest
how you might choose a good scientific sample of people to be involved.
3 Would everyone in the group try the pH balanced soap, or only some people?
4 How do adverts try to show that hair treatments (e.g. dandruff shampoos)
work? Could you use this method for soaps?
5 How would you tell if one soap was better than another? Would it be good
enough to rely on what the people using the soap told you?
6 Would it matter if some people in the experiments thought that pH balanced
products were better before they did the experiment? Explain your answer.
7 When doctors try out a new medicine, they use a blind test. Some patients
receive the medicine being tested and others get a similar pill or liquid
without the drug in it (a placebo). The patient does not know if they are
taking the real medicine or the placebo. Could you use this method for the
soap experiment? Explain whether or not you think it might work.
8 In a double blind test, neither the doctor nor the patient knows which is the
real medicine. Why do they set up a test like this? If you were doing the
observations in the soap experiment, could you be trusted to be fair, or
would it be better if you didnt know which soap was which until after you
had collected your results?

S knowledge, planning, considering, evaluating

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 234 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Ee/1 Rainbow fizz
7
E
P In this activity you will be using your senses to make observations.
You will also need to follow instructions carefully.
e
If you are careful, you should be able to produce a rainbow effect in the tube.

Apparatus
test tube rack containing four test tubes and a boiling tube, with
chemicals in them
eye protection

boiling 1 2 3 4
tube

Method
1 The boiling tube contains sodium carbonate. Describe the appearance of the
substance in the tube.
1

boiling 2 3 4
tube

2 Test tube 1 contains water. Add the water to the boiling tube. Feel the outside
of the tube. Describe what you see and what you can feel.
3 Shake the tube. Describe what you can see now.

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7Ee/1 Rainbow fizz (continued)

7
E
e P 4 Tube 2 contains universal indicator. Smell the tube carefully by wafting the
smell towards you. Describe the appearance and the smell of the liquid in
the tube.
5 Add the universal indicator to the boiling tube. Observe the tube without
shaking. What do you see?
6 Now shake the tube. What do you see now? What type of substance is
sodium carbonate?
7 Tubes 3 and 4 contain ethanoic acid. Smell each tube carefully. Describe the
appearance and the smell of the liquid in the tubes.
8 Add the contents of tube 3 to the boiling tube. Do not shake the tube.
Describe what happens.

9 Very carefully pour the contents of tube 4 into the boiling tube. You may
find it helpful to tilt the boiling tube slightly as shown in the diagram.
Do not shake the tube. Describe what you see.
10 Explain why you get the rainbow effect.

S observing

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7Ee/2 Rainbow fizz
results sheet 7
Name Class E
e

? 1 The substance in the boiling tube was a .


2 When I added the water to the boiling tube I saw
and
the tube felt .
3 When I shook the tube .
4 The smell of the universal indicator in tube 2 was .
5 The colour of the liquid in tube 2 was .
6 Was the liquid in tube 2 clear or cloudy?
7 When I added the universal indicator to the boiling tube the colour went
.
8 When I shook the tube

.
9 Is sodium carbonate acid, alkali or neutral?
10 The smell in tubes 3 and 4 reminded me of .
11 When I added the liquid in tube 3 to the boiling tube

12 When I added the liquid in tube 4 to the boiling tube I saw


different colours. These were:
. I also saw
.
13 The liquid in the tube was at the top and at
the bottom.

S observing

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 237 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Ee/3 Indigestion
7
E Which indigestion remedy works best?
Indigestion remedies react with acid in our stomachs and cancel it out. We can test
e different indigestion remedies by reacting them with some dilute acid and measuring
the pH of the mixture after it stops reacting.

Apparatus
Various indigestion remedies Stop-clock
Dilute sulphuric acid 250 cm3 beaker
Universal indicator paper or solution Eye protection
Electronic balance

Planning
1 When you plan your experiment you should think about these things:
What apparatus will you use?

How many indigestion remedies will you use?

How will you add the indigestion remedy to the acid?

How much of the indigestion remedy will you use?

How much acid will you use?

How will you test the pH?

When will you test the pH before adding the remedy, after adding it, or both

before and after?


What will you do to make sure that this is a fair test?

How will you stay safe while doing your experiment?

Predicting
2 What will happen to the pH when you add the indigestion remedy? Explain why
you think this.
3 Which rememdy do you expect to work best? You could look for information on
the side of the packet to help you. However, it may not be possible to make a
prediction like this. If you do make a prediction, explain your reasoning.
Recording your results
4 Design a results table to record your results.
Considering your results/conclusions
5 a What happened to the pH when the remedies reacted with the acid?
b Was this what you predicted?
6 a Which remedy worked best?
b How do you know?
Evaluation
7 Can you suggest improvements to the way the experiment was done, to make the
results more precise?

S planning, observing, considering, evaluating

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 238 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Ee/4 Reverseword
7
Here is a crossword grid with the answers already filled in. Write a clue for each word E
in your book. e
1
P
U
2
R L I T M U S
3 4
P P N S
5
L H A C I D U
6
N E U T R A L V L
I W K E P
T O A R H
R L S U
7
I I N D I C A T O R
C L I
C

You can fold the sheet along the dotted line and ask a friend or someone in your
family to see if they can do your crossword on the blank grid below.

3 4

S knowledge

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 239 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Ee/5 Making sherbet 1
7
E Sherbet can be made from three ingredients:
e sugar (icing sugar is likely to be best)
citric acid (the acid that is in oranges,
lemons and grapefruit)
bicarbonate of soda.

How sherbet works


When two chemicals are mixed together,
they sometimes react to make a new
substance. Citric acid and bicarbonate of
soda react when they are mixed with water.

When you put the sherbet mixture in your mouth, the moisture from your tongue
helps the acid to react with the alkali. When this happens, carbon dioxide gas is given
off. This makes the fizz on your tongue. The acid also gives the sherbet its tangy
flavour.

The chemical equation for this reaction is:

citric sodium hydrogen carbon sodium


acid + carbonate dioxide + citrate + water

? 1 Which of the ingredients in sherbet is:


a an acid b an alkali c neutral?
2 Which ingredient makes the sherbet taste:
a sweet b tangy?
3 Which two ingredients are needed to make the sherbet fizzy?
4 What is the name of the fizz gas in sherbet?
5 What is the proper chemical name for bicarbonate of soda?
6 If you get the recipe for sherbet wrong, how might it affect the taste?
7 How could you plan an investigation to find the best recipe for sherbet?
8 Suggest a mixture of the ingredients that you think might give a tangy taste
and a good fizz.

S knowledge, planning

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 240 Pearson Education Limited 2002
7Ee/6 Making sherbet 2
7
Sherbet can be made from three E
ingredients: e
sugar (icing sugar is likely to be best)
citric acid (the acid that is in oranges,
lemons and grapefruit)
bicarbonate of soda.

You should be able to buy these ingredients


at a supermarket or a pharmacy.

You can investigate the best recipe for


sherbert by making up a number of
different recipes for small amounts of sherbet.
For example, recipe 1 could be 2 spoons of
sugar, 1 spoon of citric acid and half a spoon
of bicarb.

Planning
1 How many different recipes do you want to try?
2 What will you change in each one? Make a table to show
the different quantities of each ingredient you will use.
3 Decide how you will score the results:
you could ask people for marks out of 10; or
you might ask for an order of merit, from best to worst.
Make a table to show your results.

Recording your results


4 Try a little of each of these recipes out on friends and family.
Ask them to rate the mixtures for taste and fizz factor.
Record your results

Considering your results


5 Which recipe was best?
What effect did changing the ingredients have on the taste or
fizziness of the mixture?

Evaluation
6 If you had time, is there any way you could improve your
investigation?

S planning, observing, considering, evaluating

Exploring Science for QCA Copymaster File 7 241 Pearson Education Limited 2002