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1.0

DETERMINATION OF FOUNDATION EARTHING CONDUCTOR In order to determine the cross section area of foundation conductors in square millimeter, the following equations are as per IS 3043 - 1987 has been considered.

1.1 Conductor cross sectional area in square milli meters is given by the following equation as per 14 of IS 3043 - 1987

Where

S= I√t

k

S = Conductor cross sectional area in mm²

I = Average fault current in kA

t = Fault current duration in sec

k = Material Constant

The Material Constant can be obtained from the following equation

Where

k=

Qc (B+20)

δ 20

Q c = Volumetric Heat Capacity of Conductor Material (J/°C mm 3 )

B = Reciprocal of temperature Co-Efficient of resistivity at 0°C for the conductor (°C)

δ 20 = Electrical resistivity of conductor material at 20°C ( Ohm-mm)

1.2 Calculation:

1.2.1 CALCULATION OF MATERIAL CONSTANT

k factor has been arrived considering the normal conditions :

Volumetric Heat Capacity of Conductor Material Qc (J/°C mm 3 )

Reciprocal of temperature Co-Efficient of resistivity at 0°C for the conductor B (°C)

Electrical resistivity of conductor material at 20°C δ 20 ( Ohm-mm)

Using the Eqn 2. k factor is caculated as :

k=

0.0038 x (202+20)

0.000138

k= 78.185954

k~

80 (IS:3043-1987)

 ---- Eqn 1 ---- Eqn 2 = 0.0038 = 202 = 0.000138

1.2.1 CALCULATION OF CONDUCTOR CROSS - SECTIONAL AREA

Using the Eqn 1. Area of conductor is caculated as :

 Average fault current in kA = 50 Fault Duration time t in Sec = 1 Material Constant k = 80 50000 x √1 S= 80 S= 625.0 Allowance for Corrosion = 1.0 % Per Year Number of Year before replacement say = 20 Years Total allowance = 20 x 1.0% = 20% Safety factor = 1.5 Conductor size required = Cross sectional area x Total allowance x Safety factor = 1125 Conductor size in mm 2 = 1125 Conductor size in mm 2 ~ 1200

Hence, Considered 1Rx12x100 or 2Rx6 x 100 mm GI Strips

 A. EARTH ELECTRODE a) Type / Material = b) FAULT CURRENT as per Fault Level Calculations in kA = c) Diameter in mm d = d) Length in mm L = e) Soil resistivity in ohm meter p = f) Fault Duration time t in Sec = B. CURRENT DENSITY AT THE SURFACE OF EARTH ELECTRODE: a) As per cl.no. 10.3 of IS 3043:1987 I = Where t = duration of fault p = soil resistivity b) Max.allowable current density = = c) Surface area of one 100mm dia. 3 meter long earth electrode = Where r in mm = 100 = r in m = 0.05 L in mm = 3000 = L in m = 3 d) Max.current dissipated by one earth electrode = = = Round of to = e) No. of earth electrode required = = Total No. of earth electrode required in no.s =

Pipe / C.I.

50

100

3000

72.44

1

7.57x 10 3 √(pxt)

7.57x 10 3 √(72.44 x 1)

889.4195242

A/m 2

A/m

2

2 x 3.14 x r x L

2 x 3.14 x 0.05 x 3

0.942

m 2

Current Density x Surface area of electrode

889.4195242x 0.942

 837.833 Amps 838 Amps 50000 838 59.6659 60
 A. EARTH ELECTRODE a) Type / Material = b) FAULT CURRENT as per Fault Level Calculations in kA = c) Diameter in mm d = d) Length in mm L = e) Soil resistivity in ohm meter p = f) Total No. of earth electrode required in no.s = g) Resistance of electrode® as per cl.no.9.2.2. of IS:3043 = = = f) Overall resistance of earthing with 60 electrodes R1 = = B. EARTH STRIP/CONDUCTOR a) Type = b) Length of strip in mm Ls = c) Width of strip in mm t = d) Depth of burial in mm w = e) Soil resistivity in ohm meter p = f) Resistance of Earth Strip ® as per cl.no. 9.2.3 of IS:3043 = R2 = EARTH RESISTANCE Earth resistance due to pipe electrode R1 in ohms = Earth resistance due to Earth strip R2 in ohms = Net Earth resistance R in ohms = =

Which is less than ONE ohm.

 Pipe / C.I. 50 100 3000 72.44 60 100 x p loge 4 x L 2 x 3.14 x L d 100 x72.44 loge 4 x 3000 2 x 3.14 x 3000 100 0.7994 ohms per electrode 0.7994 60 0.0133 ohms GI Strip 2200000 12 200 72.44 100 x 72.44 loge 2 x Ls 2 wt 2 x 3.14 x Ls 0.0050 ohms 0.0133 0.005 R1 X R2 R1+R2 0.0036 ohms