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Crimean War

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Crimean War
Part of the Ottoman wars in Europe and the Russo-Turkish wars
Panorama dentro.JPG
Detail of Franz Roubaud's panoramic painting The Siege of Sevastopol (1904)
Date 16 October 1853 30 March 1856
Location Crimean Peninsula, Caucasus, Balkans, Black Sea, Baltic Sea, White Sea,
Far East
Result Allied victory; Treaty of Paris[1]
Belligerents
Ottoman Empire
French Empire (from 1854)
British Empire (from 1854)
Kingdom of Sardinia (from 1855)
Russian Empire
Commanders and leaders
Abdulmejid I
Omar Pasha
Iskender Pasha
irpanli Nadir Pasha
Ismail Pasha
Napolon III
Jacques Leroy de Saint Arnaud #
Marchal Canrobert
Aimable Plissier
Franois Achille Bazaine
Patrice de Mac-Mahon
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Queen Victoria
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Earl of Aberdeen
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Viscount Palmerston
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Lord Raglan #
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Lord Lyons
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Sir James Simpson
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Sir William Codrington
Kingdom of Sardinia Victor Emmanuel II
Kingdom of Sardinia Alfonso La Mrmora
Nicholas I #
Alexander II
Prince Menshikov
Pavel Nakhimov
Vasily Zavoyko
Nikolay Muravyov
Yevfimy Putyatin
Vladimir Istomin
Count Tolstoy
Strength
Total 603,132
165,000[2]
309,268[2]
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 107,864[2]
Kingdom of Sardinia 21,000[2]
Total 889,000[2]

888,000 mobilized
324,478 deployed
1,000 Greek legion
Casualties and losses
223,513
Ottoman Empire
45,400[2]
10,100 killed in action
10,800 died of wounds
24,500 died of disease French Empire
135,485[2]
8,490 killed in action;
11,750 died of wounds;
75,375 died of disease
39,870 wounded
British Empire
40,462[2]
2,755 killed in action
1,847 died of wounds
17,580 died of disease
18,280 wounded

Kingdom of Sardinia
2,166[2]
28 killed in action
2,138 died of disease 530,125[2]
35,671 killed in action
37,454 died of wounds
377,000 died from non-combat causes
80,000 wounded[3][4]
For other uses, see Crimean War (disambiguation).
[show] v t e
Crimean War
[show] v t e
Russo-Ottoman Wars
The Crimean War (French Guerre de Crime; Russian ???????? ????? Krymskaya voina
or Russian ????????? ????? Vostochnaya voina (Eastern War); Turkish Kirim Savasi)
was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856[5] in which the
Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and
Sardinia. The immediate cause involved the rights of Christian minorities in the
Holy Land, which was a part of the Ottoman Empire. The French promoted the rights
of Roman Catholics, while Russia promoted those of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The
longer-term causes involved the decline of the Ottoman Empire and the unwillingness
of Britain and France to allow Russia to gain territory and power at Ottoman
expense. It has widely been noted that the causes, in one case involving an
argument over a key, have never revealed a greater confusion of purpose, yet led to
a war noted for its notoriously incompetent international butchery.[6]

While the churches eventually worked out their differences and came to an
agreement, Nicholas I of Russia and the French Emperor Napoleon III refused to back
down. Nicholas issued an ultimatum that the Orthodox subjects of the Empire be
placed under his protection. Britain attempted to mediate and arranged a compromise
that Nicholas agreed to. When the Ottomans demanded changes, Nicholas refused and
prepared for war. Having obtained promises of support from France and Britain, the
Ottomans declared war on Russia in October 1853.

The war started in the Balkans, where in July 1853 Russian troops occupied the
Danubian Principalities,[5] (part of modern Romania) which were under Ottoman
suzerainty, then began to cross the Danube. Led by Omar Pasha, the Ottomans fought
a strong defensive campaign and stopped the advance at Silistra. A separate action
on the fort town of Kars in eastern Anatolia led to a siege, and a Turkish attempt
to reinforce the garrison was destroyed by a Russian fleet at Sinop. Fearing an
Ottoman collapse, France and Britain rushed forces to Gallipoli. They then moved
north to Varna in June, arriving just in time for the Russians to abandon Silistra.
Aside from a minor skirmish at Kstence (today Constan?a), there was little for the
allies to do. Karl Marx quipped that there they are, the French doing nothing and
the British helping them as fast as possible.[7]

Frustrated by the wasted effort, and with demands for action from their citizens,
the allied force decided to attack the centre of Russian strength in the Black Sea
at Sevastopol on the Crimean peninsula. After extended preparations, the forces
landed on the peninsula in September 1854 and fought their way to a point south of
Sevastopol after a series of successful battles. The Russians counterattacked on 25
October in what became the Battle of Balaclava and were repulsed, but at the cost
of seriously depleting the British Army forces. A second counterattack, ordered
personally by Nicholas, was defeated by Omar Pasha. The front settled into a siege
and led to brutal conditions for troops on both sides. Smaller actions were carried
out in the Baltic, the Caucasus, the White Sea and in the North Pacific.

Sevastopol fell after eleven months, and neutral countries began to join the Allied
cause. Isolated and facing a bleak prospect of invasion from the west if the war
continued, Russia sued for peace in March 1856. This was welcomed by France and
Britain, as their subjects were beginning to turn against their governments as the
war dragged on. The war was ended by the Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 March 1856.
Russia was forbidden from hosting warships in the Black Sea. The Ottoman vassal
states of Wallachia and Moldavia became largely independent. Christians there were
granted a degree of official equality, and the Orthodox Church regained control of
the Christian churches in dispute.[8]415

The Crimean War was one of the first conflicts to use modern technologies such as
explosive naval shells, railways and telegraphs.[9](Preface) The war was one of the
first to be documented extensively in written reports and photographs. As the
legend of the Charge of the Light Brigade demonstrates, the war quickly became an
iconic symbol of logistical, medical and tactical failures and mismanagement. The
reaction in the UK was a demand for professionalisation, most famously achieved by
Florence Nightingale, who gained worldwide attention for pioneering modern nursing
while treating the wounded.

Contents [hide]
1 The Eastern Question
1.1 Weakening of the Ottoman Empire in 18201840s
1.2 Russian expansionism
1.3 Immediate causes of the war
1.4 First hostilities
1.4.1 Battle of Sinop
1.5 Dardanelles
1.6 Peace attempts
2 Battles
2.1 Danube campaign
2.2 Black Sea theatre
2.3 Crimean campaign
2.4 Battle of Balaclava
2.5 Winter of 185455
2.6 Siege of Sevastopol
2.7 Azov campaign
2.8 Caucasus theatre
2.9 Baltic theatre
2.10 White Sea theatre
2.11 Pacific theatre
2.12 Piedmontese Involvement
2.13 Greece