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PET519 Oil & Gas Transportation

COVENANT UNIVERSITY

DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING ALPHA SEMESTER EXAMINATION (19/01/2010) COURSE: PET 519 – OIL & GAS TRANSPORTATION LECTURER: DR O.D. ORODU

Answer Question #1 and any other 2 Questions Question #1 (50marks), Questions #2, #3 and #4 are all 25marks each Time: 3½Hrs

1

144

2

0

Assumptions K.E =0; Isothermal flow; Horizontal flow; Heat is not transferred to or from fluid to surroundings, and No work done by fluid during flow

1(a)(i)

Derive the general gas flow equation for pressure drop due to friction from the above expression in the following units;

q= cfh (ft 3 /hr) at base temperature and pressure; T b = 0 R, base temperature; P b =psia, base pressure; P 1 & P 2 = psia, inlet and outlet pressure; D=ft, pipe inside diameter; γ g =dimensionless, specific gravity; L=miles, length; z=compressibility factor at average flow pressure and isothermal temperature, f=dimensionless Moody friction factor

(10 Marks)

1(a)(ii)

0.032

.

Substitute the above expression for friction factor by Weymouth into the derived general gas flow equation to obtain Weymouth’s equation for gas flow. And explain the difference in calculating flow rate between the general gas equation and the Weymouth gas equation without friction factor.

(3 Marks)

1(b)

Derive the general oil flow equation for pressure drop due to friction from the above expression in the following units (7 Marks);

f=dimensionless Moody friction factor; γ o =specific oil gravity; q=m 3 /hr; D=mm, pipe inside diameter; L=km, length; P 1 & P 2 = kPa, inlet and outlet pressure

1(c)

How are both expressions for oil and gas flow altered to consider non-horizontal pipeline, use the equations derived in 1a & 1b.(7 marks) upstream
downstream
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1 (d)(i)

Giving a pip eline system

p ipeline syst ems ( 5 Marks)

1 (d)(ii)

PET51 9 Oil & Gas Tran sportation

in series an d parallel, g ive the expr ession for t he equivalen t length for both

Relate the se ries and par allel pipelin e systems fo r gas flow t o

 (a) fluid flow throug h a permeab le and semi -permeable porous medi um in serie s and paralle l. (b) heat flow throug h a composi te material i n series and parallel.

Hint: use sk etches and equations ( 5 Marks)

1 (e)

I n transporti ng multiple liquid produ cts through a pipeline ( also conside ring elevatio n along pip eline

r oute) how i s intermixin g prevented between co ntiguous bat ches? ( 4 Marks)

1 (f)

A compresso r station wi th multiple

compressors in series is to provide a gas dischar ge pressure of

1 500psia. Th e gas inlet p ressure and temperatur e are 100psi a and 80 0 F, respectively . How many c ompressors in series wi ll be require d if the disc harge tempe rature is lim ited to 250 0 F? The ratio

s pecific heat s γ=1.4. Ass ume ideal

gas behavio r. (5 Marks)

of

1 (g)

Show the dif ference bet ween the hy draulic press ure gradien t of crude oi l and gas, an d the effect of non-

i sothermal fl ow. Discuss

2

using sket ches. (4 Ma rks) A pipeline s ystem is co mposed of t wo sections , AB and B C. The form er consists of two para llel lines

in the figu re shown a bove. 50

MMcfd mea sured at sta ndard condit ions of 14.7 psia and 60 0 F are to be transmitted through thi s system.

The specific gravity of t he gas is 0.6 and its tem perature is 6 0 0 F. Assum e compressi bility factor of 0.96

a nd the latte r of three p arallel line s, of sizes a nd lengths

as indicated

a. Determine the equivale nt length fo r the series-l oop system in terms of 8in., 10in. a nd 12in. diameter pi pe

b. Calculate t he flow rate in each pipe line of the s eries-loop s ystem

Note: use th e Weymout h Equation without fric tion factor.

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PET519 Oil & Gas Transportation

 3 A pipeline 150 miles long from Beaumont pump station to a tank farm at Glendale is used to transport

Alaskan North Slope crude oil (ANS crude). The pipe is 20in. in outside diameter and constructed of X- 52 steel. It is desired to operate the system at ANSI 600 pressure level (1440 psi). The pipeline profile is such that there are two peaks located between Beaumont and Glendale. The first peak occurs at milepost 65.0 at an elevation of 1500 ft. The second peak is located at milepost 110.0 at an elevation of 2500 ft. Beaumont has an elevation of 350 ft and Glendale is situated at an elevation of 650 ft. during the initial phase of operation, 9000 bbl/hr of ANS crude will be pumped at a temperature of 60 0 F and delivered to Glendale tankage at a pressure of 30 psi. The specific gravity and viscosity of ANS crude at 60 0 F may be assumed to be 0.895 and 43 cSt respectively. Use the Miller equation.

 (a) Determine the minimum wall thickness required to operate the pipeline system at a pressure of 1400 psi. (b) At a flow rate of 9000 bbl/hr, how many pump stations would be required assuming horizontal

pipeline?

(c) At a flow rate of 9000 bbl/hr and considering the elevation along the pipeline route, where are the

locations of the pumps along the pipeline route?

(d) Assuming 80% pump efficiency; calculate the total pumping HP required for question (3b and 3c).

Note: Use a minimum suction pressure of 50 psi at each pump station.

4.0

A 16in., 0.25in. wall thickness, 50miles long buried pipeline transports 4000bbl/hr of heavy crude oil

that enters the pipeline at 160 0 F. The crude oil has a specific and viscosity as follows;

 Temperature ( o F) 100 140 Specific gravity 0.967 0.953 Viscosity (cSt) 2277 348

Assume a pipe burial depth of 36in. to the pipe and 1.5in. insulation thickness with a thermal conductivity (k value) of 0.02Btu/hr-ft- 0 F. Also assume a uniform soil temperature of 60 0 F with a K value of 0.5Btu/hr-ft- 0 F. Using the heat balance equation calculate the temperature profile of the crude for the first 5 miles. Assume an average specific heat of 0.45Btu/lb m - 0 F for the crude oil. Use the MIT equation for pressure drop.

Specific gravity: S T =S 60 -a(T-60)

Viscosity:

log e (v)=A-B(T)

Hint: divide the first 5 miles into 2 segments to solve for the temperature profile.

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PET519 Oil & Gas Transportation

EQUATIONS, CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS R=10.732psia.ft 3 /lb-mol 0 R
γ
g =
ρ
H2O =64lb m /ft 3
1mile=5280ft
M/29
2.31
1bbl=5.615ft 3
µ(cP)= γ o ν(cSt)
/
20
.
33,000
g
c =32.14lbm-ft/lbf-sec 2
92.24
P PC =709.604-58.518 γ g
T PC =170.491+307.344 γ g
. ν
.
.
.
.
3.23
18.062
.
0.241
4
4.06 .
.
.
.
.
; 0.0018 0.00662
;
4.35
r=(r t ) 1/n
P
1 V 1 γ =P 2 V 2 γ
2 .
.
H=
w(lb m /hr)×C p (Btu/lb
m 0 F)×T( 0 F)
H
in -ΔH+H w =H out
1
Hw=2545(HHP)
HHP=(1.7664×10 4 )×Q(bbl/hr)×S g
×h f (ft)×L m (mile)
2545
6.28
1
1
2
2
1
1 in.=25.4mm
1 mile=1.609 km
1 ft=0.3048 m
1 psi= 6.895 kPa

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