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Kuwait University Electrical Engineering Department

EE 230 Semiconductor Homework 1

Fall 2015/2016

Due Sunday Oct 13 th , 2015/2016

NOTE: Only those problems with a * beside them are graded and should be submitted

Problem 1

An unknown semiconductor has Eg = 1.1 eV and N c = N v . It is doped with 10 15 cm -3 donors, where the donor level is 0.2 eV below E c . Given that E F is 0.25 eV below E c , calculate n i and the concentration of electrons and holes in the semiconductor at 300 K.

Problem 2

(a) A Si sample is doped with 10 16 cm -3 boron atoms and a certain number of shallow

donors. The Fermi level is 0.36 eV above E i at 300 K. What is the donor concentration

N d ?

(b) A Si sample contains 10 16 cm -3 In acceptor atoms and a certain number of shallow

donors. The In acceptor level is 0.16 eV above E v , and E F is 0.26 eV above E v at 300 K. How many (cm -3 ) In atoms are un-ionized (i.e.,neutral)?

Problem 3

A semiconductor device requires n-type material; it is to be operated at 400 K. Would Si doped with 10 15 atoms/cm 3 of arsenic be useful in this application? Could Ge doped with 10 15 cm -3 antimony be used?

Problem 4

A new semiconductor has N c = 10 19 cm -3 , N v = 5 x 10 18 cm -3 , and

with 10 17 donors (fully ionized), calculate the electron, hole, and intrinsic carrier concentrations at 627°C. Sketch the simplified band diagram, showing the position of E F .

= 2 eV. If it is doped

E g

Kuwait University Electrical Engineering Department

EE 230 Semiconductor Homework 1

Fall 2015/2016

*Problem 5

 (a) Calculate the intrinsic carrier concentration in silicon at (i) T = 250 K and (ii) T = 350 K. (b) Repeat part (a) for gallium arsenide.

Problem 6

Silicon is doped with 5 x 10 16 arsenic atoms/cm 3 .

 (a) Is the material n- or p-type? (b) Calculate the electron and hole concentrations at T = 300 K. (c) Repeat part (b) for T = 350 K.

*Problem 7

(a) Calculate the concentration of electrons and holes in a silicon semiconductor sample

that has a concentration of acceptor atoms equal to 10 16 cm -3 . Is semiconductor n- or p- type?

(b) Repeat part (a) for germanium.

*Problem 8

Silicon is doped with 2 x 10 17 boron atoms/cm 3 .

 (a) Is the material n- or p-type? (b) Calculate the electron and hole concentrations at T = 300 K. (c) Repeat part (b) for T = 250 K.

*Problem 9

The electron concentration in silicon at T = 300 K is n o = 5 x 10 15 cm -3 .

 (a) Determine the hole concentration. (b) Is the material n-type or p-type? (c) What is the impurity doping concentration?

*Problem 10

(a) A silicon semiconductor material is to be designed such that the majority carrier

electron concentration is n o = 7 x 10 15 cm -3 . Should donor or acceptor impurity atoms be added to intrinsic silicon to achieve this electron concentration? What concentration of dopant impurity atoms is required?

(b) In this silicon material, the minority carrier hole concentration is to be no larger than

p o = 10 6 cm -3 . Determine the maximum allowable temperature.

Kuwait University Electrical Engineering Department

EE 230 Semiconductor Homework 1

Fall 2015/2016

Problem 11

(a) Determine the temperature at which the intrinsic carrier concentration in (i) Si and (ii)

GaAs are equal to the room temperature (300 K) intrinsic carrier concentration of Ge.

(b) Semiconductor A has a band gap of 1 eV, while semiconductor B has a band gap of 2

eV. What is the ratio of the intrinsic carrier concentrations in the two materials (n iA /n iB ) at

300 K. Assume any differences in the carrier effective masses may be neglected.

*Problem 12

(a) A silicon wafer is uniformly doped p-type with N A = 10 15 /cm 3 . At T 0 K, what are

the equilibrium hole and electron concentrations?

(b) A semiconductor is doped with an impurity concentration N such that N n i and all

the impurities are ionized. Also, n = N and p = n i 2 /N. Is the impurity a donor or an acceptor? Explain.

(c) The electron concentration in a piece of Si maintained at 300 K under equilibrium

conditions is 10 5 /cm3. What is the hole concentration?

(d) For a silicon sample maintained at T = 300 K, the Fermi level is located 0.259 eV

above the intrinsic Fermi level. What are the hole and electron concentrations?

(e) In a nondegenerate germanium sample under equilibrium conditions near room temperature, it is known that n i = 10 13 /cm3, n = 2p, and N A = 0. Determine n and N D .

*Problem 13

Determine the equilibrium electron and hole concentrations inside a uniformly doped sample of Si under the following conditions:

 (a) T = 300 K, N A ≪ N D , N D = 10 15 /cm 3 . (b) T = 300 K, N A = 10 16 /cm 3 , N D ≪ N A . (c) T = 300 K, N A = 9 x 10 15 /cm 3 , N D = 10 16 /cm 3 . (d) T = 450 K, N A = 0, N D = 10 14 /cm 3 . (e) T = 650 K, N A = 0, N D = 10 14 /cm 3 .

Kuwait University Electrical Engineering Department

EE 230 Semiconductor Homework 1

Fall 2015/2016

*Problem 14

(a to e) For each of the conditions specified in Problem 13, determine the position of E i , compute E F E i , and draw carefully dimensioned energy band diagram for the Si sample. NOTE: E G = 1.08 eV at 450 K and 1.015 eV at 650 K.

*Problem 15

The maximum nondegenerate donor and acceptor doping concentrations in Si at room temperature is N D 1.6 x 10 18 /cm 3 and N A 9.1 x 10 17 /cm 3 , respectively. Prove this statement?