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Dale Yoder has defined a trade union as continuing, long-term association of
employees formed and maintained for the specific purpose of advancing and
protecting the interests of members in their working relationships. A trade union is a
continuous association of workers which is formed with the purpose of protecting
the interests of workers.

Webb and Webb, A trade union is continuous association of wage earners

for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their working lives.

According to Flippo, A labour union or trade union is an organisation of

workers formed to promote, protect, and improve, through collective action, the
social, economic, and political interests of its members.

Features of Trade Union:

i. It is an organisation formed by employees or workers.
ii. It is formed on a continuous basis. It is a permanent body and not a
casual or temporary one.
iii. It is formed to protect and promote all kinds of interests-economic,
political and social of its members. The dominant interest with which a
union is concerned is, however, economic.
iv. It includes federations of trade unions also
v. It achieves its objectives through collective action and group effort.

Objectives of Trade Union:

Trade unions are essentially organisations for the protection and promotion
of the interests of their members in particular and workers in general. The primary
functions of trade unions are to protect the workers against the excesses committed
by employers and to satisfy the needs of the workers.

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1. Steady Employment:
It is something which the employer by himself may not be able to guarantee
to the workers. His ability to provide it is limited by the state of the market,
which in large part is beyond his control. Achievement of this aspiration may
thus involve workers in political action, through their unions, for the
maintenance of full employment. Thus, this objective stands for enough jobs
with good pay.

2. Rationalisation of Personnel Policies:

The economic security of an employee is determined not only by the level of
wages and duration of his employment, but also by the managements
personnel policies in its selection of employees for lay off, retirement,
transfer and promotion, the assignment of employees to jobs, and in the
disciplining of employees.

3. Voice in Decisions Affecting Workers:

The workers may successfully pressurize for higher wages. He may achieve a
satisfactory rationalization of personnel policies. But if the vital decisions as
to the scale and schedule of production, introduction of labour saving
devices, the closing or relocation of plant etc. remain outside the effective
influence of workers, there is no real security for them.

4. Recognition and Participation:

Another objective that unions seek to achieve is winning recognition for the
fact that they are equal partners with management in the task of production.
This equality is something more than the equality at bargaining table. It is an
intellectual quality. That is, the intellectual faculties of workers are no inferior
to those of management.

5. Gaining Legislative Enactments:

To provide legal sanctions to its demands, the unions attempt to get these
framed in the form of Acts so that they become permanent features of the
contract between the employers and the workers. For this purpose, unions
may take recourse of political action in terms of supporting any political party
or forming their own political party.

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6. Miscellaneous Services:
Modern trade unions also engage in providing educational, medical,
recreational and other facilities for the development and welfare of their
members and their families, if they have sufficient funds at their disposal.

Functions of Trade Unions

The functions performed by the trade unions may be broadly classified into three
categories, viz., (i) militant functions, (ii). Fraternal functions, and (iii) political
i. Militant Functions:
The chief purpose of the trade unions is to secure better conditions of
work and employment. The unions also endeavour to secure some share
in productivity gains and a greater share in the management or even
control of industry. When the unions fail to accomplish these ends by the
method of collective bargaining and negotiations, they adopt agitational
methods and put up a fight with the management in the form of strike,
boycott, gherao, etc. a situation that often turns into fierce antagonism.

ii. Fraternal Functions:

A trade union is a fraternal association or a mutual-benefit organisation
supporting the members out of their own funds during the period of
work-stoppage due to a strike or lockout. It also provides financial
assistance to the members during the period when they are unfit for work
because of illness or employment injury or when they are temporarily

iii. Political Function:

Many trade unions seek to improve the political status of the union, the
leader, and the union members. They contest political elections and try to
acquire political power. In many countries, some strong labour parties
have grown up, e.g., in the United Kingdom, many times, labour party has
been in power. In India, such activities of trade unions are not important,
though sometimes they have been successful in influencing the labour
policy of the government.

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Structure of Trade Union:
It refers to the basis on which unions are organised (i.e., whether they are
organised on craft or industrial or general union basis) and to the pattern whereby
the plant unions are linked to regional level or national level federations or unions.

Trade Unions based on Trade:

a. Craft Union:
It is an organisation of wage earners engaged in a single occupation. It
may cover all workers engaged in a particular craft irrespective of the
industries in which they are employed. Thus, electricians though working
in different industries may form a union of electricians. There may be
separate unions for fitters, turners, carpenters, etc. The International
Wood Carvers Association and the Indian Pilots Guild may be cited as
examples of craft unions.

b. Industrial Union:
It is organised on the basis of an industry rather than a craft. If the
workforce of a cotton textile factory decides to form a union consisting of
workers of different crafts, the union will be called an industrial union.

c. General Union:
It is one whose membership covers workers employed in different
industries and crafts. General unions are not popular in India.

d. Closed Shop / Union Shop:

In such situations the union makes employment conditional on union
membership, one variation being that employment is routed through the
union, where it acts as a labour supplier and, the other that once,
employed, an employee is required to join the union.

Check off:
The check off system is a practice where the management collects an
employees union dues, as a wage deduction and gives a lump sum
amount to the union. This is a facility that ensures totality of collection of
union dues, with no excuse for employees to desist from paying for one
reason-or the other, as it could happen in a voluntary system. Such a
facility is provided only to a recognised union.

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e. White Collar Unions:
In India unionization among white-collar workers began as early as
1897 and in 1897, the National Union of Railway men of India and
Burma were formed. However, unionization among the workers did
not have any significant growth before the Second World War. Since,
1947, the growth of unionization among white-collar workers has
been due to inflation, the realization of effectiveness of collective
bargaining, etc.

Some of the important trade unions of white-collar employees are the

All India Bank Employees Union, the All India Defence Employees
Federation, the National Federation of P & T workers, the
Confederation of Central Government Employees and the Indian
Federation of Working Journalists.

f. Blue-Collar and White-Collar Workers:

A distinction is made on the basis of the level and status of the
employee for membership of the union. All shop floor workers (part
of the production system who operate machines and related systems)
are termed blue-collar workers and all clerical or office staff, who do
not work on the shop floor are termed white collar workers.

White Collar workers or non-manual workers form a distinct social

group characterized by divergent socio-economic backgrounds, levels
of education, manner of speech, social customs and ideology. They
are paid on monthly basis, enjoy longer holidays and different
privileges as compared to the blue-collar workers.

Classification based on Representation

i. Qualified Union:
Unions having at least 5 percentage of membership of total employees.
ii. Primary Union:
Having membership of at least 15 percentages of the employees in an
iii. Representative Union:
Having a membership of not less than 25 percentages of the total employees
as members in an undertaking.

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Pattern of Structure
Another aspect of the structure of unions in India relates to their pattern of
relationship between national level, regional level, local level and plant level unions.
1. Local Level Federations:
This is the second level in the structure from below the local trade union
federation holds together the plant level unions at the local level in a
particular craft and industry. The local level federations might be affiliated to
either some regional level or national level federation discussed below or they
may be independent.

2. Regional Level Federations:

These are the organisations of all the constituent unions in a particular state
or region. The importance of such federations cannot be exaggerated. In a
vast country like India, conditions vary from region to region. The style of
living, language, customs, traditions, working conditions, etc. are different.
Therefore, it is better that workers are organised at regional or state level.
These regional federations may have members of two kinds: (a) the plant level
unions affiliating themselves to these directly, and (b) the local federations. In
the second case, plant level unions become the members of regional
federation indirectly through the local federations. It may be noted that the
regional federations may be independent or they may get affiliated to some
national federation.

3. National Federation:
These are national level bodies to which plant level unions, local unions or
regional level unions may get affiliated. These are the apex bodies at the top
of the structure. They act as coordinating bodies. The national federations
may have their own regional or state level coordinating bodies to which the
plant level unions may get affiliated.

National Level Federation

Historically, four major federations have been in existence and have
established a national network of federated unions. They are the All India Trade
Union Congress (AITUC), Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC), United
Trade Union Congress (UTUC), and Hind Mazdoor Sabha (HMS). The UTUC merged

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with the Centre of Indian Trade Unions (CITU). At present, Ministry of Labour has
recognised eleven central trade unions. The twelve central trade unions and their
political affiliations are presented in the table. There are many unions at state levels
as well; some of them are associated with regional parties.

Central Trade Unions in India

Central Trade Union
S.No. Political Policy Year
1. All India Trade Union Congress Communist Party of India 1921

2. Indian National Trade Union Congress Indian National Congress 1947

3. Hind Mazdoor Sabha Socialist 1948

4. Centre of Indian Trade Unions Communist Party of Indian (Marxist) 1971

Communist Party of India (Marxist Leninist)

5. All Indian Central Council of Trade Unions 1989

6. All India United Trade Union Centre Socialist Unity Centre of India (Communist) 1958

7. Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh 1955

8. New Trade Union Initiative Independent from political parties 2001

9. Self Employed Womens Association of India - 1972

10. Labour Progressive Federation Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam -

11. United Trade Union Congress Revolutionary Socialist Party 1949

12. Trade Union Co-ordination Committee All India Forward Bloc -

1. All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC):

AITUC is the oldest trade union national federation and was established in 1921.
Ideologically it is linked with the communist philosophy and therefore espouses a more
radical approach as compared to some of the other federations in attaining the interests
and goals of workers.
a. Organisational Structure:
The general session of the AITUC meets once in two years, the general council
meets once a year and the working committee at least twice a year. The day-to-
day operation and implementation is carried out by the General Secretary and his
administrative staff at the national and state levels.

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b. Objectives:
The major objectives of AITUC are:
i. To establish a socialist state in India and the nationalization of the means
of production, distribution and exchange as far as possible.
ii. To improve the economic and social conditions of the working class, by
securing better terms and conditions of employment.
iii. To safeguard and promote the workers right to free speech, freedom of
association and assembly and the right to strike.

2. Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC):

This Union was organised in 1947 with active support and encouragement from
Congress leaders. It wanted to bring about a peaceful and non-violent solution
to industrial dispute.
a. Organisational Structure:
The basic pattern of organisation in the INTUC is the industry level
federation. In other words, units are grouped together for the purpose of
negotiating the terms and conditions of employment, such as wage rates,
hours of work and other related fringe benefits and working conditions at
the industry level which are to be implemented at the lower level. This
method enables a perspective being taken for the entire industry, rather
than a piece meal approach unit-wise.
b. Objectives:
It seeks to establish a society in which there is an opportunity for the
development of individuals and the eradication of anti-social
concentration of power in any form and therefore to nationalize industry.
The main objectives are:
i. To ensure full employment.
ii. To secure greater participation of workers in the management of
iii. To secure complete organisation of all categories of workers including
agricultural labour.
iv. To organise workers on an industry-wide basis.
v. To improve the conditions at work and to provide various social
security measures.
vi. To develop among the workers a sense of responsibility towards
industry and the community.

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3. Hind Mazdoor Sabha (HMS):
This national federation came into being in 1948. HMS is affiliated with
International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC). This federation espouses the
socialist philosophy and has linkages with socialist parties. However, there has
been a division within the socialist ranks with the emergence of the Hind
Mazdoor Panchayat, another federation with socialist leanings.
a. Objectives:
The main aims of the Hind Mazdoor Sabha are:
i. To promote the economic, political and social interests of the workers and
to improve their terms and conditions of employment.
ii. To form a federation of unions from the same industry or occupation at
the national level.
iii. To promote the formation of cooperative societies and to foster workers

4. Centre of Indian Trade Unions (CITU):

This is a national federation which was established in 1971 as a result of the split
in the AITUC which was a sequel to the split in the CPI a new centre, the Centre of
Indian Trade Unions (CITU) emerged owing to its allegiance to the CPI(M).

5. All India Central Council of Trade Unions (AICCTU):

AICCTU was established in 1989 in its Chennai conference and it is the trade
union mass organisation of CPI (ML) Liberation.

6. All India United Trade Union Centre:

The All India United Trade Union Centre, formerly known as United Trade Union
Centre (Lanin Sarani). It is the trade union wing of Socialist Unity Centre of India
(Communist), which was formed in 1958.

7. Bharatiya Mazdoor Sabha (BMS):

The present largest Central Trade Union Organisation came into being in 1955. It
is not affiliated to any international trade union confederation.

8. New Trade Union Initiative:

In 2001, several trade unions in organised and UN organised sector came
together under the banner of New Trade Union Initiative (NTUI). In 2006, they
decided to constitute itself as a federation and seek the status of a national trade
union federation.

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9. Self Employed Womens Association (SEWA):
SEWA is a trade union for poor, self-employed women, which was registered in
The objective is to organise women workers to have full employment and
to be self reliant. It supports womens effort to overcome poverty. SEWA
is a confluence of labour movement, cooperative movement and womens

10. Labour Progressive Federation (LPF):

It is a trade union wing of Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, regional party in Tamil

11. United Trade Union Congress (UTUC):

It is a central trade union federation, politically affiliated to Revolutionary
Socialist Party. It was established in 1949.

12. Trade Union Coordination Committee (TUCC):

The central trade union organisation, Trade Union Coordination Committee is the
trade union wing of All India Forward Bloc.

Approaches / Theories of Trade Unions

Trade union is the child of industrialisation which caught momentum after
industrial revolution in England during the mid nineteenth century. The evolution of
the trade unions has been interpreted in different ways by different authorities. Their
views are expressed in the form of ideologies, approaches, theories, etc. The purpose
of such approaches and theories has been to explain the basic motivating factors
behind union growth and bargaining policies. Unions engage in a wide variety of
functions, ranging from organisation of works to maintaining and protecting their
Theories of labour movement are as follows:
1. Marxian Class Struggle Theory / Revolutionary Theory
2. Webbs Theory of Industrial Democracy
3. Coles Theory of Industrial Unionism
4. Hoxies Theory of Business Union

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5. Tannenbaums Anti-Technology Theory
6. Commons Pragmatic Approach
7. Perlmans Theory of scarcity consciousness
8. Kerr and Associates protest theory
9. Mahatma Gandhis Sarvodaya Theory

A. Marxian Class Struggle Theory / Revolutionary Theory:

Karl Marx was the founder of Scientific Socialism popularly known as
Communism. In the eyes of Marx, the organised labour movement is an
intermediate step in the class struggle, the right for power by the proletarian
class (workers) to overthrow the capitalist class (bourgeois). Karl Marx traced
the origin of trade unionism to the growth of industrial capitalism. And in his
views, trade unions represent a prime instrument of class struggle between
proletarian workers and capitalists. To Karl Marx, the trade union is an
organising centre. Without organisation, workers compete with each other
for available employment. Trade unions developed out of the attempts of the
workers to do away with this competition for the purpose of obtaining at
least such contractual conditions as would raise them above the status of
bare slaves. The labour organisation provides the locus of the working class
towards a change in the structure of the society, and it was to be the centre
for organising the working class for its political emancipation. According to
Marx, with the emergence of trade union movement, the decay of capitalism
would be inevitable.
B. Webbs Theory of Industrial Democracy:
Webbs Theory is the classic statement of the assumptions, purposes and
methods of labour organisation. The husband wife team of Sidney
Webb and Beatrice Webb were dominant leaders of the labour party
in Great Britain during 1920s and 1930s. According to Webbs, trade
unionism is an extension of democracy from the political sphere to that of
industry and to overcome the dangers of managerial dictatorship.

To improve the economic status of the working class and to infuse

industrial democracy, Webbs advocated the methods of mutual
insurance, collective bargaining and legal enactment. According to them,
the special function of the trade union is the democratic administration of
the industry.

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C. Coles Theory of Industrial Unionism and Control of Industry:
His views of the proper function of organised labour and its role in the world
of the future were clearly stated in The World of Labour published in 1913.
It was the control of the industry by the true producers, the workers, in
partnership with the State. The theory of producer control which Cole
endorsed with some qualification was the syndicatist dogma of ownership
and means of production. The principle of union development necessary to
this end is industrial unionism, of which he has been one of the leading

D. Hoxies Theory of Business Union:

Robert F. Hoxie explained the origin of trade unionism in terms of group
psychology. According to him, workers who are similarly situated
economically and socially, closely associated and not too divergent in
temperament and training will tend to develop a common interpretation
of their social situation and a common solution of their problems of living.
Thus, differences in group psychology cause different types of unions to

His greatest contribution to the theory of unionism was to classify labour

organisations according to their functional operations and to identify the
principal types to be more common. The main types of trade union
according to Hoxie were five Business, Uplift, Revolutionary, Predatory
and Dependent. A fundamental type is the result of a common
interpretation of the social situation which produces agreement among
the group as to the problem forcing its members and the kind of remedial
programme which was solve it.
The five types of unions described by Hoxie are as follows:
i. Business Unions: Also known as Bread and Butter Unions, these
unions are trade conscious rather than class conscious. They accept
the existing economic system and aim at bringing about improvement
in the wages and working conditions of their members. Collective
bargaining is the usual method followed by these unions with heavy
reliance on strike as a weapon.

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ii. Friendly or Uplift Unions: Such unions are essentially idealistic in
view point. They may be trade, class or society conscious. These
aspire to elevate the moral, intellectual and social life of the workers.
To realize this aim, these unions advocate use of political methods
such as setting up of cooperative enterprises, profit-sharing, mutual
insurance, etc. They are law abiding and employ the methods of
collective bargaining for securing benefits for the workers.

iii. Revolutionary Unions: Such unions are extremely radical both in

view point and in action. They are distinctly class conscious rather
than trade conscious. They reject private ownership of productive
resources and the wages system. Their weapons are either political
action or direct action in the form of strikes, boycotts, sabotage and

iv. Predatory Unions: Unions of this kind do not subscribe to any

ideology. Such unions are characterized by their ruthless pursuit of
immediate ends. Their methods include collective bargaining, secret
bribery and violence.

v. Dependent Unions: A dependent union is parasitic in nature relying

upon the support of the employers or other labour groups. Unions of
this type appear in two forms company union and union label union.
The former depends entirely on the employer for its support and does
not really represent the interest of the workers in so far as it is not
opposed to the interest of the management.

E. Tannenbaums Anti-Technology Theory:

Frank Tannenbaum, a Professor of History of Columbia University, USA,
saw the emergence of trade union movement as labours reaction to the
dominance of the machine in modern industrial society. The industrial
revolution destroyed the older way of life and left the individual industrial
worker to the mercy of the employer who became the catalytic agent that
crystalised the workers into a self-conscious group. The workers became
completely dependent upon the machine and the employer degraded them

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and made them insecure. Thus, according to Tannenbaum, the emergence of
unionism is spontaneous and inherent in the growth of capitalism. It reflects
the urge of the human beings to have control over machine. Tannenbaum
saw the labour movement ultimately displacing the capitalistic system by
industrial democracy.

F. Commons Pragmatic Approach / Environmental Theory:

Common advanced a theory of labour movement based on a set of basic
premises which are mostly environmental factors. That is why, his theory
is also called environmental theory of labour movement. The basic
premises of his theory were Marxian.

Common regarded the labour movement in America as delayed and

thwarted by a number of factors, the first of which was free land. Ranking
next as a major influence upon the labour movement of the nineteenth
century was the tremendous expansion of markets, the third factor is
effect of the new competition upon labour movement, which were much
like as described by the Webbs. It is the function of manufacturer-
employer to drive hard wage earners to their first conscious combination
with others of their class in trade unions and away from the guild like
associations of earlier days. The fourth important influence of great
importance has been immigration, with its influx races, nationalities and
languages, thrown together in a single competitive era and cycles of
property and depression, which Common found to have a positive
correlation with the rise and fall of union activity. The outcome of
Commons theory of labour unionism is non-revolutionary and implies
non-acceptance of capitalism which fell considerably short of even the
Webbs expectations of political evolution.

G. Perlmans Theory of Scarcity Consciousness:

Selig Perlman (1888-1959) was the inheritor of Commons intellectual
leadership in labour economics at Wisconsin School. Perlman wrote
extensively on the labour movement, being the author of A History of
Trade Unionism in United States (1922) and A Theory of the Labour
Movement (1928) among others. According to Perlman, unionism
developed because of the workers scarcity consciousness, which arose in the

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minds of the workers because of the fact that their economic position cannot
improve beyond that which is barely sufficient to cover minimum essential of
an ordinary standard of living. Out of this scarcity consciousness grew a job-
conscious unionism, a unionism which controls the job opportunities. The
union establishes certain job rights which it then rations among the members
through regulations applying to overtime, seniority, etc.

H. Kerr and Associates Protest Theory:

Kerr, Dunlop, Harbison and Myers observed that labour protest is
inherent in industrialisation. Organised form of protest, according to
them, is labour organisation. The nature and role of such organisation
depend upon the industrialisation process, the industrializing elite and the
specific culture and environment of a country. These authors used the
more general term labour organisation in place of trade union.

One of the universal responses of labour force to industrialisation is

protest against it, because industrialisation makes a universal demand; it
requires a basic change in relationship between man and his work and
inevitably also between man and his cultural setting, and the new recruit
to the industrial labour force resents the imposed discipline.

I. Mahatma Gandhis Sarvodaya Theory / Class Harmony / Trustship Theory:

According to Mahatma Gandhi, unions are not anti-capitalistic
organisations. They are in the least degree political. Their main aim is to
increase their internal strength to work conscientiously and to take from
the employers no more than that what is rightfully due to the workers.

His philosophy is based upon the Sarvodaya principles of Truth, non-

violence and trusteeship, in which class harmony prevails. He considered
trade unions as essentially reformist organisations and economic
institutions, which must be organised on the basis that capital and labour
are not antagonistic but are supplementary to each other. He observed:
My ideal is that capital and labour should supplement and help each
other. They should be a great family living in unity and harmony, capital
not only looking to the material welfare of the labourers but their moral
welfare also capitalists being trustees of the welfare of the laboring
classes under them.

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Criticism of Trade Unions
Trade unions have been subjected to severe criticism, particularly by the employers
because of the following reasons:
1. Increased Potential for Strikes:
Trade union leaders serve the threat of strike to the management quite frequently
to get their demands accepted. When a trade union fails to get its demand
accepted by the management through collective bargaining and negotiations, it
may adopt militant methods including a strike blockage or work stoppage.

2. Narrow Perspective:
Lack of education makes the workers narrow-minded, and prevents them from
taking long-term views. Thus, anything which does not result in an immediate
reward becomes unattractive to them. This attitude is responsible for many
strikes and lockouts in industrial concerns.

3. Resistance to Change:
Trade unions do not welcome rationalisation and improved methods of
production for the fear that some of the workers will be put out of work. They
often show resistance to introduction to changes in work methods, procedures
and working conditions.

4. Fear of Increased Costs:

All efforts of a trade union to gain concessions from management in the form of
higher pay, better working conditions, better retirement benefits, etc. for its
members imply higher costs to management. Obviously higher costs, if not
accompanied by increases in employees productivity, are not desirable for the
organisation as it will not be able to face competition in the market in the long-

5. Social Costs:
When labour unions strike on flimsy grounds, incalculable losses occur to
producers, community and the nation. Strikes are harmful to the workers also as
they have to suffer loss of wages and other benefits.

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6. Lack of Employee Commitment:
In a unionized firm, the employees loyalty is often shifted from the organisation
to the union. This can result in reduced employee commitment, lower morale,
resistance to change, and sublimation of the organisations goals to those of the
trade union.

7. Artificial Scarcity of Labour:

It is alleged that the labour unions may create artificial scarcity of labour by
demanding that only union members should be employed. In such a situation, an
employer may prefer not to fill the vacancies because of fear or trouble by the
union. As a result, employment gets restricted.

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Sample Multiple Choice Questions

1. Which is the voluntary organisation of employees or employers formed to

promote and protect their interests through collective action?
(a) Society (b) Trade Union
(b) Government (d) International Agencies

2. Which of the following unions have been playing a significant role for the
development and implementation of Labour Welfare Schemes?
(a) The Ahmedabad Textile Labour Association
(b) The Mazdoor Sabha
(c) Indore Mill Mazdoor Sangh
(d) All of the above

3. At present there are how many central Trade Unions organisations in India?
(a) 12 (b) 13 (c) 14 (d) 15

4. What are the methods of Trade Unions adopt to achieve their goals?
(a) Method of Mutual Insurance
(b) Method of Collective Bargaining
(c) Method of Direct Action
(d) All of the above

5. Who has given the scarcity consciousness Theory of Trade Union?

(a) Karl Marx (b) Sidney Webb and Beatrice Webb
(c) Selig Perlman (d) M.K. Gandhi

6. Who has described the Bread and Butter Union?

(a) Frank Tannenbaum (b) Robert F. Hoxie
(c) Karl Marx (d) None of the above

7. Which theory is also known as Environmental Theory of Labour Movement?

(a) Commons Pragmatic Theory (b) Hoxies Theory of Business Union
(b) Tannenbaums Anti Tech Theory (d) None of the above

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8. When was the First Indian Factories Act enacted?
(a) 1875 (b) 1879 (c) 1881 (d) 1890

9. Which was the first workers organisation in India?

(a) Bara Bazaar Organisation (b) Working Mens Mission
(c) Bombay Mill Hands Association (d) The Printers Union

10. When was the All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) established?
(a) 1918 (b) 1920 (c) 1921 (d) 1922

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

b d a d c b a c c b

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