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Resistance Exercises Marvey D Velasquez, PT
Resistance Exercises
Marvey D Velasquez, PT

Muscle Performance

Capacity of the muscle to do work (force vs. distance)

Affected by:

Morphological qualities of muscles

Neurological

Biochemical

Biomechanical

Metabolic

Cardiopulmonary

Cognitive

emotional

• Neurological • Biochemical • Biomechanical • Metabolic • Cardiopulmonary • Cognitive • emotional
• Neurological • Biochemical • Biomechanical • Metabolic • Cardiopulmonary • Cognitive • emotional

Key Elements of Muscle Performance

Key Elements of Muscle Performance
Key Elements of Muscle Performance
Key Elements of Muscle Performance
Key Elements of Muscle Performance
Key Elements of Muscle Performance
Key Elements of Muscle Performance

Resistance Exercise

Any form of active exercise in which

dynamic or static muscle contraction is

resisted by an outside force applied

manually or mechanically

Factors that affects resistance training

Underlying pathology

Extent and severity of muscle performance impairments

Presence of other deficits

Stage of tissue healing after injury or surgery

Patient’s age

Overall level of fitness Ability to cooperate and learn

Strength

ability of contractile tissue to produce tension and a resultant force based on the demands placed on the muscle.

greatest measurable force that can be exerted by a muscle

or muscle group to overcome resistance during a single maximum effort

Functional strength

ability of the neuromuscular system to produce, reduce, or control forces, contemplated or imposed, during functional activities, in a smooth, coordinated manner

Potential Benefits of Resistance Training

Enhanced muscle performance: restoration, improvement or maintenance of muscle strength, power,

and endurance

Increased strength of connective tissues: tendons, ligaments, intramuscular connective tissue

Greater bone mineral density or less bone demineralization

Decreased stress on joints during physical activity

Reduced risk of soft tissue injury during physical activity

Possible improvement in capacity to repair and heal damaged soft tissues due to positive impact on tissue remodeling

Possible improvement in balance

Enhanced physical performance during daily living, occupational, and recreational activities

Positive changes in body composition: ↑ lean muscle mass or ↓ body fat

Enhanced feeling of physical well-being

Possible improvement in perception of disability and quality

Power

is related to the strength and speed of movement and is defined as the work (force × distance) produced by a muscle per unit of time (force × distance/time).

rate of performing work

Aerobic vs. anaerobic power

by a muscle per unit of time (force × distance/time). • rate of performing work •

Power Training

Muscle strength is necessary foundation for developing muscle power

Greater the intensity of exercise and the shorter the time period taken to generate force, the greater the muscle power

exercise and the shorter the time period taken to generate force, the greater the muscle power
exercise and the shorter the time period taken to generate force, the greater the muscle power

Plyometric exercises

Endurance

Ability to perform low intensity, repetitive or sustained activities over a prolonged period of time.

Cardiopulmonary endurance repetitive dynamic motor activities

Walking, cycling, swimming, UE ergometry

Muscle endurance ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly

against a load, generate and sustain tension, and resist fatigue over

an extended period of time.

Maintenance of balance and alignment of postural muscle

Endurance Training

Muscle contract and lift or lower a light load for many repetitions or sustain a muscle contraction for extended period of time

Increase in oxidative and metabolic capacities, which allows better delivery and use of oxygen.

For many patients with impaired muscle performance, endurance training has a more positive impact on improving function than strength training.

Decrease stress on joint, less tissue irritation and more comfy

Overload Principle

One of the foundations on which the use of resistive exercise to improve muscle performance is based

“To improve muscle performance, a load that exceeds the metabolic capacity of the muscle must be applied”

Progressive loading of muscle

Modify Intensity of resistance (weight) or volume gradually adjusted

Strengthening -> resistance

Endurance -> time or repetition

SAID Principle

Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands

Framework of specificity is a necessary foundation on which exercise programs should be built.

Wolff’s Law

Specificity Training exercises incorporated in a program should mimic the anticipated function

Stair climbing exercise concentrically and eccentrically

Reversibility Principle

Gains from strengthening of endurance training are temporary unless they are incorporated in functional activities or maintenance programs of resistance exercises

Detraining- begins 1-2 weeks after cessation of resistance exercises

of resistance exercises • Detraining- begins 1-2 weeks after cessation of resistance exercises • Purpose of
of resistance exercises • Detraining- begins 1-2 weeks after cessation of resistance exercises • Purpose of

Purpose of FMP

Physiological Adaptations to

Resistance Exercise

Neural Adaptations

Early gains from resistance training are primarily due to neural changes as evidenced by increase in EMG activity in the first 4-8 weeks of training, when hypertrophy is no evident.

Increased recruitment, motor learning, coordination

the first 4-8 weeks of training, when hypertrophy is no evident. • Increased recruitment, motor learning,
the first 4-8 weeks of training, when hypertrophy is no evident. • Increased recruitment, motor learning,

Skeletal Adaptations

Hypertrophy

increased in size (x-section), happens usually in 4-8 weeks after

initiation of training, sometime 2-3

weeks if aggressive weight training

(high intensity).

Increase in protein synthesis (actin and myosin) and decrease in protein

degradation

Hyperplasia

Muscle Fiber Type Adaptation

IIb -> Iia and I -> II

degradation • Hyperplasia • Muscle Fiber Type Adaptation • IIb -> Iia and I -> II

Vascular and Metabolic Adaptation

Heavy resistance athletes, have fewer capillaries compared to endurance athletes and untrained individuals

Adaptation • Heavy resistance athletes, have fewer capillaries compared to endurance athletes and untrained individuals
Adaptation • Heavy resistance athletes, have fewer capillaries compared to endurance athletes and untrained individuals

Adaptations of Connective Tissues

Increase in tensile strength of tendons and ligaments

Tendons, Ligaments, and Connective Tissue in Muscle

Increase strength in musculotendinous junction in tendons

In ligaments, at ligament bone interface

Bone

Reduced risk for fractures, and age related bone loss

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