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CHEMISTRY

PROJECT

SCHOOL NAME : DELHI PUBLIC SCHOOL,


GREATER NOIDA
SESSION: 2017-18
NAME: PRANSHU SOOD
CLASS: XII-D
ROLL NO.: 18

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PRANSHU SOOD
DELHI PUBLIC SCHOOL,GREATER NOIDA
AKNOWLEDGEMENT

I WISH TO EXPRESS MY DEEP GRATITUDE


AND SINCERE THANKS TO PRINCIPAL,RENU
CHATURVEDI FOR HER ENCOURAGEMENT
AND FOR ALL THE FACILITIESTHAT SHE
PROVIDED FOR THIS PROJECT WORK.I
EXTEND MY HEARTY THANKS TO MS. DEEPALI
BHARGAVA,CHEMISTRY TEACHER,WO
GUIDED ME TO SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION
OF THIS PROJECT. I WOULD LIKE TO THANK
MY PARENTS FOR INVALUABLE SUPPORT
AND MY FELLOW CLASSMATES FOR THEIR
IDEAS AND HELP WHENEVER NEEDED.

PRANSHU SOOD

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PRANSHU SOOD
DELHI PUBLIC SCHOOL,GREATER NOIDA
CERTIFICATE

THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT HIS DISSERATION


TITLED BIMOLECULESSUBMITTED BY
PRANSHU SOOD TO THE CHEMISTRY
DEPARTEMENT OF DELHI PUBLIC
SCHOOL,GREATER NOIDA ,WAS CARRIED
UNDER GUIDANCE AND SUPERVISION OF
Mrs.DEEPALI BHARGAVA DURING THE
ACADEMIC YEAR 2017-18.

SIGNATURE OF TEACHER
(Mrs. Deepali Bhargava)

INDEX

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PRANSHU SOOD
DELHI PUBLIC SCHOOL,GREATER NOIDA
1. Biomolecules

2. Classes of Biomolecules

2.1 Carbohydrates

2.2 Proteins

2.3 Vitamins

2.4 Nucleic acid

3. Functions of Biomolecules

4. Structure Of Biomolecules

5. Biblography

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DELHI PUBLIC SCHOOL,GREATER NOIDA
BIOMOLECULES:
A biomolecule or biological molecule is molecule that is present in
living organisms, including large macromolecules such as proteins,
carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, as well as small molecules such
as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, and natural products. A
more general name for this class of material is biological materials.
Biomolecules are usually endogenous but may also be exogenous. For
example, pharmaceutical drugs may be natural products or
semisynthetic (biopharmaceuticals) or they may be totally synthetic.

Classes of Biomolecules
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DELHI PUBLIC SCHOOL,GREATER NOIDA
CARBOHYDRATES:
A carbohydrate is a biological molecule consisting of carbon (C),
hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogenoxygen
atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula
Cm(H2O)n (where m could be different from n).This formula holds true for
monosaccharides. Some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribose, a
sugar component of DNA, has the empirical formula C5H10O4
Carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon; structurally it is more
accurate to view them as polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones.

CLASSIFICATION:

1. Monosaccharides
2. Disaccharide
3. Polysaccharides

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MONOSACCHARIDES:
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also
called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates. They
are fundamental units of carbohydrates and cannot be further
hydrolyzed to simpler compounds. The general formula is CnH2nOn.
They are the simplest form of sugar and are usually colorless, water-
soluble, and crystalline solids. Some monosaccharides have a sweet
taste. Examples of monosaccharides include glucose (dextrose),
fructose (levulose) and galactose. Monosaccharides are the building
blocks of disaccharides (such as sucrose and lactose) and
polysaccharides (such as cellulose and starch).

DISACCHARIDES:
A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or biose) is the sugar
formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by
glycosidic linkage. Like monosaccharides, disaccharides are soluble in
water. Three common examples are sucrose, lactoseand maltose.

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DELHI PUBLIC SCHOOL,GREATER NOIDA
POLYSACCHARIDES:

Carbohydrates which yield a large number of monosaccharide units on


hydrolysis are called polysaccharides. Some common examples are
starch, cellulose, glycogen, gums, etc. Polysaccharides are not sweet in
taste, hence they are also called non-sugars.They may be of two types
homopolysacchrides or heteropolysaccharides.

Examples of Homopolysaccharides are starch,glycogen,cellulose,pectin.

Heteropolysaccharides are chondroitin etc.

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DELHI PUBLIC SCHOOL,GREATER NOIDA
TESTING OF CARBOHYDRATES:
Test for Glucose or Fructose(Monosaccharides):
1. Put 2-3ml of corn syrup solution in a test tube.

2. Add 1ml of the Bendict Reagent the solution will look blue.

3. Put the test tube gently in a boiling water bath.

4. After a few minutes look at the colour of mixture.

The glucose present in the solution reacts with the copper sulphate in
the Bendicts Reagent to make copper oxide ,an orange to brick-red
precipitate.

How deep the colour is depends on the concentration of


glucose present in the sample.

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PRANSHU SOOD
DELHI PUBLIC SCHOOL,GREATER NOIDA
Test for Starch
Materials Required: Dropper, Iodine Solution, Potato ,Test tube

Procedure

Using a dropper, take a small quantity of iodine solution.

Add 5 drops of iodine solution to the test tube containing


potato extract.

Blue black colour indicates the presence of starch in


potato extract.

Testing Food Items


Test food items for glucose or starch using the above procedure. Make
the solution with distilled water with liquid or powdered samples.If the
sample is solid chop it of finely or mush itin a mortar and add distilled
water before adding the reagent.

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PROTEINS:
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one
or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast
array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic
reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting
molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another
primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the
nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein
folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its
activity.

AMINO ACIDS:
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2)
and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R
group) specific to each amino acid.The key elements of an amino acid
are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, although other elements
are found in the side chains of certain amino acids. About 500 amino
acids are known (though only 20 appear in the genetic code) and can be
classified in many ways. They can be classified according to the core
structural functional groups' locations as alpha- (-), beta- (-),
gamma- (-) or delta- (-) amino acids; other categories relate
to polarity, pH level, and side chain group (aliphatic, acyclic, aromatic,
containing hydroxyl or sulfur, etc.)

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ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS:
An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino
acid that cannot be synthesized de novo (from scratch) by the organism,
and thus must be supplied in its diet.

NON ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS:


They are an important part of building proteins, they do not need to be
included in an everyday diet. Eight of these non-essential acids are also
known as conditional, meaning that the body may not be capable of
producing enough of them when presented with substantial stress or
illness.

Proteins can be classified into two types on the basis of


their molecular shape:

(a) Fibrous proteins

When the polypeptide chains run parallel and are held together by
hydrogen and disulphide bonds, then fibre like structure is formed.
These are generally insoluble in water. Some common examples are
keratin (present in hair, wool, silk) and myosin (present in muscles),
etc.

(b) Globular proteins

This structure results when the chains of polypeptides coil around


to give a spherical shape. These are usually soluble in water. Insulin

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and albumins are the common examples of globular proteins.
Structure and shape of proteins can be studied at four different
levels, i.e., primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary, each level
being more complex than the previous one.

STRUCTURE OF PROTEINS:
There are four structural levels of organization to describe the complex
structure of protein. The levels are :

Primary structure:
The primary structure of a protein refers to the sequence of amino acids
in the polypeptide chain. The primary structure is held together
by covalent bonds such as peptide bonds, which are made during the
process of protein biosynthesis. The two ends of the polypeptide
chain are referred to as the carboxyl terminus (C-terminus) and
the amino terminus (N-terminus) based on the nature of the free group
on each extremity.

Secondary structure:
Secondary structure refers to highly regular local sub-structures on the
actual polypeptide backbone chain. Two main types of secondary
structure, the -helix and the -strand or -sheets, were suggested in
1951 by Linus Pauling and coworkers.

Tertiary structure:
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Tertiary structure refers to the three-dimensional structure of monomeric
and multimeric protein molecules. The -helixes and -pleated-sheets
are folded into a compact globular structure.

Quaternary structure:
Quaternary structure is the three-dimensional structure consisting of the
aggregation of two or more individual polypeptide chains (subunits) that
operate as a single functional unit. In this context, the quaternary
structure is stabilized by the same non-covalent interactions and
disulfide bonds as the tertiary structure.

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Functions of Proteins:
1. Proteins are the main components of many structures in the body.
They are part of the outer membrane of all cells in the human
body.

2. Enzymes are a specific type of protein that enable biochemical


reactions in the body. These reactions may occur without
enzymes, but enzymes make the reactions happen faster.

3. Some hormones are also proteins. Hormones regulate growth and


development and are crucial during puberty.

4. Proteins regulate cell division, an important process for


replenishing aged or damaged cells.

5. Antibodies are another type of protein essential to human health.


Antibodies are a major component of the immune system and help
fight infections caused by bacteria and viruses.

TEST FOR PROTEINS

PROCEDURE:

Add 2 cm3 of the liquid food sample* to a clean, dry test tube

Add 2 cm3 of Biuret Reagent.


Repeat steps the steps above with de-ionized water to prepare
a negative control and with albumin (egg white) to prepare
a positive control.
Shake well and allow the mixture to stand for 5 minutes
Observe any color change.
OBSERVATION:
Look for colour changes in the solution. They range from no colour
change (blue) to pink to deep violet.

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Colour changes are best visualized against a white background such as
a white tile or a sheet of paper.
OBSERVATIONS INTERPRETATION
No change (solution remains blue ) Proteins are not present

The solution turns from blue to violet (deep purple)


Proteins are present
The solution turns from blue to pink

Peptides are present (Peptides or peptones are short


chains of amino acid residues)

VITAMINS:

They are generally regarded as organic compounds required in the diet


in small amounts to perform specific biological functions for normal
maintenance of optimum growth and health of the organism. Vitamins
are designated by alphabets A, B, C, D, etc. Some of them are further
named as sub-groups e.g. B1, B2, B6, B12, etc. Excess of vitamins is
also harmful and vitamin pills should not be taken without the advice of
doctor.

Vitamins are classified into two groups depending upon their solubility

in water or fat.

(i) Fat soluble vitamins: Vitamins which are soluble in fat and oils but
insoluble in water are kept in this group. These are vitamins A, D, E and
K. They are stored in liver and adipose (fat storing) tissues. (ii) Water
soluble vitamins: B group vitamins and vitamin C are soluble in water so
they are grouped together. Water soluble vitamins must be supplied
regularly in diet because they are readily excreted in urine and cannot
be stored (except vitamin B12) in our body.

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NUCLEIC ACID:
The particles in nucleus of the cell, responsible for heredity, are called
chromosomes which are made up of proteins and another type of
biomolecules called nucleic acids. These are mainly of two types, the
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Since nucleic
acids are long chain polymers of nucleotides, so they are also called
polynucleotides.

TYPES OF NUCLEIC ACIDS:


DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid)

Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a molecule that carries


the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning
and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA
and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids;
alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides),
they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are
essential for all known forms of life. Most DNA molecules consist of
two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix.

RNA(ribonucleic acid)
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various
biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, and, along
with lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, constitute the four
major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life. Like DNA,
RNA is assembled as a chain of nucleotides, but unlike DNA it is more
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often found in nature as a single-strand folded onto itself, rather than a
paired double-strand. Cellular organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA)
to convey genetic information (using the letters G, U, A, and C to denote
the nitrogenous bases guanine, uracil, adenine, and cytosine) that
directs synthesis of specific proteins. Many viruses encode their genetic
information using an RNA genome.

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STRUCTURE OF NUCLEIC ACID:
Primary Structure:

Primary structure consists of a linear sequence of nucleotides that are


linked together by phosphodiester bonds. It is this linear sequence of
nucleotides that make up the Primary structure of DNA or RNA.
Nucleotides consist of 3 components:

1. Nitrogenous base

1. Adenine

2. Guanine

3. Cytosine

4. Thymine (present in DNA only)

5. Uracil (present in RNA only)

2. 5-carbon sugar which is called deoxyribose (found in DNA)


and ribose (found in RNA).

3. One or more phosphate groups.

Secondary Structure:
Secondary structure is the set of interactions between bases, i.e., which
parts of strands are bound to each other. In DNA double helix, the two
strands of DNA are held together by hydrogen bonds. The nucletides on
one strand base pairs with the nucleotide on the other strand. The
secondary structure is responsible for the shape that the nucleic acid
assumes.

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Tertiary Structure:
Tertiary structure refers to the locations of the atoms in three-
dimensional space, taking into consideration geometrical and steric
constraints.There are 4 areas in which the structural forms of DNA can
differ.

1. Handedness right or left

2. Length of the helix turn

3. Number of base pairs per turn

4. Difference in size between the major and minor grooves

Quaternary Structure:
The quaternary structure of nucleic acids is similar to that of protein
quaternary structure. Although some of the concepts are not exactly the
same, the quaternary structure refers to a higher-level of organization of
nucleic acids. Moreover, it refers to interactions of the nucleic acids with
other molecules.

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The main function of nucleic acid are listed below:

1. Nucleic acids are the genetic material for all living cells.

2. It is involved in the storage and transfer of genetic material from


one generation to the next.

3. The genetic material of all the cells in a living organism is the same
and has all the information required for making an identical
organism.

4. Nucleic acids determine the phenotype of an organism.

5. Other functions of nucleic acids include catalysis (enzyme like


action eg: ribosomes) and co enzyme action (RNA acts as co
enzyme for the enzyme telomerase).

Testing procedure for Nucleic:


Put a coffee filter over the top of a plastic a plastic cup and secure
with a rubber band.
Put a single strawberry in a ziploc bag and close the bag.Remove
as much air as possible.
Mush up the strwberry using fingers.
Add 12ml of lysis buffer to the bag and zip close it.
Tilt the bag so that the mush collected comes to the bottom.Now
pour this into coffee.And now gently stir the liquid.
After most of the mush is poured into the cupgently pour 10ml of
isopropanol in the cup.
The DNA start to collect a goopy glob.
This remains stable for many years(DNA).

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Functions of Biomolecules:

Carbohydrates provide the body with source of fuel and energy, it aids in
proper functioning ofour brain, heart and nervous, digestive and immune
system. Deficiency of carbohydrates in the diet causes fatigue, poor
mental function.

Each protein in the body has specific functions, some proteins provide
structural support, help in body movement, and also defense against
germs and infections. Proteins can be antibodies, hormonal, enzymes
and contractile proteins.

Nucleic Acids are the DNA and RNA, they carry genetic information in
the cell. They also help in synthesis of proteins, through the process of
translation and transcription.

Structure of Biomolecules

Structure of biomolecule is intricate folded, three-dimensional structure


that is formed by protein, RNA, and DNA. The structure of these
molecules are in different forms, primary, secondary, tertiary and
quaternary structure. The scaffold for this is provided by the hydrogen
bonds within the molecule.

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BIBLOGRAPHY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomolecule

https://www.quia.com

http://byjus.com/chemistry/biomolecules

NCERT Chemistry Textbook for Class XII

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