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1.0

DETERMINATION OF FOUNDATION EARTHING CONDUCTOR In order to determine the cross section area of foundation conductors in square millimeter, the following equations are as per IS 3043 - 1987 has been considered.

1.1 Conductor cross sectional area in square milli meters is given by the following equation as per 14 of IS 3043 - 1987

Where

S= I√t

k

S = Conductor cross sectional area in mm²

I = Average fault current in kA

t = Fault current duration in sec

k = Material Constant

The Material Constant can be obtained from the following equation

Where

k=

Qc (B+20)

δ 20

Q c = Volumetric Heat Capacity of Conductor Material (J/°C mm 3 )

B = Reciprocal of temperature Co-Efficient of resistivity at 0°C for the conductor (°C)

δ 20 = Electrical resistivity of conductor material at 20°C ( Ohm-mm)

1.2 Calculation:

1.2.1 CALCULATION OF MATERIAL CONSTANT

k factor has been arrived considering the normal conditions :

Volumetric Heat Capacity of Conductor Material Qc (J/°C mm 3 )

Reciprocal of temperature Co-Efficient of resistivity at 0°C for the conductor B (°C)

Electrical resistivity of conductor material at 20°C δ 20 ( Ohm-mm)

Using the Eqn 2. k factor is caculated as :

k=

0.0038 x (202+20)

0.000138

k= 78.185954

k~

80 (IS:3043-1987)

 

----

Eqn 1

----

Eqn 2

=

0.0038

=

202

=

0.000138

1.2.1 CALCULATION OF CONDUCTOR CROSS - SECTIONAL AREA

Using the Eqn 1. Area of conductor is caculated as :

Average fault current in kA

=

50

Fault Duration time t in Sec

=

1

Material Constant k

=

80

50000 x √1

 

S=

80

S=

625.0

Allowance for Corrosion

=

1.0 % Per Year

Number of Year before replacement say

 

=

20 Years

Total allowance

=

20 x 1.0%

=

20%

Safety factor

=

1.5

Conductor size required

=

Cross sectional area x Total allowance x Safety factor

=

1125

Conductor size in mm 2

=

1125

Conductor size in mm 2

~

1200

Hence, Considered 1Rx12x100 or 2Rx6 x 100 mm GI Strips

A.

EARTH ELECTRODE

 

a)

Type / Material

 

=

b)

FAULT CURRENT as per Fault Level Calculations in kA

=

c)

Diameter in mm

d

 

=

d)

Length in mm

L

=

e)

Soil resistivity in ohm meter p

 

=

f)

Fault Duration time t in Sec

=

B.

CURRENT DENSITY AT THE SURFACE OF EARTH ELECTRODE:

a)

As per cl.no. 10.3 of IS 3043:1987

I

=

Where

t = duration of fault p = soil resistivity

 

b)

Max.allowable current density

 

=

 

=

c)

Surface area of one 100mm dia. 3 meter long earth electrode

=

Where

r in mm

=

100

=

 

r

in m

=

0.05

 

L in mm

=

3000

=

 

L

in m

=

3

d)

Max.current dissipated by one earth electrode

=

 

=

=

 

Round of to

=

e)

No. of earth electrode required

 

=

 

=

 

Total No. of earth electrode required in no.s

=

Pipe / C.I.

50

100

3000

72.44

1

7.57x 10 3 √(pxt)

7.57x 10 3 √(72.44 x 1)

889.4195242

A/m 2

A/m

2

2 x 3.14 x r x L

2 x 3.14 x 0.05 x 3

0.942

m 2

Current Density x Surface area of electrode

889.4195242x 0.942

837.8331918

Amps

838

Amps

50000

838

59.66587112

60

A.

EARTH ELECTRODE

 

a)

Type / Material

=

b)

FAULT CURRENT as per Fault Level Calculations in kA

=

c)

Diameter in mm

d

=

d)

Length in mm

L

=

e)

Soil resistivity in ohm meter p

 

=

f)

Total No. of earth electrode required in no.s

=

g)

Resistance of electrode®

 

as per cl.no.9.2.2. of IS:3043

 

=

=

 

=

f)

Overall resistance of earthing with 60 electrodes R1

=

 

=

B.

EARTH STRIP/CONDUCTOR

 

a)

Type

=

b)

Length of strip in mm Ls

 

=

c)

Width of strip in mm t

 

=

d)

Depth of burial in mm

 

w

=

e)

Soil resistivity in ohm meter

p

=

f)

Resistance of Earth Strip ® as per cl.no. 9.2.3 of IS:3043

=

 

R2

=

EARTH RESISTANCE

 

Earth resistance due to pipe electrode R1 in ohms

=

Earth resistance due to Earth strip R2 in ohms

=

Net Earth resistance R in ohms

 

=

 

=

Which is less than ONE ohm.

Pipe / C.I.

 

50

100

3000

72.44

60

 

100 x p

loge 4 x L

2 x 3.14 x L

d

100 x72.44

loge 4 x 3000

2 x 3.14 x 3000

100

0.7994

ohms per electrode

0.7994

60

0.0133

ohms

 

GI Strip

2200000

12

200

72.44

 

100 x 72.44

loge 2 x Ls 2 wt

2 x 3.14 x Ls

0.0050

ohms

 

0.0133

0.005

R1 X R2

 

R1+R2

0.0036

ohms