Sei sulla pagina 1di 466

Model TR-8

Visual MDA for Windows


Automated Test System
INSTRUCTION MANUAL

CheckSum, Inc.
P.O. Box 3279
Arlington, WA 98223
(360) 435-5510
Fax (360) 435-5535
Web Site: www.checksum.com
P/N 4400-019
Revision 10/2003
Copyright 1990-2003, CheckSum, Inc.
All rights reserved
Printed in U.S.A.

Specifications and operational characteristics of the System are subject to change without
notice. CheckSum, Inc. cannot take responsibility for any direct or consequential damages
arising from use of this manual or the related product.
Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation. OrCad is a trademark of OrCad Systems
Corp. CadStar is a trademark of Racal-Redac. Visual MDA is a trademark of CheckSum, Inc.
TestJet Technology is protected under U.S. Patent Nos. 5,124,660 and 5,254,953.

ii
Table of Contents

Chapter 1: CheckSum Test System


Test System Introduction 1-1
Main Topics 1-1
Installation and Operation 1-1
Generating Test Programs 1-1
Other Documentation 1-2
Customer Support 1-2
System Overview 1-2

Chapter 2: Getting Started


Overview 2-1
Installation 2-1
System Requirements 2-1
Installing Modules 2-1
Self-test 2-2
Save Configuration 2-3
Connecting to the UUT 2-3
Creating a Test Program 2-4
Testing an Assembly 2-5

Chapter 3: Opening Screen


Main System Window 3-1
Main System Window Choices 3-2
Toolbar Choices 3-2
Menu-Bar Choices 3-3
Main Screen File Menu 3-3
Learn Assembly Menu 3-4
Related Topics 3-4

Chapter 4: System Installation


Overview 4-1
Jumper Settings 4-1
Installing Modules in the PC 4-1
Model TR-8 System Module Installation 4-3
Operator Keypad Installation and Usage 4-4
Keypad Mask 4-5
Back-Panel Connections to the TR-8 System Module 4-6
Functional Module (FUNC-2) Installation 4-6
Test Point MPX Module (MPX-3-200 or TR-8-1) Installation 4-7
Power Module Option Installation 4-9
PWR-2 Address Settings 4-10
TR-8-PWR Base Address 4-10
Model GPIB IEEE-488 Interface Installation 4-11
Model RM-1 Installation/Usage 4-11

iii
HP-1 Installation 4-12
CR-2 Installation 4-13
TR-8-SMT / SMT-2 Installation 4-14
TR-8-SMT-CAP Installation 4-15
Model T-120-2 Strip Printer Installation 4-16
Model G-80 Installation 4-16
DIG-1 Digital I/O Module Installation 4-17
DIG-1 Base Address and Board Select Address 4-17
Completing the Hardware Installation 4-17
Software Installation 4-18
Completing the Software Installation 4-19
Connection to the UUT 4-20
Test Points (TR-8-1 or MPX-3) 4-20
Connection Guidelines 4-21

Chapter 5: System Configuration


Overview 5-1
Configure System Screen 5-2
Save Button 5-3
Print Button 5-3
Modules Configuration 5-3
Module Configuration 5-4
Print 5-5
Adding/Deleting Modules 5-6
Reverting/Saving Configuration Information 5-6
Built-In Self-Test 5-6
Self-Test of the System Module 5-7
Self-Test of MPX Modules 5-8
Self-Test of Functional Test Module 5-9
Other Modules 5-10
Environment Configuration 5-11
Configure Reporting 5-11
SPC Logging tab: 5-13
Automatic Test Results Report tab: 5-14
Batch Report tab: 5-15
Test Program tab: 5-16
Test Results tab: 5-17
Configure Directories/Locations 5-19
Manage User Accounts 5-20
Add User 5-21
External Hardware 5-23
Fixture Configuration 5-25

Chapter 6: System Operation


Testing an Assembly 6-1
Overview 6-1
Test Topics 6-1
Main Screen, Test Menu 6-1
Selecting the Test Program 6-2
File Selection Screen 6-2
Executing the Test 6-3
Component Test Failure Screen 6-4

iv
Test Failure Function Buttons 6-4
Test Display 6-5
Main Test Functions 6-6
Menu Bar 6-6
Test File Menu 6-7
Test Menu 6-8
Report Menu 6-9
Environment Menu 6-10
Panel Menu 6-14
Fixture-Check Menu 6-15
Test Screen - Help Menu 6-16

Chapter 7: Statistical Analysis of Test Results


Statistical Analysis 7-1
Overview 7-1
Report Types 7-2
Related Topics 7-3
Using Statistical Process Control 7-3
Activating Statistical Analysis 7-3
UUT Reported On 7-4
Change Starting/Ending Period 7-4
Statistics Data Path 7-5
Production Report 7-6
Pareto Failure Report 7-7
X-Bar/Sigma Report 7-9
Interpreting the Graphs 7-11
Examine SPC Data 7-12
Edit Run Failures 7-14
Reporting on Panelized PCBs 7-15
SPC Data Format 7-15

Chapter 8: Test Programs


Writing Test Programs 8-1
Overview 8-1
Related Topics 8-2
Background 8-2
Manual Entry 8-3
Setting the Execution Order 8-4
Debugging Test Programs 8-4
Editing Tools & Testing Methods 8-4
Tolerances 8-5
Continuity and IC Tests 8-5
Special Features 8-5
Statistical Data (SPC) Logging 8-5
Save Program 8-6
Related Topics 8-6
Edit Test Program Screen 8-6
Menu Descriptions 8-7
Edit File Menu 8-8
Edit Menu 8-9
View Menu 8-11
Measure Menu 8-12

v
Setup Menu 8-18
Tools Menu 8-25
Help Menu 8-30
Loading a Program or Erasing Memory 8-31
Assigning Point Names 8-31
Probing 8-32
Entering Test Steps 8-32
Listing Test Program Data 8-33
Saving Test Programs 8-33
Saving/Loading Programs in Binary 8-33
Saving/Loading Test Programs in ASCII 8-33

Chapter 9: Entering Test Steps


Entering Test Steps 9-1
Overview 9-1
Topics 9-1
Using the Edit Screen 9-2
Test Step Descriptions 9-3
Using the Edit Screen 9-3
Controlling the Test Fixture and Discharge System 9-4
Entering Resistor, Inductor and Capacitor Tests 9-5
Overview 9-5
Inserting the Test Step and Making the Measurement 9-5
Measurement Analysis 9-6
Overview 9-6
Choosing a Range/Function 9-8
Resistance 9-8
Capacitance 9-8
Power Supply Capacitors 9-9
Polarized Capacitors 9-9
Small Capacitors 9-9
Inductance 9-10
Measurement Polarity 9-10
Measurement Delays 9-10
External Sense 9-10
Parallel Components 9-11
Guarding 9-11
Using Measurement Offsets 9-12
Using Measurement Gain Factors 9-13
Dynamic Measurement Analysis 9-13
Calculation Model 9-14
Capacitor Measurement Bias 9-15
UUT Charging/Discharging Problems 9-15
Third-Terminal Biasing 9-15
Measuring One Point to Many Points 9-15
Diode, LED and Zener Testing 9-16
Overview 9-16
Diode/LED Testing 9-16
Zener Diode Testing 9-17
Transistor and FET Testing 9-17
Overview 9-17
Related Topics 9-18
Programming a Beta Test 9-18
Switches 9-21

vi
Potentiometers 9-21
Jumpers 9-22
Opens/Shorts Testing (Continuity) 9-22
Overview 9-22
Related Topics 9-22
Entering the Continuity Test Step 9-23
Setting the Continuity / No-Care Information 9-24
Setting Active Points 9-26
Learning the Continuity Map 9-26
Assigning Continuity No-Cares 9-26
Assigning Continuity Thresholds 9-27
Continuity Failure Analysis 9-28
ICs Testing 9-30
Overview 9-30
Related Topics 9-31
Entering the ICs Test Step 9-31
The Enter/Edit IC Test Data Screen 9-31
Learning the ICs Map 9-32
Transformer Testing 9-33
Overview 9-33
Programming a Transformer Test 9-33
Operator Displays 9-34
Display Messages 9-34
Controlling Program Flow 9-36
Branching 9-37
Exiting the Program 9-38
Running Another Test Program 9-38
Extending Test Program Length 9-39
Encapsulating a Test 9-39
Executing a User-Written Program 9-39
Generating Reports from a Test Program 9-40
Normal Test Reports 9-40
Statistical Data Reports 9-41
Changing Report Paths 9-41
Cable Testing and Wiring 9-41
Panelized Testing 9-43
Overview 9-43
Related Topics 9-44
Panelization Programming by Wizard 9-44
Manual Panelization Programming 9-46
Use of Program Memory Locations 9-50
Overview 9-50
Related Topics 9-51
Special Notes about MEMS 9-51
Special Notes about MEMR 9-51
Special Notes about MEMI 9-51
Memory Variables and Program Storage 9-52

Chapter 10: CAD Data Conversion


CAD Data Conversion 10-1
Overview 10-1
Files Types 10-1
Generating the Test Program 10-2
CAD Conversion Screen 10-4

vii
Topics List 10-5
Net List File 10-5
Component Value File 10-6
Net Order File 10-6
CAD Files Directory 10-6
Exception Report File 10-6
Fixture Wiring Report File 10-8
Test Program File 10-8
Assign Default File Names 10-8
CAD Format 10-9
Manual CAD Conversion 10-9
Customizing CAD Conversion 10-9
Customizing CAD Conversion 10-9
Overview 10-9
Reference Designator Template 10-10
CAD Conversion Steps 10-14
Net Rename Strategy 10-15
Specific CAD Types 10-17
Specific CAD Types 10-17
Notes on P-CAD Data Conversion 10-17
Notes on Mentor Data Conversion 10-19
Notes on OrCAD Data Conversion 10-21
Notes on HP-BCF Data Conversion 10-22
Notes on Cadence Data Conversion 10-24
Notes on Racal-Redac Data Conversion 10-25
Notes on ViewLogic Data Conversion 10-26
Notes on ComputerVision Data Conversion 10-28
Notes on Tango Data Conversion 10-30
Notes on Pads2000 Data Conversion 10-32
Notes on Schema Data Conversion 10-34
Notes on Scicards Data Conversion 10-34
Notes on Veribest Data Conversion 10-35
Notes on Fabmaster Data Conversion 10-36

Chapter 11: Power Option


Power Module Option 11-1
Overview 11-1
Related Topics 11-2
Internal Analog Bus 11-2
Power Module Back-Panel Connector 11-2
Software Installation/Self-test 11-4
Wiring the Fixture 11-4
Programming the Power Module 11-5
Providing Voltage Sources 11-5
Measuring Zener Diodes (Power Module Option) 11-7
Measuring Capacitor Polarity 11-8
Power Output and Relay Control 11-8
Digital Input/Output 11-11
Guarding (Power Module Option) 11-13

Chapter 12: TestJet Technology


TestJet Technology 12-1

viii
Overview 12-1
Related Topics 12-2
SMT Installation 12-2
Hardware Installation 12-2
Software Configuration 12-2
Building Test Fixtures with TestJet Technology 12-4
Probe Mounting 12-4
Probe Plate Trimming 12-5
Probe Assembly and Wiring 12-5
TestJet Programming 12-8
Entering the Test Program TestJet Probe Data 12-8
Entering the Test Program Pin Data 12-9
Using CAD Conversion 12-11
TestJet Panelization 12-12
SMT-2 / TR-8-SMT-CAP Capacitor Polarity Module 12-12
Overview 12-12
Module Installation/Configuration 12-13
Building Test Fixtures with Capacitor Polarity Testing Capability 12-13
Programming Capacitor Polarity Test Steps 12-14

Chapter 13: Boundary Scan Testing


Boundary Scan Testing 13-1
Overview 13-1
Related Topics 13-2
Boundary Scan Installation 13-2
Boundary Scan Configuration 13-2
Fixturing Considerations for Adding Boundary Scan to MDA 13-4
Incorporating Boundary Scan Tests into Test Programs 13-4
The Boundary Scan Test-Type 13-4
Boundary Scan Results Reporting 13-4
Entering Data Into the Boundary Scan Table 13-5
Debugging Boundary Scan Tests 13-7
Helpful Hints 13-7

Chapter 14: Wiring Diagrams


Wiring Diagrams 14-1
Overview 14-1
TR-8 Back Panel Connector 14-2
SMT-2 Back Panel Connector 14-3
TR-8-SMT Back Panel Connector 14-4
TR-8-SMT-RLY 14-5
Power Module Back Panel Connector 14-6
DIG-1 Back Panel Connector 14-7
TR-6/FUNC-2 Back Panel Connector 14-9
TR-6/FUNC-2 Digital I/O Interface 14-10
TR-6-1 Back Panel Connector 14-11
HP-1 Back Panel Connector 14-12
CR-2 Back Panel Connector 14-13

Chapter 15: Sample Reports


Sample Reports 15-1

ix
Test Results Report Example 15-2
Test Program Report Example 15-3
Batch Report Example 15-4
Test Program in ASCII 15-5
Statistics Data File Example 15-6
Wire Run Report Example 15-7
Production Report Example 15-8
Pareto Failure Report Example 15-9
X-Bar/Sigma Report Example 15-10

Chapter 16: Command Line Parameters


Command Line Parameters 16-1

Chapter 17: Trouble Shooting


In Case of Problems 17-1
Display Problems 17-1
Serial Printer Problems 17-1
Configuration Problems 17-1
Failed Components 17-2
Addresses and Jumpers 17-2
Interrupts 17-2
I/O Channel Conflicts 17-2
Test-Point Electronics 17-4
TR-6/FUNC-2 and TR-6-1 Modules 17-4
TR-8-1 Modules 17-4
MPX-3-200 Modules 17-6
Model TR-6/FUNC-2 Fuses 17-9
Model TR-8-PWR Fuses 17-9

Chapter 18: Error Messages


Error Messages 18-1

Chapter 19: Test Program Examples


Example Test Program Segments 19-1
Related Topics 19-1
Jumper/Switch Checking 19-1
Potentiometer Adjustments I 19-3
Potentiometer Adjustments II 19-3
Screen and Display Attribute Manipulation 19-4

Chapter 20: Theory of Operation


Model TR-8 Theory of Operation 20-1
Overview 20-1
Main Topics 20-1
Current Mode 20-2
Overview 20-2
Testing Resistors 20-3

x
Testing Capacitors 20-3
Testing Diodes/Semiconductors 20-3
Current Guarding 20-4
Voltage Mode 20-5
Overview 20-5
Testing Resistors 20-6
Testing Capacitors 20-6
Testing Inductors 20-6
Use of Offset 20-6
Frequency Selection 20-7
Voltage Guarding 20-8
Measurement Guidelines 20-9
Overview 20-9
General Guidelines 20-9
Testing Resistors 20-11
Testing Capacitors 20-11
Testing Inductors 20-11
Continuity Tests 20-12
Testing ICs/Transistors/Diodes 20-12

Chapter 21: TR-8 Specifications


TR-8 Specifications 21-1

Chapter 22: Test Descriptions


Test Type Descriptions 22-1
Analog Measurement Test Types 22-4
Analog Measurement Test Types 22-4
Test Step Range Values 22-5
Resistance Test 22-7
Capacitance Test 22-8
Diode Test 22-8
Zener Diode Test 22-9
IC Test 22-10
IC Test Range Limiting 22-11
Inductor Test 22-11
Voltage Test 22-12
Continuity Test 22-12
Discharge Point 22-14
Pause a Specified Time 22-15
Set Measurement Retry Parameters 22-16
Set Low-Level Measurement Parameters 22-16
Adjust Potentiometer 22-18
Install/Remove Jumpers 22-19
Set Switch 22-19
Make Cable Connection 22-20
DMM Measurement Test 22-21
Universal Counter/Timer Measurement Test 22-22
UCT Trigger Setup 22-25
Dynamic Measurement Calibration 22-25
Test for SMT Opens 22-26
Test for Capacitor Polarity 22-27

xi
Test for Transistor/FET Beta 22-27
Test for Transformer Polarity 22-28
HP-1 High-Voltage Tests 22-29
HP-1 Continuity Testing 22-30
HP-1 High-Voltage Testing 22-30
HP-1 Resistance Testing 22-31
HP-1 Breakdown Testing 22-32
HP-1 Checking Safety Interlock Status 22-33
Low Resistance Test 22-33
Analog Stimulus Test Types 22-35
Sine Wave Output 22-36
Square Wave Output 22-37
DC Voltage Output 22-37
Monitor POWER Module Output 22-38
External Signal Input/Output 22-38
Digital Test Types 22-39
Digital Test Types 22-39
TR-8/G-80/DIG-1 Characteristics 22-39
FUNC-2/TR-6 System Module Digital I/O 22-40
Model TR-8-1 Digital I/O 22-40
Other Digital Methods (FUNC-2/TR-6) 22-41
General Digital I/O Programming 22-41
Digital Control Programming 22-41
Digital Active Screen 22-43
Digital Output Screen 22-44
Digital Input Screen 22-45
DIGx Test Types 22-46
Digital Input Test 22-46
Digital Output 22-47
Digital Active 22-48
DIGR (DIG-1 Digital Module Switching/Control) 22-49
Digital Hardware Testing with the LOGIC Test Type 22-51
PORTx Test Types 22-52
Port Input Test 22-52
Port Output 22-52
Boundary Scan Testing 22-52
In System Programming (ISP) 22-53
Transfer of Control Test Types 22-54
Transfer of Control Test Types 22-54
Specify Label 22-55
Jump Unconditionally 22-55
Jump Based on Resistance Measurement 22-56
Jump Based on Capacitance Measurement 22-56
Jump Based on Diode Measurement 22-56
Jump Based on Inductance Measurement 22-57
Jump Based on Voltage Measurement 22-57
Jump Based on PWR Measurement 22-57
Jump Based on DMM Measurement 22-58
Jump Based on UCT Measurement 22-58
Jump Based on Result of Digital Input 22-59
Jump Based on Result of Port Input 22-59
Jump Based on Result of Key Input 22-60
Set Error Counters, Control Error-Based TRY Blocks 22-60
Jump Based on Number of Errors 22-61
Jump Based on Zener Measurement 22-61
Jump Based on Self-test 22-62

xii
Jump Based on Fixture Identification 22-62
Call a Subroutine 22-63
Return from Subroutine 22-63
Load and Run a Test Program 22-63
Load and Run a Test Sub-Program 22-64
Return from Test Sub-Program 22-65
Message Test Types 22-65
Message Test Types 22-65
Display a Short Message to the Operator 22-66
Display a Message to the Operator 22-66
Erase an Operator Message 22-66
Display Picture Image 22-67
Wait for a Key to Be Pressed 22-68
PCB Number Being Tested 22-69
Enhanced Display Attributes using SCRN Test Type 22-69
SCRN Test Type Table 22-70
SCRN Test Range Table 22-70
User-Defined Tests 22-72
User-Defined Tests 22-72
Generate Test Result 22-72
Execute User-Written Routine 22-72
Memory Manipulation Test Types 22-74
Memory Manipulation Test Types 22-74
Memory Manipulation (Integer) 22-75
Memory Manipulation (Real) 22-78
Memory Manipulation (String) 22-80
General Purpose Interface (GPIB) Bus I/O 22-83
General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB) I/O 22-83
RS232 Serial Interface I/O 22-86
RS232 Serial Interface I/O 22-86
Miscellaneous Tests 22-89
Miscellaneous Tests 22-89
Turn Fixture Vacuum On and Off 22-90
Fixture Control 22-90
Fixture Identification 22-91
Control Relays 22-92
Self-test Module 22-94
BreakPoint 22-95
Fixture-Check 22-96
Print Test Results 22-97
Sound the PC's Beeper 22-99
Set Test Conditions 22-99
Put a Remark in the Test Program 22-100
Conditional Test Report Output 22-100

xiii
xiv
Limited Warranty

CheckSum, Inc. products, exclusive of fixturing products, are covered by a one-year limited
parts and labor warranty for defects in materials and workmanship from time of original
product shipment. Fixturing products (Model TR-3/TR-5/TR-7/TR-9/GS-850 and Analyst
series) include a 90-day limited warranty. This warranty extends only to the original purchaser
and excludes products or parts that have been subject to misuse, neglect, accident, or abnormal
conditions of operations.
CheckSum, Inc. reserves the right to replace the product in lieu of repair. If the failure has
been caused, as determined by CheckSum, by misuse, neglect, accident, or abnormal
conditions of operation, repairs will be invoiced at a nominal cost. In such case, an estimate
will be submitted before the work is started, if requested.

NOTE
THE FOREGOING WARRANTY IS IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER
WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT
LIMITED TO ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS, OR ADEQUACY FOR ANY
PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE. CHECKSUM, INC. SHALL
NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
TORT, OR OTHERWISE.

In the event of a failure of a product during the warranty period:


Contact CheckSum for a returned material authorization number (RMA).
Pack the product in its original packing material or suitable equivalent and return it postage-
paid to CheckSum, Inc. Mark the package clearly with the RMA number.
CheckSum will repair the product and return it postage-paid. Repairs are typically completed
within two working days of receipt.
In the event that expedited repair is necessary, call CheckSum for information. In many cases
a replacement module can be provided immediately.

xv
xvi
Chapter 1
CheckSum Test System

Test System Introduction


This information is for use with the CheckSum Model TR-8 Manufacturing Defects Analyzer
(MDA) System. To best serve your long-term needs, the Model TR-8 Manufacturing Defects
Analyzer System contains a number of features and capabilities. Because of this, it may take
you some time before you want (or need) to use all the features of the System.
To help you get your System up and testing as quickly as possible, you might want to expedite
your initial reading of this information. The information has been organized to support you in
doing so.
1. First, read this Introduction.

2. Then read the Getting-Started section. By this time, you should have a general knowledge
of what the System can do and how to navigate through it.
3. Finally, using the remainder of the documentation as reference material, you can install
your hardware and software, and begin experimenting with the system as you become
familiar with its use.
Main Topics
Installation and Operation
Main System Window on page 3-1
System Installation on page 4-1
System Configuration on page 5-1
Testing an Assembly on page 6-1
Statistical Analysis on page 7-1
Generating Test Programs
Writing Test Programs on page 8-1
The Edit Test Screen on page 8-6
Entering Test Steps on page 9-1
CheckSum Test System Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
System Overview

CAD Data Conversion on page 10-1


Installing and Programming System Options
TR-8 Power Option on page 11-1
TestJet Technology on page 12-1
Boundary Scan Testing on page 13-1
Other Documentation
If your system is equipped with the optional Model TR-6 or FUNC-2 Functional Test
Electronics, refer to the Functional Test System Instruction Manual for specifics about power-
up testing.
If you purchased a fixture system as part of your System, you will receive a separate manual
that is specific to the fixturing that you have purchased.
Check the software disk enclosed with your System. If it has a READ.ME file, print the
READ.ME file for any last-minute information about System updates.
Customer Support
If you run into problems or have questions, don't hesitate to call CheckSum (at 360 435 - 5510,
located in the U.S., in the Pacific Time Zone) for assistance. We are here to help you.
Our web site is at: www.CheckSum.com

System Overview
The CheckSum Model TR-8 Manufacturing Defects Analyzer System allows a standard PC to
efficiently test electronic assemblies to find manufacturing defects such as opens, shorts, and
incorrect or misoriented components. The System makes high-speed measurements for opens
and shorts, resistances, capacitances, inductances, voltages and semiconductor junctions. For
each test it makes a measurement of a pair of test points in the unit-under-test (UUT) and
compares the outcome against individual, user-specified upper and lower test limits.
The CheckSum Model TR-8 MDA System contains the System electronics for making
measurements, Visual MDA Software, and the Instruction Manual. Test points are added in
200-test point increments (with MPX-3-200 or TR-8-1 MPX Modules) to a maximum of 8,000
MDA test points.
The optional Model TR-8-PWR Power Module extends the current-sourcing and measuring
range of the test system from 10mA to 100mA, and extends voltages up to 24V differential.
This can be used to provide additional guard current, measure components with high parallel
impedance, actuate UUT relays, or to measure zener diodes beyond the range of the standard
system.
The optional Model SMT-2 adds TestJet Technology to the test System. This patented
technology can be used to test for open connections to ICs and connectors and to test for the
polarity of capacitors. The SMT-2 open-detection capability is particularly applicable to
surface-mount-technology (SMT) since opens are a significant contributor to the normal fault
spectrum when using SMT.

1-2
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual CheckSum Test System
System Overview

The optional Model TR-8-BST Boundary Scan Capability can be used to test UUTs that have
incorporated boundary scan during the design process. This technology can be used to
perform power-up testing of nodes that may not be accessible for normal MDA testing.
You can provide your own fixturing that is compatible with the 50-pin ribbon cables provided
with the System or purchase a fixture from CheckSum:
1. The CheckSum Model TR-7 and Model TR-9 Pneumatic Fixture Systems provide bed-of-
nails capability with a reusable pneumatic (compressed-air driven) fixture receiver, and
low-cost replaceable fixture kits. When connected to a standard compressed air source, the
Model TR-7 can accommodate UUTs up to 2000 test-points, depending on the model
selected. The TR-9-1000-QC can accommodate UUTs up to 1000 test-points.
2. The CheckSum Model TR-5 Mechanical Fixture Systems provide bed-of-nails capability
for testing small bare or assembled PCBs. These mechanical fixtures are used for PCBs
with up to about 150 test points to provide a low-cost, compact fixture without the
requirement for a vacuum source or fixture receiver.
3. The CheckSum Model TR-5-600/800 Mechanical Fixture Systems provide bed-of-nails
capability for testing UUTs with up to 800 test points, with very low-cost replaceable
fixture kits. These fixture systems do not require any external resources for power.
4. The CheckSum Model TR-3A Vacuum Fixture System provides bed-of-nails capability for
testing bare or assembled PCBs. It uses a GenRad 2270-style receiver interface for
interchangeable test heads and requires an external vacuum source. Up to approximately
1500 test points can be tested.
Other System options include controllers (PCs) of various styles, and a foot switch or operator
keypad that can provide operator input to the System.
The System software provides the ability to program ('learn') the test sequence for a UUT. The
System can self-learn some UUT attributes, such as opens and connections, diode mapping for
IC orientation and presence, and TestJet attributes for a UUT; it then allows you to easily add
the component tests. The initial component test data can also be entered via compatible CAD
data if available. Once the UUT is programmed, you may save the information (called the test
program) on your System disk. It can be recalled later to test UUTs. Once a UUT is tested
you may generate various types of test reports or gather statistics to help control the
manufacturing process.

1-3
CheckSum Test System Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
System Overview

1-4
Chapter 2
Getting Started

Overview
This section guides you through typical complete sequences for each major use of the System.
These sequences include:
Installation below
Connecting to the UUT on page 2-3 (fixturing)
Creating a Test Program on page 2-4
Testing an Assembly on page 2-5
Read through this section to get an overview of each activity. Complete detail is not given in
this section, so you will probably want to refer to the individual sections of the manual that
describe each action in detail as you perform the task.

Installation
If the test system modules were installed by CheckSum in a test controller (PC), you do not
need to perform any hardware or software installation. Continue reading section Connecting to
the UUT on page 2-3. For detailed installation information, see the section System Installation
on page 4-1.
System Requirements
The System controller (PC) minimally requires an 80486 processor, Windows 3.1 or Windows
95/98 operating system, 32 MB of RAM, 1.44 Floppy Disk Drive, and a full-sized slot
available for the System module, each multiplexer (MPX) module, and for any optional
modules. The modules can be installed in either 8-bit or 16-bit slots.
Installing Modules
The following figure shows a suggested ordering of the modules, cable installation overview,
and default base addresses. If you have a Model TR-6 Functional Test Option, refer to that
manual for module installation instructions.
The Model TR-8 System Module is first installed in your PC. As delivered from CheckSum, it
has jumpers to set the base address to 640 decimal (280 hex).
Getting Started Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Installation

For every 200 test points of solid-state switching that are to be used, a MPX-3-200 or TR-8-1
Multiplexer (MPX) Module is installed. Connect the 50-pin cables to the MPX modules such
that the strain-relief and pull-tab is on the end of the cable that is outside of the PC. Connect
the 16-pin bus cable to JP-1 on each MPX-3/TR-8-1, and on the TR-8 system module.

Note
Plug the modules into your PC, taking normal safety and electrostatic
discharge (ESD) precautions: turn off power and ground your body to the
PC prior to installation. Ensure that the 50-pin test point ribbon cables are
installed with each MPX Module during the installation.

Optional Modules (other than the Model TR-6) are installed last.

Viewed from the top of the controller Test Points


TR-8 System Module (Base 640) JP1 Fixture control
Keypad
Optional FUNC-2 / TR-6 Module 16-wire bus Probe

MPX-3-200 Module (Base 672, Board 1) JP1


1 - 200
TR-8-1 MPX Module (Base 816)

MPX-3-200 Modules (Base 672 Board 2 . .) JP1


TR-8-1 MPX Modules (Base 832, 848, ...) 201-400, ...

TR-8-PWR Module (Base 540) JP1


1631-1646

SMT-2 Module (Base 672 Board 41, . . .) Top Probe 1-24,


25-48, ...

TR-8-BST Module (Base address per style)


Scan Bus Lines

Module Orientation

Once the hardware is installed, install the Visual MDA Software in your PC. Put the Visual
MDA Software disk into A:, then run the SETUP program from the Win95/98 Explorer or File
Manager in Win3.1.
Self-test
After installation, Start the Visual MDA Software by running VISMDA. At this point, you
will see the System Screen on page 4-19 which is the hub of all System operations.
When first installing the System, it is necessary to run a self-test. This ensures that the
hardware is installed properly. It also performs some special accuracy and speed enhancement
functions that allow your System to operate properly. Self-test is executed by selecting
'Configure System' from the System Screen on page 4-19 ([F4]). Once in the Modules

2-2
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Getting Started
Connecting to the UUT

Configuration on page 5-3 screen, individually select each module installed in the System and
press 'Self Test' to execute the self-test for each module.
Once self-test has started, press the keys as prompted to sequence through the self-test. When
the System Module is completed, test each MPX Module that is installed by selecting each at a
time. As part of the MPX-3-200 / TR-8-1 self-test process, the System will ask you to install a
shorting fixture to each 50-pin ribbon cable in sequence. The shorting fixture is included with
the TR-8 System and can be connected onto each cable, then removed with its ejection levers.
As the MPXs are shorted, the System measures the zero-offset values associated with each test
point. This is necessary to ensure full accuracy is achieved.
If you have one or more Model TR-8-SMT or TR-8-SMT-CAP Modules in your system, part
of the self-test sequence involves installing a 39.2k 1% resistor between pin 49 of the TestJet
connector and test point 49 of the System (on the first MPX Module).
Save Configuration
When self-test is completed for all modules in the test system, save the configuration data on
disk, as prompted, for use next time the System is used.
Saving configuration data on disk saves the current value for most selections of the Configure
System screen. Saved values include most of the System operating characteristics such as self-
test determined data, report configuration, active points, and measurement characteristics.
The Model TR-8 can be tested against external standards if desired. This can be used to meet
standards of traceability for the System, as may be required for ISO 9000 reporting.
The optional Model CM-3 Calibration Verification Module provides software and hardware to
test Model TR-8 Test System operation against values external to the System. You can
confirm/characterize the values of the components on the Calibration Module in your
calibration facility if desired.

Connecting to the UUT


The System's measurements are made via test points available at the end of the 50-pin ribbon
cables that come from the back of the MPX-3-200 / TR-8-1 MPX Modules. Each pin is called
a point, pin or test point. Each test point is completely universal in nature and can be
connected to any UUT test point.
For MDA testing all MPX-3-200 / TR-8-1 test points are electrically equivalent and can be
wired randomly. If you are not concerned with detailed pin and connection names for operator
interaction and reports, it is not even necessary to know how the UUT is connected to the
System for doing MDA opens and shorts testing. The System can self-learn a UUT without
concern for user-assigned pin and connection names.
The pin-out of MPX Module is shown in Test Points (MPX-3-200 or TR-8-1) on page 4-20.
Note that test points 1, 51, 101, and 151 are at the bottom of JP9, JP8, JP7, and JP6
respectively. Test points 1 - 200 are on the first MPX Module shown in the 'Hardware' display
of the Configure System screen. Test points 201 - 400 are contained on the second MPX
Module shown in the display, and so on. If you are not sure about the pin out, from the
'System' Screen, select 'Edit Test' (F3), then from the 'Setup' pull-down, select 'Connection

2-3
Getting Started Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Creating a Test Program

Information', and finally select 'Probe a Pin' from the 'Probe' pull-down. Connect a probe to
the red banana jack on the back-panel of the TR-8 System module, then touch the pin to be
probed - the system will then display the point number of the probed test point.
If you have a Model TR-8-PWR Module, the test point pin-out is shown in Wiring Diagrams
on page 14-1. The 16 test points shown (1631-1646) have the ability to source up to 100mA.
If you have a Model SMT-2 or TR-8-SMT Module, the test point pin-out is shown in Wiring
Diagrams on page 14-1. Each of the points is specially wired to TestJet Technology sensor
plates as described in TestJet Technology on page 12-1.
If you have a Model TR-8-BST Module, the UUT wiring is performed as described in the
documentation enclosed with the Module. General wiring considerations are discussed in
Boundary Scan Testing on page 13-1.

Creating a Test Program


The test program tells the System how to test an assembly (also called the unit-under-test or
UUT). The test program is generated once, saved on the disk, then used each time one or more
of the same UUTs are tested.
The test program consists of a number of test steps, most of which can generate test results.
Typical test types include CONT for continuity, RES for resistance tests, CAP for capacitance
tests, INDUC for inductance tests and DIODE for semiconductor junction tests. For most of
these test types, the test step contains upper and lower test limits, the two test point numbers
and names, the measurement range, and a test title describing the component being tested. In
addition, the test program contains point names (optionally assigned), the measurement
characteristics (e.g., samples averaged for each reading), active pins, the assembly name
(optional) and operator comments (optional instructions to the operator).
Generating a test program can be performed in several ways. All are available from the 'Edit
Test' ([F2]) selection of the System screen. You may use the System in random sequences of
configuration, learning, testing, and other operations. When you are satisfied that your PC's
memory contains the proper test program, save it to disk.
Following is a typical programming sequence:
The first step is to assign test point names. To get to this screen, select 'Edit Test', then
from the 'Setup' pull-down, select 'Connection Information'. This screen allows you to
enter names specific to your UUT into the System. When you do this, the System displays
and reports will contain the names that you enter. Each pin name can be up to twelve
displayed characters. The System can automatically assign sequential pin names as you
probe the fixture, making this process quick and easy. The 'Connection Information'
screen also allows you to specify which test points are active and inactive (ignored) when
learning CONTinuity for an assembly.
Once you have assigned pin names, you can use the 'Print' selection of the 'File' pull-down
to output a wiring list for the UUT.

2-4
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Getting Started
Testing an Assembly

Use the Edit screen to enter a test type of CONT (continuity). Then select 'Step Analysis'
from the 'Measure' pull-down to get the Continuity/No Care Information screen. Finally,
select 'Learn All' from the 'Connection' pull-down to automatically learn the UUT's
known-good opens and connections.
Once the connections are learned, exit back to the Edit screen. For each component in the
UUT, press the Insert key, enter the two test point numbers ('From' and 'To' point numbers)
or pin names, the test type (e.g., RES, CAP, INDUC or DIODE), the component name in
the test title (e.g., R101) and the expected value in the Nom(inal) column. Then select 'Set
Initial Limits and Range' from the 'Measure' pull-down for the System to assign a range
and test tolerances. Finally, you can select 'Step Analysis' from the 'Measure' pull-down to
measure the component. In this screen you will see the measurement performed using
multiple measurement methods. The highlighted measurement is the default selected by
the system. Press [F3] a few times to make measurements. In most cases, the reading will
be relatively stable and approximately the expected nominal value. In some cases you may
obtain better measurements by moving to another technique or range. Once you have
chosen the best range, exit and the measurement technique and range will be logged for
that step. Entering Test Steps on page 9-1 discusses measurement optimization in detail.
Note that at times, even after optimization, the measurement values will be different from
the nominal values of the components that you are measuring. This is a normal case
caused by interference from associated circuitry on the UUT. Even though the test limits
may not represent the nominal value of the component, the System will still efficiently find
most manufacturing faults because differences from the programmed value are detected.
These measurement differences can be minimized by careful selection of ranges and
polarities used in the measurements, guarding, and the use of zero/scale values. The uses
of these advanced features are described in Entering Test Steps on page 9-1. Model TR-8
Theory of Operation on page 20-1 describes how the System makes measurements to
allow you to make the best measurements if you run across problem components.
The Operator set-up screen, accessed from 'Operator Instructions Setup' from the 'Setup'
pull-down, can be used to create a screen of text that the operator sees prior to beginning a
test for each UUT. This text can be used for precautions, connection information, or other
things that you would like to convey to the operator. This screen can also contain simple
character-graphic drawings that you create.
Once you have entered the test program, you will want to run a batch of UUTs through the
System to verify that the tolerances are appropriate to meet the UUT-to-UUT and
measurement variances. You can use data logging in conjunction with the X-Bar/Sigma
Control Report to help determine appropriate tolerances by analyzing the readings from
the first few batches of UUTs tested.
When you are done with the test program, you can save it from the file menu and, from the
same menu obtain a print out. As with any other software application, you should
frequently save your work as you develop a test program.

Testing an Assembly
Once you have generated a test program for a UUT, the UUT may be tested. To test a UUT,
select `Run Test' ([F1]) from the System screen. If the test program has not been already

2-5
Getting Started Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Testing an Assembly

opened, you are then presented with the Open File screen. Select the test program name, then
OK to load it. Execution will then begin.
If the test fails any points (and the System is set for halt on fail), you are presented with a
display describing the failure. You may continue, stop, or retry the test.
Once the test is completed, you see the Test Complete screen. This screen allows you to either
continue on to the next assembly in this run or to retest the present assembly.
At the end of any test, you may also generate a report. The test report ([F3]) contains the
actual measurements for the UUT. The selection for the report output device (for example
CRT or LPT1) is configured in the Test screen menu Environment > Report Device. The
contents of the report (failures-only or all step results) is setup in Test screen menu
Environment > Test Reports Contents. The Report pull-down also allows you to select a batch
report that gives a summary of all of the UUT's tested in this run. Use of the configuration
screens is described in System Configuration on page 5-1.

2-6
Chapter 3
Opening Screen

Main System Window

Main System Window


Opening Screen Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Main System Window

Note
The Model TR-8 environment can be modified to meet a variety of testing
needs unique to each facility. For example, the system may have logins
enabled that provide different levels of access and selection visibility to
each user. If this is enabled on your system, the screens shown in this
manual may not exactly match those of your system. See the menu control
on page 5-21 section for information on menu selection visibility.

In general terms, this is what each major option will do for you:
Main System Window Choices
There are four main selections in the center of the main system window, each is discussed
below:
Run Test [F1] is used to test an assembly. The assembly must have been previously
programmed (or 'learned') by use of 'Edit Test'. The selection of 'Run Test' also allows you
to choose a test program describing the tests to be performed on the UUT, and to display
or print test results. See Selecting the Test Program on page 6-2.
Edit Test [F2] is used if you want to program ('learn') the test sequence and test tolerances
for a particular UUT. You can use 'Edit Test' to assign pin names, assign operator
instructions, assign an assembly name, assign test tolerances, generate a test program from
CAD data, manually generate or edit a test program, save the test program on the disk, or
get a test program report for the assembly. See The Edit Test Screen on page 8-6.
Generate SPC Report [F3] is used to generate statistics reports to describe testing that
has occurred on the System. These reports include Production Reports to list the number
of UUTs tested over a period of time, how many passed or failed, the yield and how many
defects. The Pareto Failure Report allows you to find out what type of errors have
occurred and their frequency. The X-Bar/Sigma Control Report allows you to analyze
analog measurements to observe trends or for setting test limits. See Statistical Analysis
on page 7-1.
Configure System [F4] is used to change the configuration of your testing environment.
With this option you can:
Configure the test system modules and options. Self-test (which verifies proper
operation) is available.
Specify the test system directory structure
Configure password access
Configure the reports generated by the System
See System Configuration on page 5-1.
Toolbar Choices
There are several tools (toolbar icons) available in the main system window:
Folder (Open) allows you to open a test file. This option allows you to select a test
program to be executed and load it from the system disk.
Disk (Save) saves the test program now in memory to a disk file.

3-2
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Opening Screen
Main Screen File Menu

People (Login) allows you to log into the system. If logins are enabled, each user has a
name, and optionally a password. Different users may be assigned different levels of
access to system operations. If you try to access an operation for which you do not have
permission, the system will not allow you to continue. This tool bar item allows you to
login to the system with your user-name and password.
Green Door (Exit) allows you to terminate operation of the System software. Once this
option is selected, you return to the normal Windows environment.
Menu-Bar Choices
There are a number of menu choices available to the user. These include:
File Menu below
Test Menu on page 6-1
Learn Assembly Menu on page 3-4
Statistical Analysis on page 7-1
System Configuration on page 5-1

Main Screen File Menu

Main File Menu

3-3
Opening Screen Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Learn Assembly Menu

Open loads a new test program from disk into memory so that it is available for execution.
See Selecting the Test Program on page 6-2 .
Save saves the test program now in memory to a disk file.
Save As opens a dialog box to allow the test program to be saved to another file. It is
saved in standard binary format (Test Program). See Saving Test Programs on page 8-33
for additional information.
Exit stops execution of the Visual MDA software package and returns you to the normal
Windows operating environment. You are prompted to save the test program if necessary.

Learn Assembly Menu

Learn Assembly Menu

Edit Test moves you to the program editor. This is used to create and modify test
programs. See The Edit Test Screen on page 8-6.
Related Topics
Writing test programs is described in more detail in the following topics:
The Edit Test Screen on page 8-6.
Entering Test Steps on page 9-1
CAD Data Conversion on page 10-1

3-4
Chapter 4
System Installation

Overview
There are several steps in the installation process.
1. The first step is installation of the Model TR-8 Electronics Modules into your PC.

2. The next step is installation of Visual MDA Software.

3. Finally, connections are made to the UUT via a fixturing system.

It's a good idea to read through this entire installation section before beginning.
The procedure for installing the TR-8 Modules is discussed first, followed by installation of
accessories and finally, installation of software. If you are also using your System for
functional test, refer to the TR-6 Instruction Manual. This information must be used to
supplement the information in this manual.
Jumper Settings
The System, as shipped, is configured so that the software and hardware jumper configurations
match your particular order. Because of this, you normally will not need to change any of the
jumpers. However, if you find conflicts with existing hardware in your computer, it may be
necessary to change some jumper positions. Also, you may be installing additional hardware
not included with your initial system configuration that will require appropriate the jumpers.
If changes are necessary, the corresponding changes need to be made both on the hardware and
in the software. You may wish to change the software configuration first since it will show
you the new jumper positions necessary and show the range of addresses used by the module
to help prevent conflicts.
Installing Modules in the PC

Note
This installation procedure requires that you remove the cover from your
controller (PC) for internal installation of the electronics modules. If you
are not experienced with such procedures, you should obtain the help of a
qualified person to do the installation.
System Installation Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Learn Assembly Menu

Caution
Ensure that you have removed the power from your PC. The power cable
should be completely disconnected from its receptacle and the power switch
should be turned off.

Before doing any the of module installation, it is necessary to remove the cover from the PC.
To do so, perform the following steps:
1. Remove the power cord from your PC and turn off the power to minimize safety hazards
and to ensure that no damage is done to circuitry in the PC or the Model TR-8 Modules.
2. Remove the cover from your PC. Typically, the cover is secured with several screws on
the back, one in each corner and one in the center top. Industrial controllers typically have
screws along both sides, and one in the center back.
3. Discharge static electricity. Use an anti-static wrist strap when doing the following to
minimize potential electrostatic discharge (ESD) damage to your computer or to the Model
TR-8 electronics. If you do not have an ESD device, place your hand on the chassis of the
PC to discharge any electrostatic potential your body may contain.
Since a variety of hardware configurations are available, not all can be discussed in detail.
However, the general physical ordering for modules is shown in the figure below. You should
determine which of these modules that you will be installing, then install them as shown in the
diagram. They can be installed using some other organizations, but that shown works out well
for the internal bus cabling.

Viewed from the top of the controller Test Points


TR-8 System Module (Base 640) JP1 Fixture control
Keypad
Optional FUNC-2 / TR-6 Module 16-wire bus Probe

MPX-3-200 Module (Base 672, Board 1) JP1


1 - 200
TR-8-1 MPX Module (Base 816)

MPX-3-200 Modules (Base 672 Board 2 . .) JP1


TR-8-1 MPX Modules (Base 832, 848, ...) 201-400, ...

TR-8-PWR Module (Base 540) JP1


1631-1646

SMT-2 Module (Base 672 Board 41, . . .) Top Probe 1-24,


25-48, ...

TR-8-BST Module (Base address per style)


Scan Bus Lines

Module Configuration

Installation topics:

4-2
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Installation
Model TR-8 System Module Installation

TR-8 System Module Installation below


TR-8-Keypad Installation/Usage on page 4-4
TR-8 System Module Back Panel Connections on page 4-6
Functional Module (FUNC-2) Installation on page 4-6
Test Point MPX Module (MPX-3 or TR-8-1) Installation on page 4-7
Power Module Option Installation on page 4-9
GPIB IEEE-488 Interface Installation on page 4-11
RM-1 Installation/Usage on page 4-11
HP-1 Installation on page 4-12
CR-2 Installation on page 4-13
SMT-2 / TR-8-SMT Installation on page 4-14
TR-8-SMT-CAP Installation on page 4-15
T-120-2 Strip Printer Installation on page 4-16
G-80 Installation on page 4-16
DIG-1 Digital I/O Module Installation on page 4-17
Completing the Hardware Installation on page 4-17
Software Installation on page 4-18
Completing the Software Installation on page 4-19
Connection to the UUT on page 4-20
Test Points (TR-8-1 or MPX-3) on page 4-20
Connection Guidelines on page 4-21

Model TR-8 System Module Installation


The first step of the installation procedure involves installing the Model TR-8 System Module
in the PC.
First, ensure that your Model TR-8 System Module is jumpered correctly. The default
configuration has jumpers on JP3 (shown in the following figure) BASE ADDRESS positions
9 and 7, setting Base Address 640 decimal (280 hex). The System Module uses 16
consecutive I/O addresses beginning at its base address. Details about the specifics of setting
the jumpers are shown in In Case of Problems on page 17-1. See the Specifications section,
for detailed technical specifications.
When the Module is properly jumpered, remove the blank bracket in the PC's back panel
position, install the TR-8 System Module into the slot, and reinstall the hold-down screw
through the module's back panel.

4-3
System Installation Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Operator Keypad Installation and Usage

Base Address
9 8 7 6 5 4

CheckSum Module Base Address Jumpers

Operator Keypad Installation and Usage


The operator keypad is connected to the back-panel of the TR-8 System Module. The keypad
allows the operator to control the execution of the system software without a standard
keyboard. This keypad requires very little desk space. It also limits the test operator to only
specific test actions such as selecting and executing tests. The keypad keys can be masked to
further limit the operator selections (see Keypad Mask on page 4-5).
The 8 keys on the keypad are labeled F1 to F7 and ESC. These keys can be used to select a
test from the main screen. For example, the F2 key selects Run Test and F6 selects File Open
to allow the operator to select the test program. The keypad can be setup to ignore any of
keys, see the following keypad mask section for more information.
The keypad can be used on several screens.
Keypad use in Open File dialog box:
F4 - Same as the keyboard Enter key
F6 - Next item (Scroll down)
F3 - Previous item (Scroll up)
F7 - Next selection (Tab)
F5 - Previous selection (Shift Tab)
ESC - Cancel
Keypad use in Test Screen:
F1 - Test next assembly
F2 - ReTest assembly
F3 - Test Report
F4 - Skipped PCB selection (if panelized)
F5 - Batch Report
F6 - Open File dialog box
ESC - Stop

4-4
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Installation
Operator Keypad Installation and Usage

Keypad use in Halt on Fail /Single Step Screen:


F1 - Next test step
F2 - ReTest
F3 - Continuous Test
ESC - Stop
Keypad use in Skipped PCB Selection Screen:
F1 - Toggle Skip Selection On/Off
F2 - Move left
F3 - Move up
F4 - OK
F5 - Move right
F6 - Move down
F7 - Retain Skip Selections
ESC - Cancel
Keypad use in Enter UUT/Batch ID Screens:
F4 - OK
ESC - Cancel
Keypad use in Comments/Instructions Screen:
F4 - OK
ESC - OK
Keypad use in Test Results Screen:
F3 - Page Up
F4 - OK
F6 - Page Down
Keypad use in Confirmation, Warning, and Error dialog
boxes when test programs are started:
F4 - OK
F5 - Yes
F7 - No
Keypad Mask
The following keypad keys can be enabled/disabled via the keypad mask using the test step
MEMI range 33. The command line parameter (/km) can also be used to set the keypad mask
when the system software is started. Setting the keypad mask bit enables that key on the
keypad. A mask value of 255 enables all of the keys and a mask value of 0 disables all of the
keys. The mask value is the sum of the mask bits for the keys to be enabled:
Key Mask Bit
[ESC] 1
[F1] 2
[F2] 4
[F3] 8
[F4] 16

4-5
System Installation Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Back-Panel Connections to the TR-8 System Module

[F5] 32
[F6] 64
[F7] 128

Back-Panel Connections to the TR-8 System Module


The back of the TR-8 System module has three connectors:
The top one, an RCA-style jack, is used to control the test fixture. If you have an automated
CheckSum test fixture system, the cable included with the system is connected between this
jack and the DIGITAL or REMOTE INPUT on the fixture system.
The middle connector is a D-Sub-25 female connector. It is typically connected directly to the
Model TR- 8- KEYPAD on page 4-4. If your System is configured with a DM-1 Discharge
system, a D-Sub-25 to D-Sub-25 cable is used to connect the TR-8 System Module to the DM-
1 Remote Input. The TR-8-KEYPAD is then connected to the other D-Sub-25 connector on
the DM-1. As shown in Wiring Diagrams on page 14-1, the TR-8 back panel also provides
some digital I/O bits and an additional fixture control bit. You can connect to these with a
standard D-Sub-25 connector. If you have a TR-8-KEYPAD, you can use a break-out
connector to tap into the line between the keypad and the TR-8 System Module.
The bottom connector, a banana-jack, is used for the probe. The probe can be used to identify
test points from the system. This can be helpful when trying to identify cabling, checking
fixture connections, or when identifying pins for naming purposes. See the section
"Connection Information on page 8-18".

Functional Module (FUNC-2) Installation


If you have the optional Model FUNC-2 Functional Test module and the TR-8 system module
is installed, the next step of the installation procedure involves installing the FUNC-2 module
in the PC.
Step 1. Jumper Settings for Base Address and Board Select Address
Make sure the FUNC-2 Module has the address jumpers properly installed. As shipped from
CheckSum, the FUNC-2 has jumpers installed to set the base address to 672 decimal (2A0 hex,
JP4 jumpers on positions 9, 7, and 5). The module has jumpers installed to set the board select
address to 50 decimal (32 hex, JP7 jumpers on Board Select positions 5, 4, and 1).
Step 2. Module Installation
1. Remove the blank slot cover from the desired slot (should be #2). Save the screw for
reinstallation.
2. Slide the card into the desired position, and press the module down to engage the board-
edge fingers into the motherboard connector.
3. Install the screw removed in step 1 through the top of the back panel bracket into the PC
chassis to hold the Module in place.

4-6
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Installation
Test Point MPX Module (MPX-3-200 or TR-8-1) Installation

Install the FUNC-2 rear panel cable to the connector (P2). Pin one (typically indicated by a
tracer on the cable) should be toward the top. Install the end of the cable without the white
handle and strain relief to the Module. Fully seat the cable by pressing the cable connector
onto the rear panel connector.
See Completing the Hardware Installation on page 4-17 regarding the 16-pin analog cable
connections.

Test Point MPX Module (MPX-3-200 or TR-8-1)


Installation
The next step of the installation procedure involves installing the Test Point MPX Modules
(MPX-3-200 or TR-8-1) in the PC.

Note
Because of the high density of these modules and the multiple 50-pin ribbon
cabling used with the MPX (MPX-3-200 or TR-8-1) Modules, there is
limited space between the Modules. If possible, allow an extra slot between
the Modules for additional clearance. If this is not practical, the Modules
may be installed in adjacent slots. CheckSum can, upon request, provide
Nomex dividers to be placed between the ribbon cables of each Module and
the circuit side of the adjacent Module to ease installation and to help
prevent the cables from being damaged by rubbing on the protruding
component leads of the adjacent module.

Step 1. Module Address Setup


Model MPX-3-200 Address Settings
The MPX-3-200 module base address jumpers are installed on JP2 and the Board Select
jumpers are installed on JP3. As shipped from CheckSum, the first MPX-3 module is set to a
base address of 672 decimal (2A0 hex, JP2 jumpers on positions 9, 7, and 5) and a Board
Select setting of 1 decimal (1 hex, JP3 jumper on position 0). The second MPX-3 module uses
the same Base Address and a Board Select setting of 2 decimal (2 hex, JP3 jumper on position
1). The third MPX-3 module uses the same Base Address and a Board Select setting of 3
decimal (3 hex, JP3 jumpers on positions 1 and 0).
Other base addresses can be used as long as they do not conflict with other modules installed
in that controller and as long as the Visual MDA software is configured to match the new base
address. Details about the specifics of setting the jumpers are in the following table, or you
can use the jumper settings as displayed in the Configure System > Modules screen of the
software.

4-7
System Installation Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Test Point MPX Module (MPX-3-200 or TR-8-1) Installation

JP2 JP3
Base Address Decimal (Hex) Board Select Decimal (Hex)
9*+ 512 (200 H) 7 128 (80 H)
8 256 (100 H) 6 64 (40 H)
7*+ 128 (80 H) 5 32 (20 H)
6 64 (40 H) 4 16 (10 H)
5*+ 32 (20 H) 3 8 (8 H)
2 4 (4 H)
1+ 2 (2 H)
0* 1 (1 H)

* first MPX-3 default + second MPX-3 default


Address and Board Select Jumper Settings for MPX-3-200 Module

Model TR-8-1 Address Settings


The TR-8-1 module base address jumpers are installed on JP2. As shipped from CheckSum,
the first TR-8-1 MPX is set to a base address of 776 decimal (308 hex, with jumpers on
positions 9, 8 and 3), the next MPX is set to a base address of 780 decimal (30C hex, jumpers
on positions 9, 8, 3 and 2), the next to 784 decimal (310 hex, with jumpers on positions 9, 8
and 4), and so on. Details about the specifics of setting the jumpers are shown in the following
table, or you can use the jumper settings as displayed in the Configure System > Modules
screen of the software.
Base Address Decimal (Hex)
9* 512 (200H)
8* 256 (100H)
7 128 (80H)
6 64 (40H)
5 32 (20H)
4 16 (10H)
3* 8 (8H)
2 4 (4H)

* first module default


Base Address Jumper Settings for TR-8-1 MPX Module

The base address is the sum of the values shown above for all of the positions that have
jumpers installed.
Step 2. Module Installation
For each MPX Module, install as described below. The instructions assume that you are
positioned in front of the computer, facing the front panel.

4-8
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Installation
Power Module Option Installation

If you are installing several cards, install them from right to left. Install the MPX Modules
with the addressing in sequential order, beginning on the left. Using this convention, it is
easier to keep track of the cabling.

Note
If there is a card installed in the slot to the left of the slot desired for the
MPX Module, temporarily remove it to provide additional working room.

1. Remove the blank slot cover from the desired slot. Save the screw for reinstallation in step
5.
2. Slide the card into the desired position, but without the board-edge fingers engaged into
the motherboard connector.
3. Position the bracket end of the MPX Module to the left to provide working room.

4. Install the first of the four cables to JP9 on the TR-8-1 MPX Module or to P4 on the MPX-
3-200 Module. Pin one (typically indicated by a tracer on the cable) should be toward the
bottom. Install the end of the cable without the white handle and strain relief to the MPX
Module. Fully seat the cable by pressing the cable connector onto its corresponding
header. If the cables are labeled, install the cable for the lowest test point for the module
(e.g. 1-50, 201-250,...).
5. Similarly, install the other three cables:
Test Points TR-8-1 MPX-3-200
51-100 JP8 P3
101-150 JP7 P2
151-200 JP6 P1

6. Ensure that the cables are nested in their proper position on the MPX Module's back panel
bracket.
7. Reposition the MPX Module over the motherboard connector and fully seat it.

8. Install the screw removed in step 1 through the top of the back panel bracket into the PC
chassis to hold the Module in place.

Power Module Option Installation


The Model PWR-2/TR-8-PWR module is installed in the test controller (PC) with the other
Model TR-8 test electronics. It requires one full-length, full-height slot. The signals are
provided via a 50-pin back-panel connector that accepts standard 50-pin ribbon cable
connectors, such as the AMP Latch series.
The PWR-2/TR-8-PWR Module can be installed in any 8 or 16-bit, full-length, full-height
controller slot. However, it should be installed in a position that provides adequate cooling.
The end slot (closest to the PC power supply) usually has maximum ventilation. If this slot
cannot be used, it is best to use a slot with no card installed in the adjacent slot on the
component side of the PWR-2/TR-8-PWR Module. Note that a 16-pin cable will be connected

4-9
System Installation Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Power Module Option Installation

between this module and the TR-8-1 MPX modules. Therefore, keep it in close proximity to
the MPX modules.
PWR-2 Address Settings
The PWR-2 is set to base address 672 decimal (2A0 hex) as the default. Internally it uses
sixteen PC I/O addresses. To obtain base address 672, there should be jumpers installed on
JP2 positions 9, 7, and 5. The Board Select address is set for 32 decimal (20 hex) with a
jumper on JP3 position 5.
Other base addresses can be used as long as they do not conflict with other modules installed
in that controller and as long as the Visual MDA software is configured to match the new base
address.
To change to another base address, install jumpers that add to the desired base address from
the table shown below:
JP2 JP3
Base Address Decimal (Hex) Board Select Decimal (Hex)
9* 512 (200 H) 7 128 (80 H)
8 256 (100 H) 6 64 (40 H)
7* 128 (80 H) 5* 32 (20 H)
6 64 (40 H) 4 16 (10 H)
5* 32 (20 H) 3 8 (8 H)
2 4 (4 H)
1 2 (2 H)
0 1 (1 H)

* default
Address and Board Select Jumper Settings for PWR-2 Module

TR-8-PWR Base Address


The Model TR-8-PWR is set to base address 544 decimal (220 hex, jumpers on 9 and 5) as the
default. Internally it uses sixteen PC I/O addresses.
Other base addresses can be used as long as they do not conflict with other modules installed
in that controller and as long as the Visual MDA software is configured to match the new base
address.
To change to another base address, install jumpers that add to the desired base address from
the table shown below:
Base Address Decimal (Hex)
9* 512 (200 H)
8 256 (100 H)
7 128 (80 H)
6 64 (40 H)
5* 32 (20 H)
4 16 (10 H)

*default

4-10
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Installation
Model GPIB IEEE-488 Interface Installation

Base Address Jumper Settings for TR-8-PWR Module

Model GPIB IEEE-488 Interface Installation


As the default, the System expects the following switch settings on the Model GPIB:
1. Base address 712 (2C8 hex) - (SW-1 switches are set to OFF for address positions A7, A6
and ON for address positions A8, A5, A4). Setting a switch to OFF for an address line
indicates the address must be a logic high to select this module. Note that the address
space used in this configuration is 712 (2C8 hex) to 719 (2CF hex). Other IO address
settings on A7 through A4 are also accepted as long as the setting does not conflict with
other hardware in the PC and the setting matches the Base Address displayed in the
module configuration window.
2. Wait states 0 (SW-11 switches W1 and W0=ON).

3. Firmware address segment setting 53248 (hex D000) - (SW-2 A18, A16=OFF, SW-2 A17,
A15, A14=ON). Other address segment settings (such as hex E000, E400, E800 or EC00)
are also accepted as long as the setting does not conflict with address space selection on
other cards.
4. Operating Mode Setting "A" (SW-3 "A").

5. DMA Level Setting DACK 3, DRQ 3 (jumper JP-1 on position 3, jumper JP-2 on position
3).
6. Interrupt Level 7 (jumper on JP-3 position 7).

The System, upon starting, looks for presence of a Model GPIB, and automatically finds the
firmware address jumper settings upon detection. If the configured GPIB IO address setting
does not match the detected GPIB module, then a question mark is displayed on the module
configuration window to the left of the GPIB entry. The system stores the IO address setting
when the system configuration is saved.

Model RM-1 Installation/Usage


The CheckSum Model RM-1 Relay Module can be installed into a test system to provide
undedicated switching of power or signals. It uses one short PC slot and has interconnections
via a d-Sub back panel connector. A mating connector is included with the Model RM-1.
The Model RM-1 is jumpered and installed as described in its individual instruction manual.
The default base address of 800-801 (320 - 321 hex) does not conflict with standard addressing
of other CheckSum hardware.
As defaults, the Model TR-8 expects the following switch settings on the Model RM-1:
1. Base address 800 (320 hex), SW-1 A8 & A5 = OFF; SW-1 A7 & A6 & A4 & A3 & A2
& A1 = ON

4-11
System Installation Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
HP-1 Installation

2. The other jumpers on the module are for setting digital input characteristics and are no-
care's as far as the Model TR-8 configuration is concerned. You should set them to meet
your testing requirements if you are using the module to do digital input.
To program the Model RM-1 using CheckSum Model TR-8 Software, the PORTO command
is used. Specify a range that matches the base address of the module (e.g., PORTO 800). The
high limit represents the byte of information to send to the module. The high limit value is
determined by adding the following values. The specified relays are closed and the remaining
relays are opened.
Relay to Close Value to Add to High Limit

Relay 1 1
Relay 2 2
Relay 3 4
Relay 4 8
Relay 5 16
Relay 6 32
Relay 7 64
Relay 8 128
Relay Programming Data for RM-1 Module

The RM-1 requires about 8 mSec for switch closure. To ensure that the relays are fully closed,
you can use a PAUSE command to delay sufficient time for switch closure.
The Model RM-1 also supports digital input. To access the digital input, use the PORTI
command using an address one higher than the base address. For example, if you are set to
base address 800, use PORTI 801 in order to read back information from the module.

HP-1 Installation
The Model HP-1 module is installed in the test controller (PC) with the other Model TR-8 test
electronics. It requires one full-length, full-height slot. The HP-1 Module can be installed in
any 8 or 16-bit, full-length, full-height controller slot. The signals are provided via a 50-pin
back-panel connector that accepts standard 50-pin ribbon cable connectors, such as the AMP
Latch series (see the HP-1 Connector on page 14-12 for back panel connections).
Base Address and Board Select Setup
The Model HP-1 is set to base address 672 decimal (2A0 hex, JP2 jumpers on positions 9, 7,
and 5) and a Board Select setting of 254 decimal (0FE hex, JP1 jumper on position 0) as the
default. Internally it uses sixteen PC I/O addresses. For this module, the board select address
is determined by subtracting the JP1 jumper value from 255.

4-12
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Installation
CR-2 Installation

Other base addresses can be used as long as they do not conflict with other modules installed
in that controller and as long as the Visual MDA software is configured to match the new base
address.
To change to another base address, install jumpers that add to the desired base address from
the table shown below:
JP2 JP1
Base Address Decimal (Hex) Board Select Decimal (Hex)
9*+ 512 (200 H) 7 128 (80 H)
8 256 (100 H) 6 64 (40 H)
7*+ 128 (80 H) 5 32 (20 H)
6 64 (40 H) 4 16 (10 H)
5*+ 32 (20 H) 3 8 (8 H)
2 4 (4 H)
1+ 2 (2 H)
0* 1 (1 H)

* first module default + second module default


Address and Board Select Jumper Settings for HP-1 Module

CR-2 Installation
The Model CR-2 module is installed in the test controller (PC) with the other Model TR-8 test
electronics. It requires one full-length, full-height slot. The CR-2 Module can be installed in
any 8 or 16-bit, full-length, full-height controller slot. The signals are provided via a 50-pin
back-panel connector that accepts standard 50-pin ribbon cable connectors, such as the AMP
Latch series (see the CR-2 Connector on page 14-13 for back panel connections). The low-
resistance, LoRes test type on page 22-33 requires a Model CR-2 module.
Base Address and Board Select Setup
The Model CR-2 modules are all set to Base Address 672 decimal (2A0 hex, JP1 jumpers on
positions 9, 7 and 5) as the default. The first CR-2 module Board Select address is set for 239
decimal (0EF hex, JP2 jumper on position 4) as the default. Internally it uses sixteen PC I/O
addresses. For this module, the board select address is determined by subtracting the JP2
jumper value from 255.
Other base addresses can be used as long as they do not conflict with other modules installed
in that controller and as long as the Visual MDA software is configured to match the new base
address.
To change to another base address, install jumpers that add to the desired base address from
the table shown below:

4-13
System Installation Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
TR-8-SMT / SMT-2 Installation

JP1 JP2
Base Address Decimal (Hex) Board Select Decimal (Hex)
9*+ 512 (200 H) 0+ 1 (1 H)
8 256 (100 H) 1+ 2 (2 H)
7*+ 128 (80 H) 2+ 4 (4 H)
6 64 (40 H) 3+ 8 (8 H)
5*+ 32 (20 H) 4* 16 (10 H)
5 32 (20 H)
6 64 (40 H)
7 128 (80 H)

* first CR-2 default + second CR-2 default


Address and Board Select Jumper Settings for CR-2 Module

TR-8-SMT / SMT-2 Installation


The CheckSum Model SMT-2 or the TR-8-SMT Module is installed in an unused slot in the
controller. The SMT Module occupies one short 8-bit slot and has a standard 50-pin ribbon-
cable backpanel connector for connection to the top probes and an optional fixture relay.
The default address for the first TR-8-SMT Module is 560 (230 hex, JP1 jumpers on positions
9, 5, and 4). SMT probes number 1-24 are connected to this module.
If you have a TR-8-SMT-EXP Module, the default base address is 562 (232 hex, JP1 jumpers
on positions 9, 5, 4 and 1). SMT probes number 25-48 are connected to this module.

JP1
Base Address Decimal (Hex)
9*+ 512 (200 H)
8 256 (100 H)
7 128 (80 H)
6 64 (40 H)
5*+ 32 (20 H)
4*+ 16 (10 H)
3 8 (8 H)
2 4 (4 H)
1+ 2 (2 H)

* first module default + second default


Base Address Jumper Settings TR-8-SMT Modules

The base address is the sum of the values shown above for all of the positions that have
jumpers installed.

4-14
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Installation
TR-8-SMT-CAP Installation

The default address for the first SMT-2 Module is 672 decimal (2A0 hex, JP2 jumpers on
positions 9, 7, and 5) and a Board Select setting of 41 decimal (29 hex, JP3 jumper on
positions 5, 3 and 0). SMT probes number 1-24 are connected to this module.
If you have a SMT-EXP Module, the default base address is 672 decimal (2A0 hex, JP2
jumpers on positions 9, 7, and 5) and a Board Select setting of 42 decimal (2A hex, JP2 jumper
on positions 5, 3 and 1). SMT probes number 25-48 are connected to this module.

JP1 JP2
Base Address Decimal (Hex) Board Select Decimal (Hex)
9*+ 512 (200 H) 7 128 (80 H)
8 256 (100 H) 6 64 (40 H)
7*+ 128 (80 H) 5*+ 32 (20 H)
6 64 (40 H) 4 16 (10 H)
5*+ 32 (20 H) 3*+ 8 (8 H)
2 4 (4 H)
1+ 2 (2 H)
0* 1 (1 H)

* first module default + second module default


Address and Board Select Jumper Settings for SMT-2 Modules

Additional modules can be installed to expand the SMT probe count up to 384 for SMT-2 and
192 for TR-8-SMT / SMT-CAP. The default base addresses/jumper positions for additional
modules can be obtained by adding modules in the Configure System Modules window and
noting the assigned base addresses/jumper positions.

Note
In order to use CheckSum's TestJet Technology, the first module must be a
SMT- 2 or TR-8-SMT module. All other modules can be -EXP expansion
modules. If you do not use this configuration, the system will not perform
TestJet test steps.

TR-8-SMT-CAP Installation
The CheckSum Model TR-8-SMT-CAP Module is installed in an unused slot in the controller.
The TR-8-SMT-CAP Module occupies one short 8-bit slot and has a standard 50-pin ribbon-
cable backpanel connector for connection to the capacitance top probes.
The Model TR-8-SMT-CAP Modules are installed and jumpers installed exactly like Model
TR-8-SMT Modules. The default base addresses for modules one through eight are 576-577
decimal (1-24), 578-579 (25-48), 580-581 (49-72), 582-583 (73-96), 584-585 (97-120), 586-
587 (121-144), 588-589 (145-168), and 590-591 (169-192).

4-15
System Installation Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Model T-120-2 Strip Printer Installation

Model T-120-2 Strip Printer Installation


The Model T-120-2 Strip Printer can be used to print test results in a compact form. The
Model T-120-2 is available in either parallel (-2P, standard) or serial (-2S, no-cost option)
configurations. Both include the appropriate cable. Normally, the parallel printer connects to
the LPT1 connector, and the serial version connects to the COM1 connector on the back of the
controller.
The serial printer has a DIP switch located under a cover on the bottom of the printer (see the
printer manual). In the printer, set DIP switch 6 and switch 7 to OFF to configure the printer
for 1200 baud. Be sure to turn-off the power before changing the switch settings. The printer
baud rate is set at power-up of the printer. All the other switch settings are normally in the ON
position.
For the serial printer, you also need to specify to the System the baud rate and other
communication parameters. The values are entered into the `External Hardware' page of the
Configure System screen. The default values are baud rate 1200, data bits 8, retry action
polling, parity none, and stop bits 1. Also, set the report width to 40, and blank lines at end to
6.
Finally, for the parallel printer specify "LPT1" as the output device in the Configure System >
External Hardware > Test Report Device menu. Set it to "COM1" if you have the serial
printer. Once changed, saving the station configuration data on disk will save the setting for
future use. Prior to use, check that the printer ribbon and paper are installed and that the printer
is switched to the on-line position before printing results.
If you encounter any problems, see In Case of Problems on page 17-1 in the Trouble Shooting
section.

Model G-80 Installation


If you have purchased a CheckSum Model G-80 Digital I/O Module with your System, it is
installed just like the Model TR-8 Modules. Since only one G-80 module can be used with a
TR-8 system, be sure the Board Select jumper on JP1 is in position 1. Refer to the Model G-
80 Instruction Manual for details.
As the default, the Model TR-8 expects the Model G-80 Base Address to be 512 (JP2 jumpers
on positions 8, 7, 6 and 5) and board select to be 1 (JP1 jumper on Board Select 1).
JP2
Base Address Decimal (Hex)
9 512 (200 H)
8* 256 (100 H)
7* 128 (80 H)
6* 64 (40 H)
5* 32 (20 H)
Base Address Jumper Settings for G-80 Module

4-16
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Installation
DIG-1 Digital I/O Module Installation

The base address is the sum of the values shown above for all of the positions that have
jumpers not installed.

DIG-1 Digital I/O Module Installation


The DIG-1 module is installed in the test controller (PC) with the other test system electronics.
Each DIG- 1 module requires one short slot. The signals are provided via a 50-pin back-panel
connector that accepts standard 50-pin ribbon cable connectors, such as the AMP Latch series.
The DIG-1 Module can be installed in any 8 or 16-bit, full-length, full-height controller slot.
DIG-1 Base Address and Board Select Address
The DIG-1 modules are all set to Base Address 672 decimal (2A0 hex, JP1 jumpers on
positions 9, 7 and 5) as the default. The first DIG-1 module Board Select address is set for 33
decimal (21 hex, JP2 jumpers on positions 5 and 0). The second DIG-1 module Board Select
address would be set for 34 decimal (22 hex, JP2 jumpers on positions 5 and 1).
Other base addresses can be used as long as they do not conflict with other modules installed
in that controller and as long as the Visual MDA software is configured to match the new base
address.
To change to another base address, install jumpers that add to the desired base address from
the table shown below:
JP1 JP2
Base Address Decimal (Hex) Board Select Decimal (Hex)
9*+ 512 (200 H) 7 128 (80 H)
8 256 (100 H) 6 64 (40 H)
7*+ 128 (80 H) 5*+ 32 (20 H)
6 64 (40 H) 4 16 (10 H)
5*+ 32 (20 H) 3 8 (8 H)
2 4 (4 H)
1+ 2 (2 H)
0* 1 (1 H)

* first module default + second module default


Address and Board Select Jumper Settings for DIG-1 Module

Completing the Hardware Installation


As a final step in the hardware installation process, it is necessary to install the internal bus
cabling inside the PC between the various test modules.
With a standard TR-8 System, a 16-pin analog bus carries the signals from the TR-8 System
Module (JP1) to all of the MPX-3-200/TR-8-1 MPX modules (JP1).

4-17
System Installation Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Software Installation

With a combined TR-8/FUNC-2 or TR-8/TR-6 System, the 16-pin bus is connected from the
TR-8 (JP1) to the FUNC-2/TR-6 (JP2), and another bus connects from the FUNC-2/TR-6
(JP3) to the MPX-3/200/TR-8-1 MPX Modules (JP1).
Step 1. For a standard Model TR-8 MDA System, connect the 16-pin ribbon cable between
the Model TR-8 System Module and all installed Model MPX-3-200/TR-8-1 MPX
Modules. The cable connects between JP1 on each Module. If you have a PWR-
2/TR-8-PWR Module, the 16-pin bus should also connect to JP1 on this module. If
you need a cable with a different number of connectors than that delivered with your
System, contact CheckSum to obtain a cable with the necessary number of
connectors.
If you are also installing a Model FUNC-2/TR-6 Module, a short 16-pin bus cable is
connected from JP1 on the TR-8 to JP2 on the FUNC-2/TR-6 Module. Connect the
16-pin bus from JP1 on each of the TR-8-1(s) to JP3 on the FUNC-2/TR-6 Module.
Connect a 2-wire bus cable from JP5 on the FUNC-2/TR-6 Module to JP2 on each
TR-6-1 board.
If you need to install any accessories, refer to the following section before putting the
cover back on the PC.
Step 2. Reinstall the cover of the PC.
Step 3. Reconnect power to the PC and turn on power.

Software Installation
The next step of the installation procedure entails installing Visual MDA Software in your
computer.
The controller (PC) should consist of a 100 MHz or faster processor with a minimum of 8 MB
of RAM. For best performance, a PC of 200 MHz or faster with 32 MB of RAM is
recommended. To allow room for the Visual MDA software and test programs, it is
recommended that your disk drive have at least 10 MB of room. The controller should be pre-
loaded with Windows 3.1 or Windows 95/98 software.
The System uses the main executable file VISMDA.EXE that is accessed during some
operations. It also uses the configuration file $TR8$.DAT (or in some cases $TR$.DAT) that
contains information specific to your installation (calibration constants, hardware setup, data
paths,...). It also contains the files GPIB.EXE, GPIB.PIF, and the Help files.
As a default, the installation procedure installs Visual MDA into a new subdirectory called
C:\CHECKSUM. Normally, the directory below CHECKSUM, named SPECFILE is used for
test programs. You can change the selection of the test program subdirectory in the Configure
System > Environment > Directories / Locations menu screen.
Insert the Visual MDA software distribution disk in your computer.
To install the software, use the Windows RUN command to invoke setup.exe on the
installation disk. Follow the instructions of the installation procedure.

4-18
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Installation
Completing the Software Installation

When you are done with installation, remove the Visual MDA software and store it in a safe
place.
Start the Visual MDA software by using the mouse to double-click on the MDA icon, or use
the run menu-item to invoke VISMDA.EXE in the CHECKSUM directory. If you encounter
any display problems, see the section In Case of Problems on page 17-1.

Completing the Software Installation


At this point, you should see the system screen, which is called the Main System window. This
is the starting window for all System operations.

Main System Window

Software installation is complete at this time.

Refer to Modules Configuration on page 5-3 to learn how to run self-test on the modules and
alter the system configuration to meet your specific needs. This needs to be done as part of the
installation process.
For each of the CheckSum Modules installed in the System, there is a configuration shown (or
available). In most cases, upon shipment, the configuration of your hardware will already be
initialized.

4-19
System Installation Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Connection to the UUT

Connection to the UUT


Once you have installed the System hardware and software, you are ready to connect your
unit-under-test (UUT) to the System. The UUT is connected via the 50-pin ribbon cables
available at the back of the controller.
You may choose to obtain a fixturing system directly from CheckSum or design your own.
If you are using a CheckSum Fixturing System, refer to the manual obtained with the Fixturing
System for specifics of connection.
If you are connecting to your own fixturing, you need to connect the test points available via
the ribbon cables to your UUT.

Test Points (TR-8-1 or MPX-3)


On the Test Point MPX Modules (TR-8-1 or MPX-3-200), the rightmost 50-pin connector
(when facing the component side of the module) contains test points 1-50, the next connector
contains test points 51-100, and so on. The pin-out for test points 1-50 is shown below. The
pin-out for the other test points is the same except add 50, 100 or 150 to each test point number
shown in the figure as appropriate.

50 49 49 50
48 47 47 48
46 45 45 46
44 43 43 44
42 41 41 42
40 39 39 40
38 37 37 38
36 35 35 36
34 33 33 34
32 31 31 32
30 29 29 30
28 27 27 28
26 25 Key Key 25 26
24 23 23 24
22 21 21 22
20 19 19 20
18 17 17 18
16 15 15 16
14 13 13 14
12 11 11 12
10 9 9 10
8 7 7 8
6 5 5 6
4 3 3 4
2 1 Red Stripe 1 2

Header on MPX Module Cable Connector

Model TR-8-1 or MPX-3 Test Point Pin-Out


(when facing header on MPX Module and at the end of the cable)

4-20
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Installation
Connection Guidelines

If you have installed the jumpers as suggested, the pin-out will start at test point 1 on the
rightmost cable (when facing the back of your computer) and increase by 50 for each cable. If
you are confused, use the System's probing feature to probe each cable for identification.
If you have other Modules in your System, refer to Wiring Diagrams on page 14-1 for the
back panel pin-out of each connector.

Connection Guidelines
Following are some guidelines for use when wiring for MDA testing.
You should consider the use of external sense points when designing the fixture. In many
cases, when measuring or guarding low-impedance components (below about 100 ), better
measurement results can be obtained by making a 4-wire connection all the way to the UUT,
allowing the voltages to be sensed as close to the component being measured as possible. A
recommended practice is to always wire an extra connection to the UUT's ground and to each
of its power supplies.
There are three ways to wire an external sense point, all of which work well:
1. Install two probes on the desired network.

2. Connect two wires going to the same probe.

3. Connect two test points together at the end of the cables coming from the MPX Module. If
you would like to have groups of 50 test points all wired with external sense points, a
special loop-back Kelvin cable can be used. Each end of the Kelvin cable connects to a
header on the MPX Module, then it has a 50-pin receptacle mounted in the middle of the
cable that you connect to your fixture.
If you are going to be performing any digital testing with the TR-8-1 test points, connect the
signals that you want to multiplex between analog and digital to the first 16 test points on each
module. Connect the output and inputs together on each byte (1-8 and 9-16) since the bytes
are enabled as inputs and/or outputs as a whole (see the DIGA test type description in Digital
Active on page 22-48 for details).

Caution
It is very important that the MDA System test points are not exposed to
voltages greater than +12V or less than -12V referenced to the controller
chassis. Doing so will damage the test system.

4-21
System Installation Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Connection Guidelines

4-22
Chapter 5
System Configuration

Overview
The Configure System screen is used to either temporarily or permanently change the
configuration of the System. This applies to characteristics such as printer configuration,
report configuration, automatic reporting, hardware setup, and so on.
Almost all of the attributes configured into the System can be saved on the System disk with
the 'Save' button of the Configure System screen.
If you use password protection, users cannot access the Configure System screen without
permission. This provides System integrity against accidental configuration changes.

Configure System Menu


System Configuration Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Connection Guidelines

Modules allows you to enter the hardware configuration of CheckSum Modules in the
System, and to perform self-test on them. See Modules Configuration on page 5-3.
Environment allows you to enter information about the configuration of system reports,
the directory structure for the system, and password protection. See Environment
Configuration on page 5-11.
External Hardware allows you to enter information about the configuration of printer
devices, beeper, and footswitch. See External Hardware on page 5-23.
Fixture allows you to enter information about the configuration of your fixturing system.
The fixture selection determines the connector information shown in the Connector
column of the Modules screen and in the fixture wiring reports. See Fixture on page 5-25.
Login User allows you to enter a user (operator) name into the System. If the system is
configured with login names turned on, a user must be logged in at all times. Optionally, a
password may be required for each user. The system can be configured so that different
users have different access privileges and may see different menu options. Login
privileges are defined in the 'Configure System' section of the software that can be
accessed from the main screen.
Configure System Screen
Picking one of the first four entries causes the Configure System Window to appear with the
appropriate tab selected as shown in the following figure for Modules Configuration.

Configure System Screen

5-2
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Configuration
Modules Configuration

Save Button
The Save button is used to save your configuration selections to the disk drive. When you
save the configuration, each time you restart Visual MDA Software you will not need to
reconfigure your System. The configuration file is transparent to you. It is named
"$TR8$.DAT" and is stored in the same directory as the Visual MDA Software. Selection of
'Save' saves the report configuration, automatic reporting configuration, the I/O module
configuration, the active points, the measurement characteristics, the printout configuration
parameters, the passwords, the default CAD format, and the System calibration constants.
With a command line parameter, you can also specify an alternate path for the configuration
file. This is useful in networking environments so that test systems on the network can share
the same MDA executable file but have their own unique calibration and configuration data.
Print Button
You can use the Print button to print out the contents of the displayed page for internal
documentation purposes. Select Print To File to create a text file that can be stored and
emailed as an attachment.

Modules Configuration
The Modules page is used to specify the hardware configuration of CheckSum Modules in
your controller. With its use, you can specify how many modules you have, their address
jumpers, and their connection to the fixture system. With this screen you also run self-test on
the modules to ensure that they are operating properly and to self-calibrate them. The Print
feature can be used to document the configuration. Print To File allows you to create a text
file that can be stored and emailed as an attachment. The Modules page is shown in the
following figure.

5-3
System Configuration Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Modules Configuration

Modules Page

Module Configuration
The top section of the Modules page shows a list of the CheckSum modules in the System.
Each line represents one slot in the computer. Note that the module order does not necessarily
have to match the order in your controller, although as you insert modules, a logical order is
used by the System as a default. The Modify button, or double-click on a selection, can be
used to change most entries.
The Auto Detect button can be used to detect some modules automatically. The system
searches for modules having the board select feature and inserts any modules that it finds.
This feature only works for modules that have a board select address. Any modules in the list
that are not detected are removed.

Note
A question mark on the left side of the line of a module that has a board
select address indicates that the module does not appear to be present at the
specified base address and/or board select setting. A question mark at the
left side of a GPIB module indicates that it is installed in the system but
does not appear to be at the specified base address.

The Module column shows the name of each module.


The Points column shows the test points used by the module.

5-4
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Configuration
Modules Configuration

The Base Address column shows the base I/O address used by the module. Except for
modules that have board select addressing (see the discussion of board select addressing in
the next paragraph), the I/O addresses cannot overlap, or conflict with other hardware that
is installed in the System, such as ISA network cards, modems, or sound cards. The
addresses can be shown in decimal or hexadecimal, the 'Address Mode' button is used to
select the preferred mode.
The Jumpers column shows the jumper positions on the module that will achieve the
specified address.
The Addresses column shows the I/O address range currently specified for the
module. You can change either the jumper or addresses by clicking on the 'Modify'
button. If you change either the address or the jumpers, the System will change the
other accordingly. If you numerically enter the base address, the System will not
accept numbers that cannot be set by the jumpers for that module.
Board Select column: Some CheckSum Modules can also accommodate board select
addressing. Board select addressing can allow multiple modules to share the same I/O
address space. Modules that have board select addressing have an additional jumper that
specifies the module address within the I/O space. For example you may have two
modules at base address 672. One has a board select address of 1 and the second of 2.
Modification of the board select address columns (jumpers and addresses) works just like
those of the corresponding base address columns.
The Interface column specifies which fixture receiver interface connectors that the
module will be connected. For example, if J1 is specified, the System expects that the
module will be connected to J1 on the fixture receiver. If the module has more than one
connector (like the MPX-3-200 or TR-8-1 MPX modules), the listed connector is the first
connector of the module, then the others are added in sequence. The entries in this field
are used for the Wire Run Report (I/F Block column) to document your interface block
(I/F Block) connections.
The Relay Bus column specifies the internal 2-wire relay bus connection. Not all modules
support connection to this 2-wire bus.
Module Specific allows entry and control of settings unique to a module.
Print
You can use the Print button to print out the contents of the displayed page for internal
documentation purposes. Select Print To File to create a text file that can be stored and
emailed as an attachment.
Other Configure topics:
Adding/Deleting Modules on page 5-6
Reverting/Saving Configuration Information on page 5-6
Module Self-Test on page 5-6
System Module on page 5-7
Multiplexer (MPX) Modules on page 5-8
Functional Test Module on page 5-9
Other Modules on page 5-10

5-5
System Configuration Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Adding/Deleting Modules

Adding/Deleting Modules
If you want to add a new module to the System configuration, use the 'Add Module' button.
With this button, you obtain a list of the module types that can be added. When you choose
one, it is added to the configuration table. It is assigned a default base address, and location in
the table. The location, while not required, is one that should work well with the internal
cabling. You can select a module in the configuration with the mouse, then use the 'Delete'
button to eliminate it from the list.

Reverting/Saving Configuration Information


If you modify your configuration unsuccessfully, you can recover with the 'Revert' button.
Once you have selected this function, you can elect to either reset the screen to the factory
default settings, or to reset it to the values when you started Visual MDA.
The 'Save' feature can be used to save the settings and self-test calibration data on the disk.
You should always save the configuration settings after running self-test or changing the
configuration of your system so that the changes will be available next time you start up the
VISMDA software. When you save the settings, everything in all the Configure System pages
are saved on the disk.

Built-In Self-Test
You can use the 'Self-Test' button to invoke a self-test on the currently selected module.
Normally, you should start at the top of the configuration table, and work down module-by-
module.
Self-test provides several basic functions. It calibrates the system speed so that the System
will operate correctly in a wide variety of processor environments. It then checks the modules
in your system to ensure that they are functional. Finally, it calibrates the modules, as
appropriate, to on-board calibration standards.
You should select the System Module first, then do each MPX-3-200 or TR-8-1 (MPX)
Module. The order is important (especially the first time when you install the System) since
the System Module is used to self-test and characterize the MPX modules. After installation,
to ensure proper operation, you should run self-test/calibration on every Module in your
System. Thereafter, you should run self-test twice a year or if you suspect any problems with
the System's operation.
When self-test has started, follow the prompts until it is completed. It will report any errors
that it finds.

5-6
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Configuration
Self-Test of the System Module

Beside each module that has been self-tested, you will see a green check to show that it has
passed, or a red X that shows it has failed. A smaller check mark indicates the self-test was
canceled before it finished and no failures were found. The "?" indicates that the system was
not able to locate the module as defined. Check the addressing specification in this case.
If external confirmation of Model TR-8 operation is necessary in your installation, you can
order the optional Model CM-3 Calibration Verification Module as an external reference to
provide traceability. The Model CM-3 includes a module with reference components and a
test program that tests the system against the value of the components on the CM-3. You can
send the CM-3 to a traceable laboratory if you wish for the component values to be
characterized (measured). You then can enter the characterized values, and have the System
measure against these to ensure that it is measuring within specifications.

Note
Ensure that no test assemblies are connected during the self-test.
Otherwise, you may get incorrect test results.

In the event that a failure occurs, you are presented with an error message describing the nature
of the failure.
When the test is complete, it is important that you save the System configuration data on the
disk with use of the 'Save' button of the Configure System screen. When you save the
configuration data, it saves the newly determined calibration constants on the disk drive so that
they will not be lost when you power down the computer or complete your use of the Visual
MDA Software.
If you see massive self-test failures, it is likely to be an installation or compatibility problem.
If you see one (or a few) repeatable failures, you can suspect a module hardware failure. In
this case return the System to CheckSum for checkout or call CheckSum for help.

Self-Test of the System Module


The TR-8 System Module self-test confirms proper operation of the system module, calibrates
system speed, and measures gains and offsets for a variety of measurement methods and
ranges against on-board standards.
The System Module screen also allows you to use a 'Probe Setup' button to provide additional
control over how the system performs probing. This screen is shown in the figure below.
With this screen you can alter the threshold at which the system will report a probed point.
The default, 10, works well in most applications. The scan delay tells the System how long
to wait between probed points. If your System is reporting a few false probed points, it may be
due to capacitance in the probed assembly. Changing the scan delay can help eliminate these
problems. Finally, you can alter whether the System scans all the MPX test points in the
System, or just those that are set as active in the Enter/Edit Continuity Data screen. If you
have a large point-count System and are only using a subset of the points, you can speed up
probing by only probing the active points.

5-7
System Configuration Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Self-Test of MPX Modules

Configure Probe Screen

Self-Test of MPX Modules


The self-test of the MPX-3-200 or TR-8-1 MPX modules functionally tests each test point,
then it measures and stores the zero-offset for each MPX test point path to compensate for
resistance internal to the MPX Module and in the cabling from the System.
To perform the zero-offset calibration, the System asks you to short each group of 50 pins on
the MPX Module. To do this, a 200-pin shorting fixture plate or a 50-pin shorting fixture is
used.
Shorting Fixture Plate
The 200-pin shorting fixture plate is used when executing self-test on a CheckSum MDA test
system with the Quick-Change fixture interface, such as the TR-7-1000-QC, TR-9-1000-QC,
TR-7-2000-QC, TR-7-3000-QC, TR-5-400-QC, TR-5-600-QC, and TR-5-800-QC. The size
of the shorting fixture plate is approximately 2.9 by 1.35 by 0.06 inches.

Shorting Fixture Plate 200-pin

Top Side - Conductive Foil Bottom Side - Indentations


When running self-test on each module, you will be asked to install a shorting fixture on test
points 1-50, then 51-100, and so on. When prompted for points 1-50, install the shorting
fixture plate over the targets on the left-most block of a fixture kit, with the foil side up. The
indentations (slots) should fit over the targets on the fixture kit. With the shorting fixture plate
placed on the left-most block, carefully install the fixture kit into the fixture press. The top foil
will short together test points 1-200. You can leave it installed for the entire MPX module
(points 51-100, 101-150, and 151-200). When testing the next MPX module (points 201-400)

5-8
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Configuration
Self-Test of Functional Test Module

and prompted to install the shorting fixture, remove the fixture kit and then move the shorting
fixture plate to the next 200- pin block to the right, re-install the fixture kit, and so on.
If your system includes a Model TR-6, do not install this shorting fixture plate on the interface
block with the TR-6. Doing so will short out the power supplies on the module and blow the
fuses.
Shorting Fixture
The 50-pin shorting fixture is used when executing self-test on a CheckSum MDA test system
without a Quick-Change fixture interface. When prompted to install the shorting fixture,
install the shorting fixture on the end of each ribbon cable coming from the MPX Modules.
When requested to short the next 50 pins, remove the shorting fixture (by use of the ejection
levers) and move it to the next cable. The size of the shorting fixture (50-pin shorting
connector) is approximately 3.25 by 0.65 by 0.35 inches.

Shorting Fixture 50-pin


Note
When facing the back of the computer, pins 1-50 are the rightmost cable
coming from each MPX Module, pins 51-100 are the next cable to the left,
and so on.

Self-Test of Functional Test Module


If you have a Model FUNC-2 or TR-6 Functional Test Option, you can use the self-test button
to invoke self-test. Since calibration of the Functional Test Option requires the use of external
standards, you can invoke external calibration as well. This process involves bringing
calibrated standards to the System and using them to confirm proper operation and update the
calibration constants for the Functional Test Option to provide the best accuracy. The Model
TR-6 External Calibration screen is shown in the following figure:

5-9
System Configuration Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Other Modules

External Calibration Screen

The Functional Test Option external calibration should be run twice a year to ensure full
accuracy. The external calibration determines calibration offsets and gains to external
standards. The external standards are an AC/DC source (e.g., Fluke 5100) and a DMM with
current measuring capability (e.g., Fluke 8840). The standards (which include those
mentioned) should be at least 4 times the accuracy of the Model TR-6 for the necessary
functions. Stimulus points necessary include DCV at .19V, .57V, 1.9V, 5.7V, and 19V, ACV
of 5.7V at 100Hz, and 19V at 100 Hz and 10 kHz. Measurement capability of 100mA is also
necessary.
The External Calibration screen displays the calibration constants that are currently saved.
You can manually move to a position and change each number, but you should not do so
unless you are restoring values determined earlier for the same hardware.

Other Modules
If you have other optional CheckSum modules installed in your test system, self-test is
normally available for each module type. Follow the prompts when executing self-test, and
see the Chapter describing the Module for any special requirements regarding the Module.

5-10
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Configuration
Environment Configuration

Environment Configuration
The Environment page is used to specify the configuration of reporting, directory structure,
and user accounts. The Environment Configuration screen is shown in the following figure.

Environment Configuration Screen

Topic details:
Configure Reporting below
Configure Directories/Locations on page 5-19
Manage User Accounts on page 5-20

Configure Reporting
With the 'Configure Reporting' button of the Environment page, you can obtain the Configure
Reporting screen shown in the following figure. This screen is used to specify report formats,
SPC logging and automatic reporting for the System.
The Configure Reporting screen works like a standard Windows tab-oriented selection page.
Clicking the tab at the top of the screen, shows the setup items for the selection:
General on page 5-12
SPC Logging on page 5-13
Automatic Test Results Report on page 5-14

5-11
System Configuration Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Configure Reporting

Batch Report on page 5-15


Test Program on page 5-16
Test Results on page 5-17

Configure Reporting Screen - General

The following is a description of the items on each tab:


General tab:
Facility Name allows entry of a string of characters that is included in the test result
reports. For example, you can use this to list items such as your company name or testing
department.
System ID allows entry of a string of characters that can be used to specify the name of
the tester that is used. This is typically used in companies that you have multiple test
stations. The contents of this string are included in the test result reports.
Page Headers/Footers allows you to turn on and off data that is included in the header of
each page in the System reports. The items that you can turn on and off include the report
type, the System ID, the date/time, and the page number. As default, these items are all
turned on.
Viewer allows you to specify what application is used to view reports. The default is
'WordPad', part of the Windows standard operating software.
Date Format allows you to specify the format used for reports.

5-12
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Configuration
Configure Reporting

SPC Logging tab:

Configure Reporting Screen - SPC Logging

Statistics Data Logged is used to turn on or off SPC logging and specify how much data
is saved from testing for SPC analysis. If the box is not checked, no test results data is
saved. If it is turned on (box is checked) 'Summary' information about the test such as
pass/fail status, test time, operator, serial number and so on is saved. No detailed test step
results are saved unless either the Pass or Fail Results box is checked.
Pass Results saves detailed information about the test steps that pass.
Fail Results saves detailed information about the test steps that fail.
Most installations that use SPC logging save Fail Results information. This allows you to
obtain Production Reports and Pareto Charts. When you are debugging test programs, it is
normal to save Pass Results. This allows you to obtain X-Bar/Sigma reports for fine-
tuning the test program.
Operator Name specifies whether the SPC data contains the operator name. The operator
name is taken from the login name.
Path allows you to specify which directory your statistics data files will be saved in. The
statistics data is saved in comma-delimited ASCII files. Each day, a new file is generated that
is named YYYYMMDD.DAT. For example, the SPC data file name generated on September
15, 2003 is named ' 20030915.DAT'.

5-13
System Configuration Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Configure Reporting

Automatic Test Results Report tab:

Configure Reporting Screen - Automatic Test Results Report

Automatic Test Results Report can be turned on or off. This allows you to specify
reporting that happens automatically after testing. Report On allows you to specify 'all
assemblies' (always print a test report), or 'failed assemblies' (print a report if the assembly
fails). Most installations that use automatic reporting specify failure-only reports (see
Type). Send to allows you to direct the test report to one of several destinations. You can
choose a printer connected to one of the printer or COM ports, or to a file. If a file name is
specified, the file is appended with each new report. Type allows you to specify what the
test report contains. You can choose between failure data only or all test results. Most
installations choose to use reports that contain failure data only. Filename and Path
specify a file that will contain the test reports if the box is checked (enabled).
Automatic Batch Report can be turned on or off. If turned on, the System automatically
generates a batch report each time a new test program is loaded, or the operator returns to
the Main System screen.
Send Automatic Batch Report to allows you to direct the batch report to one of several
destinations. You can choose a printer connected to one of the printer or COM ports, or to
a file. If a file name is specified, the file is appended with each new report.
Automatic Batch Report Data Path specifies a directory name that will contain the test
reports if you have specified 'Send Automatic Batch Report to a file.

5-14
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Configuration
Configure Reporting

Batch Report tab:

Configure Reporting Screen - Batch Report

Batch Report Header Special Line allows you to include a special string of text in the
batch report header. You may enter a line of up to 32 characters. If nothing is entered, the
reports do not contain this special line. If something is entered, it is placed in the header of
the report, left justified. If the line contains a colon, the information before the colon
(including the colon) is placed in the left column, and the information after the colon is
placed in the second column aligned with the other header items. This special line of text
can be used for any information that you would like included in the batch report.

5-15
System Configuration Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Configure Reporting

Test Program tab:

Configure Reporting Screen - Test Program

Show Details on Test Program allows you to specify some of the attributes of the data
included in the body of the test program. With this selection, you can specify whether the
test program printout shows all of the individual details of the CONTinuity test, the ICs
test, and the Fixture Check tests. This detailed information is necessary if you want to
know all of the measurements that the system is making, but for listing brevity, you can
exclude this information.
Special Line allows you to include a special string of text in the test program report
header. You may enter a line of up to 32 characters. If nothing is entered, the reports do
not contain this special line. If something is entered, it is placed in the header of the
report, left justified. If the line contains a colon, the information before the colon
(including the colon) is placed in the left column, and the information after the colon is
placed in the second column aligned with the other header items. This special line of text
can be used for any special information that you would like included in the reports.

5-16
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Configuration
Configure Reporting

Test Results tab:

Configure Reporting Screen - Test Results

Report Format Width, Column Formats, and Max Lines allow you to customize the
reports to meet your requirements. Max Lines (per UUT) allow you to limit the total
report length. By limiting the maximum number of lines, you can prevent excessively
long reports that result from catastrophic failures, such as when the test is started without a
UUT present. For panelized assemblies, the MAX Lines limit is applied separately to each
PCB tested. A length of 0 allows for unlimited lines. If you are using a CheckSum Model
T-120-2, select the 40-column width setting. If you are using a standard 80-column
printer, select the 80-column width setting.
Column Format Modify selection displays a window to control the test and batch reports.
With this selection, you obtain the Configure 80/40 Column Formats Screen shown in the
following figure. In this screen, you can chose which items that you want to include in the
report, and the order in which they occur. To eliminate an item from the list, click on the
line, then press the 'Delete' button. To add a new field to the list, click on a field in the list
and press the 'Insert' key. You can then select the field to add. To change the order, click
on the item that you wish to reorder, then use the up and down arrow buttons to move it to
the desired position. The 'Default' button returns the screen to the factory defaults.

5-17
System Configuration Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Configure Reporting

Configure 80/40 Column Formats

Test Report Headers allows you to turn on and off data that is included in the header of
the test report. The items that you can turn on and off include dashed lines, test title, test
facility, assembly name, total failures, date/time, model ID, column headers, UUT serial
number, batch ID, system ID, and operator name (login name).
Test Report Headers Special Line allows you to include a special string of text in the test
report header. You may enter a line of up to 32 characters. If nothing is entered, the
reports do not contain this special line. If something is entered, it is placed in the header of
the report, left justified. If the line contains a colon, the information before the colon
(including the colon) is placed in the left column, and the information after the colon is
placed in the second column aligned with the other header items. This special line of text
can be used for any information that you would like included in the reports. For example,
if you would like to have the operator initial each test report, you could use the entry
'Operator Initials:__________'.

Additional lines can be added at the end of the header section and at the beginning of the
body of the test report. These additional lines are only added if special files exist in the
test system software installation directory (normally C:\CHECKSUM). The names of two
of these files are $RHDR$.DAT and $RBODY$.DAT. The contents of the $RHDR$.DAT
file are added to the end of the header section. The contents of the $RBODY$.DAT file
are added at the beginning of the body of the test report. Two other temporary files can
also be used for this purpose, the names of these two additional temporary files are
$RHDRT$.DAT and $RBODYT$.DAT. The contents are added in the same sections of
the test report. You need to write (see MEMS) these temporary files during the test
program since the files are automatically deleted by the system each time the test program
is executed.

5-18
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Configuration
Configure Directories/Locations

Get UUT Serial Number allows you to configure the system for serial number tracking of
UUTs. With this option, you can specify that the operator enters the serial number 'After
testing', 'Before testing', 'When Reported', or 'No' for no entry. At the point of execution
that you specify, the System displays a dialog box for entry of the serial number. It can be
typed in, or if you have a wedge-style bar-code scanner on your System, it can be bar-
coded in. Wedge-style bar-code scanners make the bar-coded data look just like operator
entry.
Get Batch ID allows you to configure the system for tracking batch numbers or
identifiers. With this option, you can specify that the operator enters the batch (or lot) ID
'After testing', 'Before testing', 'When Reported', or 'No' for no entry. At the point of
execution that you specify, the System displays a dialog box for entry of the Batch ID. It
can be typed in, or if you have a wedge-style bar-code scanner on your System, it can be
bar-coded in.

Configure Directories/Locations
With the 'Directories/Locations' button of the Environment page, you can obtain the screen
shown in the following figure.

Directories/Locations Configuration

The Directories/Locations Configuration screen allows you to set up the directory structure for
your System software. Some of these directory locations can be set up in other locations of the
software. Options include:
Test Programs specifies the test program directory.

5-19
System Configuration Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Manage User Accounts

Test Results Report specifies the location of test results reports that are written to a file.
Statistics Data specifies the location of saved SPC data.
Automatic Batch Report specifies the location of batch reports that are directed to a file
name.
CAD Data specifies the default directory used for CAD conversion.
RunT Programs specifies the directory for sub-programs (RunT test programs). The test
executive looks in the RunT test program directory first and if the test program is not
found, it then looks in the Test Programs directory.
Temporary Files specifies the location where temporary files from the System are written.
These include files such as interim test results while a final test report is being collated.
Boundary Scan Driver specifies the location of the module specific driver software.
Boundary Scan Report Filter specifies the location of the module specific filter software.

Manage User Accounts


With the 'Manage User Accounts' button of the Environment page, you can enable user log-ins,
passwords, and permission of activities by user. This activity is managed with the Manage
User Accounts screen shown in the following figure.

Manage User Accounts Screen

From the Manage User Accounts Screen, you can add, delete, or edit user profiles. Each user
can be assigned a name, optional password, privileges, test program path, and ability to view
menu-items in the various System screens.
In the Manage User Accounts Screen, you can use the following buttons:

5-20
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Configuration
Add User

Add allows you to add a new user to the System. See Add User below.
Delete allows you to delete the selected user from the System.
Edit Profile allows you to modify the privileges, password, and menu-control of the
selected user.
Turn On Login allows you to enable or disable the log-in capabilities of the System. If,
for example, you have users set up in the System, but you choose to temporarily ignore the
log-in capabilities, you can do so with this button without deleting all the users.

Add User
Once you have elected to add a user, or modify a user profile, you are presented with the
Add/Edit User Screen shown in the following figure.

Add/Edit User Screen

In the Add/Edit User screen, you can select from a number of options:
User Name is the name used for log-in.

5-21
System Configuration Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Add User

Change User Password can be used to assign a secret password for each user. It is not
required that you enter a password, but most installations that limit privileges do. If you
assign a password, the user can not log in unless he enters the proper password. The
password can be up to twelve characters long and can contain any normal keyboard
characters. The System does not discriminate between upper and lower-case characters in
the password.
Run Privilege allows you to specify whether the user can run test programs.
Load Privilege allows you to specify whether the user can load a new test program.
Modify Privilege allows you to specify whether the user can edit (change) a test program.
Save Privilege allows you to specify whether the user can save a test program.
SPC Privilege allows you to specify whether the user can generate SPC reports.
Modify Configuration Privilege allows you to specify whether the user can access the
Configure System screen system.
Save Configuration Privilege allows you to specify whether the user can save the station
configuration data on the system disk.
Save Configuration Privilege allows you to specify whether the user can save the station
configuration data on the system disk. Run Self-Test Configuration Privilege allows
you to specify whether the user can execute module self-tests.
User Administration Configuration Privilege allows you to specify whether the user can
access the 'Manage User Accounts' screens.
Test Program File Path allows you to specify a unique directory for each user's test
programs.
Pre Defined allows you to select user profiles for typical users. For example you can
specify typical operator and programmer templates. Once the template is loaded, you can
modify the capabilities as desired to meet your specific needs.
User Control Change Password allows you to specify whether the user can change his
own password from the log-in screen.
User Control Modify Menu Control allows you to specify whether the user can change
his own menu visibility from the log-in screen.
User Control Rename User allows you to specify whether the user can change his own
log-in name from the log-in screen.
Menu Control allows you to specify what menus and menu-items that the user can see.
The 'Menu Control' button allows you to obtain the Menu Control screen shown in the
following figure.

5-22
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Configuration
External Hardware

Menu Control Screen

In the Menu Control screen, you can scroll through the various System menus and menu-items.
Some of the items can be expanded to show lower level menu items. When you have selected
an item, the status column shows the status of that item. If it is Fixed, the item cannot be
changed. If it is Visible, the item can be toggled to be Invisible. Once an item is invisible, not
only can the user not see it, he cannot select it. You can use the four pointing fingers to move
around in the display, or you can click on the items directly. Items that can be expanded are
shown as closed folders, end-items are shown as text documents.
The file menu on the menu control screen allows you to export and import your personal user
account settings. By transferring the exported file to another test system, you can import the
file there and configure another test system with the same user setup.

External Hardware
The External Hardware page is used to specify the configuration of the test results printer, the
footswitch, and the beeper. The External Hardware screen is shown in the following figure.

5-23
System Configuration Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
External Hardware

External Hardware Screen

Test Screen Report Device allows you to select the printer that will be used for test and
batch reports. You can select from the console (your CRT), COM ports, parallel printer
ports, a file on the disk, or a specified viewer. Once you have selected the device, the area
below solicits additional information about the device. For example, in all cases the
System needs to know the report width (40 or 80 columns). If you are using a COM port,
the system needs to know the communication parameters. If you are using a CheckSum
Model T-120-2 serial printer, the correct settings are 40-columns, 1200 baud, 8 bits,
polling, no parity, and 1 stop bit. If you are reporting to a file, the System needs to know
the file name, and an optional path. When reporting to a file, the System appends the data
each time a new report is generated.
Footswitch Attached to allows you to configure a footswitch into your system. The
footswitch takes the place of most operations that would normally require an 'F1' input.
For testing assemblies, most of the time this is the normal response to continue. You can
elect to connect the footswitch to any of the LPT ports in the System, or 'None' if you do
not have a footswitch. If you would like to use a footswitch, order the CheckSum Model
T-120-3, or contact CheckSum to obtain a wiring diagram to wire your own footswitch.
Beeper on or off allows you to enable the System beeper which uses the speaker in the
controller. If enabled, the beeper alerts the operator in most cases when a key has been
pressed, a key press is necessary, or when a failure or error occurs. There are two normal
tones. One is for routine notification to the operator, and another when an error condition
occurs.
You can use the 'Print' button to printout the contents of this page for internal documentation
purposes.

5-24
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Configuration
Fixture Configuration

You can use the 'Save' button on this screen to save the station configuration data for use the
next time the VISMDA software is started.

Fixture Configuration
The Fixture page is used to specify what type of fixturing you are using with the System. The
Fixture screen is shown in the following figure. The entry here is used for fixture wiring
reports so that interface connections are appropriate for your installation. The 'Custom' entry
assumes that you have a series of standard 50-pin connectors on your fixture interface.
You can use the 'Print' button to printout the contents of this page for internal documentation
purposes.
You can use the 'Save' button on this screen to save the station configuration data for use the
next time the VISMDA software is started.

Fixture Screen

5-25
System Configuration Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Fixture Configuration

5-26
Chapter 6
System Operation

Testing an Assembly
Overview
This topic describes how to use the Model TR-8 Test System to test assemblies (called UUTs
or units-under-test). If you have not already installed the CheckSum hardware and software
into your PC, refer to Installation on page 4-1.

Caution
The CheckSum Model TR-8 Test System provides adequate protection
against normal input voltages at the test points. However, the System can
be subject to damage in environments of high electrostatic discharge (ESD).
If this is the case in your testing application, ensure that you wear a
grounding strap connected to the computer chassis or earth ground, and that
the UUT is adequately discharged before connection. If it is not possible to
take these precautions, contact CheckSum to discuss alternative forms of
ESD or overvoltage protection.

Test Topics
Main Screen, Test Menu below
Selecting the Test Program on page 6-2
Executing the Test on page 6-3
Test Display on page 6-5

Main Screen, Test Menu


To start the System, click on the Visual MDA shortcut on your desk-top, use Windows
Explorer, or use the run command to execute the vismda.exe program.
System Operation Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Selecting the Test Program

You will then see the System screen shown in the following figure.

Main Screen, Test Menu

Run Test (F1) begins execution of a test program to test a UUT. You are first asked if
you would like to load a new test program or execute the one currently loaded. Once this
is completed, test execution will start.
Test Screen transfers control to the Test Window. From this window you can start a test
of your assemblies. See Test Display on page 6-5.
Enter UUT Serial Number (F7) allows the serial number for an assembly to be entered
prior to starting a test. This can be used to verify the serial number to insure it is valid.

Selecting the Test Program


File Selection Screen
To test an assembly, select 'Test' from the System screen. See Main Screen, Test Menu on
page 6-1. This displays the Open File screen shown in the following figure.

6-2
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Operation
Executing the Test

Open File

The file selection menu allows you to select and load (open) a test program. If you press OK,
it will load the test program shown in the box in the upper left corner, then begin execution.
You may either type a name in this box, or select the path and file name from the other boxes
shown on the screen.
Below the file name box is a list of the file names present in the current working directory.
You can double-click on one of these file names to load it and begin execution. If you wish to
change the directory, click on the selected directories in the box on the right part of the screen.
If you wish to change the drive, select it from the Drive selection in the lower right corner. At
the bottom of the dialog box, the function keys and their actions are shown.
Note that the names shown in the list of files may not be test programs. The system uses the
convention that it lists names less than eight characters without an extension, or names eight
characters long with any extension.
If an assembly has been learned but not saved on disk, it is valid to continue with the test even
though no file name is present, i.e., '(none).' If an assembly has not been learned, or a test
program has not been loaded into memory, the System will not allow you to continue.

Executing the Test


Once the test program is loaded, execution begins. In the default configuration, the system
halts after each failure. You can configure the system to continue to the end of the test without
halting if you wish by disabling 'halt on fail' in the 'Test' menu.
If halt on fail is enabled, you are presented with the 'Component Test Failure' screen shown in
the following figure. The same window pops up for each test step when 'Single Step' is
enabled or when testing is halted.

6-3
System Operation Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Executing the Test

Component Test Failure Screen


The 'Component Test Failure' Screen is displayed when a tests step halts due to a failure. It
can also be displayed after each test step if the system is in 'single step' mode. It is shown in
the following figure.

Component Test Failure Screen

In the Component Test Failure Screen, there are several different items describing the failure:
The name of the component that has failed is shown in yellow. This is taken from the title
field of the test program.
The From Pin and To Pin are shown on each side of the component name. These are the
UUT points that are being measured at the time of the failure.
On the right side of the display, the system displays the high limit and the low limit. A
passing test is between these two values.
The Measured value is positioned in different locations, depending on the measured
value. If the test has passed, it is between the high and low limits. If the test failed with a
value that is too high, the measured value is above the high limit. If the test failed with a
value that is too low, the measured value is shown below the low limit.
Test Failure Function Buttons
In the Component Test Failure Screen, there are several different options that the operator can
choose by pressing the buttons at the bottom of the display:
Stop terminates execution of the test program and shows the 'Test Screen' window, see the
Test Display on page 6-5.
Next logs the test result presently being displayed, and moves to the next test step for
execution. Use Next to continue normal execution of the test program.
ReTest takes the measurement over again. The new result is then displayed. This can be
used, for example, if you suspect a fixture contact problem. You can cycle the fixture
switch up/down, then perform a ReTest to see if the problem is corrected. It is
recommended you press the ReTest All button to verify that no new errors have been
introduced before pressing Next.

6-4
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Operation
Test Display

Continuous Test is used to make measurements continuously and display the results. In
this mode, the system works much like a bench-top meter, in that the displayed readings
are continually refreshed. The Continuous Test button works like a toggle. Press it once
to start continuous measurements, then press it again to stop them. It is recommended you
press the ReTest All button to verify that no new errors have been introduced before
pressing Next.
ReTest All takes the entire measurement again for test types such as CONT and ICs. This
takes more time than ReTest since ReTest tests only the failed measurements.
Help is used to find information about the test system and its use.
Other: While the failure window is displayed, Ctrl-H allows the Halt on Fail setting for
this test run to be toggled. Ctrl-S allows the Single Step setting for this test run to be
toggled.

Test Display
After each test, you are presented with the 'Test' display shown in the following figure. From
this display, the most common operations are to invoke a retest of the present assembly, test
the next assembly, or print a test report for the assembly that has just been tested.

Test Display

At the top of the window, there is information about the test that has just been completed. The
screen format can be modified with the environment pull-down, but the default values are in
the Environment Menu on page 6-10.

6-5
System Operation Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Test Display

At the top of the display, the test time (in seconds) is shown, along with the total number of
step failures. Towards the top right of the display, a test status box tells whether the test was
completed or terminated. In the middle of the display, a large box (with buttons) is displayed
in red or green, depending on whether the test passed or failed. The display shows 'PASS' or
'FAIL' in the middle.
A status graph, just below the test time, shows a linear status of the test program. Portions of
the test program that passed are shown in green, and portions that pass are shown in red. This
can be used at test time so the operator can watch the status of program execution. Note that
test programs can be written that do not proceed through the test steps linearly. In this case,
the bar will not be filled out from left to right in a smooth manner (portions that are not green
or red were skipped).
Main Test Functions
There are several major buttons for the operator to press:
Test (F1) begins execution of the program for the next UUT. Prior to pressing this button,
load the next UUT on the fixture. After the test button has been pressed, the System logs
and/or prints results (depending on how the system has been configured) for the assembly
that has just been tested, then begins a test of the assembly.
ReTest (F2) runs the test again on the assembly that has just been tested. This is similar to
the 'Test' button, but results are not logged or printed for the UUT that has just been tested.
Report (F3) is used to print a test report for the UUT that has just been tested. It is printed
in the format and to the device specified in the configuration section (Configure System >
Environment > Configure Reporting) of the Visual MDA software.
Exit (ESC) is used to terminate testing. After selecting EXIT, you will return to the 'Main
System' or Edit screen. Exit is normally used when you are changing from one type of
UUT to another UUT (although you can do so from this screen with the 'File' pull-down),
or if you have completed a batch of UUTs, and wish to start another.
Stop Test, the STOP sign button in the upper right corner of the test screen window can be
used to stop the test program.
Menu Bar
At the top of the 'Test' display, there are several pull-down menus for performing various
functions. These are:
File Menu on page 6-7
Test Menu on page 6-8
Report Menu on page 6-9
Environment Menu on page 6-10
Panel Menu on page 6-14
Fixture-Check Menu on page 6-15
Help Menu on page 6-16

6-6
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Operation
Test File Menu

Test File Menu

Test Screen - File Menu

Open loads a new test program from disk into memory so that it is available for execution.
Save saves the test program now in memory to a disk file.
Save As allows the program file name and location to be changed before the save
operation.
Edit returns to the test program editor.
Examine SPC Data by UUT Serial Number is used to review and edit the test results of
a particular UUT that has been tested with the System. SPC logging and serial number
logging must both be enabled in order for this option to be usable.
Exit exits to the 'Main System' window.

6-7
System Operation Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Test Menu

Test Menu

Test Screen - Test Menu

Test Assembly F1 begins execution of the test program to test a UUT. Prior to selecting
this, put the next UUT to be tested onto the test fixture.
ReTest Assembly F2 begins execution of the test program to test a UUT. This is used to
retest the UUT that you have just tested. This selection is similar to 'Test Assembly', but
does not log any data for the test that has just been completed.
Stop Test will stop the test program. The STOP sign button in the upper right corner of
the test screen window can also be used to stop the test program.
Failures Only ReTest is similar to ReTest Assembly, but it only executes test steps that
have previously failed and it re-runs these test steps until either there were no failures on a
run or the number of runs specified by the Environment > Max Failure Only ReTests is
met. This selection can be used to quickly detect whether you have repaired a UUT. Note,
however, that if the repair has caused a fault to a step that previously passed, you may not
detect it. Therefore, if a Failures Only ReTest finds no errors, it is recommended that a
complete ReTest Assembly be performed.
Single Step can place the System into the mode in which it halts after each test step
(whether passing or failing) and presenting the 'Component Test Failure' screen. This
mode can be used for debugging a test program.

6-8
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Operation
Report Menu

Halt on Fail will place the System into the mode in which it halts after each failed test
step and displays the 'Component Test Failure' window. If 'Halt on Fail' is not selected,
the test will completely execute before stopping at the 'Test' window. The 'Halt on Fail'
mode is often used to allow the operator the opportunity to repeat a test or make simple
repairs during the test.

Report Menu

Test Screen - Report Menu

Test Report F3 prints a test report on the UUT test that has just been completed to the
device selected in the 'Environment' pull-down. The contents of the test report (whether it
shows just failures or passes and failures) can be changed in the 'Environment' pull-down.
Most facilities elect to print reports on failed UUTs, with the report only containing the
failures. The System can be configured to automatically output reports in the
configuration section of the Software.
Batch Report prints a report that describes the batch of UUTs that have been tested. This
report contains the total number of assemblies tested, how many have failed, and the
resultant yield. Each time you exit the Test Display, or load a new test program, the batch
counters are reset.

6-9
System Operation Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Environment Menu

Enter UUT Serial Number . . . F7 allows you to enter the serial number of the UUT that
you have just completed, or are about to test. This information is included in the SPC
logging file (if enabled) and in the UUT test report. You may type in the UUT serial
number, or if you have a wedge-style bar-code reader, you may read it from a bar-code
label on the UUT. With the configuration section of the Visual MDA software, you can
enable the System to automatically solicit the UUT Serial Number from the operator.
Enter Batch ID allows you to enter a name describing the batch of UUTs that you are
currently testing. This is used in the batch report and the SPC log (if enabled). With the
configuration section of the Visual MDA software, you can enable the System to
automatically solicit the Batch ID from the operator.
Edit UUT Serial Numbers allows you to edit a serial number that was previously entered.
Continuity Failures . . . F5 allows you to analyze a continuity failure such as an
unexpected open or a short-circuit (see Continuity Failure Analysis on page 9-28).

Environment Menu

Test Screen - Environment Menu

The environment menu is used to alter the configuration of the testing environment. Following
is a description of each of the options available to you from this menu:

6-10
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Operation
Environment Menu

Show Pass/Fail changes the appearance of the testing screen at the end of the each test. In
the default mode (Show Pass/Fail enabled), the system presents a large bar in the middle of
the screen. The color of this bar changes to green if the test has passed, or red if the test
has failed. In the middle, large text says pass or fail, which is surrounded by buttons for
test, retest, report, and exit. If Show Pass/Fail is turned off, this display does not appear,
and a tool bar is present at the top of the screen. This tool bar offers the same functions as
the larger buttons, but in a more compact format. Also, if Show Pass/Fail is turned off, the
operator can see the last messages of test program execution in the user display. This may
be confusing to the operator if they are messages that are inadvertently left over, but the
test program can be written to leave messages that are useful to the operator at the end of
the test, such as repair information about the UUT.
Show Pareto of Batch Errors allows you to enable display of a Pareto chart at the bottom
of the screen after each test. The Pareto chart shows the errors during testing, sorted in
order of frequency. The errors refer to the batch of UUTs that are being tested rather than
the last UUT tested. To reset the statistics, you can either exit from this screen and re-
enter, or reload another test program. The Pareto chart is useful because it alerts you about
potential systematic errors that you would like to detect as soon as possible. For example,
if a pick-and-place machine has an incorrect reel loaded for one of the parts, you will see
that the error frequency for that part will be high. In the chart, the top shows how many
defects have occurred during the batch. Each line, then shows the failed part (taken from
the title of the test step), then a percentage that shows what percentage of all failures in the
batch can be attributed to this particular failure. At the bottom of the display the number
of assemblies tested and the percentage of failed assemblies is shown.
Show Pareto for execution times shows the amount of time taken for the slowest test steps
of the program. This can be used if you would like to optimize overall test speed of the
program by fine-tuning or deleting some of the test steps.
Show Test Progress allows you to enable or disable displays to the operator that show
program execution progress. There are two ways to monitor progress, either of which can
be enabled individually. 'Show Test Progress Step Number' enables display of the step
number that is presently being executed, or at which you have paused. The step number is
the line in the program, which matches the step number displayed in the upper left corner
of the edit screen. 'Show Test Progress Progress Gauge' enables a bar graph in the upper
left corner of the display. The bar graph fills up as the test executes. Portions of the test
program that pass are shown as a green bar, and those that fail as a red bar. In most cases
the bar will fill up from left to right, however if the test program has control conditionals
such as jumps and calls, the bar may fill in a random order, and some areas may be void.
The progress gauge is a convenient way for the operator to observe test execution progress
and easily observe the approximate proportion of failed steps in the program thus far.
Test Report Contents allows you to specify which test steps are included in the test
report. You can select between reporting on all steps that have been executed or just
reporting on steps that have failed. In most installations, reporting only the failed steps is
the most practical since reports are shorter and only contain information that is needed for
repair purposes.

6-11
System Operation Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Environment Menu

Report Device allows you to select the device that test reports will be sent. In the default
mode, they are sent to the display (CRT). With this selection you can select to send the
reports to printer devices, or to a file on the system disk. Note that this only specifies the
device, but does not output the report. In order to output the report, you must select
'Report' separately. This option applies to batch reports and test reports, but not other
reports, such as test program listings that can be output with the system. If CRT is
selected, when the Report is selected (F3), a window is displayed that you can page down,
page up, and go to the top of the report. If 'Viewer' is selected, the reports are displayed in
Windows WordPad (or a viewer you have specified in the configuration setup). With
WordPad you can scroll, and even print the report.
SPC Logging allows you to enable logging of testing outcome to a file on the system disk.
This is used if you want to use the SPC features of the test system. There are different
levels of logging available:
Summary only records information about the overall test, for example pass or fail,
number of errors, operator, UUT serial number, batch name, elapsed time, and start
time. This logging is compact and records all of the information that is used for
production reports.
Summary+Fails also records the details of steps in the test that have failed. If you
record this data, it is used for SPC Pareto reporting.
Summary+Passes+Fails also records the details of steps in the test that have passed.
If you record this data, it is used for SPC X-Bar/Sigma reporting.
Max Errors sets how many failures can occur on a UUT before the test is terminated. In
the default mode, 10000, the test always completes regardless of the number of errors,
unless the operator manually terminates the test. If a lower number is set, and the test
exceeds that number of failures, the system stops the test, alerts an operator (see Warning
in the next paragraph), and jumps to the program step "LABEL SHUT DOWN". If there
is no SHUT DOWN routine, the test program exits to the Test Display. Note that the
actual number of errors may exceed the limit in some cases. For example, the error count
may be exceeded in the middle of a CONTinuity test that may have additional errors occur
before the check is completed. Use of limited Max errors can speed test flow.

The Max Errors Exceeded Warning checkbox, in the maximum number of errors setup,
allows the system to alert an operator when the test exceeds that number of failures. To
allow the test to automatically continue, leave the checkbox unchecked. The warning
message allows the operator to continue to the next test step or exit (see LABEL SHUT
DOWN in the previous paragraph).

Max Failure Only ReTests is used when retesting an assembly. When 'Failures Only
ReTest' is selected (in the Test menu), the system, as default, will continually loop through
the test program, but only test those test steps that have failed on the last complete test.
Also executed are steps that do not produce a pass/fail result such as conditional jump and
display test types. If you would like to limit the amount of times that each step is retested,
you can enter a number in this menu-item that specifies the maximum count. Note that
there is an inherent risk in using failure-only retest. If you make a repair that fixes an
earlier failure, but causes a new failure, the new failure may not be detected. An entry of 0
allows unlimited retries.

6-12
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Operation
Environment Menu

Measurement Messages allows you control how warning and error messages affect test
execution. If enabled (checked) then the system will display and wait for the operator to
acknowledge the warning or error message before proceeding. If disabled (not checked)
then the system will only beep when these conditions occur and the system will
automatically continue to the next test step.
Check UUT Serial Number allows you to either warn the operator or prevent testing if
the UUT Serial Number is not appropriate. The UUT serial number can be tested for the
correct length, and for panelized assemblies, a duplicate entry.
Login User allows you to enter a user (operator) name into the System. If the system is
configured with login names turned on, a user must be logged in at all times. Optionally, a
password may be required for each user. The system can be configured so that different
users have different access privileges and may see different menu options. Login
privileges are defined in the 'Configure System' section of the software that can be
accessed from the main screen.
Return to Viewer F6 allows you to transfer control (window focus) to the CheckSum
Board Viewer. The Board Viewer software displays a photographic image of the
assembly, the schematic and the test fixture probe map for the assembly. A major benefit
of using the Board Viewer is locating components that failed board test. In addition, using
stored failure data, failed components can be located at a repair station long after the board
was tested (post test failure analysis). If you need to find a faulty spring probe, the probe
map shows the location. For additional information about the Board Viewer software
contact CheckSum on page 1-2.
Viewer Settings is used to control the interaction of the CheckSum Visual MDA and
CheckSum Board Viewer software. From additional information about the Board Viewer
software contact CheckSum. See Edit > Setup menu on page 8-18.

6-13
System Operation Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Panel Menu

Panel Menu

Test Screen - Panel Menu

The Panel menu is active and available when you are testing a panelized assembly. It provides
you with several functions that can ease testing of UUTs that are not separated prior to test.
Select Skips allows you to skip over some of the PCBs in the panel. You may wish to do
so because some may not be populated or some of the PCBs may have already been
rejected. To eliminate a PCB in the panel, move to it with the four arrow keys, then press
the SKIP button. An S will then appear in the selected PCB location. By pressing SKIP
again, it will be deselected. You can press OK to continue on to the test, or select other
PCBs for skipping in the same manner.
Retain Skip Selections provides the capability for the system to remember the last settings
for 'Select Skips'. This can be used, for example, to eliminate re-entry of the skipped
selection if you have a run of boards with the same configuration.
Status Map instructs the System to display a graphic of the panelized assembly. Each of
the PCBs in the panel are displayed, along with the last test status of passed, failed, or
skipped.
Reports sorted by PCB can be used to change the order of the test results listing. In the
default mode, the system sorts the test report so that each PCB is reported on in order by
PCB. If reports sorted by PCB is turned off, the system reports in the order of the test
program steps. In most cases, test programs are written in a linear fashion so either
selection will work the same.
Max Errors per PCB selection causes the Environment > Max Errors limit to be applied
to individual PCBs rather than to the total errors of the UUT.

6-14
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual System Operation
Fixture-Check Menu

Fixture-Check Menu

Test Screen - Fixture-Check Menu

The Fixture-Check menu is active and available when you are testing an assembly that has
been programmed with fixture-check on page 8-18. Fixture check can be used to help
determine if you are having contact problems with the test fixture. For each probe in the
fixture, a single measurement is made to all other probes in the fixture, which are electrically
connected together. In most cases, there is some impedance to all probes. Fixture-check
compares the measurement for each pin to that of the test program. If the value is higher than
the test threshold, an error is generated so that you can inspect the pins that may be at fault. In
some cases, fixture-check test results can help identify faulty nodes on a UUT.
Test invokes the fixture-check function and tells you if there are any suspected connection
faults by point number.

6-15
System Operation Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Test Screen - Help Menu

Test Screen - Help Menu

Help Menu

The Help menu can be used to obtain on-line help about the Model TR-8 Test System.
Contents... allows you to search the table of contents for the help sections.
Topic Search... allows you to search the help data based on a topic that you enter.
Getting Started... helps you learn how to use the test system hardware and software.
About... shows information about the software that you are using. It provides the revision
number, a number to call at CheckSum if you would like to talk to an engineer, and the
most recent date that the System self-test has been run.

6-16
Chapter 7
Statistical Analysis of Test
Results

Statistical Analysis
Overview
The following figure shows how to display the Statistical Analysis functions from the main
window.

Statistical Analysis Menu


Statistical Analysis of Test Results Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Statistical Analysis

Generate SPC Report allows you to generate reports based on the assemblies you have
tested. These reports include X-Bar/Sigma Reports (statistics about individual analog
measurements), yield Production Reports (statistics about how many assemblies have
passed and failed), and Pareto Failure Reports (information about the frequency of failures
by failure type).
Examine SPC Data by UUT Serial Number allows you to enter the serial number of
assemblies that have been tested, and recover the history of testing that UUT.
The Generate SPC Report window, shown in the following figure, is used to obtain reports
from the System that can be used to analyze productivity, find process problems and determine
which are the most significant, and to analyze testing tolerances. Sample Reports on page 15-
1 shows examples of the various reports that you can generate using this capability.

Generate SPC Report

Report Types
There are three basic types of reports.
The Production Report displays how many assemblies are tested during the reporting
period, and the results of the testing, for example, how many passed and how many failed.
The Pareto Failure Report displays information about the defects that are occurring,
sorted by frequency so that you can easily find out the relative occurrence of faults so that
you can address the most significant ones first.

7-2
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Statistical Analysis of Test Results
Using Statistical Process Control

The X-Bar/Sigma Report displays information about specific analog readings, such as
measurement averages, closeness to limits, and dispersion. The primary use for this report
is to help assign tolerances and limits within the test program, although it can also be used
to analyze process trends.
Related Topics
Using Statistical Process Control below
Examine SPC Data on page 7-12
Edit Run Failures on page 7-14
Reporting on Panelized PCBs on page 7-15
SPC Data Format on page 7-15

Using Statistical Process Control


Activating Statistical Analysis
To activate statistical analysis, you must enable logging for the dates of the reporting period.
Logging is enabled from the Configure System screen, 'Environment' page, 'Configure
Reporting', tab marked 'SPC Logging', check the Statistics Data Logged box as shown in the
following figure.
Production Reports only require that logging of summary information is enabled.
Pareto Reports require that logging of failure information is enabled.
X-Bar/Sigma Reports require that logging of pass information is enabled.
Logging of more data than is minimally required for each report does not create any problems,
other than the use of more disk space and the time to write the data between tests.

7-3
Statistical Analysis of Test Results Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Using Statistical Process Control

Configure SPC Reporting

SPC reporting is performed by selecting from the following options in the Generate SPC
Report screen:
UUT Reported On below
Change Starting/Ending Period below
Statistics Data Path on page 7-5
Production Report on page 7-6
Pareto Failure Report on page 7-7
X-Bar/Sigma Report on page 7-9
UUT Reported On
This selects which UUT to report on. The default, All, reports on all UUTs that have been
tested in the selected time frame. If a 'Selected UUT' is specified, only UUTs tested with that
test program are analyzed. It is necessary to select a single UUT with X-Bar/Sigma Reports,
but either option is applicable to Production Reports and Pareto Failure Reports.
After selection of selected UUTs, you can use the entry box to select the particular UUTs (by
test program name) to analyze.
Change Starting/Ending Period
The 'Change Starting Period' and 'Change Ending Period' selections of the Generate SPC
Report screen allow you to specify the time frame which the report encompasses. The default
when you first enter the Generate SPC Report screen is for the entire present day. You can

7-4
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Statistical Analysis of Test Results
Using Statistical Process Control

enter any range of dates and times to allow analysis of a single shift or analysis over a long
period of time.
To change a date/time:
1. Select the button for Starting Period or Ending Period.

2. Use the Change Starting/Ending Period screen shown in the following figure to set the
date and time.
Other methods:
select entries in the date box or type in new values
click on a date on the calendar
use the arrow buttons to change the month
use the AM/PM buttons, or click on the hands of the clock and drag them to a new position

Change Starting/Ending Period

Statistics Data Path


Allows you to specify the directory that contains the log files for the System. For your
interest, the log files are named YYYYMMDD.DAT. For example, SPC data stored on
September 15, 2003 is saved in the file named '20030915.DAT'. When you elect to change the
statistics data path, you use the Directories Configuration screen shown in the following
figure. In this screen, use the middle entry to specify where to store the raw SPC data files.

7-5
Statistical Analysis of Test Results Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Using Statistical Process Control

Directories Configuration

Production Report
Allows you to review and print a Production Report as shown in Sample Reports on page 15-1
and shown in the figures below. The Production Report lists
how many UUTs have been tested
how many passed
how many failed
the yield
the total number of defects encountered.
If you are reporting on all UUTs and more than one has been tested, the Production Report also
shows the production information (total, passed, failed, yield, defects) listed by UUT type.
The list includes the PCB number of any panelized test failures when PCBs are counted as
separate UUTs.
Once you are displaying the Production Report, you can print it with the 'Print' button. As an
option prior to printing, you can also elect to save the report to a file on the disk. The format
of this ASCII file is shown in Sample Reports on page 15-1.

7-6
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Statistical Analysis of Test Results
Using Statistical Process Control

Production Report Details

Production Report Header

Pareto Failure Report


Selection of the Generate SPC Reports window allows you to review and print a Pareto Failure
Report as shown in the following figures and Sample Reports on page 15-1. The Pareto
Failure Report is used to analyze the failures that have occurred over the testing period. This
allows you to find which failures have occurred most frequently so that you can best spend
your time correcting the necessary aspects of the process. Logging of failure data must be
enabled during the reporting period to obtain Pareto Reports.

7-7
Statistical Analysis of Test Results Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Using Statistical Process Control

The Pareto Failure Report lists the total number of defects, then each defect in descending
order by frequency. The defect descriptions include:
the test program name
the calling test program if the test program is called from another test program
which step number has failed
what test type (e.g., CONT or RES)
the test title (e.g., R203), how many failures have occurred
the percentage of the total number of defects that have occurred over the reporting period.
Note that CONTinuity tests are sorted into two general groups, Shorts and Opens. For a more
explicit description of the individual continuity failures, you can access the log data directly.

Pareto Failure Report Details

7-8
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Statistical Analysis of Test Results
Using Statistical Process Control

Pareto Failure Report Header

X-Bar/Sigma Report
Selection of the Generate SPC Reports window allows you to review and print an X-
Bar/Sigma Report. The X-Bar/Sigma Report button displays an X-Bar/Sigma Report as shown
in the following figures and Sample Reports on page 15-1. The X-Bar/Sigma Report is used to
identify trends of analog measurements to tell if a process (or component value) is tending to
be near one of the test limits. It can also be useful when determining test tolerances to use for
a UUT.
If you print the detail report directly to a printer, the graphic images for each step are printed.
If you print the detail report to a file, the report is converted to a character-oriented version of
the information.
The X-Bar/Sigma Report contains an entry for each analog test (e.g., RESistors, CAPacitors)
that has been logged during the reporting period for the UUT selected. Each step is described
as a bar with a pointer and a bell-shaped curve.

7-9
Statistical Analysis of Test Results Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Using Statistical Process Control

X-Bar/Sigma Report Details

X-Bar/Sigma Report Header

7-10
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Statistical Analysis of Test Results
Using Statistical Process Control

Interpreting the Graphs


The length of the horizontal bar approximates the distance from the low test limit to the high
test limit. Below the ends of the bar, the test's low limit (LL) and high limit (HL) are shown.
Red tick marks near the end of the bar locate the precise high and low limit positions.
The bell-shaped graphic above the bar is the statistically predicted range and frequency of test
measurements as based on the logged data. The peak (center) of the curve is the average (X-
bar) reading, which is also listed in the title. The area contained under the bell-curve for a
certain range of readings, as a percentage of the total area under the bell curve, tells you what
percentage of readings will fall into that range. Above the bar, in the center, the System lists
the step number, the step type, and the X-Bar (average) computed value. Areas under the bell
curve that are within the test limits are shaded in green. Areas outside the test limit are shaded
red. Note that in cases such as "less than" or "greater than" tests, you may see a red area under
the curve that is of no consequence.
Below the bar, the System lists the Standard Deviation (Sigma) of the readings recorded during
the logging period. This tells how randomly or widely spread the individual readings are. This
data is used to generate the bell-shaped curve.
The end of each bell curve represents approximately the 3-Sigma limit. The 3-Sigma limit
(computed by multiplying the Standard Deviation by 3 and adding/subtracting from the X-Bar
reading) shows how far readings can be expected to vary based on the sample set of readings.
If the number of UUTs logged is fairly large, the 3-Sigma limits show the test limits that
virtually all typical UUTs would pass.
The computed values for Cp and CpK are also shown above the bar. The Cp value is on the
upper left and the CpK value is on the upper right. Cp is an indication of how widely spread
the readings are with respect to the high and low test limits. Cp should normally be well above
one. If it becomes less than one, normal deviations in the readings will cause out-of-tolerance
conditions. This is an indication that the limits are too close for this measurement.
CpK indicates whether the average readings are getting too close to one of the test limits.
Where Cp shows the range of variations with respect to the size of the tolerance window, CpK
shows if the variations are not centered in the tolerance window. If the high and low limits are
symmetrical with regards to X-Bar, Cp and CpK will be equal. CpK becoming less than one is
an indication that the average readings value are becoming so close to the high or low test limit
that some good readings will start to fail.
The X-Bar/Sigma Report can be useful for adjusting tolerance values when first programming
a new UUT. You can initially set the test limits fairly widely, then test a batch or two of
UUTs. From the X-Bar/Sigma Report you can then determine the typical measured values (X-
Bar) and the typical range of readings (the 3-Sigma value or edges of the bell curve). The 3-
Sigma limits can be useful guides for setting the limits. For consistent testing results, bell
curve should be well within the high and low test limits for the test step.

Note
Limits set by using the 3-Sigma indication can be tighter than the accuracy
of the System. Before tightening measurement tolerances from the entry
defaults, ensure that you are not exceeding System specifications.

7-11
Statistical Analysis of Test Results Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Examine SPC Data

Note that the X-Bar/Sigma Report bases its calculations on UUT measurements that passed
and ignores failed measurements. This is because ATE failures are typically catastrophic in
nature (for example, if a component is missing or shorted) and hence would skew the outcome
excessively. As a result, when you are using the X-Bar/Sigma Report for assigning test
tolerances, you should first assign quite wide tolerances to ensure that virtually all good UUTs
pass.
System logging for passed data must have been enabled for the UUT during the period which
the data is generated.
A UUT must be selected for X-Bar/Sigma Reporting ('All' UUTs is not valid). The X-
Bar/Sigma Report will try to find the test program for the selected UUT in the Test Program
directory. If the test program for the selected UUT is found, the low and high limits specified
in the test program will be used for the analysis. If the test program for the selected UUT is
not found, the low and high limits in the logged data file will be used for the analysis.
At the bottom of the X-Bar/Sigma Report screen, you can choose to display all test step entries
or just those beyond a specified CpK by pressing the Options button. The CpK default, three,
displays readings that are more than 1/3 of the expected measurement range from the average
reading to the test limit. By displaying only entries with low CpKs, you can quickly determine
which test steps are likely to need attention.
The Options dialog box also allows you to select the type of X-Bar/Sigma graphical display.
The selections are the normal distribution Bell Curve, Histogram, or both.
The Set Limits button allows you to change the limits of the corresponding step and view how
this changes the graph. Note that there is no change in the set of sampled data. To get a new
set of sampled data that reflects the new limits, we need to analyze the logged data again using
the new limits. To do this, use the ReAnalyze button in the X-Bar/Sigma Report Screen. (it
may take a while depending on the size of the logged data). Fit All Limits Button
automatically fits all entries that have CpK less than 3.0 to fit into CpK = 3.0.

Note
For some test types (e.g. Res), we do not allow a limit value less than 0.
Hence, Fit All Limits does not guarantee that all entries will have CpK
value at least 3.0.

Examine SPC Data


This screen and its submenus allow you to view summaries of a UUT test by UUT serial
number. You can also modify SPC file contents by deleting an entire test on a UUT, by
deleting single test steps, by assigning failure codes to test steps or by adding failure codes to a
test run. The failure codes can contain diagnostic information about the cause of run failures.
After a UUT is repaired, these can be used to enter the actual failure that occurred. Access to
these screens requires password privileges both to modify SPC files and to run SPC analysis
when password protection is in use.
To obtain the Examine SPC Data Screen, select 'Examine SPC Data by UUT Serial Number'
from the 'Statistical Analysis' pull-down menu in the System screen.

7-12
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Statistical Analysis of Test Results
Examine SPC Data

Examine SPC Data

UUT Serial Number allows you to specify the UUT serial number used for searching the
SPC database. For data recorded without a serial number the string recorded in the log is
<No_UUT_ID>.
Change Starting Period specifies the beginning date and time of the search. The
resultant entry screen is exactly like that in , with its associated description of use.
Change Ending Period specifies the beginning date and time of the search. The resultant
entry screen is exactly like that in Change Starting/Ending Period on page 7-4, with it
associated description of use.
Search executes a search for tests done on the specified UUT in the interval specified by
the starting period and ending period. The search results are summarized by the total test
runs, total failed runs and total failures counts. A summary for the first run, if found, is
displayed in the right side of the 'Test Runs' box.
Choosing the Run By typing in a 'Run Number', or using the adjacent up and down
arrows, you can select a specific test of a UUT. This is only applicable if the UUT has
been tested more than once during the selected reporting period. If a run is displayed, its
summary includes its pass/fail status, test date and time, its failure count, the test system
ID, the operator ID, and the name of the test program used to test it.
Edit allows you to examine and modify failing test steps by bringing up the Edit Run
Failures screen shown in Edit Run Failures on page 7-14.
Save allows you to save any changes made to the current search results.
Exit allows you to leave the Examine SPC Data screen.

7-13
Statistical Analysis of Test Results Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Edit Run Failures

Edit Run Failures


This screen displays up to 10 existing failed test steps and allows you to delete or modify these
steps. It shows the measured value, step number and component description for displayed
steps. You can also add additional failure codes to the failed run.

Edit Run Failures

Clicking on a Step allows you to select one of any of the failed test steps displayed. For
summary-only recording of failed runs, no failing steps are found in the SPC log.
[F1]-[F7] allows you to replace the measured value of the selected step failure with a
failure type. This allows you to replace existing failure steps with a failure type. A failure
type is selected by pressing one of the [F1] through [F7] buttons. You can select 'Undo' to
clear the step entry from being replaced by a failure type. A step component description is
modified when the edit results are saved only if the step is also replaced with a fail code.
[F1] assigns a "Missing" failure code to the test step.
[F2] assigns a "Wrong" failure code to the test step.
[F3] assigns a "Backwards" failure code to the test step.
[F4] assigns a "Short" failure code to the test step.
[F5] assigns an "Open" failure code to the test step.
[F6] assigns a "Faulty" failure code to the test step.
[F7] assigns an "Other" failure code to the test step.
Undo restores the current step to its initial value.

7-14
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Statistical Analysis of Test Results
Reporting on Panelized PCBs

Delete allows you to delete a step failure or undelete a failure selected for deletion.
Deletions are not final until the edit changes are saved, but are marked on the screen so
you know what will be deleted after you exit. Pressing delete again toggles the step to not
be deleted.
Add Failures allows you to add an additional SPC step to the log. This step allows the
same [F1] through [F7] choices to enter the failure reason.
Exit allows you to return to the Examine SPC Data screen.
If you modify a step (Change Failure Code or Delete), you will see an indication that the data
has been modified.

Reporting on Panelized PCBs


Panelization adds additional information to the test results log file. The Panel number and
method of counting PCBs for statistical analysis are recorded in test log for each test
execution. Test Steps for PCB 0 are not recorded in the test log for panelized tests and thus
aren't available in X-Bar/Sigma Reporting.
Individual PCBs on a panel may either be counted as duplicates of a single UUT, as parts of
one-panel UUT, or each as a separate unique UUT. Test steps with the same test title and test
limits on a panelized board with PCBs counted as duplicates are grouped together for X-
Bar/Sigma analysis. If all panels analyzed have the same number of PCBs per panel or the
same method for counting results from each PCB, then the corresponding value is displayed in
the report header.
For Pareto reports, the PCB number is included in the description if the PCBs are not counted
as duplicates of one UUT and summary record information is in the results log. When PCBs
are counted as duplicates on a panel then neither the step number or PCB number of the test
are displayed. Failing steps with the same test title are lumped together for error counting if
they are not part of a panelized test counting PCBs separately or if they are in the same PCB
block number.

SPC Data Format


In the case of passed or failed logged data, the outcomes of analog tests (e.g., RES, CAP,...)
are logged. Since the amount of data being generated can get large, it is recommended that
passed data only be logged if you are planning to obtain an X-Bar/Sigma Report or are testing
a relatively small number of UUTs.
The results are stored in a format that can be read and processed by a spreadsheet such as
Lotus 1-2-3 or Microsoft Excel. The data is ready to be read in as numeric data for failure
analysis. For example, in Lotus, the sequence '/fin' can be used to import the data. Since the
data is stored in ASCII, you can also edit it with most standard editors and word processors.
A new file is created each calendar day. The name of the file is `YYYYMMDD.DAT' where
YYYY is the year, MM is the month, and DD is the day of the month. For example, on
September 15, 2003 the file is named '20030915.DAT'.

7-15
Statistical Analysis of Test Results Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
SPC Data Format

Each entry contains the following information:


1. The test program name.

2. The time of day that the test was completed. Military time is used. For example, if the test
was completed at 1:10 P.M., the entry might be "13:10:46". All entries for a single test
have the same time logged.
3. The number of failures. If this number is zero, the test passed.

4. The step number (as listed in the Edit screen). If the step number is zero, this is a
summary record only and only describes a test as passed or failed. The test has failed if
item 3 is not zero.
5. Test execution time in seconds.

6. UUT Serial Number enclosed in double parenthesis.

7. Test Program revision number.

8. PCB counting method, enclosed in double parenthesis if program uses panelization, ""
otherwise.
9. Name of main program if this is a subprogram called via RunT, "" otherwise.

10. Batch string enclosed in double parenthesis.

11. Operator name enclosed in double parenthesis.

12. System ID string enclosed in double parenthesis.

The following fields will only be present if the record is used to report a passed or failed test
step result. This only occurs if the logging for detailed data (e.g., `summary + passes + fails').
For these steps, the test step number will also be non-zero so that you can differentiate between
summary records and step-result records.
1. The test type (e.g., RES)

2. The measured value (e.g., 12.45K)

3. The test title (e.g., R101)


In the event of a CONTinuity test failure, the measured value is `Pins xx/yy' where xx is
the `From (- )' test point and yy is the `To (+)' test point. The test title is either `Short' or
`Open.'
In the event of a HiPot test failure, the measured value is `Pins xx/yy' where xx is the
`From (- )' test point and yy is the `To (+)' test point. The test title is `Short'.
In the event of an ICs test failure, the measured value is `Pins xx/yy' where xx and yy are
the two pins involved. The test title is `IC Pin'.
In the event of a TestJet test failure, the measured value is `Pins xx/yy' where xx is the top
probe (`To (+)' test point) and yy is the bottom pin. The test title is the measured value.
4. The low test limit (e.g., 11.00K)

5. The high test limit (e.g., 14.00K)

6. The last field, presently the sixth field, is used only by CONTinuity, HiPot, ICs, or TestJet
to hold the test title.

7-16
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Statistical Analysis of Test Results
SPC Data Format

An example statistics file is shown in Sample Reports on page 15-1.

7-17
Statistical Analysis of Test Results Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
SPC Data Format

7-18
Chapter 8
Test Programs

Writing Test Programs


Overview
The system must be programmed for each type of assembly (UUT) that you will be testing.
The system provides a program editor that is easy to use for generating new test programs or
modifying existing ones.
A system such as the CheckSum Model TR-8 is sophisticated enough to handle a wide variety
of testing needs. As such, it has many advanced features and tools available to the user - many
of which may never be used in most installations.
This topic covers most of the common operations and concepts used for programming.
Background on page 8-2
Manual Entry on page 8-3
Setting the Execution Order on page 8-4
Debugging Test Programs on page 8-4
Editing Tools Testing Methods on page 8-4
Measurement Tolerances on page 8-5
Continuity and IC Tests on page 8-5
Special Features on page 8-5
Statistical Data (SPC) Logging on page 8-5
Save Program on page 8-6

For information about how to program specific steps for testing components on your UUT,
see Entering Test Steps on page 9-1.
For complete details of what each test step in the programming language can do, refer to
Test Type Descriptions on page 22-1.
If you will be generating your programs from CAD data, you should also refer to CAD
Data Conversion on page 10-1. Even if you are generating test programs from CAD data,
you will need to learn these concepts and processes.
Test Programs Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Writing Test Programs

If you need a test program quickly, the Autoprogram on page 8-25 tool can be used. The
autoprogram will create a test program that does not contain as good diagnostic
information as a conventionally written test program. However, the autoprogram function
allows you to start testing very quickly and still provides fairly high test coverage.
To help you use the system, the description of test programming is broken into sections:
The Background below section gives an overview of how to enter and program tests for a
UUT. It describes the capabilities and tools used for most programming.
The Edit Test Screen on page 8-6 describes the various top-level screens available in the
system. This description includes some, more esoteric capabilities of the system, and can
be used as reference material.
Loading a Program or Erasing Memory on page 8-31 describes how to get started writing
a program.
Assigning Point Names on page 8-31 describes how to assign names to the test points for
your test program.
Related Topics
Entering Test Steps on page 9-1 describes how to enter test steps into your test program.
Listing Test Program Data on page 8-33 describes how to get a print-out of your test
program.
Saving Test Programs on page 8-33 describes how to save your completed program on
disk.

Toolbar Buttons and Shortcut Keys


In the pull-down menus, shortcut key sequences are often available. These
shortcut key sequences are shown in the menus next to the command. Also,
in many screens, toolbar buttons are available at the top of the screen. The
toolbar buttons can be used as substitutes for frequently used menu items.
By moving the mouse pointer over the toolbar button, then pausing, a 'hint'
will appear that describes what the toolbar button does.

Background
Programming an assembly is the process of entering testing instruction information about the
assembly into the system so that it can be tested. The system provides the capability for this
information to be entered in several ways. You may want to use a combination of these
methods:
Information can be entered via a text file generated on your PC or automatic translation of
CAD data.
Test data can be typed directly into the system.
Some information, such as opens/shorts, IC orientation, and TestJet Technology values for
the assembly are automatically programmed (self-learned) by the system. To do this, you
connect a known-good assembly, and instruct the system to self-learn this information for
the assembly.

8-2
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Programs
Writing Test Programs

You will use either method (1) or method (2) for MDA test of the components installed in the
assembly, depending on whether you have CAD data available or not. Then, you will use
method (3) to add tests for ICs, TestJet technology and continuity.
If you are testing a panelized PCB, you will enter and debug the MDA test program for the
first PCBs on the panel, then use the automated tools included with the system to step-and-
repeat the program for the other PCBs on the panel.
If you are going to be doing functional test, these steps are manually entered, either as part of
the completed MDA test program, or in a separate test program. Refer to the Model TR-6
Instruction Manual for information about this process.
Manual Entry
For MDA testing, you can manually generate the test data as shown in the following steps.
These steps are performed automatically for you if you have CAD data available for the UUT:
First annotate the UUT schematic with the node (test point) numbers. This done by
placing sequential numbers on the schematic, one for each electrical network (e.g.,
Ground, VCC, DATA0).
Next, enter the node names into the system. Using the Edit Test Program Setup >
Connection Information screen, you can assign names up to 255 characters in length.
Different conventions can be used. Some facilities use physical locations (e.g., J1-1, U2-4,
C1-2) and others use signal names (e.g., GND, VCC, DATA0), and others use a
combination of these names (e.g., use signal names when available, and physical locations
otherwise). In most displays, you are able to directly see up to about 32 characters of each
point name. Beyond that, you may need to scroll to see more characters.
Once the node names are entered, you can generate a wiring report to give to the fixturing
facility to use when wiring the fixture. This report gives the test point numbers, the
connector/interface block to wire to, and the name of the signal or pin. An example of this
report is shown in Sample Reports on page 15-1. With use of the configuration screens
you can tell the software which type of fixture system that you are using so that the reports
will generate the proper interface pin-out in the wiring report.
Next, enter the test program using The Edit Test Screen on page 8-6. You first insert the
tests for each individual component on the UUT. For each component:
Insert a new line in the test program using the Insert key,
Enter the type of test (e.g., CAP, RES, INDUC or DIODE) in the 'Test Type' column,
Enter the two test point numbers or names connected to the component in the 'From
Point' and 'To Point' columns,
Enter the component designator (e.g., R232, C-23 or Q101) in the 'Test Title' column,
Enter the nominal value in the 'nominal' column.
It can be helpful to use a highlighter to mark each component on the schematic as it is
entered. If you enter the test program before you release the fixture for wiring, it can save
errors since you might discover probe locations missed in the first pass.
When the components for the UUT are entered, use the sort function to sort them in order
by test title. This will put all of the like components together in sequential order (e.g., C1,

8-3
Test Programs Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Writing Test Programs

C2, ... C211, R1, R2, R3,...R121). This is available in the tools menu by selecting sort,
then by test title.
Next, use the Set Initial Limits and Range (in the Measure menu pull-down) to assign
tolerances and default measurement ranges for all of the entries.
The above steps will prepare your test program for debugging. The outcome of these steps is
roughly equivalent to what the CAD Conversion utilities perform automatically. For
information about CAD Conversion, see CAD Data Conversion on page 10-1.
Setting the Execution Order
When the program is entered or generated for all of the component values, you will probably
want to put it into the execution order that you want. Typically, the first steps in the program
are jumper and switch settings, followed by potentiometer adjustments, followed by continuity
tests, then the components tests, and finally the ICs test. You can use the block copy
commands of The Edit Test Screen on page 8-6 to reorder the program as necessary. It saves
some test development time to insert the ICs test and continuity test after debugging the rest of
the test program (see the text below for a description of how to generate the ICs and continuity
tests).
Debugging Test Programs
When the program has been entered (or generated from CAD data), it is necessary to debug it.
Debugging involves finding fixture wiring errors and choosing the appropriate measurement
ranges, polarities, guarding, and other factors to get the best test coverage. Once you have
entered the program and used the Measure > Set Initial Limits and Range command to assign
tolerances and default measurement ranges, you will typically find that somewhere between
50% and 90% of the test steps will pass. It is necessary to find ways to make the failing or
marginal steps pass. If you are interested in optimizing speed or accuracy, you may also want
to fine-tune the steps that are passing.
Editing Tools & Testing Methods
There are a number of tools available from The Edit Test Screen on page 8-6 to help you
debug the program. Once you are familiar with the system, you will probably find it the most
efficient to go through the following steps for each component test:
Select Step Analysis from the Measure pull-down (or use the toolbar button equivalent) to
obtain the Measurement Analysis screen. In this screen, you can move the cursor to different
measurement ranges and methods to choose the most efficient method. You can also use:
guard points
external sensing
measurement delays
scaling
offsets
or choose other tools to increase test coverage.
You can even display measurement statistics for each method that show average measured
value, measurement speed, and reading stability (standard deviation). When you have chosen
the best method, you can exit to The Edit Test Screen on page 8-6 and the system will

8-4
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Programs
Writing Test Programs

automatically calculate and insert the appropriate range value based on the measurement
method selected while in this display.
There may be components that cannot be measured. Due to interactions between the
component being measured and the parallel circuitry, some component will not be measurable.
For example, small capacitors (in the low pF range) are typically not measurable when in
parallel with relay coils or inductors. Small capacitors can also be difficult to measure when
connected in parallel with an IC input since often times the IC input has high capacitance of its
own.
Tolerances
The system assigns default measurement tolerances (e.g., resistors 10%, capacitors 20%).
While you can often assign tighter tolerances, it is generally not suggested that you do so.
Remember that the purpose of the system is to find incorrect or incorrectly installed
components, not components that are out of tolerance. MDA testing assumes that components
are good and endeavors to find problems that occur during the assembly process. However,
many times the system will find bad components, even though that is not its main intent.
Continuity and IC Tests
When the component tests are debugged, you can enter the continuity and ICs tests:
To enter an opens/shorts test, insert a test type of CONT (for continuity) and use the 'From' and
'To' test point columns to indicate the range of points to test for continuity. Select Step
Analysis from the Measure pull-down, then select Learn All from the Connection pull-down to
automatically learn the connection map for the selected range of points on the UUT.
To test for the presence and orientation of ICs, insert an ICs test, specify the power supply test
points (e.g., +5V and Gnd) in the Point From (-) and Point To (+) columns. Select Step
Analysis from the Measure pull-down, then select Learn All from the Measure pull-down to
automatically learn the connection map for the selected range of points on the UUT.
Special Features
You can program special features into the test program. For example, you can provide for
operator adjustments and displays in the program. The available test step types provide the
necessary flexibility in writing test programs to perform almost any task.
For functional testing (using the Model TR-6) you will power up the UUT and manually
generate a sequence of steps providing stimulus and measurement on the UUT to ensure that it
is working properly. This process is described in the TR-6 Instruction Manual.
To instruct the operator how to installing the UUT, you can generate an operator screen of
instructions using the Operator Setup Entry Screen. This is displayed on the first execution of
the test program after it is loaded, but not between subsequent UUTs.
Statistical Data (SPC) Logging
At this point you should turn on statistical process control logging, and run a sampling of
UUTs through the system. Then, you can generate an X-Bar/Sigma Report. This report shows
how well centered the measurements are between the high and low test limits and how much
variation there is from reading to reading. From analyzing the X-Bar/Sigma Report, you will
probably want to go back and fine-tune some of the measurement methods to reduce the
reading variations, and if you can't do so, change some of the test tolerances so that test steps

8-5
Test Programs Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Edit Test Program Screen

won't fail for good UUTs. Statistical Analysis on page 7-1 discusses how to use the SPC
facilities of the system.
Save Program
When an assembly is programmed (or 'learned'), the system provides the capability of saving
this information on the system's disk for future use. Virtually all of the information established
with the 'Edit Test' selection from the system menu is saved with the test program.
At this point, the program is ready to use as described in Executing the Test on page 6-3.
Related Topics
The Edit Test Screen below
Loading a Program or Erasing Memory on page 8-31
Assigning Point Names on page 8-31
Entering Test Steps on page 8-33
Listing Test Program Data on page 8-33
Saving Test Programs on page 8-33

Edit Test Program Screen


The Edit Test Program Screen is the center of test program generation facilities. It is accessed
by pressing [F2] or selecting the 'Edit Test' button in the center of the screen of the Main
System window. The Edit Test screen is shown in the following figure.
The overview section in Writing Test Programs on page 8-1 describes the general procedure
for writing a test program. This section, a general reference section, describes what each of the
menus and menu-items in the Edit Test screen is used. The next section, Entering Test Steps,
describes the details of entering individual test steps.

8-6
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Programs
Edit Test Program Screen

Edit Test Program Screen

Note
The system provides the capability to use a password to prevent
unauthorized modification of test programs. If password protection is
enabled (via the Configure System > Environment > Manage User
Accounts menu), you may be required to log-in prior to having access to the
Edit screen.

Menu Descriptions
File Menu on page 8-8
Edit Menu on page 8-9
View Menu on page 8-11
Measure Menu on page 8-12
Setup Menu on page 8-18
Tools Menu on page 8-25
Help Menu on page 8-30

8-7
Test Programs Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Edit File Menu

Edit File Menu

Edit Test Program, File Menu

New deletes the present test program in memory in preparation for generating a new test
program. A dialog box allows you to select a test program template. These templates
provide a general structure to begin writing your test program.
Open solicits a test program file name, then reads the test program data from the specified
file into memory. After it is open, it can be edited and/or executed. If the test program
was saved in ASCII format, use the Open dialog box and select the 'Type: ASCII' to
select and open the file. The test system will be reset (initialized to a known state) when
the test program is opened (Reset check box is selected). If you which to override this
system reset, you can deselect the check box.
Append solicits a test program file name (saved as file type ASCII, .asc), then reads it into
memory, appending to the end of the existing test program. Append can be used to merge
two test programs together. Test point names are also merged together. The test point
names of the test program that is appended are used if the two test programs both specify
the same test point. See the "Note (Copying Test Steps from one program to another)" in
the following section for another method of appending just the test steps.
Save writes the test program data in memory to the specified file.
Save As opens a dialog box to allow the file destination and file name to be changed
before it is written. The dialog box has a 'Save File as Type:' field to allow the program to
be saved in standard binary format (Test Program) or in ASCII format. The ASCII format
is useful for appending two programs or editing the test program with another application.
For use with the CheckSum software, save the program as 'Type: Test Program'.
Print allows you to obtain a printout of the test program that you have entered or edited.
You can either send it to a printer, or to a file on the disk in ASCII format (it will look just
like the printer output, but instead sent to a file).
Run allows you to run the test program in memory. This selection invokes the 'Test
Screen'. This is a handy way to test your program during editing.
Exit leaves the editor and returns to the Main System window.

8-8
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Programs
Edit Menu

Edit Menu

Edit Test Program, Edit Menu

Note (Fields and Lines)


Cut and paste functions operate on the selected data in your test program.
Depending on whether you have selected a field (entry on a line) or line
(test step), the options in the Edit Menu will change to reflect what is
currently selected. To select a field, click on it and it turns to a dark
background. To select an entire test step, click on the box on the left of the
edit screen and the entire line turns yellow. You can select multiple lines in
the program by clicking on the left box of the first and last lines, or by
dragging over the boxes on the left. To deselect lines, click again on any
field.

The contents of a field (individual cell) can be edited. If you need to edit a
field (the Test Title, for example), position the mouse pointer on the field
and double-click the mouse or press the Enter key. The edit cursor will
appear at the end of the entry in the field. Use the arrow keys or the mouse
to move the edit cursor. If you right-arrow at the far-right side of the field
or left-arrow at the far-left side of the field, the next cell is selected. To
replace the contents, single click the mouse to select the field (blue
highlight appears) and type in the new entry. If you start to replace the
contents of a field and change your mind, press the Escape key once. The
original contents will return.

Many of the frequently used commands are available as toolbar buttons on the Toolbar as well
as in the different menus.

8-9
Test Programs Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Edit Menu

Insert (Insert key) allows you to enter a new test step just below the test step currently
selected.
Insert Before (Ctrl+Insert) allows you to enter a new test step just above the test step
currently selected.
Delete (Ctrl+D) allows you to delete the test step that is currently selected. To delete test
steps, highlight the steps and use the Edit > Delete. A dialog box will prompt you for
confirmation. If a field is selected, you will not be prompted for confirmation and the test
step will be immediately deleted.
Clear All (Alt+D) deletes all of the present test program steps.
Cut Field/Test Step allows you to copy the selected data so that it can be placed
elsewhere. If a field is selected, cut (Ctrl+X) simply copies it into a buffer (the cut field
remains unchanged). If a test step is selected, cut copies the test step into a buffer, then
deletes the selected test step.
Select (yellow highlight) the test steps you wish to move and use the Edit > Cut Test Step
feature. To insert the cut test steps below a test step, highlight any field on that test step
and use the Edit > Paste Test Step. The toolbar has buttons for these features also.
Copy Field/Test Step allows you to copy the selected data so that it can be pasted
elsewhere. If a field is selected, copy simply copies it into a buffer. If a test step is
selected, copy copies the test step into a buffer.
Fields (individual cells) can be copied and pasted to single or multiple fields. Position the
mouse on a field and click to select the field (the selected field is highlighted in blue). Use
Edit > Copy Field menu feature to copy the field (or press Ctrl+C). If you select another
field, you can paste the copy contents into this field. If you select multiple fields (click
and drag the mouse), you can paste the copy contents to all the selected fields (Edit >
Paste Field or Ctrl+V).
Entire lines (test steps) of a program can be copied and pasted into the program. Position
the mouse on the far left gray box and click to select the test step. The test step will be
highlighted in yellow. If you click and drag the mouse, you will select multiple test steps.
If you hold the keyboard Alt-key down, each press of the up-arrow or down-arrow will
select a test step. Use Edit > Copy Test Step or the toolbar button to copy the test steps. If
you select another test step, you can paste the copied test steps in place of this test step. If
you select multiple test steps (click and drag the mouse), you will replace all of the
selected test steps with the copied test steps (Edit > Paste Test Step). Note: If you select a
single field (blue highlighted field) on a test step, the Edit > Paste Test Step feature will
insert the copied test steps below the test step with the blue highlight. The selected test
step will be unaltered and located above the inserted steps.
Note (Copying Test Steps from one program to another)
The test step lines that are copied are saved when opening test programs. You can use
this feature to copy test steps from one test program, open and then paste to another.
Paste Field (Ctrl+V) allows you to copy the data from the buffer (stored with a cut or
copy operation), into the selected field.
Paste Test Steps allows you to insert the test steps saved in the buffer (stored with a cut or
copy operation) to the lines just after the selected lines.
Mark Begin Block (Ctrl+B) selects the beginning step for a block command such as
measure selected steps, sort by test title, or copy/cut selected steps.

8-10
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Programs
View Menu

Mark End Block (Ctrl+E) selects the last step for a block command such as measure
selected steps, sort by test title, or copy/cut selected steps.
Re-Mark Block (Ctrl+Q) selects the steps previously selected by the Mark Begin and
Mark End Block commands. The steps are highlighted.
Goto Step (Ctrl+G) allows you to enter a step number. The system then adjusts the screen
for you to see it then selects the test-type field on the selected line.
Goto Next Error Ctrl+N) allows you to jump to the next step that failed (the test program
must be run first). The system then adjusts the screen for you to see it then selects the test-
type field on the selected line.
Find (Shift+Ctrl+F) allows you to enter a string of information, then search through the
test titles in the test program to find a matching string. You can either specify that the
search is case sensitive (upper and lower cases must match), or not case sensitive. This
can be used, for example, if you want to find the test step for a particular component, such
as R101. Find starts at the beginning of the test program.
Find Next (Ctrl+N) allows you to search for the next occurrence in the test program of the
string last entered in the Find menu.
Point Name Entry allows you to specify how the point name columns are used in The
Edit Test Screen on page 8-6. If Point Name Search is turned on (checked), when you
enter a name in the point name column, the system searches the existing test file for the
point name that has been entered, then substitutes the appropriate point number. If Point
Name Overwrite (Ctrl+O) is turned on (checked), when you enter a name in the point
name column, the system assigns the entered name for the point number that is entered for
this point. In this mode, you can enter the point names directly from the edit screen.

View Menu

Edit Test Program, View Menu

Expand provides detailed information about the selected test type. Available for many of
the analog test types, the expanded view tells you more information about how the
measurement is made. For example, it includes the measurement type, amplitude range,
guard points, external sensing points, and so on. Much of this information can also be seen
in the Measurement Analysis screen.

8-11
Test Programs Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Measure Menu

Show Unedited Field Values allows you to specify how the fields are shown in The Edit
Test Screen on page 8-6. In the default mode, Unedited Field Values > All disabled (not
checked), the system displays a bullet in each field of the test program that you have not
entered or assigned, other than the Test Type column which is always displayed. In this
mode, you can easily see which fields need to be filled in to complete the test program. If
Unedited Field Values has All checked, the system shows a value in every applicable field,
whether you have entered it or not. This will show default values that are entered when
you insert a test step. You can use the Unedited Field Values > Selected menu to toggle
the selected fields between bullets (if unedited) or the display of the default values.
Default Grid allows you to return the 'Edit' screen to its default column width and
spacing. The width of a column can be changed by clicking on the right-side edge of the
title column and dragging the column edge.
Font Size allows you to select the font that is used in The Edit Test Screen on page 8-6
for the test program entries. The default (10-point) works well with most displays.

Measure Menu

Edit Test Program, Measure Menu

Make Measurement executes the selected test step and displays the result in the
Measured column. If you have selected more than one test step, all selected steps are
executed. Steps in the selected range that are executed are all normal measurement steps,
exclusive of transfer of control, display, and operator I/O.

The Run Test toolbar button can be used to run all of the test steps. It will close the
edit window, open the test screen window and let you run the test in the normal test screen.
When running a test starting from the edit screen, you (as a 'programmer') will have full
access to all of the test screen menus and selections. For example, you will be able to
set/clear the Test menu 'Single Step' and 'Halt on Fail' flags. These flags are saved with
the test program. Several test operation control features, such as the Environment menu,
are not available to an operator or when you run the test from the main system screen.
When you exit the test screen, it returns to the edit screen.

8-12
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Programs
Measure Menu

Step Analysis is available for most measurement types. It allows you to fine-tune the
measurement by selecting ranges and measurement types, add guarding, offsets, and
measurement delays. When you select Step Analysis, the screen displayed will vary with
the test type. Each type is discussed in more detail under Test Type Descriptions on page
22-1.
Skip Test Step allows you to toggle the selected test step (or test steps if you have selected
a range) between skipped and unskipped. If a test step is skipped, it is not executed nor
reported on. The skipped test steps are marked with a character. If the test program is
saved with any skipped steps, the steps are skipped when the program is run. Select the
first and last steps to select all steps, then use the "Skip/UnSkip Test Step" to remove all of
the skip test steps. One use of skipped tests is to speed up test debug by temporarily
skipping tests that have already been debugged.
Assign Measured to Nominal copies the measured value to the nominal value. This can
be used in the cases where you can't make the system read the nominal value, causing
confusion to the operator.
Set Initial Limits and Range assigns the high and low limits based on the nominal value.
The assignments are based on the 'Default Limit Setup' . This selection also assigns the
initial measurement type and range to be appropriate for the anticipated measurement.
Set Limits from Nominal Value assigns the high and low limits based on the nominal
value. The assignments are based on the 'Default Limit Setup'.
Set Limits from Measured Value assigns the high and low limits based on the last
measured value. The assignments are based on the 'Default Limit Setup'.
Learn Step can be used to have the system determine, by measuring the assembly
presently loaded in the fixture, the measurement polarity, type, range, and high/low test
limits for the test step presently selected. Note that while the computer can try many ways
of making the measurement quickly, you can usually make a better choice manually once
you have learned to use the analysis screen. You should learn to use the analysis screen
and check any suspect measurements with its use. See the Learn Setup section.
Default Limit Setup (Test Tolerances) assigns how the limits are set in the "Set Limits"
and the Learn Step selections. From this setup you can specify how the Learn and
tolerance assignments are made for the various test types.

8-13
Test Programs Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Measure Menu

Default Limit Setup (Test Tolerances) Menu

Tolerance selection in percentage specifies the tolerance, in percent, from the nominal
value that will be used to assign the low and high test limits. For example, if the value
entered is 10%, and the measured value is 100 ohms, the system automatically assigns
values of 90 and 110 ohms as the low and high limits. These percentages can typically
be assigned as different values at different nominal values. This feature helps assign
tolerances that will be effective, yet not lead to a high rate of false failures.

The Closest Limit sets the minimum value that the Low Limit will be set below the
nominal value and the High Limit will be set above the nominal value. For example, for
resistance the default percentage tolerance below 100K ohms is 10%, and the closest
limit is 5 ohms. This means that even though 10% may be less than 5 ohms, the closest
allowed tolerance is 5 ohms.

Maximum Scale Factor Adjustment specifies the maximum scale factor adjustment
that can be made to a reading in an attempt to match the nominal value. This number is
assigned as a percentage. If the nominal value cannot be achieved with the scale factor,
no scale factor is applied. In most cases, the system will not accept values above 30%
for this parameter. If this value is zero (the default), the system will not adjust the scale
factor. Before attempting to use the scale factor, the system first attempts to correct the
reading with the offset adjustment (see below).

Reset to Defaults will set the parameters back to the initial value when the system was
shipped from CheckSum. These values are effective for most testing installations.

8-14
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Programs
Measure Menu

Learn Setup is used to specify how the 'Learn Step' works. There are several things that
you can specify about how learn step works. When using RESistance, CAPacitance,
INDUCtance, DIODE and ZENER test types, the system can automatically help determine
the best range, guarding, polarity, and assign upper and lower test limits for you. The
system allows you to specify how these factors are automatically assigned.

8-15
Test Programs Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Measure Menu

Learn Setup

Adjust Limits to match measured will set the test limits to make the test pass. During
the Learn of a test step, the system tries to make the reading match the nominal value
that you have entered. If the system cannot achieve a comfortably passing result, and
this selection is specified as a `yes', the system will then change the test limits to make
the step pass. It uses the tolerance methods specified in Default Limit Setup to make the
limits adjustment based on the final measured value, rather than the nominal value. The
system default for this parameter is `no'.

The selected Autoguard Method is used to specify how autoguarding is performed.


When you set the system to perform autoguarding, it first attempts to achieve a good
reading without guarding. If this cannot be achieved, it then tries to find good guard
points. It can automatically assign up to two guard points in an attempt to make a good
reading. There are four levels of autoguarding, the normal default being Extensive:
Off disables autoguarding so that it is not used.
QuickGuard allows specification of a few guard points that are likely to be effective
guards, such as ground and power supplies on the UUT. When QuickGuard (or a higher
level of guarding) is specified, when the first guard assignment is necessary, the system
displays the Select QuickGuard Points window.
Component-Away specifies that the system first attempt to find suitable guarding with
the QuickGuard points, then if not successful, try points that are one component away
from the component that is being tested. These points are determined by looking at the
other test steps in the test program that is presently entered.
Extensive specifies that the system first attempt to find suitable guarding with the
QuickGuard points, then if not successful, try points that are one component away, then
if still not successful, look at all the test points used for the UUT. While this is very
thorough, it is slower than the other methods. If you have previously learned a
CONTinuity map for the UUT, the system will use it to speed up the guarding process.
It does this by only using the first point on each network as a potential guard point.
The QuickGuard Points button will open the Select QuickGuard Points window. This
window is used to help speed autoguarding and automatically appears when it is needed.
This window allows you to enter data to optimize and speed up automatic guarding with
the system. This window automatically is displayed when necessary during an autoguard
operation.

QuickGuards are test points that are most likely to be effective when guarding. For
example, power supplies and grounds are effective guards for most measurements. By
specifying these points so that the system can try them first, you can greatly speed up the
guarding process, and in some cases obtain better guarding.

8-16
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Programs
Measure Menu

QuickGuard Setup Menu

In this screen, a list of all the test points are shown. Press the Select button to make the
point a QuickGuard Point. The Auto Select button will automatically select test points
based on the test point names. The system looks through the names that you have
assigned, and selects points that have names that are likely to be power supply and
ground points.
Reset All allows you to reset all of the QuickGuard points presently selected.
Last Used Test Point allow you to specify the last test point to consider when
autoguarding in the Extensive mode. By entering the last test point used on the UUT
being programmed, you can drastically speed up system operation. If you have named
your test points, the system will look for the last named test point and use it as the initial
value. Otherwise it uses the last test point in your system configuration.
The Select QuickGuard Points window appears when necessary for autoguarding. Once
you have assigned any QuickGuard points, or changed the last test point, this window
will not appear again until a new test program is loaded, or you explicitly call it up in the
Learn Setup window.

8-17
Test Programs Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Setup Menu

Setup Menu

Edit Test Program, Setup Menu

Connection Information allows you to enter point names into the test program. Point
names are used for reporting purposes and can be used to make the test reports more
meaningful to the user. In the normal case, you can type in the name of each point, or
assign names by using the probe in the system. The Connection Information Screen
provides several functions for assigning point names. If you elect to probe a point, when
you touch the probe (connected to the back of the Model TR-8 System Module) to a point,
the unknown point is moved into view in the point menu, and selected, so that you can
type in its name. The probe-a-point function can be started in the edit window by selecting
the probe toolbar button. If you select Auto Increment, the system will take the last name
that is selected, increment it, then use it as the new name for the next probed point. The
system is intelligent about incrementing. It will use numbers or letters and increment
correctly for most conventions. This feature is handy, for example, if you are assigning
pin names for a connector. Move to pin 1 of the connector, and enter the name, for
example, J1-1. Then turn on Probing and Auto Increment, then sequentially probe points
in the connector. New sequential pin names will be assigned, such as J1-1, J1-2, J1-3,...
The Connection Information Screen also allows you to go to a point (type in the point
number and it is selected in the screen), find duplicate names that have been assigned, and
display naming statistics. Statistics include first and last named point name and number,
and the number of points that have been named.
The File menu selection 'Print' is used to print the Wire Run Report directly to a printer
or a file. To make it easy to review system wiring, the report lists the test system
connections in two columns. One column shows the connections sorted by test point
numbers. The other column shows the connections sorted by the name assigned to the
connection (for example, +5V). See Wire Run Report on page 15-7 for an example.

8-18
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Programs
Setup Menu

Connection Information Screen

Display Messages allows you to enter text strings that are presented to the operator during
the test program with the display test types (see DISP, DISPL, DISPE and SCRN test
types). Operator messages can also be used to provide information for the RS232, GPIB,
and Logic test types. The first column lists the message number. The next two columns
are used to enter the column and row of the message area on the screen that the message
will be displayed on. Finally, the message (Display Line) is entered. You can have up to
36 messages in each test program. For more details see Display Messages on page 9-34.

Display Messages Screen

8-19
Test Programs Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Setup Menu

Fixture-Check Data allows you to enter information used for 'Fixture Check'. Fixture-
check is used to find improper probe contact with the UUT. This can find faulty probes
and can also be helpful information for isolating UUT faults.
Fixture-check works by taking advantage of the fact that almost every probe on the UUT is
connected by an impedance path to another probe on the UUT. Fixture-check electrically
connects all the probes together, except one, then measures from the isolated point to the
group of all others. At run-time, if the impedance is higher than a specified threshold, and
a connection normally exists, fixture-check generates an error.

Setup Fixture-Check Data Window

You can use the 'Fixture-Check Data' window to self-learn a known good UUT to create a
map of the expected connections. Then if fixture problems are suspected after a test is
completed, the operator can manually elect to run a fixture-check from the FixCheck menu
of the 'Test' screen.
Fixture-check can also be automatically invoked from within the test program by use of
the FixCh test-type on page 22-96. You might find fixture-check information useful for
UUT repair since it can isolate a node on the UUT that would normally be connected but is
not connected. In this case a fixture-check error may indicate a test point where a
component is missing or not connected.
Fixture-check information is automatically learned for the fixture as a whole (all active
points) by selecting 'Learn All' from the Task menu. The fixture-check screen then shows
a diamond beside each point that is connected to at least one other point on the fixture. If
you wish to learn a single point, select it and use the 'Learn' menu item. To execute the
entire fixture-check test, use the 'Measure All' menu item.
With the 'Enter Threshold' selection of the 'Edit' menu, you can enter a new resistance
threshold to use for the fixture-check test. The default threshold, 100k, generally works
well. With the 'Toggle Connection', 'Clear Connection' menu items, you can force the test
on a particular point to be connected or a no-care. You can click on a point to select it, or
use the 'Select Page' or 'Select All' menu-items to select multiple points simultaneously.
'Goto Point' allows you to directly move to a point that may not be directly displayed.
'Exit' causes you to move back to the 'Edit' screen.

8-20
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Programs
Setup Menu

Operator Instructions Setup allows you to enter a screen of information that is displayed
to the operator prior to starting each batch of UUTs. This screen is typically used to
provide one-time information such as how to install the test head, UUT orientation, and
location of parts to be adjusted.

Operator Instructions Setup Screen

Generally, you use the mouse to move the cursor to where you would like to type in
information, then start typing. If you wish to have line drawings, you can use the toolbar
buttons to select single-line or double-line drawings. Once in a drawing mode, when you
move the cursor around with the arrow-keys, a line will follow. Press the toolbar button
again to come out of the drawing mode. If you wish to enter special characters, use the
'Insert Symbol' menu-item in the 'Edit' menu to select the special characters. With these
tools, you can make descriptive screens for the operator.
The operator setup screen is saved with the test program. You can also save it in a
separate file with the 'File' menu's 'Save' selection. The default file extension is .CMT.
Once it has been saved, you can merge it into another test program with the merge
command. Since 'Merge' only adds the characters that are used, you can overlay several
files. With these tools, you can build your own library of operator setup screens to help
speed future test program development. If you use the unmerge command, every character
that is in the .CMT file is erased in the displayed setup screen.
Assembly Name is used to enter a name describing the UUT. It is included in the header
of test reports from the system. Since it can be longer than the program name (it can be up
to 32 characters), it can be used to describe the UUT more fully, including information
such as revision information.

8-21
Test Programs Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Setup Menu

Measure Setup > Res Characteristics is used to enter information about how
measurements are made with the system for this particular test program. In almost all
cases, the default values are a very good compromise for speed and measurement
repeatability. However, you can modify these items for special requirements if necessary.
These characteristics apply to the DC current measurement ranges (apply constant
current/measure voltage). The first column (settle time) specifies how many milliseconds
the system waits after applying the constant current before making the measurement. The
second column (samples) specifies how many samples are averaged for each reading.
You can also specify other parameters. In the default case (Max Discharge Time = 0), the
system immediately applies stimulus to take a measurement. You can specify that the
system first measure the voltage across the component, then if necessary, discharge it. The
'Max Discharge Time' specifies the maximum time (in seconds) to wait for it to discharge.
If it has not discharged in this amount of the time, the system will beep at you and continue
regardless. Note that you should never place a UUT on the system that has any
components charged in excess of +/-12 VDC or the system will be damaged.
The characteristics that are entered in the Resistance Measurement Characteristics screen
apply to the test program as whole. In most cases, you may only need to modify the
characteristics for one (or a few) measurements in the test program. In this case it is more
efficient to use the ResRG test-type to modify and reset these characteristics during
program execution.

Resistance Measurement Characteristics Screen

Measure Setup > Other Meas Characteristics allows you to specify the amount of time
to allow for DC CAPacitance tests and DIODE test to discharge prior to making a
measurement. The defaults, 5 seconds and 500 mSec respectively, work well in most
testing applications. Two entries are available that allow you to specify how many
samples (readings) are averaged for each VOLT and INDUCtance test. The default for
these two tests are 10 and 1 respectively. Sometimes, readings can be made more stable
by significantly increasing the number of readings averaged.

8-22
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Programs
Setup Menu

Measurement Retries allows you to specify how many re-measurements to make before
failing a step. On occasion, a step may initially fail because a parallel capacitor is in an
unexpected state of charge. If retries are turned on, subsequent measurements may allow a
good circuit to pass. You can specify how many retries are allowed with RESistance tests,
CAPacitance tests, INDUCtance tests, DMM tests and UCT tests. The default is 5 retries
for RES, CAP and INDUC; and zero retries for the other steps.
The characteristics that are entered in the 'Other Meas Characteristics' screen apply to the
test program as whole. In most cases, you may only need to modify the characteristics for
one (or a few) measurements in the test program. In this case it is more efficient to use the
ResRG test-type to modify and reset these characteristics during program execution.
Measurement Messages allows you control how warning and error messages affect test
execution. If enabled (checked) then the system will display and wait for the operator to
acknowledge the warning or error message before proceeding. If disabled (not checked)
then the system will only beep when these conditions occur and the system will
automatically continue to the next test step.
Viewer Settings opens the Board Viewer Setup dialog window:

This setup is used to control the interaction of the CheckSum Visual MDA and CheckSum
Board Viewer software. The Board Viewer software displays a photographic image of the
assembly, the schematic and the test fixture probe map for the assembly. A major benefit
of using the Board Viewer is locating components that failed board test. In addition, using
stored failure data, failed components can be located at a repair station long after the board
was tested (post test failure analysis). If you need to find a faulty spring probe, the probe
map shows the location. For additional information about the Board Viewer software
contact CheckSum on page 1-2.

8-23
Test Programs Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Setup Menu

Components Highlighted
When Failed is checked, during a board test, whenever a component fails, Visual MDA
will tell the Board Viewer to highlight the component (default color is red) as failed
component.
When Passed is checked, during a board test, whenever a component passes, Visual MDA
will tell the Board Viewer to highlight the component (green) as passed component.
When Adjustment is checked, during a board test, whenever a component test step needs
adjustment (e.g. POTR, JMPER, and SWCHR) Visual MDA will tell the Board Viewer to
highlight the component (yellow) as the adjustment component. The adjustment selection
is normally used for components such as potentiometers that may need to be adjusted
during a test.
Passed/Failed Highlights
Select Immediately to highlight a Passed/Failed component as the Visual MDA test runs.
Select End of Test to wait until the end of the test to highlight a Passed/Failed component.
This selection produces faster execution and less monitor flicker on the Board Viewer
screen (since highlighting is done only once for every test).
Note that use of these options has no impact on the adjustment component. If you select
Components Highlighted > Adjustment option, the adjustment component will always be
highlighted immediately.
Also note that in the following two cases, if the highlighted component is not on the
current image (when there are more than one image of the same type), the Board Viewer
will change the current image so that the highlighted component is displayed:
Case 1. Highlight Passed/Failed component when the Immediately option is selected
Case 2. Highlight Adjustment component
Board Viewer Use
Display Board Viewer and Visual MDA Together means that during a board test, Visual
MDA and Board Viewer will both be visible.
If you check off this option it means that during aboard test Visual MDA will be displayed
and the Board Viewer will be minimized. When Visual MDA tells the Board Viewer to
display something (e.g. failed component, adjustment component, user defined image), the
Board Viewer will be displayed and the Visual MDA will be minimized. Only after the
operator acknowledges the Board Viewer by pressing its Return to Visual MDA button
(located under the Image Display), will the Visual MDA will be displayed again and the
Board Viewer will be minimized.
The Image Storage specifies if there is Image Information for the Board Viewer to display.
The Image Information can be embedded with the test program or linked. If the Image
Information is linked, the Linked Image File (directory and file name) is displayed.

8-24
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Programs
Tools Menu

Tools Menu

Edit Test Program, Tools Menu

Perform Cross Checks can be used to find problems in the test program that may not be
obvious. For example, it looks through the test program to find potential problems, such
as possible attempts to use mutually exclusive sources simultaneously, use of DMM input
for the UCT when the specified frequency is too high, possible fail on measurement
overrange, and other similar sort of errors. For the overrange problem, it checks the
measurement range against the high limit to insure that the system will not go into
overrange before it can achieve the high limit. You may wish to do this in some cases, but
may have accidentally ended up in this situation in other cases.
This option also checks for illegal operations when using the Model TR-6. For example, it
checks for measurements above 12 volts routed through the TR-8 MPX test points.
If it finds any potential problems, it will show them using the Viewer. Make sure you
close the Viewer window before you run another Cross Check, otherwise the Viewer will
not show the new report.
Sort allows you to sort your test program based on two possible keys.
In the first case, 'Sort by Test Title,' it will put the program in alphabetic order by test title
field. This is generally used right after you randomly enter (or generate with CAD data)
all of your component tests, but before entering miscellaneous test steps such as display
messages. This sort will generally sort your test steps into a logical order. For example it
will put all capacitors together in ascending order (e.g., C1, C2, C3,...), all resistors
together, and so on. Most users prefer to have tests in order by component, as created by
this sort. After you enter a program, it is also a quick way to see if you have missed any
sequential components.
In the second case, 'Sort for Best Speed,' it will put the program in an order that can help it
operate more quickly. This is generally used right after you enter (or generate with CAD
data) all of your component tests and have optimized them for measurement ranges, but
before entering miscellaneous test steps such as display messages. This sort will generally
sort your test steps so that particular measurement modes are grouped together. For
example, all of the 100Hz tests are executed in sequence so that the measurement
electronics do not need to resettle to a new frequency before making the measurement.
Most users prefer to have tests in order by component name rather than for best speed,
although if obtaining the optimum test speed is important to you, this function can provide
a little additional speed.

8-25
Test Programs Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Tools Menu

Measure Offsets provides the capability to measure the resistance and capacitance offsets
for a particular test program and test fixture. This feature is an automated way of
performing the offset function that you can also individually perform on each test step
from the 'Measurement Analysis' screen. The same storage value is modified in the test
program. In each case, you can elect to perform the offset for the selected test step(s), or
the entire program.
If you are off-setting resistance tests, the system will ask you to install a shorting fixture on
the system that connects all of the probes together. This can sometimes be created from
having your PCB manufacturer provide a PCB that has not been etched, or by machining a
conductive plate (such as a piece of PCB material) to the shape of your UUT. Once you
have installed the shorting fixture, the system will make a measurement between the test
points used on resistance-type tests, then assign this as an offset for the test step. At run-
time the measured resistance for each test step is subtracted from the measured value.
Resistance off-setting can increase the accuracy of low value resistance measurements
because it subtracts the resistance of the wiring between the end of the cable from the
system to the top of the test probes. However, if high accuracy is required for low
resistance measurements, use of Kelvin measurement techniques (4-wire) are superior to
offsets. This is because Kelvin techniques automatically accommodate changes in
resistance (such as probe contact resistance) that occur over time.
If you are off-setting capacitance tests, the system will ask you to remove the UUT from
the fixture. Once you have done that, it will make a measurement between the test points
used on capacitance-type tests, then assign this as an offset for the test step. At run-time
the measured capacitance for each test step is subtracted from the measured value.
Capacitance off-setting can increase the accuracy of low value capacitance measurements
by subtracts the capacitance of the wiring between the end of the cable from the system to
the top of the test probes.
Merge Parallel Components finds parallel components and merges them (e.g., if C1 and
C7 are connected to the same test points, the system adds the values of them and puts them
together into one test step.
CAD Conversion allows you to use CAD (computer-aided-design) data to help generate
your test program. Data such as net-lists and component lists from various CAD Systems
can be used to generate a preliminary test program for you. Entering Test Steps on page
9-1 describes use of this function in more detail.
PCB Panelization is used with UUTs that consist of several UUTs that are combined on a
single larger PCB. Once you have written and debugged the test program for the first
UUT, you can have the system automatically step and repeat the program for the other
identical PCBs on the panel (or pallet). Panelization also provides testing functions such
as the ability to separate results by UUT in the panel, the ability to skip over some UUTs
in the panel, and descriptive methods by which the operator can see which UUT is being
tested, and relating the test results to a physical location on the panel
For details, see Panelized Testing on page 9-43 and Panelization Programming by
Wizard on page 9-44.

8-26
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Programs
Tools Menu

Autoprogram allows the system to be used without conventional test programming. This
is handy if you would like to do testing on assemblies, but you don't have the time or staff
to write a "real" test program yet. To do this, the system provides an "autoprogramming"
facility. This allows you to put a known-good assembly on your test fixture, then have the
system autoprogram the attributes of the assembly.

When autoprogramming, the system electrically examines your assembly, generating:


1. A continuity map that is used to find opens and shorts,
2. A list of resistances from each point to each other point,
3. A list of capacitances from each point to each other point, and
4. A list of diode junctions from each point to each other point.

Once the system has autolearned these attributes of your assembly, you can use the
generated test program(s) to test assemblies. Autoprogramming has the advantage of
quick and easy program generation, but it does not contain as good diagnostic information
as a conventionally written test program. For example, if it detects a failure, it will simply
list the error in terms of the measurement type (e.g., RESistance), the two test points being
measured (by number), the high and low test limits, and the measured value. A normal test
program would contain the name of the component being measured, and would contain
less measurements since the automatically generated program can't tell the difference
between impedances caused by series and parallel combinations and those not caused by
normal component measurements. However, even with these disadvantages, the
autoprogramming function allows you to get up and operating very quickly and still
provides fairly high test coverage.

To autoprogram an assembly, do the following steps:


1. Place a known-good assembly on the test fixture and actuate the fixture. Fixtures

8-27
Test Programs Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Tools Menu

obtained from CheckSum can be mechanically locked into place or actuated with a switch
available on the fixture system.
2. Enter the file name for this assembly. This ASSEMBLY name will be used as the name
of the test program that is generated. It can be any sequence of up to eleven characters that
do not contain spaces, colons, semi-colons, periods, or commas.
3. Enter the Number of Test Point (last one used) for the assembly. The number entered
here has a big impact on autoprogramming speed, so use the smallest number you can that
still encompasses all the assembly test points.
4. Press the Perform Autoprogram button to start the process. If an existing file is present,
you will be asked if it is OK to overwrite it, then if so, the autoprogram will commence.
Small assemblys of 100 points or less autoprogram in a matter of a few minutes, but large
assemblies may take several hours.

That's it! Once autoprogramming is complete, you have a program with the name you
provided that is ready to run. It contains a CONT test, RESistance tests, CAPacitance
tests, DIODE tests, and some operator displays just as used with conventional
programming. You can refer to other sections of this manual to see how these test-types
function. You can run and edit the program to fine-tune it to your needs. You should run
it a few times at first to make sure that every step reliably passes. If not, you can go to the
Edit window to delete or modify test steps that are a problem.

The Autoprogram window allows you to alter the autoprogram process. For each type of
measurement function, you can have the system autoprogram (combo box: Yes), or not
autoprogram (combo box: No). If you have already autoprogrammed the assembly, you
can use the previously determined data (combo box: Use Last) for a function when you do
a new autoprogram. For example, if you have autoprogrammed an assembly, but would
like autoprogram just the CAPacitors, you can re-use the previous parameters (CONT,
DIODE, RESistors) to save time.

Autoprogram Parameters can be used to fine-tune autoprogramming. The


autoprogramming function for Resistance, Capacitance and Diodes can be specified. You
can specify the lowest and highest values programmed for each function. You can set the
test limits in percent (or in volts for diodes). You can specify the closest allowable
tolerance. For example, for resistance the default percentage tolerance is 20%, and the
closest absolute limit is 5. This means that even though 20% may be less than 5 ohms, the
closest allowed tolerance is 5 ohms. You can choose the current used for diode testing.
Reset to Defaults will restore the system to the factory default settings for the currently
selected parameter.

8-28
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Programs
Tools Menu

The changes that you make in the Autoprogram Parameters window can be saved in the
Station Configuration file for your next use of the system.

If you are interested in more details of autoprogramming, here is a little more information.
For each parameter that is autoprogrammed, an ASCII file is generated. They are called
$TMPCO$.1 for continuity, $TMPRE$.1 for resistance, $TMPCA$.1 for capacitance, and
$TMPDI$.1 for diodes. These are normal CheckSum-ASCII files that can be read in by
the standard Open File (file type ASCII). If not all of the data fits into one program file,
more files with extensions of .2, .3, ... are used. The first line of each file contains the
name of the main test program file that was used when generating this file. These ASCII
files are overwritten each time you do a new autoprogram. If not all of the test steps will
fit into a single test program, the autoprogram function generates a series of programs
linked together with RUNT commands. The main test program is called the name which
you entered, and the RUNT programs use the same name, but with a last digit of A, B, ...
and so on. Each of these files can be called up and executed individually if desired.

8-29
Test Programs Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Help Menu

Show BreakPoint Information opens the BreakPoint Information dialog window:

This window allows you to view and change the settings on the page shown. By clicking
on a specific page tab, you can view and change the items on the various pages.

Help Menu

Edit Test Program, Help Menu

The Help menu can be used to obtain on-line help about the Model TR-8 Test System.
Contents... allows you to search the table of contents for the help sections.
Topic Search... allows you to search the help data based on a topic that you enter.

8-30
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Programs
Loading a Program or Erasing Memory

Getting Started... helps you learn how to use the test system hardware and software.
About... shows information about the software that you are using. It provides the revision
number, a number to call at CheckSum if you would like to talk to an engineer, and the
most recent date that the system self-test has been run.

Loading a Program or Erasing Memory


The programming facilities of the CheckSum System are similar for editing an existing test
program or generating a new one. If you are editing an existing program, you first load it by
selecting 'Open' from the 'File' menu in The Edit Test Screen on page 8-6, then selecting the
proper test program file. If you want to erase the existing data and start with new data, select
'New' (or press Alt-D) from the 'File' menu of the Edit screen. A dialog box will confirm if
you want to erase the test program.
The program that you are editing will stay in memory as you enter and debug it. Once you are
satisfied, you can save it on disk. As in normal computer practice, you should also frequently
save the file to prevent loss of your time in case the computer should halt or lose power, in
which case all the information in RAM is lost. To save the program, use the 'Save' option in
the 'File' menu or press the save toolbar button (disk icon).

Assigning Point Names


You will probably want to assign meaningful point names so that the reports from the system
will be more useful. Points are sometimes referred to as pin names, test point names, or nails.
The Model TR-8 Test System allows you to enter a point name of up to 255 characters for each
test point. In most screens, up to about 32 characters can be directly viewed. To assign point
names, use the Connection Information screen (see the following figure). This screen is
accessed by selecting 'Connection Information' from the 'Setup' menu in the Edit Test Program
window.

8-31
Test Programs Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Assigning Point Names

Connection Information Screen

The Connection Information screen works much like a spreadsheet. Use the page up, page
down, arrow keys, or the Goto Point menu-item, to move the highlighted, active area to the
row to add or edit a point name.
After you have entered a name and pressed Enter, the system automatically moves to the next
position to make entry of a list faster.
Probing
You can use probing to locate a test point number. With this feature you do not need to know
the specifics of how the UUT is connected to your test system. Probing is available for all
standard TR-8-1 test points.
You may either use the probe that comes with CheckSum fixturing or your own probe. The
probe needs to be connected to the banana jack on the back of the TR-8 System Module.
The system can be configured to probe all points or just active points. In addition the probe
threshold can be changed. This setup is done by selecting TR-8 System Module, the Probe
Setup with the Modules menu available from the Configure System menu.
Probe a Point sets the system into probing mode. When in probing mode, each time the
grounded probe touches a test point, the test point moves to the middle of the screen.
Probing stays active until Probe a Point is selected again to toggle it off. Probing can also
be turned on and off with the toolbar item that looks like a probe touching a point.
If more than one point is detected when the probe is touching the UUT or fixture, the
systems lists the additional probed points in the upper right hand portion of the Connection
Information screen. In order to see all of the points, you may need to hold the probe to the
UUT for a few moments to allow the system to make an entire scan to find all of the
additional points.

8-32
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Programs
Entering Test Steps

Auto-Increment enables automatic incrementing of point names during the probe


process. The system uses the point name in the center of the screen as the base. When the
next point is probed, it is assigned the same name, but incremented by one. If the last digit
of the pin name is alphabetic, it becomes the next alphabetic character, moving from lower
case to upper case. Note that no alphabetic characters are skipped, so it may to necessary
to probe a point twice to skip over unused pin names (such as an 'i' in some cases). If the
last characters of the pin name are numeric, they are incremented to the next numeric
character. Selecting Auto-Increment a second time disables auto-increment.
Exiting When you have completed entry of connection information, select the Green
Door to move back to The Edit Test Screen on page 8-6.

Entering Test Steps


For details about what test types to use, and how to enter them, refer to Entering Test Steps on
page 9-1.

Listing Test Program Data


You can obtain a printout of your completed test program for documentation purposes. To do
so, from the 'File' menu of the 'Edit' Screen, select 'Print'. An example test program listing is
shown in Sample Reports on page 15-1.
If you would like to print a report showing the fixture wiring, go the 'Connection Information'
screen by selecting 'Connection Information' from the 'Setup' menu of the 'Edit' screen. Then
from the 'File' menu, select 'Print'. An example wiring report is shown in Sample Reports on
page 15-1.

Saving Test Programs


Saving/Loading Programs in Binary
To save your test program to disk, select 'Save' from the 'File' menu of the 'Edit' Screen or
press the save toolbar button (disk icon). You should get in the habit of frequently saving your
test program during the editing process. This prevents loss in the event of power-failure or if
the system should malfunction.
Saving/Loading Test Programs in ASCII
The system is designed to normally save test programs in binary format. Binary files are
compact, fast to load and execute. They also cannot be easily modified without use of the test
system, which helps enhance test integrity.
As an alternate, the system allows you to write and read files in ASCII format. An example
test program in ASCII format is shown in Sample Reports on page 15-1.

8-33
Test Programs Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Saving Test Programs

To save a test program in ASCII, use the 'File' menu of the 'Edit' Screen and select Save As.
This opens a dialog box to allow the file name and destination to be changed before it is
written. The dialog box also has a 'Save file as type:' field to allow the program to be saved in
standard binary format (Test Program) or in ASCII format. Use of the .ASC file extension is a
good choice since it will show in the menu when you want to read it back in (Open File).
This allows you to generate an ASCII file, modify it off-line with an editor, then read it back
in. Note that special attributes (such as failure delay and active test points) are not translated to
and from ASCII. Also, using ASCII input, you can read from a file that has been created
elsewhere. For example, you may wish to use a word processor or spreadsheet to describe an
assembly.
For normal use with the CheckSum software, save the program as 'Type: Test Program',
which is the binary format.
The text file can contain the assembly name, connections, point names, operator instructions,
comments, and test step information for an assembly.
In general, each of the sections is optional and may be placed in any order. However, the point
names must be assigned prior to their use in the 'Test Steps' section of the file.
The file typically has several sections, each of which is optional. Each section is prefaced by a
keyword followed by a colon (:). Valid keywords are NAME:, PIN NAMES:, TEST STEPS:,
DISPLAYS:, COM:, OPENS: and CONNECTIONS:. Keywords may be entered in either
upper or lower case and must be the only thing on the line.
After each keyword are one or more lines of data applying to the keyword. Valid data includes
the following:
Name: Followed by an assembly name with up to 32 characters.
Pin Names: Followed by one or more lines each of which contains the test-point number,
a comma, and the point name with up to 255 characters.
Test Steps: Followed by one or more lines, each of which contains 'From' and 'To', type,
range, title, low limit, high limit and nominal value, each separated by a comma delimiter.
The 'From' and 'To' fields can either be a test point number or a point name preceded by a
tilde (~). If a point name is used, it must have been previously defined in the 'Pin Names:'
section. Low and high limits are real numbers in volts, ohms or farads and can not include
alphabetic modifiers such as 'u' or 'k.'
Connections: A list of connections to be verified with the CONT test type. Each line
contains a 'From' test point number, the word 'To', and a 'To' test point number. Optionally
each destination can be followed by a hyphen (-) and another test point number to denote a
range of test point numbers. The second test point number must be larger than the first.
More than one range can be included. For example:
121 to 134-234 270-400
Opens: Same as connections, but used to specify non-connections (opens) to the CONT
test type.
Displays: Followed by one or more lines describing the displays used by the DISP and
DISPE test types. Each line includes the display number, a comma, the row number, a
comma, the column number, a comma, the display itself.

8-34
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Programs
Saving Test Programs

Com: Followed on the same line by an operator instruction (comment). These are read in
order and appended, line by line. As an alternate to 'Com:' you may use an asterisk ('*') at
the beginning of each line.
! An exclamation point is used to start a comment in the ASCII file. Everything after it on
the line is ignored.
Blank lines These lines are ignored. Blanks at the beginning or end of a line are ignored
also.

Note
When reading ASCII files, the system uses commas to separate the input
fields. Therefore, you should not use commas in test titles for the test steps
since this will confuse the system during ASCII input. During ASCII
output, the system converts any commas that it finds in the test titles to
semi-colons.

8-35
Test Programs Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Saving Test Programs

8-36
Chapter 9
Entering Test Steps

Entering Test Steps


Overview
The MDA System is customized for each UUT by writing a unique test program describing the
steps performed on the UUT. The test program can be initially generated with CAD data (see
CAD Data Conversion on page 10-1 for details about this process), or manually entered. The
Edit screen is used for entry and debugging of test programs. The Edit screen is described in
The Edit Test Screen on page 8-6.
This discussion covers the specifics of testing each component on the UUT. The Test Display
on page 6-5 is used to enter and debug a wide variety of test-types that describe each
measurement. This topic describes what test types to use and how to optimize test steps for
most common types of parts. Additional reference information about each test type is included
in Test Type Descriptions on page 22-1.

Toolbar Buttons and Shortcut Keys


In the pull-down menus, shortcut key sequences are often available. These
shortcut key sequences are shown in the menus next to the command. Also,
in many screens, toolbar buttons are available at the top of the screen. The
toolbar buttons can be used as substitutes for frequently used menu items.
By moving the mouse pointer over the toolbar button, then pausing, a 'hint'
will appear that describes what the toolbar button does.

Topics
Using the Edit Screen on page 9-2
Controlling the Test Fixture and Discharge System on page 9-4
Entering Resistor, Inductor and Capacitor Tests on page 9-5
Diode, LED and Zener Testing on page 9-16
Transistor and FET Testing on page 9-18
Switches on page 9-21
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Using the Edit Screen

Potentiometers on page 9-22


Jumpers on page 9-22
Opens/Shorts Testing on page 9-22
ICs Testing on page 9-30
Transformer Testing on page 9-33
Operator Displays on page 9-34
Controlling Program Flow on page 9-36
Generating Reports from a Test Program on page 9-40
Cable Testing and Wiring on page 9-41
Panelized Testing on page 9-43
Panelization Programming by Wizard on page 9-44
Manual Panelization Programming on page 9-46
Use of Program Memory Locations on page 9-50

Using the Edit Screen


The Edit screen (shown in the following figure) allows you to enter or edit the test steps that
are performed when testing the UUT. Each line describes one test step.

Edit Screen

9-2
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Entering Test Steps
Using the Edit Screen

Test Step Descriptions


Each line in the Edit screen shows a test step type (e.g., CAP for capacitance or RES for
resistance) and a test title that describes the component being tested. The test title can be used
for the component designator (e.g., R201, C3402) and can contain other information (e.g., the
part number). Any text up to twelve characters in length can be entered.
The other fields are dependent upon the test type. For most tests, the high and low limits are
used to describe the analog limits for the test (e.g., 9k and 11 k for resistance tests). The
'To (+)' and 'From (-)' test points describe the test points that are accessed for the measurement.
The range shows the measurement range (e.g., 0 for autorange, 1 for 190 range, etc). The
last two columns show the nominal (expected) measured value for the component, and the last
column shows the measurement that was taken for the test step during the last test execution or
when measure was selected.
Refer to Test Type Descriptions on page 22-1 for the specifics of each test type and its
corresponding information. The range values for normal resistance, capacitance, diode and
inductance tests are computed automatically for you, but for your own interest, these range
values are listed in Test Step Range Values on page 22-5.
Using the Edit Screen
You may individually alter each test step field by moving the brackets to the desired area, then
typing the new value that you would like. The System works much like a spreadsheet. You
can move to new lines by using the scroll bar, and from field to field with the four arrow keys
or clicking on the selected field with the mouse.
You can also use the mouse on the left column of boxes on the screen. Clicking on a line
selects it. It turns yellow when selected. Some operations can also be used with a range of test
lines. For example, you can make measurements on a block of lines, or a single line. To select
a block of lines, click on the left blocks of the first and last line, or grab the block on the first
line and drag to the last line.
You can also change the appearance of the Edit screen if you wish. Refer to View Menu on
page 8-11.
Most numeric entries can be entered in scientific notation if desired. For example, 10 M can
be entered as 10000000 or 10000e3 or 10e6 or 1e7. Alternatively, you may enter most
numbers with a p, n, u, m, k or M for pico, nano, micro, milli, kilo and mega.
When you enter a point name, the System searches the point names that have already been
assigned. When it finds a match, the System inserts the point number and point name that
have been found. If a match is not found, the System gives an error message and returns the
original point name. To be found, the entered point name must exactly match the assigned
point name, including upper and lower case.
An alternate way of entering programs is to assign the point names as you go. First, go into
the point-naming (rather than search) mode. To do so, either select the 'Point Name Search'
item from the 'Edit' menu to turn the check off, or enter [Ctrl+O]. In this mode, when you type
in a point name, it assigns the point name that you enter for the test point number that is
already present on the adjacent column. To use this mode, type in the test point number. If
there is no name present for the new number (the name column is blank), move to the name
column and type in the name.

9-3
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Controlling the Test Fixture and Discharge System

There are a number of advanced features available for manipulating the data in the Edit Screen.
These include cutting, pasting, and moving lines and fields of data. If you want to use these,
refer to the description of the Edit Test Program Screen on page 8-6, paying particular
attention to the 'Edit' menu description.

Controlling the Test Fixture and Discharge System


If you have one of CheckSum's purely mechanical test fixtures, such as the Model TR-5, and
do not have a Model DM-1 Discharge System, you can skip to the next section. Otherwise you
should read this.
Automated fixture systems require a digital input from the System to actuate the fixture at the
beginning of the test and to release it at the end of the test. The digital input of the test fixture
is connected to the RCA-jack at the backpanel of the TR-8 System Module.
If you have a Model DM-1 Discharge System, it is connected from the D-Sub-25 connector at
the backpanel of the TR-8 System Module. If you have a keypad, it is then connected to the
output D-Sub-25 connector at the back of the Model DM-1. Both DM-1 D-Sub-25 back-panel
connectors are in parallel so you can connect randomly if you wish. The Model DM-1
discharges the UUT prior to connecting it to the test System. This helps prevent damage to the
System test point electronics.
The FIXCT test type is used to control the DM-1 and test fixture. For this command to be
effective, both the fixture system and the DM-1 switches need to be in the 'Remote' position.
During test programming you can engage the fixture and DM-1 manually if you wish by using
this same switch.
At the beginning of the program, enter a FIXCT test-type with a range value of 1. This will
cause the fixture to be actuated. If you have a Model DM-1, use a range value of 9. The 'Low-
Limit' column specifies how long the system waits for the fixture to engage before continuing
the test. A value of 1000 (mSec) works well for most fixtures but you can adjust it if
necessary.
You can also wire a fixture-down switch into the test fixture. Use of a fixture-down switch is
not necessary for most testing installations, but can be used to ensure the UUT is engaged or to
slightly enhance loading speeds. If you specify the two test points that are connected to the
fixture-down switch in the 'From (-) Point' and 'To (+) Point' columns, and the maximum
resistance in the 'High Limit' column, the system will wait for the switch to close (have less
resistance than the high-limit column), then delay the specified number of mSec, then continue
with the test.
At the end of the program, enter a FIXCT test-type with a range value of 0. This will cause the
fixture to be released and the Model DM-1 (if present) to go back to the protected mode. If
you do not use a FIXCT at the end of the program, the fixture will be released regardless.

9-4
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Entering Test Steps
Entering Resistor, Inductor and Capacitor Tests

Entering Resistor, Inductor and Capacitor Tests


Overview
Most of the component tests on a UUT are performed using RESistance, CAPacitance and
INDUctance test steps. All of these test steps are programmed in a similar fashion.
First, the test step is entered using the Edit screen. This screen is accessed by selecting 'Edit
Test' from the System screen. Entry of the test step can also be performed with use of the CAD
conversion on page 10-1.
Inserting the Test Step and Making the Measurement below
Measurement Analysis on page 9-6
Choosing a Range/Function on page 9-8
Measurement Polarity on page 9-10
Measurement Delays on page 9-10
External Sense on page 9-10
Parallel Components on page 9-11
Guarding on page 9-11
Using Measurement Offsets on page 9-12
Using Measurement Gain Factors on page 9-13
Dynamic Measurement Analysis on page 9-13
Calculation Model on page 9-15
Capacitor Measurement Bias on page 9-15
UUT Charging/Discharging Problems on page 9-15
Third-Terminal Biasing on page 9-15
Measuring One Point to Many Points on page 9-16
Inserting the Test Step and Making the Measurement
To insert a new test line, move the cursor to the line just above the insertion point and press the
Insert key. On the new line:
1. Move to the 'Test Type' column, then type in RES for a resistance test, CAP for a
capacitance test, or INDUC for an inductance test.
2. Next, enter the test points that you wish to measure between. You can either move to the
'Point' columns and enter the test point numbers, or you can move to the 'Name' columns
and enter the test point names.
3. Move to the 'Title' column and enter the name of the component that you are measuring
(e.g., R101 or C12).
4. Next, move to the nominal value column, and type in the nominal value for the
component.
Once you have typed in the nominal value, you can select 'Set Initial Limits/Range' from the
'Measure' menu, then the System will assign default upper and lower test limits and an initial

9-5
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Entering Resistor, Inductor and Capacitor Tests

measurement range for you. If you are not satisfied with the values that have been entered,
you can type in different ones or change the defaults for automatic tolerance assignment.
Select 'Make Measurement' from the 'Measure' menu to have the System take a measurement.
If the measurement shown in the 'Meas' column is well within the test limits and seems
repeatable as you make measurements, you are done with this test and can move to the next
component.
Measurement Analysis
Overview
Use the Edit Test Program window Measure > Step Analysis [F6] menu selection to fine-tune
measurements that are not as expected. The Measurement Analysis window is shown in the
following figure.

Measurement Analysis Display

The center portion of the Measurement Analysis display shows the result of measurements
using each of the ranges and functions that are available from the System. You can use the
arrow keys to move from range to range, then select 'Single Measurement' [F3] from the
'Measure' menu to make a measurement, 'Group Measurement' [Shift+F3] from the 'Measure'
menu to refresh all measurements, or 'Continuous Measurement' [Alt+C] to loop on the
measurement. The first three toolbar buttons can also be used.
The menu item Setting > Pass/Fail Indication, if checked/selected, will make the readings
show green for pass and red for fail, based on the test limits.

9-6
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Entering Test Steps
Entering Resistor, Inductor and Capacitor Tests

Most often, there will be more than one function/range that will take a measurement close to
the proper value. If only one range takes a close reading, the System may be taking the right
reading, but for the wrong reason.
You will often need to choose between different measurement techniques that give similar
readings in the Measurement Analysis display. By carefully choosing methods, you can
optimize speed or accuracy or choose a balance of the two that you are comfortable with. To
help make this choice, the System offers the ability to display speed and variation statistics for
each measurement type. To display these statistics, select 'Statistics' [F7] from the 'Measure'
menu. The System will display the average reading (mean value), the average measurement
time (in mSec), and the standard deviation of the measurement. The 3-sigma value displayed
(it is 3 times the standard deviation) shows the measurement variation using this technique that
would contain 99.7% of the measurements on this UUT.
The Measurement Analysis screen allows a host of capabilities. Those most-often used to
solve measurement problems are discussed in this section. The tab on the lower portion of the
window allows the Nominal Fit values to be setup. For more information on setting up the
nominal fit values, see Using Measurement Offsets on page 9-12 and Using Measurement
Gain Factors on page 9-13.

If you performed CAD conversion on page 10-4 and created a Fixture Wiring Report File,
then you can use the Setting > Point Information menu item in the Measurement Analysis
screen to find the test point number, net name, and the test system interface block where a
component is connected. The first step is to specify the Fixture Wiring Report File name
(created during CAD conversion), then enter the Point Name of interest and press the Search
button.
Once you have used the Measurement Analysis window to determine the best way to take the
measurement, select the measurement method that you choose to use, then press the [ESC]ape

9-7
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Entering Resistor, Inductor and Capacitor Tests

key, Measure > Exit on the menu bar, or the Green Door toolbar button to return to the Edit
screen. When you do so, the System will automatically generate the proper range value and
save the settings that you have determined while in the Measurement Analysis window. Use
the Measure > Revert and Exit [F10] on the menu bar or the Red Door toolbar button to return
to the Edit window without making any changes to the measurement method.
Choosing a Range/Function
Following are some guidelines for choosing range/functions that are likely to be successful in
taking good measurements.
Resistance below
Capacitance below
Power Supply Capacitors on page 9-9
Polarized Capacitors on page 9-9
Small Capacitors on page 9-9
Inductance on page 9-10
Resistance
For measurements up to 1.9k, select DC constant-current function:
0-10 DC constant-current function, 10mA/.2V range
10-100 DC constant-current function, 10mA/2V range
100-190 DC constant-current function, 1mA/.2V range
190-1.9 k DC constant-current function, 1mA/2V range
Above 1.9k select Voltage mode, (DCV, 2V or .2V range) or DC constant-current function
(ranges shown are the highest reading for range before overrange occurs):
1.9 k ranges: 1mA/2V or .1mA/.2V
19 k ranges: .1mA/2V or 10A/.2V
190 k ranges: 10A/2V or 1A/.2V
1.9 M range: 1A/2V or .1A/.2V
19 M range: .1A/2V
If there are diodes in parallel with the device being measured, you will probably need to use a
.2V measurement range to prevent the parallel diode from clamping the stimulus and creating
an incorrect result.
Capacitance
Range Recommended Measurement
0-.01F Voltage mode, 10kHz, .2 or 2V range

9-8
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Entering Test Steps
Entering Resistor, Inductor and Capacitor Tests

.01-10F Voltage mode, 1kHz, .2 or 2V range


10F or more Voltage mode, 100Hz, .2 or 2V range
(see section about dynamic analysis for proper range selection).
If there are diodes in parallel with the device being measured, you will probably need to use a
.2V measurement range to prevent the parallel diode from clamping the stimulus and creating
an incorrect result.
Power Supply Capacitors
UUTs normally have a several capacitors in parallel across the power supplies. Usually it is in
the configuration of one large cap (10-15F) with a number of small decoupling caps (.05F-
2F each). This is an unguardable configuration since they are all directly in parallel. As
such, the System must measure them all at once and cannot detect a missing decoupling cap
since the tolerance of the large capacitor is usually much greater than the values of the small
capacitors. The System will, however, detect if any of these parallel caps are shorted or the
large capacitor is the wrong value or missing.
Polarized Capacitors
Polarized capacitors can be measured for value using the basic MDA Systems. The polarity of
capacitors up to 200F may be measured using the optional SMT-2 or TR-8-SMT-CAP
function and is described in the section TestJet Technology Capacitor Polarity on page 12-12.
Under certain circumstances the polarity of capacitors larger than 200F may be measurable.
The typical technique used is to apply a voltage across the capacitor for a predetermined time
and then measure the leakage current flow. Because polarized capacitors typically exhibit
higher leakage when charged near their rated voltage, but with incorrect polarity, this
technique may offer good discrimination.
However, in many circuits the variation in current draw of surrounding circuitry may mask the
effects of a reversed capacitor. The PWR module is capable of charging capacitors to 24
Volts, with 100mA available.
Small Capacitors
While most capacitors can be readily measured in-circuit, smaller capacitors (less than about
200 pF) can be a problem. The only viable measurement method for these capacitors is use of
1 kHz and above voltage-method. Readings taken using other frequencies or methods are very
unlikely to be valid (even though it is possible that they may give the correct reading while you
are programming).
In many cases, the capacitors are in parallel with components (such as an IC leg) that have
much higher capacitance. In this case, providing an offset for the larger value is likely to cause
a problem. In most cases, if it is necessary to offset a small capacitance reading by more than
about 150pF, you are likely to have unreliable testing once you have placed the program in
production.
In other cases, parallel signal paths can cause the reading to be unstable. By examining the 3-
sigma results of the reading, you can determine whether testing of the capacitor in the
particular UUT is viable. While the CheckSum system does an exemplary job of testing

9-9
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Entering Resistor, Inductor and Capacitor Tests

isolated capacitors, you need to determine the testability of each small capacitor in a circuit
individually. In many cases, values less than about 200pF cannot be reliably tested.
Inductance
Range Recommended Measurement
0-1mH Voltage mode, 100kHz, .2 or 2V range
1-10mH Voltage mode, 10kHz, .2 or 2V range
10-100mH Voltage mode, 1kHz, .2 or 2V range
100mH or more Voltage mode, 100Hz, .2 or 2V range

Note
Use 4-terminal connections for less than 100H.

If there are diodes in parallel with the device being measured, you will probably need to use a
.2V measurement range to prevent the parallel diode from clamping the stimulus and creating
an incorrect result.
Measurement Polarity
By selecting the 'Reverse Polarity' [F4] selection of the 'Measure' menu, you can reverse the
polarity of the measurement and try measurements in the opposite polarity. In some cases,
changing polarity can help make more effective measurements by eliminating parallel diode
paths or reducing guarding ratios. Once you have changed polarity, make some new
measurements to see whether the new polarity works better.
Measurement Delays
Sometimes DC-voltage and DC-current measurements can be improved by adding a delay to
the measurement. By selecting 'Delay' [F8] from the 'Setting' menu or clicking on the delay
box in the lower right corner of the Measurement Analysis screen. You can then enter a delay
time number (in mSec) that requests that the System apply stimulus then wait the specified
time before making the measurement. This allows time for parallel capacitances to charge. If
you are having trouble with a measurement, try adding 500mSec delay to see if the readings
improve. If they improve, adjust the delay time up or down until you get an appropriate
reading with the minimum amount of delay time. If you apply a negative delay number, the
System will discharge the test points for the specified number of mSec.
External Sense
For components that are low impedance, measurements can be improved by using external
sense (Kelvin, 4-terminal) wiring. This technique significantly improves reading for
capacitors that are greater than 1000F, inductors that are smaller than 0.1mH, and resistors
that are less than 15. External sensing is optional for most measurements, but it is necessary
in order to take good inductance readings in the H region.
External sensing works by using two test points to carry the stimulus current to and from the
component being measured. Two other test points are used to sense the voltage at the
component being measured. By sensing the voltage with these additional high-input-

9-10
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Entering Test Steps
Entering Resistor, Inductor and Capacitor Tests

impedance test points, the effects of voltage drops in the cabling and connections are
eliminated. See Theory of Operation on page 20-2 for more details about external sensing.
If you do not specify external sense, the System automatically externally senses on the UUT-
side of the System's solid-state switching, but internal to the tester. Because of this, the
System compensates for the impedance of the switching, but not for the series resistance of the
cabling, fixturing, and test electronics module wiring. During System self-test/calibration, the
resistive offset to the end of the ribbon-cables is measured and the value automatically
subtracted from measurements if external sensing is not specified.
External sense points can be wired to the same probes as the measurement points, or better yet
to additional probes on the same networks. In some cases, you can use other existing probes
on the UUT as external sense or source points, even if they are not directly at the desired point.
To tell the software that you are using external sensing, move to the locations just below the
measurement point description in the upper left corner of the Measurement Analysis screen.
Type in the external sense test point number just below the point that you are external sensing.
You can externally sense either or both of the measurement test points.
Parallel Components
Many times in-circuit testing requires measurement while parallel components are present.
In some cases the effect of parallel components can be reduced or eliminated with the use of
guarding. For more details, see the section below about guarding.
Sometimes the components can be measured separately because they are of different types.
For example, using DC-V or DC-constant-current can measure a resistor or diode in parallel
with a capacitor if time is given for the capacitor to charge.
Complex-impedance measurements (measurements using AC stimulus with the CheckSum
System) can differentiate different impedance types if the impedances are similar. For
example, in some cases the System can individually measure a cap and a resistor that in
parallel and differentiate them because of the impedance phase difference.
Guarding
Often times, in-circuit measurements involve parallel impedances that cause the reading to be
incorrect. To correct for this, the System provides the ability to guard out these parallel
impedances. The theory of guarding is discussed in Current Guarding on page 20-4 and
Voltage Guarding on page 20-8.
Guarding can be used when there is parallel impedance across the measurement path, and there
is a test point in the middle of this impedance. The System sources or sinks current from each
guard point so that the current from parallel paths into the measurement points is eliminated.
The value of current into each guard point is automatically determined by the System so as to
optimize individual guard point performances.
You can add or delete guard points in the Measurement Analysis screen with the Insert and
Delete keys. Below each guard point is an entry area for specification of an external sense
point for the guard point. Use of this sense point can provide improved measurement accuracy
on guarded measurements, using the same theory as discussed in External Sense on page 9-10.
In few cases, however, is it necessary to externally sense guard points.

9-11
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Entering Resistor, Inductor and Capacitor Tests

Guard points are generally inserted one component away from the component being measured.
For the constant-voltage technique, choose points that are one component from the From (-)
test point. For the constant-current technique, choose points are one component from the To
(+) test point. You should also try guarding the ground and/or power supply test points since
they are often effective to improve measurements.
You can guard impedances that are up to about 1/100 of the impedance of the measured
component. Changing the polarity or method (constant-voltage vs. constant-current) of
measurement can often improve the guard effectiveness by minimizing the necessary guard
ratio. In most cases where guarding is necessary, only one or two guard points are sufficient to
achieve the proper measurement.
One easy guarding technique that often helps is to initially try ground and power supply points
as potential guard points. If one of the leads of the component that you are measuring is
connected to ground or one of the power supplies, do not use it as a guard point.
Guarding is normally specified by entering one (or a few) guard points. However, in some
cases you may want to guard all of the points, with the exception of a few. Specifying a first
guard channel value of 1624 specifies this function. When 1624 is specified, the System will
guard all test points except:
a. Those directly used in the measurement,
b. The main measurement external sense points, and
c. Any other specified guard points or guard sense points.
Bias voltages or currents within this step, or previously requested via DCV, SINE, SQRV and
EXTIO test steps are not active when guard-all measurements are used. Guard sensing using
the channel 1 guard sense and external sensing of the measurement points are still available.
The System includes an automatic guard algorithm, but most experienced users find it quicker
and most effective to interactively determine the guard points.
If a sense test point is specified in the first column using the 1624 guard point number then this
sense is used as the reference for the guard amplifier which drives all of the guarded points.
Using Measurement Offsets
Because of the residual resistance, capacitance and inductance of the fixturing, sometimes it is
necessary to offset the measurements. The System provides the ability to specify a value that
is added to each measurement for this purpose. This is most often used when measuring small
capacitors under about 500 pF. Typical offset values are 30-100pF depending on the fixture
and UUT. It can also be useful for small resistance values, but remember that for resistance it
is not as good as using external sensing. To enter the offset, select 'Enter Offset' (press
[Alt+F2]) in the Measurement Analysis screen, then type in the value that you would like to
subtract from the reading. Note that you can observe the value by selecting the 'Nominal Fit'
tab in the 'Measurement Analysis' screen.
For example, if you are measuring a 100pF capacitor and the readings are 160pF, type in 60pF
to correct the reading. Alternatively, you can select 'Fit Zero (press [Alt+F5]) to have the
System automatically determine and assign the offset value necessary to obtain the nominal
value from the reading range that is presently selected. With use of the 'Measure Offset' item
in the 'Tools' menu of the editor, you can have the System measure all of the offsets for the test

9-12
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Entering Test Steps
Entering Resistor, Inductor and Capacitor Tests

program, but most often you are also offsetting some residual impedance of the UUT as well,
so it is most effective to do offsetting on a step by step basis.
If excessive offset is required, you might suspect fixture wiring errors or parallel circuit paths
of the UUT. To confirm that the System is correctly measuring the proper component, you can
try clip-leading in a parallel component and see if the measured value changes by the
appropriate amount. For example, if you are measuring a 10 k resistor, try clip-leading
another 10 k resistor and see if the value changes to approximately 5 k.
Using Measurement Gain Factors
In some cases, you may wish to multiply the measured value by a factor to determine the
displayed measured value. For example, you may have an unguardable component that you
want to correct or you want to display in m in place of by multiplying the measurement by
1000. The System provides the ability to specify a value that is multiplied by the measurement
for this purpose. The default gain factor is, of course, one.
To enter the gain, select 'Enter Gain' (press [Alt+F3]) in the Measurement Analysis screen,
then type in the value that you would like to multiply to the reading. Note that you can
observe the value by selecting the 'Nominal Fit' tab in the 'Measurement Analysis' screen.
The gain factor is applied after applying the offset. The formula is:
Final Value = (Measured Value minus Zero Offset) Gain Factor
For example, if you are measuring two 10K resistors in parallel, you can enter a gain factor of
two, and the reading will be displayed as 10K even though it is reading at the hardware-level
5K. Alternatively, you can select 'Fit Gain (press [Alt+F11]) to have the System automatically
determine and assign the gain value necessary to achieve the nominal value from the reading
range that is presently selected.
Dynamic Measurement Analysis
As a tool to aid test generation, the Dynamic Point Analysis screen allows you to view the test
signal that is being used to make the measurement. To obtain the Dynamic Point Analysis
Screen, shown in the following figure, select 'Dynamic Analysis' from the 'Measure' menu.

9-13
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Entering Resistor, Inductor and Capacitor Tests

Dynamic Point Analysis Screen

This screen helps determine the optimum range to use and allows you to see if the
measurement point has unique characteristics. The dynamic point analysis screen is like an
oscilloscope that measures voltage versus time during the measurement.
The Dynamic Point Analysis screen shows information about measurements taken on each
measurement range. The top row and lower left show plots of measurements using the
constant-current measurement method. The lower right corner shows two plots when using the
voltage mode at 100 Hz.
Under normal measurements of resistance and capacitance, each constant-current graph will be
a straight line. If the line is horizontal, the measurement is purely resistive. If the line is
vertical, it is an indication that the point has little or no capacitance or is overrange for
resistance on that range.
If the line is angled, there is a capacitive component of the measurement. The more capacitive
the measurement, the more horizontal the line will be. If the graph is curved, it is an indication
of a point with capacitance and resistance combined.
Each plot has two lines, one for the 200 mV output range, and the other for the 2 V output
range. The reading that would be obtained by each output voltage is shown below the graph.
If you have a color monitor, the System plots the graph in the same color as the writing as
appropriate for the output voltage range.
The vertical scale is 2 V for the 2 V output range yellow traces and 200mV for the 200mV
output range green traces. The horizontal scale is 100 mSec. When measuring capacitance
when using the DC-I method, the System calculates capacitance values based on the rise time
of the graph.

9-14
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Entering Test Steps
Entering Resistor, Inductor and Capacitor Tests

For capacitance measurements, choose the range where the graph shows a line that is nearest to
a 45-degree angle. The System computes the capacitance from the slope of the line.
Therefore, if the line is almost vertical or almost horizontal, the measurement is near the
extreme of the range and may not be accurate.
The two graphs in the lower right-hand corner show the AC-stimulus signal measured across
the UUT when using the AC-voltage measurement. One is shown using the 2 V output range
and the other on the 200mV output range.
Under normal circumstances these plots should be sine waves. If they are distorted, it is an
indication that the circuitry surrounding the connected component is causing the circuit to be
polarity-sensitive. This can occur with diodes in surrounding circuitry, particularly when using
the 2 V output range. If the wave is distorted, the measurement is likely to be in error.
Calculation Model
When using the ac-voltage measurement System for capacitance measurements, the MDA
automatically makes certain assumptions about the circuit being measured. Based on the value
of the component being measured, it assumes that the circuit is either a series or parallel RC
configuration. By selecting clicking on the 'Swap Model/Norm Model' button on the 'Nominal
Fit' screen, you can change this calculation assumption. In some UUT circuit configurations
this can significantly improve the readings.
Capacitor Measurement Bias
When using the ac-voltage measurement system, the source signal is bipolar. In some cases,
such as when measuring a large capacitor in parallel with diodes, the reading can be improved
by applying a bias to the stimulus signal. If the reading is biased, the stimulus can be forced to
be all positive or all negative. Biasing is selected with the 'Neg Offset/Pos Offset/No Offset'
key in the 'Nominal Fit' screen.
UUT Charging/Discharging Problems
Sometimes, particularly with UUTs that have large capacitors, you may determine
measurement methods that work well individually, but when you run the test, fail. This can be
the result of the UUT being charged up from the measurement stimulus of previous tests.
These types of problems can often be solved by changing the polarity of measurements,
changing the type of measurements from DC to AC, or by inserting discharge steps in the test
program. If you have a problem step, try inserting a DISCH 100 7 test step just prior to it.
This will connect all of the test points together for 100mSec to allow them to discharge. If this
solves the problem, you can change the delay time up or down to optimize speed/performance.
You can also insert a negative delay time to the individual test step. This will cause the two
test points used in the measurement to be discharged for the specified number of mSec prior to
the measurement.
Third-Terminal Biasing
The System allows you to apply an independent stimulus to a third point during a resistance
test. This can be used, for example, to drive the gate of a FET while measuring resistance
between the source and the drain. The stimulus can be either a constant-current or constant-
voltage, both referenced to chassis ground of the test System.
To specify this function, select 'Bias Point' from the 'Setting' menu, then type in the test point
number. Then, select 'Bias Amplitude' from the 'Setting' menu and enter the amplitude. If you

9-15
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Diode, LED and Zener Testing

enter a number from -10 to +10, it specifies a dc voltage stimulus. If you specify 'm' as the
units, the entry is taken as a constant-current. Valid entries are from -1m to +1m, which
specify from -1 (sinking) to +1 (sourcing) mA of current in the third-terminal test-point.
Measuring One Point to Many Points
The System allows you to measure from one point to a number of other points with a single
measurement. This can be used, for example, if you want to see if a point is isolated from a
group of other points with a single measurement. This type of measurement can be specified
to be RESistance, CAPacitance, INDUCtance or equivalent JMP test types.
There are two ways to specify this type of measurement. In the first case, you specify from
one point to all other points minus a few. In the second case, you specify from one point to a
range of test points, or to two ranges of test points. In both cases, you program the step just as
you would a normal step, including use of external sense, then use the guard points to specify
the additional points to be included or excluded. The first guard sense value is not used.
For measuring from one to many others connected to source high side (with a few
excluded), assign the first guard to be number 1623. Then, list the points that you want
excluded as the other guard and guard-sense points. When you have programmed the step
this way, the System measures from the 'From (-)' point to the 'To (+) Point' that is
connected to all other points except those listed as guard points, external sense points, and
the 'From (-)' point.
For measuring from one to a range of points, assign the first guard to be number 1622.
Then, list the range of points to be measured to as guard 2 (first point) and guard 3 (last
point). If you want to specify another range of points, use guard 4 (first point) and guard 5
(last point). When you have programmed the step this way, the System measures from the
'From (-)' point to the 'To (+) Point' that is connected to the range(s) of points specified
with the guard points.
For measuring from one to many others connected to the source low side, assign the first
guard to be number 1621. Then, list the points you want excluded as the other guard and
guard-sense points. When you have programmed the step this way, the System measures
from the 'To (+)' point to the 'From (-)' point that is connected to all other points except
those listed as guard points, external sense points, and the 'To (+)' point.

Diode, LED and Zener Testing


Overview
Diodes, LEDs and zener diodes are tested by applying a constant current, then measuring the
voltage across the component being tested. Using this technique ensures that the device is
present, is installed in the proper polarity, and is not shorted.
Diode/LED Testing

For normal diodes and LEDs, the anode of the diode/LED is connected to the 'To (+)' test point
and the cathode of the device is connected to the 'From (-)' test point. As a default range (2),

9-16
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Entering Test Steps
Diode, LED and Zener Testing

the System applies 1 mA to the diode. Most diodes measure about .6V junction voltage in this
case. Typically, LEDs measure approximately 1V.

Zener diodes are measured with the cathode connected to the 'To (+)' test point and the anode
connected to the 'From (-)' test point. The TR-8 System can measure up to 9.9V when using
stimulus up to 10mA with the DIODE test-type, and up to 18V at 10mA with the ZENER test-
type.
If you have a PWR module, the System can use up to 100mA to supply stimulus to the diode
being tested with a differential voltage of up to 24 Vdc. See Power Option on page 11-1 for
specifics of using this module. Points measured with the PWR option must be specially wired
since the standard TR-8 solid-state test points can not source that much current.
In some circuits, 10 mA (or even 100 mA) may not be sufficient current to bring a zener diode
to its zener voltage. In this case the best alternative is to reverse the polarity and test the zener
as normal diodes.
Both 2V and 10V ranges are available for standard diode/LED testing. You can use the
Measurement Analysis and Dynamic Analysis screens to determine the proper measurement
range.
In some cases, a delay is necessary to allow parallel capacitors to charge prior to making the
measurement. The delay is inserted via the 'Delay' item in the 'Setting' menu in the
Measurement Analysis screen.
After inserting a DIODE test type, select 'Reverse Polarity' from the 'Measure' menu then make
another measurement to ensure that the reading changes to a fail condition as a result of the
incorrect polarity. Then return the reading back to the proper polarity.
Zener Diode Testing
Zener diode testing is similar to testing normal diodes, except the test polarity is reversed, and
the breakdown voltage is measured rather than the forward junction voltage.
When testing zener diodes up to approximately 9 volts that can be stimulated with 10mA or
less, use the DIODE test type as specified in the previous section. The DIODE test will
measure up to 9.9 volts, but you need to allow a little extra measurable voltage range above the
high test limit so that the test will fail on the high side before it goes into overrange.
For zeners that are up to 18 volts (including the measurement safety zone discussed in the
previous paragraph), you can use the ZENER test-type. With this test type, you simply enter
the two test points (observing stimulus polarity as shown at the top of the 'To (+)' and 'From (-
)' columns), the nominal, and the high and low test limits. The range column can be used to
specify a delay, in mSec, to allow the stimulus to charge up parallel circuitry before the
measurement is made. The System knows from the test point numbers that you have specified
whether you are connecting to the TR-8 or the PWR option. Based on this, it either applies 10
mA or 100 mA as appropriate for the stimulus hardware.

9-17
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Transistor and FET Testing

After inserting a ZENER test type, select 'Reverse Polarity' from the 'Measure' menu then
make another measurement to ensure that the reading changes to a fail condition as a result of
the incorrect polarity. Then return the reading back to the proper polarity.

Transistor and FET Testing


Overview
Your System can check for transistor presence by testing the B/E and B/C junctions as diodes.
When using this technique, you can use the DIODE test type to test the junction between the
base and the collector (for NPN transistors, connect the base to the 'To (+)' test point and the
collector to the 'From (-)' test point.
Next, use the DIODE test type to test the junction between the base and the emitter (for NPN
transistors, connect the base to the 'To (+)' test point and the emitter to the 'From (-)' test point.
For PNP transistors, reverse the connection polarity. Typical test tolerances are .4V for the
Low-Limit and .8V for the High-Limit.
Often transistors have pin-outs have the base in the center position. In this case, with the
DIODE testing method, the System will not normally detect reversed parts. To determine if
the transistor is reversed requires use of the following techniques.
A more comprehensive test for three-terminal devices, such as FETs and transistors, is done
with an active test of these components. This testing can help detect incorrect or incorrectly
installed parts. Beta testing is performed with the UUT powered down, except for the
measurement signals applied to the part being tested.

Note
The effectiveness of the Beta test can be limited if low-impedance parallel
circuitry is present in the UUT.

In the case of transistors, the System performs the test by applying a voltage-limited constant-
current (10mA) between the collector and emitter. The base is then swept (in 4A steps) with
a constant-current signal that can range from -1mA to +1mA. When a self-learn occurs, the
System monitors the collector voltage and determines the voltage threshold point at which the
transistor turns on. The high and low test limits reflect the acceptable limits of base bias
current to obtain this collector output voltage. At test time, the System ensures that the base
current at this switch-over threshold point is within the test limits.
In the case of FETs, the System performs the test by applying a voltage-limited constant-
current (1mA) between the source and drain. The gate is then swept (in 80mV steps) with a
voltage signal that can range from -10V to +10V. When a self-learn occurs, the System
monitors the source voltage and determines the voltage threshold point at which the FET turns
on. The high and low test limits reflect the acceptable limits of gate bias voltage to obtain this
source output voltage. At test time, the System ensures that the gate voltage at this switch-over
threshold point is within the test limits.

9-18
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Entering Test Steps
Transistor and FET Testing

Note
For user clarity in test results, this test-type is named Beta to indicate
performance testing of transistors and FETs. However, the measured value
is shown as bias rather than beta. For transistors, the beta is actually 10mA
divided by the bias current. In-circuit beta values of transistors are usually
different than isolated transistor beta measurements.

Related Topics
Programming a Beta Test below
Programming a Beta Test
FET/transistor testing is performed with the Beta test-type. The Beta test type is entered using
the Edit screen, like any other standard test, with additional information entered in a lower-
level screen. The parameters entered from the Edit screen are shown below:
Parameter Description
Test Type BETA
From (-) Point The more-negative current terminal of the device:
PNP Transistor = Collector
NPN Transistor = Emitter
P-FET = Drain
N-FET = Source
To (+) Point The more-positive current terminal of the device:
PNP Transistor = Emitter
NPN Transistor = Collector
P-FET = Source
N-FET = Drain
Range The type of component being tested:
1 = NPN Transistor (add 8 to this to do a fast mode sweep)
2 = PNP Transistor (add 8 to this to do a fast mode sweep)
3 = N-FET
4 = P -FET
Title Used to describe the component being tested, such as Q203 or Q1003.
Low Limit Most negative acceptable current bias (or for FETs, gate voltage). For transistors, the
lowest measurable bias value is -1 mA. For FETs, the minimum measurable value is -
10 V. PNP transistors will typically have negative values. NPN transistors will typically
be positive values.
High Limit Most positive acceptable current bias value (or for FETs, gate switch-on voltage). For
transistors, the highest measurable bias value is +1mA. For FETs, the highest
measured value is +10V. To enter a value higher than the System can measure, type
in 20M or O_Rng. This value, displayed as O_Rng, is greater than any normally
measured value, and will never cause a failure on the high side.

The following figure shows the test point connections for each typical type of device tested
with the Beta test-type.

9-19
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Transistor and FET Testing

To (+ ) T P To (+ ) T P

B ias T P NPN B ias T P PNP

F rom (-) T P F rom (-) T P

To (+ ) T P To (+ ) T P

B ias T P N -F E T B ias T P P -F E T

F rom (-) T P F rom (-) T P


Device Test Point Connections for Beta Test

When the Beta test type is entered, select 'Step Analysis' from the 'Measure' menu to obtain the
Beta Analysis screen shown in the following figure.

Beta Analysis Screen

The plot shown on the Beta Analysis Screen reflects the collector/source signal on the vertical
axis, and the bias signal on the horizontal axis. This plot is generated when a self-learn of the
device is selected with use of the 'Self-Learn' choice in the 'Measure' menu, or a measurement
is taken with the 'Measure Points' selection of the 'Measure' menu. The flashing cursor is
shown at the point on the vertical plot that the System is using as the threshold voltage for
determination of switch-on.

9-20
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Entering Test Steps
Switches

The left of the display shows the connection points for the UUT, the last measured value, and
the high and low test limits. The measured value shows the bias value (in V or mA) at the
point that the device being tested turns on.
To program the device (from the Beta Analysis Screen), perform the following steps:
1. Click on the 'Base/Gate' entry box to enter the test point used for the third terminal (base or
gate).
2. If you haven't already entered a range from the Edit screen, use the 'Device Type' box to
select the appropriate type of device being tested. You can choose from NPN transistor,
PNP transistor, N-FET and P-FET.
3. Select 'Self-Learn' from the 'Measure' menu to have the System self-learn the device.

4. Repeatedly select 'Measure Points' from the 'Measure' menu to make individual
measurements. While doing so, observe the measured value to ensure that the readings are
consistent.
5. Select 'Set Limits' from the 'Measure' menu to assign default low and high test limits. This
sets limits at +/-20% of the full range for the device-type. These limits work well in most
applications, however you can type in new values if you wish.
6. Select the green door to return to the Edit screen.

In most cases, this process will cause the System to properly program the device being testing.
You can also specify a delay time that occurs between sweep samples while measuring Beta.
The delay time is specified in mSec. A small delay may help make more effective
measurements if significant parallel capacitance is present between any of the device leads. If
you specify a negative delay time, only the first measurement is delayed by the specified time.
In order to optimize testing speed for transistors, you are allowed to enter a 'Sweep Group',
which can consist of sweep-linear or sweep-fast. The fast mode does a binary search to find
the transistor switching point and generally finds this point faster than a linear search.

Switches
Switches are tested using the SWCHR test type. You can choose to measure the normally-
open or normally-closed contacts of the switch. If the switch test fails, the System prompts the
operator to change the position of the switch. Once the operator does so, the test automatically
continues. The range used for SWCHR test types is exactly the same as for the RESistance
test type.
To test normally-open (NO) switch contacts, you would typically use a range of 1, a low-limit
of 25, and a high-limit of 20M or O_Rng. This high-limit value, displayed as > 19 M, is
greater than any normally measured value, and will never cause a failure on the high side. An
over-range measurement is shown as O_Rng in the measured value.

To test normally-closed (NC) switch contacts, you would typically use a range of 1, a low-
limit of 0, and a high-limit of 25.

9-21
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Potentiometers

Potentiometers
Potentiometers are tested using the POTR on page 22-18 test type. This test type makes
measurements exactly like the RESistance test type, but also has some special capabilities. If
the test fails, the operator is presented with a message and graphical display (a meter-
movement) that allows him to interactively make the measurement.
Once the adjustment is complete, the operator presses a key to continue with the test.
The POTR test has a number of options available. For example, you can force the operator to
adjust the potentiometer in all cases (not just when it fails) by including an '@' in the test title.
If you would like to have just a digital read-out on the screen without the analog meter display,
put a '^' in the test title. If you put an '&' in the test title, the System will reverse the polarity of
the meter movement. With this tool you can change the polarity of the meter-movement on the
screen so that the needle always moves in the direction of adjustment so it is more intuitive and
consistent to the operator.

Jumpers
Jumpers are tested using the JMPER on page 22-19 test type. You can choose to measure
normally-open or normally-closed jumpers. If the jumper test fails, the System prompts the
user to change the position of the jumper. Once the operator does so, the test automatically
continues.
The range used for JMPER test type is exactly the same as for the RESistance test type.
To test normally-open jumpers, you would typically use a range of 1, a low-limit of 100, and a
high-limit of 20M or O_Rng. This high-limit value, displayed as > 19 M, is greater than any
normally measured value, and will never cause a failure on the high side. An over-range
measurement is shown as O_Rng in the measured value.
To test normally-closed jumpers, you would typically use a range of 12, a low-limit of 0, and a
high-limit of 100.

Opens/Shorts Testing (Continuity)


Overview
The test System allows you to test the entire UUT for opens and shorts with use of a single
CONTinuity test step. Although opens and shorts data can be manually entered, this data is
usually self-learned by the System from a known-good UUT.
During the programming process, most people generate the continuity and ICs tests as the last
step of the programming process. That way, you don't need to execute them repetitively
during debug of the other programming steps.

9-22
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Entering Test Steps
Opens/Shorts Testing (Continuity)

Sequence-wise, continuity tests should be inserted into the test program after the
potentiometers, switches, and jumper tests are performed. Testing these other components first
gives that best diagnostic errors and prevents false continuity testing errors.
In most cases, fixtures are wired with one probe per electrical network, so most of the faults
found will be shorts. This is acceptable since circuit board opens are generally not created as
part of the assembly process, and most bare boards are separately tested prior to assembly. If it
is important for you to find circuit board opens, you need to install probes at each end of the
traces on the circuit board. If probes are located at edge-connector points, opens can be
detected as components are tested from these test points.
Related Topics
Entering the Continuity Test Step below
Setting the Continuity / No-Care Information on page 9-25
Setting Active Points on page 9-26
Learning the Continuity Map on page 9-26
Assigning Continuity No-Cares on page 9-27
Assigning Continuity Thresholds on page 9-28
Continuity Failure Analysis on page 9-28
Entering the Continuity Test Step
To enter a continuity test, insert a CONTinuity test type using the Edit screen. The Test
System allows you to test the UUT for opens and shorts with use of a CONTinuity test step.
Although opens and shorts data can be manually entered, typically this data is self-learned by
the System from a known-good UUT, then saved with the spec data on disk for future use.
The Continuity / No Care Information window can also be used to activate or inactivate MDA
test points. If a point is inactive, continuity connections to it are not self-learned or tested.
Inactivating contiguous blocks of unused points can cause the System to operate more quickly.
Using a Range value of 1 (or 3) with a continuity measurement causes continuity to run
slightly slower but guarantees that any voltage sources on inactivated points, such as batteries,
will not effect the continuity measurement. Two filled triangles left of the left column point
number show a point to be active.
In addition to specifying a connection list between points, you can also specify no-care
connections between point pairs. In the Continuity / No Care Information window, the tab at
the bottom of the window toggles the table between continuity and no-care connection lists
(the tab color is gray when selected). A no-care connection ignores an open or short between
two specific points. Other connections involving the points are still tested for correctness.
This contrasts to making a point inactive, which removes testing of all connections involving
the point. The use of a no-care connection allows the continuity test to disregard a point to
point connection, such as a jumper connection, that may vary from one UUT to another and
which is not a concern. Using self-learn to learn a single board then adding no-cares to
disregard accepted variations to other boards can be a quick way of specifying a general
continuity test for a run of boards. Self-learn logs as connections readings between pin pairs
that are below the Learn Threshold resistance.
When executing a test program (or selecting Measure > Measure All F3 in the Continuity /
No Care Information window), continuity is tested using the following method:

9-23
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Opens/Shorts Testing (Continuity)

1. For each network of connected points, measurements are made from the first point (lowest
numbered) to each successive node on the network. If any measurement is greater than the
Opens Threshold resistance (default is 12 ohms) and the point pair is not marked as no-
care, an open is reported.
2. The first point of each network (and each unconnected active point) is measured to all
other test points collectively, one at a time. If a Range of 1 is specified, then inactive
points are excluded from the point collection and connections to the inactive points are not
measured. If the measurement is less than a threshold, the System measures from the
network to each test point. This threshold is at minimum one third of the measurement
range, or twice the opens resistance threshold, if that is greater. If a measurement less than
the Shorts Threshold resistance (default is 8 ohms) is found and the point pair is not
marked as no-care, a short is reported between the measured points.
The default threshold values for shorts, learned connections and opens are 8, 10, and 12 ohms,
respectively. For most applications these levels never need modification and provide
consistent and reliable results. For applications involving boards with trace or component
resistances in this range, experienced users may improve results by adjusting thresholds. The
allowed range of thresholds is from .5% to 25% of the measurement range.
The measurement range is determined by the opens threshold. The lowest resistance range
which will measure this largest threshold is used. Continuity uses the 0.2 Volt, at 200, 2K,
20K, or 200K ohm measurement ranges. The lower the range, the faster the continuity
measurement.
The active test points and continuity thresholds information is saved with spec data files for a
UUT. Consequently, you can set the active test points and continuity test thresholds for a
particular UUT, then save the spec data. When the spec data is subsequently retrieved from
the disk, the active test points and thresholds are reset to the previous settings and remain so
until the System is restarted or a new spec data file is loaded. A separate set of thresholds is
used for each measurement range.
The active test points information is also saved with the System configuration data. If you
select save in the Configure System window, the active test points information is saved. When
the System is restarted in the future, it will reflect the active test points present when the
configuration information is saved.
The 'From (-)' and 'To (+)' test point columns indicate the lowest and highest test points that
you want to test for continuity. For example, if your UUT is connected to the test points in the
range of 1 to 136, set the 'From (-)' test point number to 1 and the 'To (+)' test point number to
136. You can test a wider range of test points, but best speed is obtained by limiting the range
of test points to the minimum amount.
If you have TR-6 Functional test points connected to the UUT, use the low and high test limits
to indicate the test point range for these points (e.g., low limit of 1651 and high limit of 1700).
The CONTinuity test is normally entered into the test program after tests that confirm jumper
installation, switch settings and pot adjustments. This order prevents false continuity failures
and allows you to provide proper messages to the operator to make these settings as
appropriate for the UUT.

9-24
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Entering Test Steps
Opens/Shorts Testing (Continuity)

Setting the Continuity / No-Care Information


In the Edit window, highlight the CONTinuity test step and select 'Step Analysis F6' from the
'Measure' menu to open the Continuity / No-Care Information window. In this window
(shown in the following figure), you can display learned information, self-learn new
information, edit the existing information, activate and inactivate test points for continuity
tests, measure resistance between displayed test points, convert displayed continuity failures
into no-care connections, and execute the CONTinuity test interactively.
Setting Active Points on page 9-26
Learning the Continuity Map on page 9-26
Assigning Continuity No-Cares on page 9-27
Assigning Continuity Thresholds on page 9-28

Continuity (shown selected) / No-Care Information

Note
The Continuity Information screen and the No-Care Information screen
look almost identical, so make sure to click on the tab (Continuity or No-
Care) at the bottom of the screen to ensure that you working on the correct
one.

The System shows one test point number and pin name in the left side on each line of the
display. In the right side another point number and name appears if any connection to the left
side point has been specified.

9-25
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Opens/Shorts Testing (Continuity)

The default connection on a highlighted line shows the next higher test point number
connection, or if there is none higher, the next lower test point number. The left and right
arrow keys permit displaying the lower and higher numbered connections on the highlighted
line. If there is another higher numbered connection beyond the right column point then a
right arrow is displayed. Likewise, if there is a lower numbered connection then a left arrow is
displayed.
When the test point number is shown in the Continuity View, a dot appears in the box to the
left of the test point number to indicate that this test point has a No Care connection.
When you are done in this screen, select Measure > Exit (green door) to return to the Edit
screen.
Setting Active Points
The first step for programming continuity is to set Active test points. Test points that are
inactive are ignored during the continuity test. Active points are indicated by a diamond on the
left hand margin of the screen. All of the test points in the System can be manipulated with the
'Active Points' menu. The 'Active Points' menu allows you to toggle all points or the selected
points between active and inactive, to toggle all displayed points, to activate the points that are
named, or to activate all configured points. The configured points are setup in the system
configuration screen, see the Modules Configuration on page 5-3.
The more points that are active, the better the CONT test coverage. In most cases, you will
want all named points active (toggle all points to be inactive first, then activate all named
points). If you have not named your points, you should set all points active. The test points
should be named to make it easier to identify the nets used for each test.
When the UUT has a battery (or batteries) or points with large capacitance set at least one
point connected to the voltage as inactive and set (in the Edit screen) the Range to be 1 (or 3).
Otherwise, the range should be zero (or 2). Remember to relearn the CONT map (Measure >
Self-Learn All) after setting the range to 1 (or 3) and making the points inactive. Note that
inactivation is only used by Range 1 (or 3), and the CONT test generally runs slower.
Learning the Continuity Map
To have the System automatically learn the continuity map for the UUT, engage the UUT on
the fixture, then select 'Self-Learn All F5' from the 'Measure' menu. The System then
determines what is connected and what is not.
Once the UUT is learned, the System will tell you how many networks is has learned and how
many points are connected to these networks. For most UUTs, there will only be a few that go
through components such as low-value resistors, transformers, inductors, jumpers and
switches.
You can use the menu item Measure > Measure Selected F2 to measure the resistance of the
displayed test points in a network.
Each line in the Continuity / No-Care Information screen shows one test point. If the test point
is connected to another point, there will be a bar or arrow in the 'To (+)' column of the display
and the columns on the right of the display show the point that it is connected to. If the 'To (+)'
column is an arrow, there are more then two connections in the displayed network. By
pressing the left/right arrow keys on the keyboard, you can scroll through all the connections

9-26
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Entering Test Steps
Opens/Shorts Testing (Continuity)

of the displayed network. A list box appears in the lower left side when you select a point in a
network (2 or more points connected).
You can execute the continuity test from within the Continuity / No-Care Information screen
by selecting 'Measure All Points' from the 'Measure' menu. If you execute the test a few times
and get any errors, you may need to set some points as no-cares below as discussed in the next
section. If not, you are done with the continuity test and can move back to the Edit screen by
pressing [ESC] or clicking on the green door.
Assigning Continuity No-Cares
When self-learning continuity test, the System uses thresholds in the 10 range to discriminate
between an open and a short. If there are any paths in the UUT that are close to this value (for
example, an 10 resistor or a transformer winding), it may cause the System to give
occasional errors because changes in probe contact resistance or in the component value may
change to the other side of this threshold.
If this is the case, you may assign these marginal measurements points as No-cares, in which
case the System does not make pass/fail judgments. Generally, these same paths are tested
separately as components, so test integrity is not jeopardized by this process.
Also, you may wish to assign no-cares where there are component tests across the same points
and you wish to have the System report on errors with the component names rather than an
opens or shorts error.
The easiest way to assign no-cares is to work from the Continuity / No-Care Information
screen. As you execute the test from this screen, any errors will show up on the right hand
margin of the screen. If you then select 'Auto No-Care' from the 'Tools' menu, the System will
automatically take any displayed failures and assign them as no-cares. By doing a few
repetitions, you can eliminate any marginal continuity measurements.
If you would like to manually insert (or delete) no-cares, you can do so from the Continuity /
No-Care Information screen. To toggle between the No-Care Information (No-Care tab) and
the Continuity (Continuity tab) Information screen, click on the tabs at the bottom of the
screen.

Note
The Continuity Information screen and the No-Care Information screen
look almost identical, so make sure to click on the tab (Continuity or No-
Care) at the bottom of the screen to ensure that you working on the correct
one.

From the No-Care Information screen you can insert a no-care point by highlighting the first
point (click on the point number), pressing the Insert key, then typing in the second point. You
can delete a no-care point by moving to the lower number test point of the pair, then pressing
the Delete key. This editing process is just the same as the Continuity Information screen.
Note that the System automatically keeps track of continuity or no-care networks in sequential
order, so when you insert a link, the display may reorder the connection for you.
When the test point number is shown in the No Care View, a dot appears in the box to the left
of the test point number to indicate that this test point is part of a network.

9-27
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Opens/Shorts Testing (Continuity)

When the test point number is shown in the Continuity View, a dot appears in the box to the
left of the test point number to indicate that this test point has a No Care connection.
Once you have completed the no-care assignment, select the 'Continuity' tab at the screen
bottom to move back to the Continuity Information screen.
Assigning Continuity Thresholds
In the default case, the test System uses a learn threshold of 10 for the continuity test. This
allows +/-2 of hysteresis to prevent false failures from subtle changes in the contact
resistance to the UUT.
For most testing applications the default thresholds are very effective in finding opens and
shorts very quickly, however, you can alter the thresholds if desired. The 'Set Thresholds'
selection of the 'Setup' menu (in the Step Analysis screen for the CONTinuity test type) allows
you to specify different thresholds.
The 'Learn Threshold' is the threshold at which the System makes measurements during the
self-learn process. The 'Shorts Threshold', slightly lower, is the measured value, below which
shorts are reported if a connection is not indicated in the data set. The 'Opens Threshold',
slightly higher, is the measured value, above which opens are reported if a connection is
indicated in the data set. You can also indicate a test range if you want to drastically change
the thresholds. The default range, 200, can be changed in decade steps up to 200k. Note
that when using higher thresholds, testing will be slower, and more connections will be learned
that are actually normal component impedances.

Note
When the Learn Threshold value is changed, the Opens Threshold and the
Shorts Threshold values are set to +/-20% from the Learn Threshold value.
You can then modify the Opens Threshold and the Shorts Threshold values.

Continuity Failure Analysis


Continuity Failure Analysis can provide additional information to locate the cause of a
continuity failure. A continuity failure is either an open-circuit or a short-circuit connection.
There are several menus that provide access to the Continuity Failure Analysis window:
Visual MDA Test Program Editor > Continuity Step Analysis >Tools Menu > Continuity
Failures
Visual MDA Test Screen > Report Menu > Continuity Failures . . . F5
Board Viewer in the Test and Failure Analysis windows View Menu > Continuity Failures
An electrical network (net) is a connected set of one or more nodes. Examples of nodes are
one end of a resistor (R1-1) or a capacitor (C23-2). Although only one test point is normally
connected to each net, the continuity connection list may have several connected networks
such as "digital ground (Dig GND)", "analog ground (A GND)" and "supply return (Return)".
A common cause of a short-circuit is excess solder on components that are in close proximity
to one another such as U7-10 and U7-11.
When continuity test step fails, with the appropriate data file, continuity failure analysis can be
performed. The fixture wiring report data file which lists the nodes on each network must be
available. This file can be generated by using the CAD conversion (see CAD Conversion

9-28
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Entering Test Steps
Opens/Shorts Testing (Continuity)

Screen on page 10-4 for additional file and format information). The fixture wiring report
data file name must be the same as the test program name with the file name extension of
"fix". For example, if the test program is named "2437", then to automatically locate the
fixture wiring report data file, the file name must be "2437.fix" (default directory is
c:\checksum). If the file is not located, you will be prompted to select a fixture wiring report
data file.
An example Continuity Failure Analysis window displaying information about a short-circuit:

The top section of the window shows the point numbers, net names and type of failure. In this
example, there is only one short-circuit failure. This failure list window can have multiple
open/short failures listed. For each failure, the lower section shows the net name (point
number) of connected nets. The center section shows the common parts such as U7. Since U7
pin 10 is next to U7 pin 11, you should examine the assembly to see if the short is located at
those pins.
An example Continuity Failure Analysis window displaying information about an open-circuit:

9-29
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
ICs Testing

The top section of the window shows the point numbers, net names and type of failure. In this
example there is only one open-type failure. This failure list window can have multiple
open/short failures listed. For each failure, the lower section shows the net name (point
number) of connected nets (All or individually) and the list of nodes for the selected connected
nets. The lower right section shows the common parts such as R14. Since R14 pin 1 is next to
R14 pin 2, you should examine the assembly to see if the open is located at R14 or possibly
R14 is not installed.
An example Continuity Failure Analysis window displaying information about both open-
circuit and short-circuit failures:

When you select the failure in the top section of the window, the lower section changes to
provide information about the selected failure. You can resize the failure list using the slide
bar just below the last entry, see the mouse pointer in the previous figure.
For a short-circuit failure, if you double-click in the list of nodes, the list order will toggle
alphabetically. If the list is long, this can help you find an item rather than using the slide bar
to search the list.

ICs Testing
Overview
The test System allows you to test the entire UUT for IC presence and orientation with use of a
single ICs test step. This data is usually self-learned by the System from a known-good UUT.

9-30
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Entering Test Steps
ICs Testing

During the programming process, most users generate the continuity and ICs tests as the last
step of the programming process. That way, you don't need to execute them repetitively
during debug of the other programming steps.
The System tests for IC presence and orientation by checking for diodes that are present at the
input pins of the ICs. These diodes are present to protect the input and output pins from
electrostatic discharge by clamping the input voltage between the more positive supply voltage
(e.g., VCC) and the more negative supply voltage (e.g., ground).
The System makes measurements to determine where these diodes are present by using a
proprietary method of applying different currents and measuring the resultant circuit changes.
With this technique it can differentiate between diode junctions and impedances that may look
like a diode junction voltage drop were a single current applied. ICs testing will find many
assembly problems, but it is not infallible. There are two general cases where assembly errors
may not be detected: (1) if a signal path has several ICs connected in parallel, the System may
not detect one of them being missing since diodes present in other parallel paths will cause the
measurement to appear normal, and (2) different ICs may have the same protection diode
mapping. For example, a 74LS00 and a 74LS02 may look identical to the ICs test and the
System cannot detect an incorrect part.
One other problem that can occur is when IC vendors are changed, sometimes the protection
diode maps for the same type of IC may be different. In this case, it may be necessary for you
to modify the test program to accommodate the new ICs.
Related Topics
Entering the ICs Test Step below
The Enter/Edit IC Test Data Screen on page 9-32
Learning the ICs Map on page 9-32
Entering the ICs Test Step
To enter an ICs test, insert an ICS test type using the Edit screen.
The 'From (-)' and 'To (+)' test point columns indicate the power supplies that you will
measuring from each point for diode presence. For the 'From (-)' test point, enter the test point
number of the more negative supply for the ICs (e.g., GND). For the 'To (+)' test point, enter
the test point number for the more positive test point (e.g., VCC).
Enter a range value of 1. The learn high and low limits are set 1% or 0.1 volt (whichever is
higher) above the test low limit and below the test high limits. Typical high and low test limits
are 0.4 and 0.9 volts which works well for most logic families.
The System can maintain four maps of IC data. The range value specifies which one is being
used. In most test programs, there will be a single ICs test with a range of 1. If your UUT has
two supplies, for example VCC/ground for the digital circuits and VSS/VDD for the analog
circuits, you can insert a second ICs test for the analog circuits. In this case, use a range of 2 in
the test step to tell the System that you are using the second ICs data map and use from/to
points of the second power supplies (e.g. VSS/VDD). Other supplies can be specified with
ranges 3 and 4.

9-31
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
ICs Testing

The Enter/Edit IC Test Data Screen


Once you have entered the ICs test step in the Edit screen, select 'Step Analysis' from the
'Measure' menu to move to the Enter/Edit IC Test Data screen. From this screen (shown in the
following figure) all ICs test programming is performed. When you are done in this screen,
click on the green door to move back to the Edit screen.

Enter/Edit IC Test Data Screen

Learning the ICs Map


To have the System automatically learn the ICs map for the UUT, engage the known-good
UUT on the fixture, then select 'Self-Learn All' from the 'Measure' menu. The System then
determines where diodes are present.
Once the UUT has been self-learned, the System displays a diode beside each pin where a
diode was measured. There are two columns in the center of the screen: the left contains a
diode if there is a diode present to the more negative power supply and the right column
contains a diode if there is a diode present from the pin to the more positive supply.
You can edit the data manually if you wish. To make a particular measurement a no-care (no
test is performed), move to that point and select 'Toggle Diode Test' or 'Clear Diode Test' from
the 'Edit' menu.
Once you have self-learned the ICs map, click on the green door to return to the Edit screen.
From the Edit screen, select 'Make Measurement' from the 'Measure' menu to execute the test a
few times. If it fails, the measured value will be non-zero, indicating the number of errors that
occurred. If errors occur, return to the Enter/Edit IC Test Data screen to re-learn or edit the

9-32
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Entering Test Steps
Transformer Testing

data. Alternatively, you can execute the entire test within the Enter/Edit IC Test Data screen
with the 'Measure All Points' selection of the 'Measure' menu.

Transformer Testing
Overview
Your System can check for proper transformer installation in UUTs. In addition to the more
basic checks that can be performed, coil resistance and inductance, the System can check for
proper transformer polarity. This check is particularly valuable when transformers are
installed lead-by-lead, which can be and error-prone process
This check is performed by providing a stimulus at one winding, and checking for proper
phase on other windings. To perform this test, the XFMR test-type is used.
Programming a Transformer Test
Transformer testing is performed with the XFMR test-type. The XFMR test type is entered
using The Edit Test Screen on page 8-6 like any other standard test.
The parameters entered from the Edit screen are:

Parameter Description
Test Type XFMR
From (-) Point Primary Winding Low Test Point
To (+) Point Primary Winding High Test Point
Range The frequency used for the measurement (default is 1 kHz):
32 = 100 Hz
48 = 1 kHz
20 = 10 kHz
24 = 100 kHz
Title Used to describe the component being tested, such as L103 or T345.
Low Limit Secondary Winding Low Test Point.
High Limit Secondary Winding High Test Point.

The following figure shows the test point connections for a typical device tested with the
XFMR test-type.

To (+ ) - T P 2 3 H i Lim - T P 35

F rom (-) - T P 25 Lo w Lim - T P 31


Device Connections for XFMR Test

9-33
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Operator Displays

Using the connections shown in the figure above, a corresponding line in the test program
would be:
From () To (+) Test Limits
Point Name Point Name Type Range Title Low High
25 T1-1 23 T1-2 XFMR 48 T1 31 35
The System generates a pass or fail depending on the outcome of the test. The default
measurement frequency, 1 kHz, can be used in most applications, however, transformers that
are designed for high frequency applications may work better at higher test frequencies.

Operator Displays
Display Messages
In some cases, may wish to display messages to the operator to advise of System status or to
prompt the operator to perform some action. The CheckSum test system allows this capability
through use of the DISP and DISPL and WAITK test types.
The DISPLay test type is the easiest to use. To enter a message for the operator, specify a test
type of DISPL, a 'From (-)' test point value that shows the column number (1-78) to start the
message on, a 'To (+)' test point value that shows the line number to write the message on (1-
8), and the text of the message in the test title column.
For example, if you would like to make a display that would show test progress, structure your
test program with the following DISPL statements:

Display Messages

For messages longer than the twelve characters allowed in the test title column, you can use
the DISP test type. Rather than displaying the message from the test title (like the DISPL test
type), the DISP test has a message number in the range column. In addition to allowing longer
messages, the DISP test type is useful if you would like to display the same message from
several places in your test program.

9-34
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Entering Test Steps
Operator Displays

When a DISP test type is selected in the Edit screen, either select 'Step Analysis' from the
'Measure' menu or select Display Messages...' from the 'Setup' menu to obtain the operator
Display Messages window shown in the following figure:

Display Messages Window

The Display Messages window allows you to type in a row and column number and the text
for each message. You can also edit a selected message (press Enter or double-click the on the
line in the top part of the window). In the lower part of the window, the selected message is
shown in the specified row and column location. The Center button can be used to quickly
center the text in the row. If you click and hold the mouse pointer on a message in the lower
window, you can drag the text to the desired row and column. A lined-box shows the message
while moving. The small bullet located between the message number and the column entry
can be selected (bullet color changes when selected) to show multiple lines in the lower
window. The selected line in the top window is shown with blue characters in the lower
window.
Once you have entered or edited your messages, you can return to the Edit window by clicking
on the OK button. You can have up to 36 different messages in a single program.
If you want to erase the display area of the testing display, use a test type of DISPE with a
range of 0. If you wish to erase a single message, insert a range value corresponding to the
DISP range of the message that you want to erase. Sometimes you might want to prompt the
operator to perform an action, then wait until he presses a key before continuing. In this case,
use the DISP or DISPL test types to display the message, then a WAITK (wait for key) test
type with a range of 0. The WAITK test step will wait until any key on the controller is
pressed, then continues on to the next test step.

9-35
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Controlling Program Flow

You can also use other ways to get an operator's response:


1. With the WAITK test type you can wait until a particular key has been pressed before
proceeding. See the detailed description of the WAITK test type in Wait for a Key to Be
Pressed on page 22-68 for more details about how to do this.
2. Use two test points connected to a switch as an operator input. Use the SWCHR or
JMPR/JMP/LABEL test types to wait for the switch change.
3. Use a bar-code reader connected to a keyboard wedge and have the operator scan in the
desired entry. Bar-code readers typically emulate the keyboard and any input that can be
typed in can be scanned in.
4. Use one of the digital I/O points available from the TR-8 System Module connector in
conjunction with the DIGI/JMP/LABEL test types to wait for the digital bit to change
states.
5. Use the MEMS/MEMI/MEMR test types with a range of 3 to wait for operator input, then
save it in the corresponding memory location. You can then use it later for other purposes
if desired.
If you would like to have the System include the measured value from the last analog
measurement step, you can include the text {MEAS} in the display string. This applies to both
DISP and DISPL statements. At execution time, the System replaces the text {MEAS} with
the most previous measured value. This can be used if you want to display information to the
operator, such as in a custom measurement and adjustment loop.
If you want more sophisticated messages that include colors and flashing information, you can
use the SCRN test type on page 22-70. In addition to these functions, you can use the screen
test type to save the present contents of the operator display area (as filled with DISP, DISPL
and SCRN test steps) to the disk. The SCRN test type can then be used to restore the display
later from the disk file. If you have standard screens, you can generate them, save them to a
file, then use the files as a library for future test programs.
If you want to use operator-input for controlling program flow, see the following section.

Controlling Program Flow


Under most circumstances, CheckSum test programs are executed linearly from top to bottom.
However, you can alter or extend this flow with use of some special test types.
Branching on page 9-37
Exiting the Program on page 9-38
Running Another Test Program on page 9-38
Extending Test Program Length on page 9-39
Encapsulating a Test on page 9-39
Executing a User-Written Program on page 9-39

9-36
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Entering Test Steps
Controlling Program Flow

Branching
The Model TR-8 supports program labels and branching. A branch is a tool programmers use
to change the order of the program by transferring execution to begin at another part of the
program.
This allows execution to move from one point in the program (i.e., the branch or jump
statement) to another (a label statement) rather than the next step in the program. You can
specify that a program branch occur unconditionally (always) or based on the outcome of an
analog or digital measurement or an operator entry.
Labels are names assigned to a step in the test program with use of the LABEL test type. To
put a label in the test program, insert the LABEL test type, then the name of the label in the
test title column. The label can be up to 12 characters long (including spaces). The System
ignores whether characters in labels are upper or lower case.
There are a series of jump commands that transfer to a label. In all cases the destination of the
jump is typed into the test title column. The jump destination must match a LABEL
destination or you will get an error when exiting the Edit window.
You can use jumps and labels to form small loops to wait for digital or analog changes to
occur, or to wait until the operator provides an appropriate input. You can also use jumps to
abort the program when a specified number of errors have occurred.
There are a number of jumps based on most types of measurements. These measurements are
exactly like the corresponding measurement test types but rather than generate test results, they
generate program flow changes if the test step passes.
For example, the corresponding jump test type for a RES test type is JMPR. When the JMPR
test type is executed, it generates an internal pass or fail based on the high and low limits. If it
fails, it continues on to the next test step in the program. If it passes, it begins program
execution at the LABEL test step where the two test titles match.
An unconditional jump (the JMP test type) always generates a change in control flow.
You can also branch on the numbers of error in the test program. You can use this, for
example, to stop the test earlier (for faster System throughput) if there are a significant number
of error during a test.
Following are the JMP test types that can be used:

9-37
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Controlling Program Flow

JMP unconditional jump to label


JMPE jump based on error count of program
JMPR jump based on resistance measurement
JMPC jump based on capacitance measurement
JMPD jump based on diode measurement
JMPI jump based on inductance measurement
JMPV jump based on voltage measurement
JMPDM jump based on DMM measurement (TR-6 only)
JMPU jump based on counter/timer measurement (TR-6 only)
JMPDI jump based on digital input
JMPPI jump based on port input
JMPK jump based on keyboard input
JMPE jump based on how many errors have occurred in test program
JMPZ jump based on zener measurement
JSTST jump based on self-test
JFXID jump based on fixture ID
MEMS jump based on contents of MEMS variable (MEMS range of 20-22)
MEMI jump based on contents of MEMI variable (MEMI range of 20-23)
MEMR jump based on contents of MEMR variable (MEMR range of 20-23)

Exiting the Program


In most cases, the system is run so that it halts at the end of an entire test. However, the test
can be terminated (Escape key or Exit button) by the operator in the middle of a test.
If your test program has special actions that you want to occur at the end of each test
execution, even if the operator aborts the test prematurely, you can insert a special LABEL test
step into the program. If you have a LABEL test type with the name (test title) of SHUT
DOWN in your test program, the System will execute the test steps after it if the operator
aborts the test.
For example, perhaps you want to log test results after each test with a RPRTS test step. If you
make the last two lines of the program as a LABEL SHUT DOWN followed by the RPRTS
test step, the report will always be generated.
Running Another Test Program
In some cases, you might want to leave the program file that you are executing and load and
run another test program. For example, you may write a supervisory program that asks the
operator to type in the name of the UUT. Based on what the operator types in, you can load
and run another test program for that UUT, then return back to the supervisory program. You
could, for example, also base the program that is to be run upon a bar-code input from the
UUT.
The statement that allows you to do this is the RUN test type. Enter the name of the test
program that you want to load and run as the test title for the test step. This name is the same
as you would type in for loading a test program from other System menus.

9-38
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Entering Test Steps
Controlling Program Flow

When you call a test program with a RUN command, the called program is loaded over the top
of the calling program, and execution begins at the first step of the loaded program. All of the
test results of the calling program are lost and can only be logged with use of the REPRTS test
type.
At the end of the called program, the System comes to the Test menu which allows for next
test, retest, show/print report or Exit. However, you can use the RUN command again to
reload the initial program again prior to the end if you wish.
Remember to use the REPRTS test type to save results prior to using a RUN test step if you
want to log data for the UUT.
Extending Test Program Length
For most UUTs, 1000 test steps are adequate for performing all necessary tests on the UUT.
However, you can make the test program longer by using the RUNT test type. When you use a
RUNT test type with a range of 2, and a test title with the called test program's name, the
following actions occur:
1. The results of the present test program are temporarily saved,

2. The called program is loaded and executed,

3. At the end of the called program, its results are saved,

4. The calling program is reloaded and execution begins at the test step following the RUNT
test step.
5. At the end of the main program's execution, the results of all of the main and called
programs are collated to form one test result.
In the System operator's eyes, only one test program has been loaded and executed. You can
have several RUNTs in a single program so as to provide an almost unlimited program length
from a practical perspective.
Encapsulating a Test
You can use the RUNT test type to encapsulate several actions into a single test result. You
might want to have a group of test steps that cause the System to perform a number of actions
(for example an interactive adjustment on the UUT), but only generate one (or no) test result
for the entire group. To do so, use a RUNT test type with a range of 0 for a pass/fail result, 1
for no result, and a test title of the called test program's name.
If the called program passes, the RUNT test step passes. If the called program has one of more
errors, the RUNT test step fails.
Executing a User-Written Program
In the event that you have special program needs, CheckSum systems allow you to write a
program in any programming language that will generate a DOS .EXE or .COM file (such as
C, Pascal, or Basic), execute it, then return to the main program.
This feature allows you to perform tasks such as interfaces to factory data logging systems or
special register-level IO for non-CheckSum hardware control.

9-39
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Generating Reports from a Test Program

These programs are executed using the EXEC test type. Enter the name of the program to load
and execute into the test title. You can cause a pass/fail result if you wish by setting the 'To
(+)' point column to 0 and returning a DOS error-level in the called program. If the error level
is zero upon return, the step passes, otherwise it fails. If the 'To (+)' point is 1, the step always
passes.
You can pass parameters to the program by inserting a ^ just before the command line
parameter in the test title. You can pass the value of memory locations as command-line
parameters by special codes in the test title column. See Execute User-Written Routine on
page 22-72 for details. You can send information back to the test program by writing it to
ASCII disk files from the EXECed program, then reading them back in with the MEMI,
MEMS, MEMR commands using a range of 7.

Generating Reports from a Test Program


There are several way to generate reports from the CheckSum test system:
After each test, from the Test window, the operator can manually select a full test report or
a test report that contains data for failed steps only.
The System can be configured, using the Configuration screens described in Configure
Reporting on page 5-11, to automatically output a test report that contains full or failed-
only test results. The report can be generated after each UUT, or only after UUTs that fail.
The amount of data reported can also be fine-adjusted from within the test program with
use of the RSLTS test type.
The test programmer, using the RPRTS test type on page 22-97, can output test reports
from within the test program.
The RPRTS test type allows you to control test results output directly from within the test
program. The RPRTS test type can be useful in cases such as when you never leave a test
program (i.e., you jump back to the top of the test program after each UUT so that you can
more carefully control the test environment) or you are using the RUN test type.
Normal Test Reports
To output normal test reports, put the name of the report destination in the test title (e.g.,
COM1, LPT1, a disk file name), and add the range numbers for your selection from the
following list:

9-40
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Entering Test Steps
Cable Testing and Wiring

1 Include a sequence number in the test report header. The sequence number starts at one
with each assembly tested in a batch. To reset the sequence number, either reload the test
program, or move back to the 'Main System' window then start testing again.
2 Send the test results report, which includes the header and the failed steps, to the name in
the test title (otherwise it goes to the report destination as specified in the Test window).
8 Only print the report if there were one or more failures during the test.
16 After the report, clear out results in memory to start a fresh UUT run.
64 Also include detailed information about test steps that passed.

Statistical Data Reports


The System can also generate statistical process control (SPC) reports as described in
Statistical Analysis on page 7-1. SPC reporting includes yield reports, X-Bar/Sigma reports,
and pareto charts. SPC reporting deals with information about all of the testing done on a test
station rather than individual UUT reporting. You can also process this ASCII log information
yourself using tools such as spreadsheets or custom analysis software.
You can also use the RSLTS test type to output data to the SPC log. Even though this table is
shown separately for clarity, you can add together the values between this table and the
previous one if you wish. If you want to use two test step, one for normal results, and another
for SPC data, make sure that you do not clear out the results by including a range value of 16
on the first RSLTS test step.
To send data to the SPC log, add the range numbers for your selection from the following list:

4 Print results to the SPC log.


8 Only write to the SPC log if there were one or more failures during the test.
16 After the report, clear out results in memory to start a fresh UUT run.
32 Report summary information in the SPC log.
64 Include detailed information about passed test steps in the SPC log.
128 Include detailed information about failed test steps in the SPC log.

Changing Report Paths


You can also use a RSLTS test step to specify the path to the report or SPC data. Normally,
this information is specified for the System in the Configuration windows (see Configure
Directories/Locations on page 5-19). If the RSLTS test type is used for this purpose, it
changes the path during program execution. The path is automatically added to the front of the
file name specified in the title of the RSLTS test step.
The new path is specified in the MEMS string variable. Load it with the desired new path
string. Then, to change the path for the SPC data use a range value of 256, and set the 'From
Point' to 0. To change the path for the normal results data, use a range value of 246 and set the
'From Point' to 1.

Cable Testing and Wiring


While CheckSum test systems are sophisticated enough to handle populated circuit assemblies,
they are also efficient for cable testing and wiring.

9-41
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Cable Testing and Wiring

Cable fixturing can be performed with any the CheckSum test fixtures. The Model GS-850 is
specially designed for this purpose. The mechanical/pneumatic fixture systems can be built
with connectors installed on the probe plate. Special TR-3 style vacuum fixture kits are
available with just a single top G-10 plate for non-vacuum applications such as this.
To test a cable, you can use the CONTinuity test type.
To build a cable, use a series of WIRE test types, each of which allows specification of a
connection to be made when building the cable or harness. The System measures between the
two test points, compares the reading to the high and low test limits, and generates a pass or
fail based on the result.
If the "From Point" is probed (using a grounded probe), the System displays a message to the
operator:
Connect from <From-point name> to <To-point name>
Press [ESC] to fail test...
If the test title is not blank, it can be used to provide a customized message to the operator. In
this case, the System replaces the text after "Connect from" with the contents of the test title.
The first up-arrow (^) found in the test title is replaced with the From-point name. The second
up-arrow found in the test title is replaced with the To-point name. When used in this mode,
the test title that would be the equivalent of the standard message would be "^ to ^".
After presenting the message, the System waits for the connection to be completed, another
point to be probed, or the [ESC] key to be pressed. When any of these events occur, the
System beeps and then erases the above message from the CRT.
An example test program to build a simple cable with four connections is shown below. When
this test program is executed, the System waits until all the connections are made before
ending execution. The number of connections not made is shown in the upper right corner of
the display as the number of errors. The operator can either make each connection without
instructions, or probe a point shown as a "From Point", then receive the message about how to
make the connection.

Example Test Program for Building a Cable

9-42
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Entering Test Steps
Panelized Testing

Panelized Testing
Overview
UUTs that consist of several individual PCBs (usually identical) in a single panel can be
accommodated using the multi-PCB capability of the MDA System.
The multi-PCB panel capability provides several features:
You can program the first PCB in the panel, then have the System replicate the point
names and/or program data for the other PCBs. The System automatically updates the test
point numbers as it copies the data. This automatic function is provided for MDA, but
may not fully automate replication of functional test programs.
When testing a panel, the System displays the location of the PCB currently under test in
the lower right of the testing window. This way the operator always is aware of which
PCB is being tested. As each PCB test is completed, it turns green if it passes, and red if
there are any failures. An example is shown in the following figure.

Test Screen with Multi-PCB Panels

At the end of each test (and prior to the first test) an additional selection, 'Select Skips' is
available from the 'PCB' menu. This selection only appears if the assembly that you are
testing is configured as a multiple-PCB panel. When you have selected to select skips, you
are presented with Skip PCBs in Panel display shown in the figure below.
By moving the cursor to the PCB(s) that are to be skipped, then pressing the SKIP button, the
test on the selected PCBs will not be performed. This selection is helpful when one or more of
the PCBs in the panel are rejected and a test is not desired. Note that with the 'Retain Skip

9-43
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Panelized Testing

Selections' item in the 'PCB' menu, you can instruct the System to remember and reuse the
skipped information. This can be handy if you have built a batch of UUTs with a missing or
known-faulty position.

Select Skipped PCBs in Panel

Related Topics
Panelization Programming by Wizard below
Manual Panelization Programming on page 9-46
Panelization Programming by Wizard
For most common panelized UUTs, the System includes a Panelization Wizard that makes
panelization quick and easy. To use the System for panelized PCBs with the wizard, use the
following sequence:
1. Wire the fixture with each PCB in the panel wired identically, but begin at a new range of
test point numbers. For example, wire the first PCB to points 1-25, the second to 26-50,
and so on. It is good practice to leave a few points in-between PCBs so that if you need to
add probes the programs steps can be modified easier. For example, CONTinuity tests
prefer continuous groups of tests points.

9-44
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Entering Test Steps
Panelized Testing

2. Write and fully debug the test program for the first PCB in the panel (the one with the
lowest numbered test points).
3. From the 'PCB' menu, select 'Panelization'. Then, from the 'PCB Panelization' screen
shown in the following figure, select 'Use Panelization Wizard'.'

PCB Panelization Screen

4. From the 'PCB Replication Wizard' screen (shown in the following figure), first select
where you have chosen to wire the first test points in your fixture. The default is the upper
left corner, but you can choose other corners if you wish. Next, indicate whether you have
wired your test points so that they increment as you go across (which is by row) or as you
go up or down (which is by column). Next enter the size of your PCB matrix by the
number of PCBs in each row (the first number) and by the number of PCBs in each
column (the second number). Then enter how many test points there are per PCB. As a
default, the System will offer the exact range of test points that you have used in your test
program. If you have left extra points between PCBs, you will have to enter a larger
number. Finally, you press OK, and the System goes to work for you. It will confirm that
you want to perform the individual steps, then generate the test program. Once it is done,
the test program is ready to save and run.

9-45
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Panelized Testing

PCB Replication Wizard Screen

The System will have assigned a PCB test-step at the beginning of each new PCB in the panel,
and replicated (step and repeated) the point names and point numbers as appropriate. If you
have to make a global change to your test program, you can make it on PCB 1, then run the
sequence again. It will overwrite all of the PCBs greater than one with the new data.
Manual Panelization Programming
In the event that you have a more complicated panel, you can individually perform steps that
the wizard does for you. This allows you to do unique operations, such as ordering the PCBs
differently, specifying layouts that are not rectangles, or accommodating wiring that is not in
even increments.
The first step in panelizing is to specify the physical layout of the panel. This is done with the
'PCB Locations/Numbers' screen shown in the following figure. To obtain this screen, select
'Panel Map' from the 'PCB Panelization' screen. In the upper left corner, you can specify the
overall size of your array. In each PCB position, you see a PCB number associated with the
PCB. The System replicates and tests starting at the lowest PCB number, then sequentially
tests each following one. If you want to change the order, move to the desired position, then
delete the old number and enter the new number. You may not have duplicate PCB numbers
for replication and testing, but temporarily you may during the assignment process in this
screen.
If your panel is not a rectangular matrix of PCBs, you will want to specify a PCB in the panel
as not being used. To do so, select the PCB that is not in the panel, delete the PCB number,
then press the BACKSPACE key. When you move off the PCB, you will see that it does not
have a number anymore, and will not be displayed or used for replication or testing purposes.

9-46
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Entering Test Steps
Panelized Testing

PCB Panel Map Screen

Once you have assigned the PCB Locations and Numbers, you can assign the test point
numbers that are associated with each PCB in the panel. To do so, select the 'Point
Assignments' selection from the 'PCB Panelization' screen. You will then see the 'PCB Wiring
Assignments' screen shown in the figure below.

9-47
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Panelized Testing

PCB Wiring Assignments Screen

The PCB Wiring Assignments Screen allows you to specify different ranges of test points that
get replicated for each PCB. You can use the 'View' menu to fill in the columns with the
hardware that you have in your System (the 'Configured Boards' option) or by all types of
available modules (the 'All Boards' option).
Then, fill in the table, showing in each cell the first test point for the applicable module in each
column.
The 'Edit' menu allows you to move around by page or cell without using the mouse.
When you have completed entry of this table, select 'OK'.
Once you have filled in the PCB orientation and wiring information, you are ready to perform
the replication. To do so, select 'Replicate' from the 'PCB Panelization' screen. You are then
presented with the 'Replicate Options' screen shown in the figure below.

9-48
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Entering Test Steps
Panelized Testing

Replicate Options Screen

In the defaults setup (all items checked), the System will do a full replication for you. You
have the option of turning off one or more of the automatic generations if you wish. 'Replicate
Test Steps' is the action of generating the new test steps for the other PCBs in the panel. You
can turn this off if you are only interested in other functions such as duplicating point names.
The next two options have to do with point naming for the PCBs past the first. 'Replicate Point
Names' requests that the System duplicates the point names from the first PCB to the other
PCBs. If you select 'Auto-increment Point Names', the System chooses unique names for the
points after the first PCB. This prevents having multiple test points in the test program and
test fixture that have the same name. The points are made unique by adding an extension to
the name such as #2 for the points on the second PCB, #3 for the third, and so on. Leave two
or three characters extra on your point names to allow this feature. If any point name contains
#1 then only the names with #1 are auto-incremented.
Once you have checked the functions that you want the System to perform, press 'OK' to
actually perform the task, or 'Cancel' if you chose not to.
There are some other options available from the 'Advanced Options' selection of the 'PCB
Panelization' screen. When you make this selection, you are presented with the 'PCB Runtime
Options' screen shown in the following figure.

9-49
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Use of Program Memory Locations

PCB Runtime Options Screen

The 'Panelization Enabled' feature is normally turned on. If you turn it off, even if the test
program is panelized, the System will not display the panel map during testing or after the test
program is completed.
'Multiple UUT Serial Numbers Per Panel' can be enabled if you are tracking UUT serial
numbers for the panel, and you have different serial numbers for each PCB on the panel. If
this is enabled, and you have enabled (in the Configuration/Environment screens) the feature
of asking for serial numbers, you will be asked for the serial number for each PCB in the panel,
as opposed to one serial number for the complete panel.
'PCB SPC Reporting' allows you to enter how SPC data is logged for panelized PCBs. The
differences allow you to track your panels in the way that is most efficient for your facility. In
the default case, 'Panel consists of identical PCBs,' the System tracks each PCB in the panel as
a different UUT. If you select 'Treat Entire Panel as one UUT,' the System reports on the
complete panel (including all PCBs) as a single UUT. If you select 'Panel consists of different
PCBs,' the System tracks each PCB on the panel as a unique PCB. This case is normally used
if your panels contain different UUTs. For example, you might build on one panel, both a
PreAmp circuit PCB and a Power Amp circuit PCB. Both are different, but on the same panel.

Use of Program Memory Locations


Overview
The Model TR-8 can test most assemblies with the basic test steps that have been discussed in
this topic. In some cases, however, you may need to do special things, such as mathematics
based on readings, special operator input processing, and reading/writing data from files on the
disk.
The memory manipulation test types (MEMI, MEMR, MEMS on page 22-74) allow use of the
System's memory to assign, keep track of, manipulate, and use variables within a test program.
There are three types of memory variables: integer, real (floating point), and string:

9-50
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Entering Test Steps
Use of Program Memory Locations

1. Integers are whole numbers ranging from plus to minus 32,767. The test-type that works
with the memory-integer variable is MEMI.
2. Real variables can include a fractional part and can range from plus to minus 10E37. The
test-type that works with the memory-real variable is MEMR.
3. String variables can be up to 32 characters long and can include any normal ASCII
characters. The test-type that works with the memory-string variable is MEMS.
These steps allow entry or assignment of the memory contents, pass/fail test generation based
on the value of the memory contents, fundamental math and manipulation of the memory
contents, transfer of control based on the contents of memory, or display of the variable.
These test steps can be used to form a counter, to control program execution based on operator
entry, or as an alternate way to generate test results based on operator entry.
Refer to the test-type descriptions (Memory Manipulation Test Types) in Test Type
Descriptions on page 22-1 for information about the specific range values that can be used
with these test-types.
Related Topics
Special Notes about MEMS below
Special Notes about MEMR below
Special Notes about MEMI below
Memory Variables and Program Storage on page 9-52
Special Notes about MEMS
Note that there are several string variables (see MEMS on page 22-74):
The first is just called the "Memory String".
The memory string variable, referred to as the "Compare String", can be used to make
pass/fail comparisons against the memory string variable. For example, you can load the
compare string with data, then compare it to the main memory string and make decisions
based on the result.
The memory string variable, called the "Batch Memory String", is only cleared between
batches. As such, you can use it to solicit input about the batch as a whole (e.g., batch
number, UUT configuration), then not ask the operator again until a new batch has started.
You can do this by checking to see if the batch memory string is empty, and if so,
assigning it as appropriate.
Special Notes about MEMR
In addition to the normal memory operations, there is a related time storage location (called
Memory-Time) in the MEMR on page 22-78 command set. You can use this to compute the
time from an event to another event, or to set a beginning time, then delay until specified time.
This can be useful, for example, to time events or to check how long the present program has
been executing.
Special Notes about MEMI
In addition to the normal memory operations, you can obtain the base addresses of the
CheckSum modules in the System. This can be helpful if you would like to do some direct

9-51
Entering Test Steps Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Use of Program Memory Locations

addressing of the hardware in the program. You can also use some of the MEMI on page 22-
75 commands to control input and output from the operator keypad.
Memory Variables and Program Storage
While most of the variable operations are fairly straightforward, one type of operation can be a
little confusing to understand at first. Since there are only three variables available to store
data, at times you might need to have more. To accomplish this, you can use parts of the test
program as storage space. With some of the range values, you can specify a step number and
column in the test program, then move data between the specified location and the memory
variables. Since the storage space for a program is 1000 steps, and most programs are much
shorter, you can specify step numbers above the last program step, but less than 1000 and they
will not conflict with the program being executed (however, they can be overwritten if you do
a RUNT or RUN).
If you take advantage of moving data back and forth between memory variables and test
program fields in the test program (rather than the space beyond the program), you can do
many special things in your test program. For example, you can read the measured value from
an earlier measurement step, do math with it, then write it into a later test step as a low or high
test limit. In programming, this is called impure code since you can modify the test program
as it executes.
When doing this type of programming, you can specify a test step number directly (it's the
number shown in the upper left corner of the 'Edit' screen). This works fine if you are
transferring data to the area above the test program area. If you are transferring data within the
test program, however, directly using the step number is not recommended since if you add or
delete a line with a lower number, the program will not work properly anymore. In this case,
you should use a relative address in the MEM command. If you want to refer to a step number
X steps beyond the MEM command, use a step value of 1000+X. If you want to refer to a step
number Y steps previous to the MEM commend, use a step value or 2000+Y. If you use this
relative programming convention, your program will not be affected by adding or deleting
steps unless they are in the relative range specified.

9-52
Chapter 10
CAD Data Conversion

CAD Data Conversion


Overview
The CAD data conversion feature of the CheckSum Test System is used to help generate test
programs from CAD data available from PCB layout and schematic entry software.
The conversion process generates a fixture wiring list to help lay out and wire the fixture, then
generates a test program for MDA testing most of the components on the UUT. Depending on
the CAD data used, the System may also be able to input nominal values for the test steps and
assign preliminary tolerances.
The process of generating test files is performed with use of the CAD Conversion Screen on
page 10-4.
To use the System to automatically generate test programs and fixturing information, you must
have ASCII input files in the proper format for the CAD system from which you are
converting.
Files Types
Although the particular files necessary vary from CAD system to system, typically the net list
file and parts list file (materials list) are used for the generation process. The former is used to
determine what components are present in the assembly and how they are connected and the
latter is used to determine the part values for purposes of assigning tolerances and other
automated program generation purposes.
The System can read ASCII CAD data files from P-Cad, Mentor, OrCAD, Cadence, Tango,
Pads2000, ComputerVision, Schema, ViewLogic, Racal-Redac, Scicards, Veribest, and
Fabmaster systems. The System can also convert ASCII test programs using the .BCF format
written for HP-3065 and HP-3070 test systems. If you do not have one of these formats, your
CAD system may be capable of generating a compatible file. For example, most schematic
entry software can generate a number of different CAD output formats from a schematic
entered in its own proprietary format. Using the schematic entry package, you can generate
the net list and component file in one of the formats supported by CheckSum, then read them
into the MDA System.
CAD Data Conversion Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Generating the Test Program

Alternatively, if you have CAD data available from an unsupported CAD system, it may be
practical for you to manually edit it or to write a simple translator to convert it to match one of
the supported formats.
If you will also be doing functional test of the UUT, you may want to alter the default wiring
that the System assigns for you. The System sequentially chooses test points as necessary
without regard to their analog characteristics. For example, to support functional test you will
want to specially assign test points with special voltage and current requirements to the Model
TR-6 relay test points. An easy way to make this change is to initially generate the test
program automatically, then save it to disk in ASCII format. You can then edit the ASCII file
in the point names section to assign new point numbers as appropriate to the special needs for
the particular nodes. When you read back the modified ASCII file, the rest of the test file will
be adjusted accordingly to use these new points.
In general, if you want to off-line generate or change point name assignments, the ASCII
format is convenient. You can either write out the existing data in ASCII then edit it with a
text editor, or you can generate a new ASCII file with just the "Point Names:" title followed by
the test point numbers, a comma, and the test point name. When you read this into the system,
the names will be assigned.
An alternate way to change or assign point names is with the 'Net Order File.' This ASCII file
has a point number followed by a point or net name on each line. If this file is specified, the
System uses the point assignments from the file.

Generating the Test Program


Using CAD data to generate a test program uses the following steps in the test program editor:
1. If you are using TestJet Technology probes be sure to enter one test step for each TestJet
probe, enter in the reference designator (e.g. U3), and the TestJet probe number before you
perform the CAD conversion. The TestJet probe number is entered in the 'To (+) Point'
column field. When the CAD conversion is done, all the pins on the TestJet IC will be
entered automatically for you. See TestJet Programming on page 12-8 for more
information.
2. Select the menu item Tools > CAD Conversion...

3. In the 'CAD Format' entry field, specify the CAD data format (i.e., which CAD package
that you are converting from).
4. Set the CAD Files Directory to where your CAD files are stored.

5. Using 'Net List File', specify the CAD file name without an extension. The System
assumes specific file extensions depending on which CAD system you use.
6. Use the 'Assign Default File Names' button to have the System automatically assign file
names for the various input and output files.
7. Use the 'Manual CAD Conversion' button to perform the conversion process. This step:

a. Reads the net list, assigning net names for those not already listed as point names (as
either a node or net name).

10-2
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual CAD Data Conversion
Generating the Test Program

b. Using the reference designator template, generates a test step for each component
found.
c. Assigns nominal values based on the information found in the materials list.
d. Finds parallel components and merges them (e.g., if C1 and C7 are connected to the
same test points, the system adds the values of them and puts them together into one
test step).
e. If enabled, renames the networks with component names.
f. Assigns preliminary upper and lower test limits for each component.
At this point, the Test Program can be debugged, edited and saved just as if you had manually
entered it. Typically, the only things that need to be added are a CONTinuity test, an ICs test,
and any special components that are not listed in the reference designator template. By listing
the exception report you can obtain valuable information about what needs be added to the test
program. The generated test program is in volatile RAM memory and must be saved manually
if you have not entered a 'Test Program File' name in the CAD Conversion screen.
If the System can't find one of the files (e.g., the materials list), it will display an error to you,
but continue nevertheless after you press OK.
8. Use the 'View...Exception Report File' selection of the 'File' pull-down menu to look at the
exception report. The exception report shows details about the conversion process.
Depending on the outcome of this conversion process, you may proceed, or wish to alter
some of the conversion parameters.
9. Print out the fixture wiring report file. This can be done with the 'View...Fixture Wiring
Report File' selection of the 'File' pull-down menu, or use other Windows tools to print the
file named in the 'Fixture Wiring Report File' entry area of the CAD Conversion screen.
When generating this report, the System assigns a test point to each network on the UUT,
shows the test point, the network name, the fixture receiver interface connection, and a list
of connections on the UUT connected to the network. From this list, you can wire the
fixture.
In this list (an example is shown in Fixture Wiring Report File on page 10-8), the System
shows a network name for each point. In many cases, this name is valuable to the person
running the program (e.g., "GND", "DATA2" or "+12V"). In some cases, however, the CAD
system will assign names that have no meaning to you (e.g., "UN000006" or "N0000002"). In
this latter case, you may choose a physical name (e.g., "U21-3" or "R1-2") to replace the
cryptic network name generated by the CAD system. You can also have the System
automatically assign different names by use of the "Rename networks" feature. You can
enable and tailor the operation of this feature by use of the screen obtained from the 'Convert'
page of the CAD Conversion screen by selecting 'Net Rename Strategy'.
When wiring the Fixture, choose one node on each network and wire it to the test point shown.
As you do the wiring, you should record the physical point that you have wired each network
to. Alternatively, you can choose other schemes of wiring. For example, you might want to
choose test points to be in order from left to right and top to bottom on either the schematic or
fixture to make them easier to find.
Once the fixture is wired, if you wish, you can go back and enter the physical names for the net
names automatically assigned by the System. To do so, enter the net name or node name as

10-3
CAD Data Conversion Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
CAD Conversion Screen

the point name for the point. Once you have done this, the System will use the names you
have assigned rather than choose its own names. If you have a number of renames to do and
the information is available in ASCII format, you can redo the conversion with the revised 'Net
Order File' selection of the CAD Conversions screen. To do so, create a file with a line for
each test point containing a test point number, a space or comma, then the test point name.

Translation Notes
For your interest, here are some notes about other internal files generated
during the translation process. These are only of interest if you wish to
perform specialized operations with the intermediate CAD data: Translation
of CAD formats produces intermediate output files resembling the Mentor
format. The Mentor.NET and Mentor.CMP files produced can later be
translated as Mentor CAD format files if desired. Mentor.LNL and
Mentor.RNL files may also be generated. Mentor.LNL contains net names
from the input file before they have been truncated. Mentor.RNL contains a
list of any net renames. The Mentor.NET file contains net names truncated
to eight characters and should be used for any additional selective net
remaining of the test program. If the translation of the original CAD files
produces more than 1000 test steps, additional steps are written into a test
program in the test program directory named as the user-specified CAD file
prefix plus the letters "TWO".

CAD Conversion Screen


The CAD Conversion screen shown in the following figure is available from the 'Tools' menu
in the Edit screen. The selections are described below.

10-4
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual CAD Data Conversion
CAD Conversion Screen

CAD Conversion Screen Convert

Topics List
Net List File below
Component Value File on page 10-6
Net Order File on page 10-6
CAD Files Directory on page 10-6
Exception Report File on page 10-6
Fixture Wiring Report File on page 10-8
Test Program File on page 10-8
Assign Default File Names on page 10-9
CAD Format on page 10-9
Manual CAD Conversion on page 10-9
Customizing CAD Conversion on page 10-9
Net List File
Allows you to select the name of the CAD data input net-list file that you are going to convert.
Depending on the CAD data that you have selected, the System will use default extensions for
each type of data to be read. For example, if you are using P-Cad and enter a file name of
"W345", the System will look for "W345.WRL" for the net list, and "W345.MAT" for the

10-5
CAD Data Conversion Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
CAD Conversion Screen

material list. Unless a different path is selected with the 'CAD Files Directory' selection, the
System looks for these files in the same directory as the VISMDA.EXE file that you are
executing at the time.
Component Value File
Allows you to select the name of the CAD data input file that contains the component values,
such as the resistance value of the resistors in the UUT. The file name is automatically entered
for you once you have entered the net list file name and selected 'Assign Default File Names',
but you can explicitly enter another name if your CAD data does not follow the default name
assumptions.
Net Order File
Allows you to specify a list of point numbers and point names to assign prior to the
conversion. During the conversion, the System assigns any remaining point numbers in the
order new networks are encountered. The format of the net order file is ASCII, with each line
containing a point number (e.g. 6), followed by a space or a comma and space, followed by a
net name (e.g. +12V, GND, or R1-1). If this file is not assigned, the System will automatically
assign point numbers in net-list order.
CAD Files Directory
Allows you to specify the directory that the System searches for the CAD Data input files.
Temporary conversion files, the exception report file, and the fixture wiring report file are also
written to this directory. If this file path is not specified, the System uses the same directory as
the VISMDA software.
Exception Report File
The exception report file (example shown in the following figure) entry tells the System the
file name to use for the exception file. Each time you generate a test program, the System
automatically overwrites any existing exception file. To examine the Exception Report, you
can use 'View' selection in the 'File' menu. From there you can display or print the report.
The first section of the Exception Report (if present) warns you of network names in the net
list that are two long to uniquely translate (over eight or twelve characters in length as
applicable to the CAD data you are translating). If errors are shown, you should edit your net
list to reduce the length of the listed names, otherwise tests of components connected to these
network names may not be properly generated. The next section of the Exception Report
describes components that have been programmed, but have more than two leads. Since the
System generates tests based on points one and two of each component, you may want to
generate additional tests for the other points or check to ensure that the generated tests use the
proper points.
The next section of the Exception Report shows the names of the components found in the net
list that did not generate a test. These typically will be components such as ICs (e.g., U201)
and connectors (e.g., JP1), but may include names of components that you wish to test, but are
not listed in the Reference Designator Template.
The final section of the exception report shows test steps that have been consolidated because
the components were wired in parallel. This section shows a full listing of the combined
components. The test program may not list all of these components due to a limited amount of
space in the test title area.

10-6
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual CAD Data Conversion
CAD Conversion Screen

Example Exception Report

10-7
CAD Data Conversion Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
CAD Conversion Screen

Fixture Wiring Report File


The Fixture Wiring Report File (example shown in the figure below) entry tells the System the
file name to use for the fixture wiring report file. Each time you generate a test program, the
System automatically overwrites any existing fixture wiring report file. To examine the fixture
wiring report file, you can use 'View' selection in the 'File' menu. From there you can display
or print the report.
The fixture wiring report shows, for each point, the point number, point name, the interface
block or connector and point that it is connected to at the fixture interface, and a list of all of
the other nodes on that network.

Example Fixture Wiring Report

Test Program File


This file specifies the test program that the CAD conversion will be saved as. If this name is
not specified, it is necessary for you to manually save the program from 'File' menu of the Edit
screen.

10-8
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual CAD Data Conversion
Customizing CAD Conversion

Assign Default File Names


Using the 'Net List File' name as a root, assign default names to the Component Value File, the
Exception Report File, the Fixture Wiring Report, and the 'Test Program File.' You can
manually go back and change any of these automatically assigned names if you wish. In some
cases, the names generated depend on the CAD Format that you are using, so the CAD format
should be specified prior to Assigning Default File Names.
CAD Format
Specify which style of CAD data is being used as the input files. If you are not sure of the
format that you are dealing with, you can refer to the example listings under Specific CAD
Types on page 10-17.
Manual CAD Conversion
Using the specified CAD format and assigned file names, convert the CAD data to a test
program. The steps that are performed are listed in Generating the Test Program on page 10-2.

Customizing CAD Conversion


Customizing CAD Conversion
Overview
The CAD Conversion screen shown in the following figure is available from the 'Tools' menu
in the Edit screen, then selecting the 'Customize' tab in the lower right corner.
Customized Conversion allow you to specify special functions during CAD conversion that
will allow you to more directly target the specifics of your particular CAD data. Since layout
and schematic entry personnel may use different conventions for parts and net naming, or
specify parts not usually encountered during conversion, this section can help you obtain a
better conversion by accommodating these unique requirements.

10-9
CAD Data Conversion Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Customizing CAD Conversion

CAD Conversion Screen - Customize

The selections unique to this screen are described in the following topics:
Reference Designator Template below
CAD Conversion Steps on page 10-14
Net Rename Strategy on page 10-15
Reference Designator Template
The Reference Designator Template, shown in the following figure, is used to specify how
translations are made from reference designators (e.g., "R1" or "C901") to test steps types
(e.g., RES or CAP) when the test program is generated. A component reference designator
identifies an individual component. A component reference designator consists of a
component type such as 'R' or 'C' followed by a component number. The reference designator
table defines what components have test steps generated during CAD conversion. Most CAD
libraries use just a component type and number to identify individual components. Sometimes
libraries will add optional characters to a component type or after the component number to
differentiate between individual components. When generating the test program, the System
generates test steps based on the entries in this table. In this screen, you can use the mouse to
select any position, then type in a new entry.

10-10
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual CAD Data Conversion
Customizing CAD Conversion

Reference Designator Template Screen

For example, if the first line specifies a reference designator of "R", and a generated test type
of "RES", the System searches the CAD data for occurrences of R1, R2, R3,.. and generates a
RESistance test for each one found. In general, the system attempts to generate a test step
between points one and two of each reference designator. If point one or two is not found then
another point is used to generate a component test.
Automatic generation occurs in sequential order (e.g., R1, R2, R3, ...) for each translation. The
System starts at the translation shown on the top line of the screen, then does the second line,
and so on to the bottom in the table.
The Reference Designator Template allows specification of suffixes to component reference
designators. The optional suffix follows the reference designator number of an individual
component. Suffix specifiers are either the !, ? or * characters. An exclamation present in a
specifier represents any single character. An asterisk represents zero or more characters. A
question mark represents zero or one characters. For example, to convert components such as
R123-a and R123a, an asterisk as the suffix character to the R reference designator could be
used. The default Reference Designator Template has no suffixes for component types.
Some CAD libraries allow optional characters to precede the reference designator type
character(s). Use a prefix specifier of !, ? or * to allow for these optional characters. For
example, to convert only capacitors with two character prefixes such as 3aC10 and 2bC11, a
prefix string consisting of two exclamations '!!" could be used with the C reference designator.
You can use the top to bottom order to generate the test program so that it will work the best.
For example, you will probably want to have the switches and pots set properly before doing a
continuity test or testing parallel paths.

10-11
CAD Data Conversion Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Customizing CAD Conversion

The information in this table is stored in the system configuration data (see the Configure
System window) so that it can be tailored to meet the your specific needs and CAD standards.
To save your setup for future use, press the Save button in the Configure System window.
The 'File' pull-down of the Reference Designator Template screen allows several functions:
Import allows you load a file that contains the values in the Reference Designator Template
screen. This must have been previously saved with the Export Function. You may wish to use
this function to load the unique characteristics for one of your UUT families, or one type of
CAD system that you use.
Export allows you save a file that contains the values in the Reference Designator Template
screen. You may wish to use this function to save the unique characteristics for one of your
UUT families, or one type of CAD system that you use.
Multi-Test Template allows you specify particular parts that have more than one test step
generated per part. The screen that is used to generate this function is the Component Multi-
Test Template shown in the following figure.

Component Multi-Test Template Screen

Use the Component Multiple Test Template to enter multiple tests, or tests with specified point
numbers for the component selected at the time Component Multiple Test Template is selected.
In the left column, enter the reference designators desired. For example, if the Reference
Designator is SW, and the first column contains 1-3 and 7, the system will generate test steps
for SW1, SW2, SW3 and SW7. The second column contains the point numbers that generate
test steps. In the figure above, the system generates a SwchR test step for points SWx-1 to
SWx-2, another for points SWx-1 to SWx-3, another for points SWx-COM to SWx-NC, and
another for SWx-COM to SWx-NO.

10-12
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual CAD Data Conversion
Customizing CAD Conversion

For resistor networks with bussed connections such as:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Use the Component Multiple Test Template and enter the reference designator index for the
components such as RN2, RN3, and RN4. The test points are listed as shown for all the pins.
For example, a 10 pin resistor network with bussed connections would have 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5
1,6 1,7 1,8 1,9 and 1,10 as shown in the following:

For resistor networks with isolated components such as:


1 16
2 15
3 14
4 13
5 12
6 11
7 10

8 9

Use the Component Multiple Test Template and enter the reference designator index for the
components such as RN1 and RN5. The test points are listed as shown for all the pins. For
example, a 16 pin resistor network with isolated components would have 1,16 2,15 3,14 4,13

10-13
CAD Data Conversion Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Customizing CAD Conversion

5,12 6,11 7,10 and 8,9 as shown in the following:

Print Screen allows you to print out the screen that you are observing. This can be used to
document a setup that you have entered.
Exit returns to the CAD Conversion menu.
CAD Conversion Steps
The CAD Conversion Steps screen is used to individually select the steps that occur when
automatically generating a test program. This allows you to use these automatic capabilities
with test programs not generated by a CAD file (e.g., you might want to have the System
automatically merge parallel components and assign high/low test limits and preliminary
measurement range for a test program that you have manually generated), or to skip parts of
the conversion process. The CAD Conversion Steps screen, which is accessed by this
selection, is shown in the following figure.
The detailed descriptions for each of the steps of this process also apply to the fully automatic
generation of the test program when selected from the CAD Conversion screen.

Note
Not all of the steps may work without first selecting others. For example,
you cannot generate test steps unless you have first performed test point
assignment.

10-14
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual CAD Data Conversion
Customizing CAD Conversion

CAD Conversion Steps Screen

In this screen you can enable (with a check) or disable each step of the conversion process:
Test Point Assignment reads the net-order-file and/or the net-list file to assign node numbers
and node names.
Test Step Generation generates the test steps as defined by the Reference Designator
Template. In order for this to be effective, 'Test Point Assignment' must also be enabled.
Assign Nominal Values reads the component values file and assigns the values to the test
steps that are generated, or are already in memory.
Merge Parallel Components finds parallel components and merges them (e.g., if C1 and C7
are connected to the same test points, the System sums their values and puts them together into
one test step). The test title of the consolidated test step lists the name of both components
separated by a vertical line. If more parallel component names are consolidated than will fit in
the test title on one line, the System stops adding the new component names into the title, but
instead adds one or more periods (e.g., "...") indicating that more components than those listed
are tested in parallel by that step. If nominal values are assigned when this step is executed,
the System adds capacitance values, leaves diode values the same, and computes parallel
resistance values.
Assign Test Limits assigns high and low test limits, and a preliminary measurement range for
each test step in memory, based on the test type and nominal value.
Net Rename Strategy
The Net Rename Strategy screen allows you to enable and tailor the rename of point names as
assigned from the CAD data. When you select 'Net Rename Strategy' from the CAD
Conversion screen, you obtain the Net Rename Strategy screen shown in the following figure.

10-15
CAD Data Conversion Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Customizing CAD Conversion

Net Rename Strategy Screen

The top box allows you to specify which test points are renamed. You can select "No Net
Renaming" (the default), "Rename All Networks", or "Rename Selected Networks". If
"Selected" is chosen, the System only renames point names that begin with a specified prefix.
This is handy for only renaming networks that are automatically named by the CAD system
and have no specific meaning to test engineers. If "Selected" is chosen, you can enter the
name prefix to replace. The default rename prefix chooses different prefixes based on the type
of CAD data. For example, for OrCAD, it chooses "N" since OrCAD systems name
unspecified networks as "N00001", "N00002", and so on.
You can specify what to rename the networks to. The 'Rename networks as' selection allows
you to specify what the test point is renamed as. You can chose between "First Component"
and "Prioritized Names". If "First Component" is selected, the System chooses the first
component listed on each network as the new network name. If "Prioritized Names" are
chosen, the System uses a priority to choose the most meaningful new name. It looks through
all components on the network and first for a test point (TP), then for a connector (J and P),
then for an IC (U), and finally, if it can't find any of these, it uses the first component of the net
list.

Note
If you plan on sharing test programs between DOS MDA and Visual MDA,
select the 'Limit Net Names to 8 Characters' option. This option insures
unique 8 character names are created during CAD conversion. The DOS
MDA software only uses the first 8 characters of a net name.

Choosing 'OK' returns you to the CAD Conversion screen.

10-16
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual CAD Data Conversion
Specific CAD Types

Specific CAD Types


Specific CAD Types
The following are pointers to discussion of various CAD types:
P-CAD Data Conversion below
Mentor Data Conversion on page 10-19
OrCAD Data Conversion on page 10-21
HP-BCF Data Conversion on page 10-22
Cadence Data Conversion on page 10-24
Racal-Redac Data Conversion on page 10-25
ViewLogic Data Conversion on page 10-26
Tango Data Conversion on page 10-30
ComputerVision Data Conversion on page 10-28
Pads2000 Data Conversion on page 10-32
Schema Data Conversion on page 10-34
Scicards Data Conversion on page 10-35
Veribest Data Conversion on page 10-35
Fabmaster Data Conversion on page 10-37
Notes on P-CAD Data Conversion
The P-CAD conversion format expects two ASCII files - the netlist with a .WRL extension,
and a materials list with a .MAT extension.
If you use the "Rename Networks" feature of the System, the default selected rename prefix
for P-CAD translation is "UN".
The expected netlist format is shown below in the following figure.

10-17
CAD Data Conversion Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Specific CAD Types

P-CAD Net List Format

The expected materials list format is shown below. Note that this file is only used to determine
the nominal values of the components in the test program and the consequent upper and lower
test limits. If you do not have this file, the System will issue a warning but will continue with
test program generation after you have pressed a key.
Since there is not a standard P-CAD format for assigning component values, the .MAT file
will not be of use to you during file generation unless you have used the following convention.
For each item in the materials list, generate a description field with the component value:
DEVICE=<value>
Value should be the value of the component followed by a space, end of line, underscore (_), F
for capacitance value, or Z for resistance value. The field may contain modifiers such as k for
kilo or u for micro. In the case of capacitors, an "M" is converted to a "u" for micro.

10-18
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual CAD Data Conversion
Specific CAD Types

P-CAD Materials List Format

Notes on Mentor Data Conversion


The Mentor conversion format expects two ASCII files - the netlist with a .NET extension, and
a component (materials) list with a .CMP extension.
If you use the "Rename Networks" feature of the System, the default selected rename prefix
for Mentor translation is "N".
The expected netlist format is shown below in the following figure.

10-19
CAD Data Conversion Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Specific CAD Types

Mentor Net List Format

The expected component list format is shown below in the following figure. Note that this file
is only used to determine the nominal values of the components in the test program and the
consequent upper and lower test limits. If you do not have this file, the System will issue a
warning but will continue with test program generation after you have pressed a key.
The .CMP file expects the component values to be listed just past the PART annotation in the
value field.
The component format should be the value of the component followed by a space, end of line,
underscore (_), F for capacitance value, or Z for resistance value. The field may contain
modifiers such as k for kilo or u for micro. In the case of capacitors, an "M" is converted to a
"u" for micro.

Mentor Component List Format

10-20
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual CAD Data Conversion
Specific CAD Types

Notes on OrCAD Data Conversion


The OrCAD conversion format expects two ASCII files - the netlist with a .NET extension,
and a cross reference list with a .CRF extension.
If you use the "Rename Networks" feature of the System, the default selected rename prefix
for OrCAD translation is "N".
To generate the netlist, output the data in Mentor format. For example:
NETLIST <schematic name> <output file name> /F /S Mentor
The expected netlist format is described in Mentor Data Conversion on page 10-19.
The component values are taken from the cross reference file generated by the OrCAD system.
The System expects this file to be available with a .CRF file extension. An example of this file
format is shown in the following figure.

OrCAD Cross Reference File Format

This cross reference file can be generated (for example) by:


CROSSREF <schematic name> <output file> /F /S /P
The cross reference is only used to determine the nominal values of the components in the test
program and the consequent upper and lower test limits. If you do not have this file, the
System will issue a warning but will continue with test program generation after you have
pressed a key.
The component format should be the value of the component followed by a space, end of line,
underscore (_), F for capacitance value, or Z for resistance value. The field may contain
modifiers such as k for kilo or u for micro. In the case of capacitors, an "M" is converted to a
"u" for micro.

10-21
CAD Data Conversion Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Specific CAD Types

Notes on HP-BCF Data Conversion


The HP-BCF conversion format expects an ASCII BCF file as used with the HP-3065 and HP-
3070. This single file, containing both netlist and component information, is read with a file
extension of .BCF. When reading these files, the CheckSum MDA System uses its own
tolerance defaults rather than those out of the .BCF files.
The expected file format is shown below in the following figure. Typical .BCF files have
other sections (e.g., *SUMMARY), but the ones shown in the example (as well as other
component types) are the only ones used during the conversion process.
The "Rename Networks" feature of the System is not available with HP-BCF conversion since
the connection names are only available in one form.

10-22
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual CAD Data Conversion
Specific CAD Types

HP-BCF File Format

10-23
CAD Data Conversion Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Specific CAD Types

Notes on Cadence Data Conversion


The Cadence conversion utility expects one ASCII file with an extension of .NET. The
System uses this file to extract both parts value and connection information.
If you use the "Rename Networks" feature of the System, the default selected rename prefix
for Cadence translation is "net".
The expected ASCII file format is shown below in the following figure. Note that the ASCII
file should have CR/LF line terminators. When transferred from the workstation, the file may
contain only LF line termination. To add CRs to the file, it may be necessary to read it into an
ASCII editor and write it back out again.
Net list information is obtained from the .ROUTE section of the file.
Component information is obtained from the .PLACED section of the file. The data will not
be of use to you during file generation unless you have used the described format for assigning
part values. Within this section, the translator looks for titles in the first column with an
underscore. The information from the underscore to the next space is translated to a
component value. The value of the component should be followed by a space, underscore (_),
end of line, F for capacitance value, or Z for resistance value. The field may contain modifiers
such as k for kilo or u for micro. In the case of capacitors, an "M" is converted to a "u" for
micro.

10-24
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual CAD Data Conversion
Specific CAD Types

Cadence Net List Format

Notes on Racal-Redac Data Conversion


The Racal-Redac conversion format expects two ASCII files - the netlist with a .CDI
extension, and a materials list with a .LST extension.
If you use the "Rename Networks" feature of the System, the default selected rename prefix
for Racal-Redac translation is "TREE".
The expected netlist format is shown below in the following figure. The data is in Racal-
Redac's initial data format. The System uses the .CON section of the file to obtain the
connection information. Network names are generated from the .REM data before each
network. The generated network name is the two parts of the .REM description connected
with a hyphen (-). Point names as used in the wiring report are also hyphenated between the
reference designator and the point number.

Racal-Redac Net List Format

10-25
CAD Data Conversion Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Specific CAD Types

The expected materials list format is shown below. Note that this file is only used to determine
the nominal values of the components in the test program and the consequent upper and lower
test limits. If you do not have this file, the System will issue a warning but will continue with
test program generation after you have pressed a key. The materials list expects a .LST
convention. It is generated from the schematic entry package (e.g., CadStar) as a parts list
output.
Since there is not a standard format for assigning component values, the .LST file will not be
of use to you during file generation unless you have applicable conventions in the parts
description. The System expects the first part of the description (up to the first space) to be the
type of component (not used for translation). The next part of the description (up to the next
space) is expected to be the component value. Value should be the value of the component
followed by a space, end of line, underscore (_), F for capacitance value, or Z for resistance
value. The field may contain modifiers such as k for kilo or u for micro. In the case of
capacitors, an "M" is converted to a "u" for micro.

Racal-Redac Materials List Format

Notes on ViewLogic Data Conversion


The ViewLogic conversion utility expects one ASCII file with an extension of .FWD. The
System uses this file to extract both parts value and connection information. When reading
these files, the CheckSum MDA System uses its own tolerance defaults rather than those out of
the .FWD file.

10-26
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual CAD Data Conversion
Specific CAD Types

The expected ASCII format is shown in the following figure. Typical .FWD files have other
sections but only the $PACKAGES and $NETS sections shown in the example are used during
the conversion process. They provide parts value and connection information, respectively.
Component values in the $PACKAGES section are declared on lines beginning with an
apostrophe or a letter. The value is found in the fifth field in from the line beginning; fields are
separated by single spaces. The part value string may or may not be enclosed in apostrophes.
The value is expressed by a real number followed by an optional suffix such as k, UF, or PF.
The component name list follows an optional component tolerance which takes up two fields.
The component tolerance value is enclosed in apostrophes. Thus the component name list
begins in either the seventh or ninth fields. The name list continues to the next line if the line
ends with a space followed by a comma. The component names on the next line must be
preceded by eight spaces. Individual component names are separated by spaces within the
component list.
The $NETS section declares component interconnections. Net names are declared starting in
the first character of a line. A net name may optionally be enclosed in apostrophes. The node
name list of components follows the net name declaration. A node name is composed of the
reference designator followed by an optional function field (:Fxxx where xxx is an integer),
followed by the point number field (.nn where nn is the point number). Node names are
separated by spaces with the net list. The node name list can be continued to a following line
by adding a comma to the last node name on a line and continuing eight spaces in on the next
line.

10-27
CAD Data Conversion Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Specific CAD Types

ViewLogic Net List Format

Notes on ComputerVision Data Conversion


The ComputerVision conversion facility expects an ASCII file with an extension of .NET to
generate network information. An example of this file is shown in the following figure.

10-28
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual CAD Data Conversion
Specific CAD Types

ComputerVision Net List Format

10-29
CAD Data Conversion Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Specific CAD Types

Modified Mentor Component List Format

Notes on Tango Data Conversion


The Tango conversion facility expects one ASCII file with an extension of .NET. The format
of the Tango file is shown in the following figure. It consists of a component declaration
section followed by a net declaration section. Component declarations are enclosed in square
braces. Network declarations are enclosed in parentheses. Any input lines not within matched
braces or parentheses are treated as comments and ignored.
Component declarations have the following format:
[
refdes
package
type
value (for some components)
(blank line)
(blank line)
]
The refdes is the reference designator consisting of up to 16 uppercase alphanumeric
characters. The package is a component package name and consists of up to 16 uppercase
alphanumeric characters. The type is the component type, up to 16 alphanumeric characters in
length.
Net declarations have the following format:
(
net_name
node

10-30
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual CAD Data Conversion
Specific CAD Types

node
...
)
A net consists of an arbitrary number of nodes that are connected together. A node consists of
a component reference designator followed by a delimiter and a point designator. The
delimiter may be a hyphen, comma or a space. The point designator may be up to 16
alphanumeric characters in length. A net is contained within enclosing parentheses. Each
parenthesis is the first and only character on a line. The net_name consists of up to 16
alphanumeric characters.
Any text outside of component or net declarations is treated as comments and ignored. Net
names with point designators A through F are automatically converted to point numbers 1
through 6.

10-31
CAD Data Conversion Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Specific CAD Types

Tango Net List Format

Notes on Pads2000 Data Conversion


To generate test programs from schematics generated with the Pads2000 CAD system, the test
System expects a net list file with the extension .NET. An example of this file is shown in the
next figure below. The component information at the beginning of this file is ignored.
Component information from the Pads2000 system is extracted from the parts list file with a
.LST extension. An example of this file format is shown in the last figure below.

10-32
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual CAD Data Conversion
Specific CAD Types

Pads2000 Net List Format

10-33
CAD Data Conversion Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Specific CAD Types

Pads2000 Component List Format

Notes on Schema Data Conversion


To generate test programs from schematics generated with the Schema schematic CAD system
(by Omation Inc. of Richardson TX), the Tango intermediate file format can be used. (See
Notes on Tango Data Conversion on page 10-30).
Schema for Windows supports net list generation to Tango format. To generate this format,
use the net list output screen within Schema. In this screen, select Tango net list output.
Once net list generation is completed, you will have a net list file on your disk with a .TNL
extension (e.g., xxx.TNL). To read it into the CheckSum system, rename it to have a .NET
extension (e.g., RENAME xxx.TNL xxx.NET). Then select Tango input format and read it
into the System for conversion.
Early versions of Schema do not support component values in the Tango net list output, so if
you are using an early version, component values need to be edited into the net list (see Tango
Data Conversion on page 10-30) or manually entered after translation. Contact Omation if you
have questions about revisions supporting this translation.
Unnamed networks from Schema begin with $$ (e.g., $$040). Therefore, specify the $$ prefix
if you would like to use the net-rename facilities of the CheckSum CAD translator.

10-34
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual CAD Data Conversion
Specific CAD Types

Notes on Scicards Data Conversion


To generate test programs from CAD data generated by Scicards the test System expects a
single ASCII file with the .DOC extension. An example of this file is shown in the following
figure. This file contains both component information in the PARTS LIST section and net
information in the NET LIST section. Both sections are used during test program generation.

Scicards CAD Data Format

Notes on Veribest Data Conversion


The Veribest format conversion uses two ASCII files, a net list and a Bill Of Materials. The
default extensions that CAD Conversion recognizes are .NET and .BOM, respectively.
If you use the Rename Networks feature then the default selected rename prefix for Veribest
is XSIG.
The format of the file section containing the net list is shown in the following example:
$NETS$
NET ALE
IC34 66
IC33 34
MD158 1
NET BSPM[0]
U103 12
IC34 86
MD183 1

10-35
CAD Data Conversion Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Specific CAD Types

NET CS_FPGA~
IC34 16
IC33 83
MD201 1
R405 1
NET CS_ISDN~
IC19 3
IC34 26
MD202 1
NET CS_RAM~
IC20 20
IC23 22
IC33 82
MD204 1
$END NETS$
The expected format of the Bill Of Material file is shown in the following example:
Bill of Material
Item Qty Reference Vendor Part # Description
1
R473 215S2100 RES SMD 10R
1% 0.1W 0603
1
2
R1054 215S2130 RES SMD 13R
1% 0.1W 0603
R1055
2
3
R1053 215S4910 RES SMD 9K1
1% 0.1W 0603
1
4
RN8 449S0011 RES SMD NET
10K COMMON
RN7
2
5
C443 421S1002 CAP SMD 10uF
20% 25V TANT/D
1
6
C447 423-4024 CAP 6n8 5%
63V P5mm PESTER
1
7
D51 434-0004 DIODE ZENER
2V4 5% W5
1

10-36
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual CAD Data Conversion
Specific CAD Types

Notes on Fabmaster Data Conversion


To generate test programs from CAD data generated by Fabmaster, the test System expects
two ASCII files. In addition a third ASCII file, NAILS.ASC, is used if present. The net list
file has a .NET suffix. The component file has the same prefix but with a .MTL extension.
Examples of the Fabmaster net list and material list files are shown, respectively in the next
two figures below. The optional NAILS.ASC file specifies the order in which the net names
are assigned to test points. An example excerpt from NAILS.ASC is shown in the last figure
below.

Fabmaster Net List Format

10-37
CAD Data Conversion Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Specific CAD Types

Fabmaster Materials List Format

10-38
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual CAD Data Conversion
Specific CAD Types

Fabmaster Nails File Format

10-39
CAD Data Conversion Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Specific CAD Types

10-40
Chapter 11
Power Option

Power Module Option


Overview
The optional Model TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 Module extends the capability of the Model TR-8 to
source voltages up to 24V (+/- 12V) and to provide dc current up to 100mA. This capability
can provide additional test coverage. For example:
Diodes and zener diodes that have significant parallel impedance can be effectively tested
with the TR-8-PWR/PWR-2. The diode measurement range is up to 12V.
Guarding current is extended to more than 100mA.
UUTs with low-power requirements can be powered up by the TR-8-PWR/PWR-2
directly. This can be used to facilitate limited UUT power-on testing for proper operation.
Two programmable dc supplies are available, each providing between -12V and +12V
with a combined current of 100mA. They can be used differentially to supply up to 24V.
The amount of current being provided can be monitored by the System.
UUT Relays can be actuated for testing of proper operation by testing the contacts in both
actuated and unactuated modes.
Four undedicated relays are provided for switching of UUT signals.
Eight digital I/O lines can be used as I/O bits or to control relays (the drivers are ULN-
style open-collector outputs).
Standard back-panel interface can connect directly to a CheckSum Model TR-6-2 Fixture
Interface Module for custom functional test needs.
Switched, fused, PC power is available at +12V (1A), +5V (1A), and -12V (100mA).
Since the standard Model TR-8 MDA System solid-state Multiplexers cannot accommodate
the power provided by the Model TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 Module, it is necessary to use the 16
special relay test points on the TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 module to provide these higher-current
signals to the UUT. When using these high-current test points, numbered 1631 to 1646, it is
possible to have up to five simultaneous signals connected to the UUT. These include power
source 1, power sense 1, power source 2, power sense 2 and ground.
Power Option Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Internal Analog Bus

Related Topics
Installation on page 4-9
Internal Analog Bus below
Back-Panel Connections below
Software Installation/Self-Test on page 11-4
Wiring the Fixture on page 11-4
Programming the Power Module on page 11-5
Measuring Zener Diodes on page 11-7
Measuring Capacitor Polarity on page 11-8
Power Output and Relay Control on page 11-8
Digital Input/Output on page 11-11
Guarding on page 11-13

Internal Analog Bus


For the TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 module to communicate with the rest of the test system
electronics, it must be connected to the internal analog bus. To do so, connect JP1 to the 16-
pin internal analog bus cable. This connection should be made such that the TR-8-PWR/PWR-
2 module is in parallel with the MPX modules.

Note
In most cases, all of the test system modules are connected together in
parallel with the 16-pin internal analog bus cable. However, if a Functional
Test Module is installed, it will be located between the TR-8 System
Module and the MPX Modules. In this case, the TR-8-PWR/PWR-2
Module should be connected on the MPX side of the bus.

Power Module Back-Panel Connector


The TR-8-PWR Module has a 50-pin back-panel connector that accepts standard 25x2 ribbon
cables connectors. The pin-out of this connector is shown in the following figure (also see
Wiring Diagrams) on page 14-1:

11-2
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Power Option
Power Module Back-Panel Connector

TP 1631 1 2 TP 1632
TP 1633 3 4 TP 1634
TP 1635 5 6 TP 1636
TP 1637 7 8 TP 1638
TP 1639 9 10 TP 1640
TP 1641 11 12 TP 1642
TP 1643 13 14 TP 1644
TP 1645 15 16 TP 1646
Ground 17 18 Relay 2 NC
Relay 1 NC 19 20 Relay 2 NO
Relay 1 NO 21 22 Relay 2 Com
Relay 1 Com 23 24 Relay 4 NC
Relay 3 NC 25 26 Relay 4 NO
Relay 3 NO 27 28 Relay 4 Com
Relay 3 Com 29 30 Not used
Sense 2 31 32 Not used
Sense 1 33 34 Ground
Out 2 35 36 Not used
Out 1 37 38 Not used
DigI/O 1 39 40 DigI/O 2
DigI/O 3 41 42 DigI/O 4
DigI/O 5 43 44 DigI/O 6
DigI/O 7 45 46 DigI/O 8
Ground (switched) 47 48 +5V (Fused, switched) Power
-12V (Fused, switched) Power 49 50 +12V (Fused, switched) Power

Model TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 Module Pin-Out

In most cases, the TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 will be connected either to the fixture receiver (e.g., the
CheckSum Model TR-5-400-QC or TR-7-1000-QC), or directly into the fixture (e.g., the
CheckSum Model TR-5-1216).

Note
If you are connecting into a receiver, choose a location that will not require
the connection to be moved if you add more test points in the future. For
example, on the CheckSum Model TR-3A Vacuum Fixture Receiver, install
the TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 cable on the end opposite from the test point cables.
This may require another interface block (Model TR-3-1) be installed. By
considering this initially, you can more easily maintain compatibility of
your fixtures in the future.

11-3
Power Option Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Software Installation/Self-test

Software Installation/Self-test
Once the TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 module is installed, you must configure the software so that the
software recognizes and can properly address the module. If you have purchased the Module
as part of a System from CheckSum, the software will be shipped with the proper
configuration already made.
To configure the Module, start the software with VISMDA. Then select Configure System,
then the Modules page. Use the `Add Module', `TR-8' menus to select the TR-8-PWR/PWR-2
Module.
Once the Module is selected and added to the list of installed Modules, next to the base
address, you will see the jumper settings on the module that correspond to that address. If you
have set your module to another base address, type in the new address (in decimal or
hexadecimal, mode selectable), or click on the jumpers to make them match the module. The
system will not allow you to type in an address that can not be set with the jumpers.
Once the address is set, select Self-Test to confirm that the module is operating properly.
Follow the prompts that guide you through self-test. If there are any errors, the module may be
faulty or may be set to a base address that conflicts with other hardware in the computer.

Note
You should disconnect the back panel cable from the Model TR-8-
PWR/PWR-2 during self-test. If connections exist in the fixture, erroneous
self-test failures may occur.

Once you have configured the TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 module into the System, you must save this
configuration on the disk so that it will be remembered next time you use the System. To do
so from the Modules screen, press `Save'. To return to the System screen, select `OK'.

Wiring the Fixture


The customized test fixture will require special wiring to take advantage of the features of the
Model TR-8-PWR/PWR-2. This is necessary because the Model TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 can
provide more current than can be handled by the MDA system's Model TR-8-1 solid-state test
points.
To accommodate this, the TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 back-panel relay test points (numbered 1631-
1646) are wired to the UUT points requiring additional power. Note that there must be a TR-
8-PWR/PWR-2 test point for return of the current back to the test system. For example, if you
are using the TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 to actuate a relay, put a TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 test point on both
ends of the relay coil, one to source current and the other to sink the returned current.
Likewise, when using the TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 as a high-power guard point, provide a TR-8-
PWR/PWR-2 return path that is at the same electrical potential as the From(-) Test Point.
Normal test fixture wiring techniques and probes can be used with the Model TR-8-
PWR/PWR-2. Standard gauge wire-wrap wire and probes can accommodate 100mA, although
you may encounter a few hundred millivolts of drop through the wiring at full current.

11-4
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Power Option
Programming the Power Module

Note
Consider the current-carrying capacity of the components on the UUT when
using the TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 Module. Damage to the UUT could occur if
the parts with TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 stimulus applied cannot carry 100mA.

Programming the Power Module


The Model TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 programming is integrated into the TR-8 software such that
you use it like any other system resource. The System software knows that you are referring to
the TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 when it detects the use of test points numbered 1631-1646.

Providing Voltage Sources


The TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 can be used to source up to 100mA of current into the UUT. This
current is available through two individually controlled outputs, each of which can be
programmed in the range of -12V to +12V. The combined current of both outputs will not
exceed approximately 100mA.

Note
In order to protect the System's solid-state test points, the TR-8-PWR/PWR-
2 voltage is limited to the 12V power supply voltages of the installed PC.
In some cases, particularly on the -12V supply, lower PC voltages will be
present and the maximum TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 voltage will be lower in
order not to exceed the PC's maximum voltage.

These voltages can be used to actuate relays, power-up UUTs, or for other purposes such as
providing a bias signal.
Because of the high current, the voltage output from the TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 cannot return to
the PC from a solid-state test point. Therefore, you must provide a return path via another TR-
8-PWR/PWR-2 test point, or through another switched path to PC ground (note that the UUT
must be electrically "floating" during MDA test, so TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 inputs can cause
measurement errors if used incorrectly).
To output this voltage, use the DCV test-type. Range values of 3 and 4 specify the TR-8-
PWR/PWR-2 outputs. The test point numbers used for this output must be in the range of
1631-1646. In other regards, the DCV test-type operates as for non-TR-8-PWR/PWR-2
installations. Test point 1625 is a special test point that specifies no connection to a matrix.
In normal use, the From(-) test point is internally connected to PC ground. This is not the case
if the From(-) test point is specified as 1625.
For differential output (to obtain more than 12 volts), use DCV source 3 to the most positive
test point and program it to a positive voltage. Connect DCV source 4 to the more negative
test point and program it to a negative value. In both cases, specify the output from the To(+)

11-5
Power Option Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Providing Voltage Sources

test point with the From(-) test points as 1625 (for not used). Sources 3 and 4 in the above
example can be interchanged.
The voltages produced by this test type remain active until they are changed by another DCV
test type execution with the same range (such as RESET), or a CONTinuity test is executed, or
test program execution is completed.
Parameters Description
Test Type DCV
Title If `RESET' is entered, the specified DCV output is set to 0 volts and disconnected from the
matrix.
Range DC source being programmed:
1 = Normal DCV output
2 = SQRV output
3 = TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 output 1
4 = TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 output 2
From (-) Point Negative polarity source point. If the range is 1 or 2, this point must be in the range of 1-
1600. If the range is 3 or 4, this point must be in the range of 1631-1646. In either case,
test point 1625 specifies no matrix connection.
To (+) Point Positive polarity source point. If the range is 1 or 2, this point must be in the range of 1-
1600. If the range is 3 or 4, this point must be in the range of 1631-1646. In either case,
test point 1625 specifies no matrix connection.
Low Limit Not used.
High Limit Amplitude in volts. The range is -10V to +10V in 5 mV steps for range values of 1 or 2, or -
12V to +12V in 5mV steps for range values of 3 or 4.
DCV Test Type Parameters

When providing power to a UUT, at times it can be advantageous to monitor the current or
voltage. For example, if you are sourcing into an unknown impedance, you may want to see
how much current or voltage the UUT is drawing to see if it is operating properly. If the UUT
is drawing excessive current, you may wish to abort the test.
To perform these tasks, there are two test types available. PWRMN monitors the voltage or
current output and JMPWR performs a jump to another part of the test program based on the
output voltage or current.

11-6
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Power Option
Measuring Zener Diodes (Power Module Option)

Parameters Description
Test Type PWRMN
Title Normally not used.
Range DC source being monitored, and type of monitor. Sum of:
3 = Monitor TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 power output 1, or
4 = Monitor TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 power output 2, and
16 = Measure Voltage, or
32 = Measure Current

From (-) Point Not used.


To (+) Point Not used.
Low Limit Low limit for pass in volts if range bit 16 is set, or current in Amps if range bit 32 is
set.
High Limit High limit for pass in volts if range bit 16 is set, or current in Amps if range bit 32 is
set.
PWRMn Test Type Parameters

Parameters Description
Test Type JMPWR
Title Destination of jump if monitored voltage/current is between the low and high test
limits. Must match the title of a LABEL test type in the test program.
Range DC source being monitored, and type of monitor. Sum of:
3 = Monitor TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 power output 1, or
4 = Monitor TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 power output 2, and
16 = Measure Voltage, or
32 = Measure Current

From (-) Point Not used.


To (+) Point Not used.
Low Limit Low limit for pass (and jump) in volts if range bit 16 is set, or current in Amps if
range bit 32 is set.
High Limit High limit for pass (and jump) in volts if range bit 16 is set, or current in Amps if
range bit 32 is set.
JMPWR Test Type Parameters

Measuring Zener Diodes (Power Module Option)


The TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 can be used to source up to 100mA of current into a diode while
monitoring the voltage. This can provide test coverage of diodes that have low-resistance
parallel paths.
To use the TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 for measuring diodes, connect one TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 test
point to each end of the diode being measured. For normal diodes, connect the positive source
to the diode anode. For zener diodes, connect the positive source to the zener cathode.

11-7
Power Option Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Measuring Capacitor Polarity

Use the Zener test type to make the measurement. The Zener test using the TR-8-PWR/PWR-
2 works like a normal 10mA Zener test, except that it current limits at approximately 100mA
in place of 10mA, and the maximum output is limited to 12V. If the Zener test type uses test
points 1631-1646, it automatically uses the TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 as the measurement source.
Parameters Description
Test Type ZENER
Title Description of measurement (e.g., CR3)
Range Time, in mSec, to wait after applying the current and before beginning the voltage
measurement. This can be used to allow time for parallel capacitances to charge.
From (-) Point Negative polarity test point
To (+) Point Positive polarity test point
Low Limit Low test limit in volts
High Limit High test limit in volts
Zener Test Type Parameters

Measuring Capacitor Polarity


In some cases, the TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 can be used to determine if polarized capacitors are
installed correctly. This is done by applying the 100mA source and measuring the voltage that
the UUT powers up to. If a polarized capacitor is installed backwards, often times the voltage
will be lower since the capacitor begins to draw current at a lower voltage.
This test can be programmed using the Zener test type, just as with a diode test.
To determine if this method of polarity checking works on a particular UUT, you can program
the test, then clip-lead a similar capacitor, but with reversed polarity, in parallel with the
capacitor being measured. If the voltage changes significantly, the technique is effective for
your UUT.

Power Output and Relay Control


The TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 can be used to provide fused, fixed power, and to switch external
signals. These resources include +12V (fused at 1A), +5V (fused at 1A), -12V (fused at
100mA), ground, and four undedicated form-C (common, normally-open, normally-closed
contacts) relays.
The fused voltage outputs and ground are directly from the PC. They are switched to the UUT
from individual relays on the TR-8-PWR/PWR-2. There must be a return path for the current
to the PC chassis. This point normally would be through the switched ground, one of the
undedicated relays or through a TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 ground test point. To enable a TR-8-
PWR/PWR-2 test point, use a DCV test type with the desired ground return point as the
From(-) test point, and the To(+) test point to an unused TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 test point or 1625
for no positive connection.

11-8
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Power Option
Power Output and Relay Control

Note
Do not permanently wire the UUT ground to the UUT chassis since the
analog MDA measurements require that the UUT be floating during
measurements.

When using the fused voltage outputs, a short on the UUT could blow the fuses. This can be
detected with the STST command. To help prevent blowing fuses, perform a CONTinuity test
prior to applying power. Use the JMPE test type to abort the test if errors occur prior to
applying power. If the UUT uses little power and you want to ensure that the fuses do not
blow, you can wire a series resistor in the fixture that will limit the current to below the fuse
amperage, even if the UUT is shorted. Appropriate minimum resistor values would be 5 for
+5V, 12 for +12V, and 120 for -12V.
To control the voltage outputs and relays, use the RELAY test type. The RELAY test type
works just as it does for the TR-6, but has an additional range value, 12, that specifies the TR-
8-PWR/PWR-2 Module.

11-9
Power Option Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Power Output and Relay Control

Parameters Description
Test Type RELAY
Title Normally not used
Range Which module to close relays on:

0 = TR-6 System Module


1 = First TR-6-1 MPX Module
2 = Next TR-6-1 MPX Module
3-6 = Next TR-6-1 MPX Module(s)
7 = Set a relay test point to the high TR-6 bus
8 = Reset a relay test point from the high TR-6 bus
9 = Set a relay test point to the low TR-6 bus
10 = Reset a relay test point from the low TR-6 bus
11 = Reset all high/low relays from the TR-6 buses and
go back to normal switching mode
12 = TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 Module

From (-) Point Not used


To (+) Point Not used
Low Limit Not used
High Limit If the range is 0-6, sum of the following:

1 = Relay 1 closed
2 = Relay 2 closed
4 = Relay 3 closed
8 = Relay 4 closed

if the range is 7-10, the test point number

if the range is 12 (TR-8-PWR/PWR-2), sum of the following:

1 = Relay 1 closed
2 = Relay 2 closed
4 = Relay 3 closed
8 = Relay 4 closed
16 = Ground Output Enabled
32 = +5V Output Enabled
64 = -12V Output Enabled
128 = +12V Output Enabled

RELAY Test Type Parameters

System self-test of the TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 Module checks to see if the fuses on the Module
have blown. You can also insert a check in the program for this purpose. The STST (for Self-
Test) test type can also used for this purpose. This test type generates a pass or fail based on
the status of the +12V, +5V, or -12V fuses. In the default case, it will fail if any of these fuses
are blown. If you wish to only test the status of one or two fuses, you can mask out the steps
not desired. Following is the syntax of the STST test type:

11-10
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Power Option
Digital Input/Output

Parameters Description
Test Type STST
Title Normally not used
Range Module to check self-test status of:
4 = DIG-1 Module
8 = TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 Module
10 = HP-1 Module
From (-) Point Not used
To (+) Point Not used
Low Limit Not used
High Limit Mask bit. Sum of the following bits. For each bit set, ignore that self-test:
If Range = 4 (DIG-1)
1 = test for module presence
2 = test fuse
4 = test digital I/O
8 = offset for second MPX module
If Range = 8 (TR-8-PWR/PWR-2)
1 = +5V fuse
2 = - 12V fuse
4 = +12V fuse
If Range = 10 (HP-1)
1 = test for module presence
2 = test for fixture open
4 = test for fixture closed
8 = offset for second MPX module
STST (self-test) Test Type Parameters

Digital Input/Output
The TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 provides eight bits of digital I/O. These bits can be used for
applications such as interface with automated handlers, digital control of the UUT, or to
control relays.
The TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 digital output is available at the back panel. Each bit consists of a
pull-up resistor (10k) to +5V connected to an open-collector relay-driver with diode
suppression. Digital readback is via an 74HCT input gate on each pin. This circuit is similar
to that of the CheckSum Model TR-6 digital I/O.
If you are controlling relays, the relay driver (UCN-5801A) can sink up to 600mA, which can
be externally provided to the other side of the driven relay coil. The pull-up voltage (+5V is
the default) can be disabled or changed to +12V. To disable it, remove the jumper on JP5. To
use a +5V pull-up, install the jumper between pins 1 and 2 of JP5. To use a +12V pull-up,
install the jumper between pins 2 and 3 of JP5. Note that even if the pull-up is disabled, the
input pins are connected together with 10K resistor SIP RN-3. RN-3 is socketed and can be
removed or replaced with another value. The SIP configuration is with the pull-up voltage
applied to one end pin and the individual pull-ups are the remaining pins. The circuitry on the
PCB is designed so that it will work properly if the SIP is installed in either direction. The
digital input always uses TTL-level inputs, although it can be used with inputs of up to +12

11-11
Power Option Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Digital Input/Output

volts without damage. When the jumper JP5 is set to 12V, the output high will be about 9V.
This can be increased to approximately 11.5V by changing SIP RN-3 to 1KOhm.
To control these digital I/O bits, use the DIGO test type for output to the UUT and the DIGI
test type for input to the test system. These test types work the same as with other system
digital resources except that they use a range value of 30. The DIGA (digital active) test type
does not apply with this type of circuit. To set any digital bit for input, just ensure that its
output is not set low, which would override a high input.

Parameter Description
Test Type DIGO
Title Not used
Range Output byte number:
0 = TR-8 bits 1-8
1 = G-80 or first DIG-1 bits 1-8
2 = G-80 or first DIG-1 bits 9-16
...
6 = G-80 or first DIG-1 bits 41-48
7 = G-80 or second DIG-1 bits 49-56
...
12 = G-80 or second DIG-1 bits 89-96
13 = TR-6 bits 1-8
14 = TR-8-1 points 1-8
15 = TR-8-1 points 9-16
16 = TR-8-1 points 201-208
17 = TR-8-1 points 209-216
...
28 = TR-8-1 points 1401-1408
29 = TR-8-1 points 1409-1416
30 = TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 bits 1-8
From (-) Not used
Point
To (+) Point Not used
Low Limit Not used
High Limit Data byte to output
DIGO Test Type Parameters

11-12
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Power Option
Guarding (Power Module Option)

Parameter Description
Test Type DIGI
Title Name of test step (e.g., U234 Out)
Range Input byte number:
0 = TR-8 bits 1-8
1 = G-80 or first DIG-1 bits 1-8
2 = G-80 or first DIG-1 bits 9-16
...
6 = G-80 or first DIG-1 bits 41-48
7 = G-80 or second DIG-1 bits 49-56
...
12 = G-80 or second DIG-1 bits 89-96
13 = TR-6 bits 1-8
14 = TR-8-1 points 1-8
15 = TR-8-1 points 9-16
16 = TR-8-1 points 201-208
17 = TR-8-1 points 209-216
...
28 = TR-8-1 points 1401-1408
29 = TR-8-1 points 1409-1416
30 = TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 bits 1-8
From (-) Not used
Point
To (+) Point 0 = normal execution
1 = do not generate or report results
Low Limit Input mask: Data read is ignored for any bit set as one in this
field (e.g., if input mask is 5, the LSB and 2nd bit from the LSB
are ignored).
High Limit Expected data
DIGI Test Type Parameters

Guarding (Power Module Option)


The TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 can be used to provide additional guard current for guarding of low
impedance parallel paths. Up to two TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 guard points can be active at one
time.
To do so, wire one of the TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 test points to the low side of the measurement
path (the side of the component being measured connected to the From(-) test point). Connect
the other TR-8-1 test point to the guard point (typically one component away from the
measurement To(+) test point, power, or ground). To obtain maximum accuracy when
guarding low-impedance components, connect other TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 test points to sense
the high and low guard test points.
Use the Measurement Analysis screen to enter the guard points (menu Setting > Insert Guard).
The standard guard point entry area is used for the PWR guard and sense points. Once you
have entered a guard point using the PWR module, the system solicits (and displays) the PWR
return test point. This return test point must also be connected to the TR-8-PWR/PWR-2
Module. The same return test point can be shared by all TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 guard points.
Alternatively, you may wish to use an externally provided ground, such as with the RELAY

11-13
Power Option Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Guarding (Power Module Option)

command with an undedicated relay or the switched ground. If this is the case, precede the test
step with a RELAY test and in the Measurement Analysis screen, specify a ground return point
of 1625 for not used.
Guarding with the TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 Module is usable with the constant-current
measurement methods only and does not apply for use with the voltage measurement methods.
When a TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 test point is specified, the maximum number of guard points
(including the PWR guard points) is four.

Note
Because path resistance errors (e.g., probes and fixture wiring) can be
significant when using high guard currents such as those provided by the
TR-8-PWR/PWR-2, guarding errors can cause some measurements to be
less accurate than with lower current guarding. Prior to use of the TR-8-
PWR/PWR-2 module for guarding, consider use of voltage-based
measurement methods which effectively have higher-guard ratios using
lower guard currents.

The following figure shows a typical configuration for high-power guarding with the Model
TR-8-PWR/PWR-2. In this example, R1 is the component being measured and the effects of
parallel components R2 and R3 are being guarded out.
The standard solid-state TR-8-1 test points are shown on the left connecting to the component
being tested (R1). Test points 1 and 4 carry the measurement current into R1, and test points 2
and 3 remotely sense the resultant voltage drop across R1. Test points 1632 and 1633 provide
the guard current into R3. Test point 1631 provides the voltage sense for the guard point.
To(+)
Testpoint 1
Testpoint 2 R2
To(+) S en se 10 P ow er G ua rd S ense
R1 Testpoint 163 1
C o m pon en t U nd er Test
10 0 Testpoint 163 2
F rom (-) S e nse P ow er G ua rd
R3
Testpoint 3 10
Testpoint 4 Testpoint 163 3
F rom (-) P ow er G ua rd R eturn
TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 Guarding Configuration

When the System is connected in this configuration, it sources enough current into test point
1632 (back through 1633) to make the voltage at the guard sense point (test point 1631) match
the voltage at the top of R1. Since the voltage at both ends of R2 are then the same, no current
passes through it, and consequently the effects of R2 and R3 are eliminated from the
measurement of R1.

11-14
Chapter 12
TestJet Technology

TestJet Technology
Overview
The CheckSum Model TR-8 MDA Test System provides the optional capability to check for
open connections on devices such as ICs and connectors.
Using a special top probe, TestJet Technology measures from the top of each component to
each network below it. By measuring small capacitance values, open connections can be
detected.
Revision Information
The following model numbers identify the modules used with TestJet Technology:
SMT-2 System TestJet Certificate and 24-Channel SMT / Capacitor Polarity module
SMT-2-EXP 24-channel expansion SMT / Capacitor Polarity module
TR-8-SMT System TestJet Certificate and 24-channel SMT module
TR-8-SMT-EXP 24-channel expansion SMT module
TR-8-SMT-CAP 24-channel Capacitor Polarity module
To configure a CheckSum Model TR-8 System with TestJet Technology, specify the SMT-2
option. This option includes the electronics module for installation into the system controller
and the right to use this patented capability. The Model SMT-2 can support up to 24 top
component probes. If additional top probes are necessary, SMT-2-EXP modules can be added
with 24 top-probes each.
The TestJet SMT-2 module provides the functionality of both TR-8-SMT and TR-8-SMT-
CAP. A grounding relay is provided on the SMT-2 module in addition to the relay driver so
new fixtures do not need the grounding relay. Because the SMT-2 module can also power a
grounding relay that is in the fixture, the SMT-2 module can be used with existing fixtures.
Customized TestJet fixtures can be purchased from CheckSum or built by a variety of fixturing
contractors around the country. Standard Agilent top probes are used, but the multiplexing and
wiring is unique to CheckSum's implementation of TestJet Technology.
TestJet Technology Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
SMT Installation

As an option, the Model TR-8-SMT can be extended to test for polarity of capacitors. This
option, the Model TR-8-SMT-CAP, is discussed in SMT-CAP Capacitor Polarity Module on
page 12-12.
Related Topics
SMT Installation on page 4-14
Building Test Fixtures with TestJet Technology on page 12-4
SMT Back Panel Wiring on page 12-6

SMT Installation
Hardware Installation
The CheckSum Model SMT-2 or TR-8-SMT Module is installed in an unused slot in the
controller. The SMT Module occupies one short 8-bit slot and has a standard 50-pin ribbon-
cable backpanel connector for connection to the top probes and an optional fixture relay.
The default address for the first SMT Module is 560. To obtain this base address, install
jumpers on positions 9, 5 and 4. Top probes 1-24 are connected to this module.
If you have an additional SMT Module, the default base address is 562. To obtain this base
address, install jumpers on 9, 5, 4 and 1. Top probes 25-48 are installed to this module.
Additional modules can be installed to expand the top-probe count up to 384 for SMT-2 and
192 for TR-8-SMT / SMT-CAP. The default base addresses/jumper positions for additional
modules can be obtained from the Configure System Modules screen discussed below.
Software Configuration
The SMT is configured and self-tested after installation via the Modules page of the
Configuration screen shown in the following figure. From the System screen, select Configure
System, and then insure that you have selected the Modules page.

12-2
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual TestJet Technology
SMT Installation

Modules Screen

Select 'Add Module', 'TR-8 Modules', and 'SMT-2 or TR-8-SMT' to insert a configuration line
for the module. A default base address, and the jumper positions to achieve this address, will
appear.

Note
To use CheckSum's TestJet Technology, the first module must be a SMT-2
or a TR-8-SMT module. All other modules can be -EXP expansion
modules. If you do not use this configuration, the system will not perform
TestJet test steps.

When the module is configured so that the base address hardware and software match, you can
select 'Self-Test' to self-test the TestJet module. For each TestJet module that you have
installed into the controller, use the arrow keys or mouse to select the appropriate module's
line, then select 'Self-Test' to invoke the self-test.
Prior to running self-test, any fixtures connected to the TestJet module being tested should be
removed by disconnecting the 50-pin ribbon cable.
When self-test has started, the System will identify the module as a main module as opposed to
an -EXP expansion module. Next the System performs various test on the module to confirm
proper operation.
As a final step, the system performs an amplitude characterization for the TR-8 and -SMT
configuration. In order for the System to do this test, it is necessary to connect a 39.2K 1%

12-3
TestJet Technology Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Building Test Fixtures with TestJet Technology

resistor between the TestJet connector pin 49 and test-point 49 of the System (pin 49 of the
first cable connected to the first TR-8-1 multiplexer module).
Once the self-test is performed, and you have returned to the Configure System menu, press
'Save' to save the characterized values to the system disk for future use.

Note
The TestJet characterization test should be performed when the system is
first installed, and thereafter if the system is moved from one computer to
another, or when the TR-8 System Module is changed.

Building Test Fixtures with TestJet Technology


Most standard fixturing systems (e.g., mechanical, pneumatic, and vacuum) can be customized
to incorporate TestJet Technology.
Probe Mounting
TestJet top probes (available from Agilent and many fixture vendors) are mounted above each
IC or connector that is to be tested for open connections. The probes are typically mounted so
that they exert light pressure on the body of the parts to be tested.
For ICs, TestJet probes are normally mounted using two standard receptacles and spring
probes. The XY positioning of these holes (.068" diameter) is shown in the following figure.

TestJet Probe Hole Positions

In the case of connectors, the probe is usually mounted facing the end of the connector pins.
For best effectiveness, the probes should be less than two UUT connector pin diameters from

12-4
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual TestJet Technology
Building Test Fixtures with TestJet Technology

the end of the connector. For side access, connector probes can be mounted in a fixed position
or on a movable side-access mechanism. Connector probes are commonly mounted with
double-sided foam tape, one pad on each end of the probe plate.
Probe Plate Trimming
The outline of the sensor plate should cover the entire body of the component being tested.
TestJet probes can be mounted above, below, or on the edge of the UUT. TestJet probe plates
come in several sizes. They can be trimmed to size with use of a milling machine.
Probe Assembly and Wiring
TestJet probes use an active electronic module to provide optimum noise immunity and
sensitivity. These electronic circuits are installed onto the TestJet probe plate by pressing the
two together. The proper orientation is shown in the following figure.

TestJet Probe Assembly

Note
The TestJet probes can easily be assembled and wired incorrectly! Refer to
the figure above as you assemble them.

When the TestJet probes are mechanically assembled and installed, they are wired to the
System. Each probe has two wires, a positive side and a ground side. The polarity of the two
pins is shown the previous figure.

12-5
TestJet Technology Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Building Test Fixtures with TestJet Technology

The probes are wired to a 50-pin mating connector (such as the CheckSum Model FIX-50P-
WW) that is connected to the cable from the SMT-2 or TR-8-SMT module. The TestJet
probes are numbered 1-24 on the SMT-2/TR-8-SMT, 25-48 on the first SMT-2-EXP/TR-8-
SMT-EXP, and so on. The pin-out for each back panel is shown in the following figures.

Switched Ground
or
Relay Power 1 2
TestJet Probe 1 3 4
TestJet Probe 2 5 6
TestJet Probe 3 7 8
TestJet Probe 4 9 10
TestJet Probe 5 11 12
TestJet Probe 6 13 14
TestJet Probe 7 15 16
TestJet Probe 8 17 18
TestJet Probe 9 19 20
TestJet Probe 10 21 22
TestJet Probe 11 23 24
TestJet Probe 12 25 26
TestJet Probe 13 27 28
TestJet Probe 14 29 30
TestJet Probe 15 31 32
TestJet Probe 16 33 34
TestJet Probe 17 35 36
TestJet Probe 18 37 38
TestJet Probe 19 39 40
TestJet Probe 20 41 42
TestJet Probe 21 43 44
TestJet Probe 22 45 46
TestJet Probe 23 47 48
TestJet Probe 24 49 50

UUT Ground Test Point Switched Ground (see Pin 1 above)


SMT-2 Switched Ground (Range 0)

UUT Ground Test Point PC Ground (Pin 4, 6, 8 . . .)

Relay Power (Pin 1)


PC Ground (Pin 2)
In-Fixture Relay Power (Range 1)

SMT-2 Back Panel Connector

12-6
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual TestJet Technology
Building Test Fixtures with TestJet Technology

Relay Power 1 2
TestJet Probe 1 3 4
TestJet Probe 2 5 6
TestJet Probe 3 7 8
TestJet Probe 4 9 10
TestJet Probe 5 11 12
TestJet Probe 6 13 14
TestJet Probe 7 15 16
TestJet Probe 8 17 18
TestJet Probe 9 19 20
TestJet Probe 10 21 22
TestJet Probe 11 23 24
TestJet Probe 12 25 26
TestJet Probe 13 27 28
TestJet Probe 14 29 30
TestJet Probe 15 31 32
TestJet Probe 16 33 34
TestJet Probe 17 35 36
TestJet Probe 18 37 38
TestJet Probe 19 39 40
TestJet Probe 20 41 42
TestJet Probe 21 43 44
TestJet Probe 22 45 46
TestJet Probe 23 47 48
TestJet Probe 24 49 50

In-Fixture Relay

UUT Ground Test Point PC Ground (Pin 4, 6, 8 . . .)

Relay Power (see above)


PC Ground (Pin 2)

TR-8-SMT Back Panel Connector

Note
Fixtures that are wired for Agilent testers also use a multiplexer on each
fixture for TestJet probes. Since the multiplexing on CheckSum test
systems is built into the System, fixture-resident multiplexing is not
necessary.

To obtain optimum performance, UUT ground should be connected to the controller's chassis
ground. To help accommodate this, the SMT-2 module provides a switched ground on Pin 1.
A grounding relay is also provided on the SMT-2 module in addition to the relay driver so
fixtures do not need the grounding relay. Because the SMT-2 module can also power a
grounding relay that is in the fixture, the SMT-2 module can be used with existing fixtures.

12-7
TestJet Technology Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
TestJet Programming

The TR-8-SMT provides power and control for a standard 12 VDC relay mounted inside the
test fixture. This relay connects the UUT ground to the controller ground during testing
operations. You can use a locally obtained standard low-power +12 Vdc-actuated relay (with a
coil requiring less than 50mA) or you can purchase a relay from CheckSum (PN TR-8-SMT-
RLY). The wiring for this relay is shown in the figure above.
Standard MDA wiring convention is used to the circuit-side of the UUT. This consists of one
probe per electrical network. The physical location of these probes is not important.

TestJet Programming
Model TR-8 MDA test programs use one test step for each IC or connector being tested.
Entering the Test Program TestJet Probe Data
When in the Edit Test Program window, press the Insert key (Edit > Insert Point) to insert a
new line. To enter the data for each component to be tested (refer to the following figure):

Edit Screen with TestJ Step

1. Move to the Test Type column, and enter TestJ as the test type.

2. Move to the From (-) Point column, and enter the test-point number for the UUT that is
connected to ground.
3. Move to the To (+) Point column, and enter the TestJet probe number (referred to as the
Top Probe). If you change the top probe number to that of a different top probe that has
TestJet measurements stored under it, you are given options to either overwrite the new
probe's data with that from the old, merge into the new probe's data that from the old, swap
the data between the two probes, abort the request or just change the top probe number of

12-8
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual TestJet Technology
TestJet Programming

the test step without moving data.

4. Move to the Range column, and enter the range for the SMT-2 module to select the
grounding method. Range 0 connects pin #1 on the SMT-2 module to the test system
ground during the test. Use Range 0 if you have made a connection from the UUT ground
to pin #1 on the SMT-2 module. Range 1 connects pin #1 on the module to +12Vdc power
during the test. Use Range 1 if you have installed a grounding relay in the fixture and need
to power the relay to connect UUT ground to system ground. This switched ground
(Range 0) or switched power (Range 1) is only connected during the execution of the
TestJet test step. Note: The TR-8-SMT and TR-8-SMT-CAP require Range 1.
5. Move to the Test Title column, and enter the name of the component being tested (e.g.,
U2306).
6. Select 'Measurement Analysis' from the 'Measure' menu to obtain the Edit/Enter TestJet
Test Data window shown in the following figure.
Entering the Test Program Pin Data
When viewing a TestJ test step in the Edit window, selecting 'Measurement Analysis' from the
'Measure' menu opens the Enter/Edit TestJet Data window shown below. This window is used
to specify the pins that are tested, the test tolerances, test ranges, and to automatically self-
learn an assembly for TestJet testing.

12-9
TestJet Technology Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
TestJet Programming

Enter/Edit TestJet Test Data Screen

Press the Insert key, Edit > Insert Point, in this window to add a new line (test-point/IC-pin). Each line
corresponds to one bottom pin on the IC or connector that you are testing. These pins use the same
Model TR-8-1 test-points as standard non-TestJet MDA testing.

On each line is the following information:


1. The bottom pin (test-point) number and name. These test-points are the same as used for
standard MDA testing.
2. Five characters describing the IC pin on the IC, often just a pin number. This field is
automatically loaded from net information during CAD conversion to generate TestJet
data.
3. A test range which is computed as the sum of the following numbers:

Range Value Description


1 Skip this pin
0 or 4 300 fF range
2 3000 fF range
8 80 fF range

4. The low-limit in fF.

5. The high-limit in fF.

6. The last measured value in fF. If the step has failed, the displayed value will be red.

7. If the pin is connected to other pins (with less than 500 Ohms impedance), the other pins
on the network are listed. If more than one pin exists in the list, a left or right arrow shows
whether there is a predecessor or successor, respectively, to the currently displayed test-
point link. Use the left and right arrow keys to step through this list. Points not on the IC
are shown with a period and are manually entered by using the negative value of the test-
point. Pins on the IC are added by entering a positive test-point value. Entering a value of
0 deletes the currently displayed linked test-point.
Normally, you will enter each pin on the component that you are testing, then select 'Self-
Learn All' from the 'Measure' menu to self-learn the TestJet step. When you select Self-Learn

12-10
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual TestJet Technology
TestJet Programming

All, the System uses a sophisticated internal algorithm to determine which nodes are testable
(if the system does not find the node testable, it will set the range for that pin as skipped), and
assigns high and low test limits.
Once you have self-learned the assembly, you can press [ESC] to save the information and
return to the Edit screen.
Other menu-items that you can use:
Measure Point Measure the test-point that is currently selected.
Measure All Run the entire TestJet test step.
Self-Learn All For all test-points, self-learn the linked nets, measure the test-point, assign
limits and range.
Quick Learn For all test-points, measure the test-point, assign limits and range.
Learn Selected For the selected test-point, self-learn linked nets, measure the test-point,
assign limits and range.
Exit Return to the Edit screen.
Insert Next Point Add a new line for a test-point.
Delete Point Delete the selected test-point.
Insert TestJet Data Add test-points from another TestJet Step to the test-points for the
current step. You are prompted to enter the top probe number of the step whose points are
to be copied.
Delete All TestJet Data Delete all of the test-point data for this test step.
Skip Point Set the selected test-point to not be tested.
Self-Test Top Probe Self-test the TestJet top probe for proper wiring.
Set Tolerance Assign tolerances for the selected step based on the last measured value for
the step. The number of links to other test-points on the IC affects the tolerance limits
chosen, links to non-IC test-points do not.
Set SMT-2 Grounding Relay . . . Selects the grounding method for the SMT-2 module.
Range 0 connects pin #1 on the SMT-2 module to the test system ground during the test.
Use Range 0 if you have made a connection from the UUT ground to pin #1 on the SMT-2
module. Range 1 connects pin #1 on the module to +12Vdc power during the test. Use
Range 1 if you have installed a grounding relay in the fixture and need to power the relay
to connect UUT ground to system ground. This switched ground (Range 0) or switched
power (Range 1) is only connected during the execution of the TestJet test step.
Using CAD Conversion
In addition to manually entering pins from the Enter/Edit TestJet Test Data screen there are
two methods than can be used to enter points automatically during CAD conversion.
Before generating test steps from CAD data you can either:
Prior to test step generation, use the Edit screen to enter TestJet test steps for the
components with TestJet top probes (e.g., U101 in the title column). By entering TestJet
steps and identifying the reference designator as the Title for each step before running
CAD conversion, you generate TestJet steps only for those components you plan on testing
using TestJet.

12-11
TestJet Technology Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
SMT-2 / TR-8-SMT-CAP Capacitor Polarity Module

Specify generation of TestJet test steps for specified reference designators in the CAD
Conversion Reference Designator Template screen). Specifying a reference designator
and its numeric interval in the CAD Conversion Template fills the TestJet database for all
components found in the interval specified. Generating steps for a large number of
components may result in the TestJet database filling up before pins for the last component
are entered into the database. The TestJet database can hold up to 2000 pins.
For either method, CAD conversion loads the TestJet database for each component with the
test-points found on nets connecting to the component. The limits and ranges for each TestJet
step then need to be auto-learned after the CAD conversion completes. Based on learning a
known good assembly, autolearn determines networked pins and sets appropriate measurement
limits and skips nontestable component pins.
The CAD Conversion Exception Report includes a list of components tested in TestJet steps
which have multiple pins on the same net. This information is not available during a TestJet
step autolearn, so the low limits for TestJet measurements of these nets should be checked.
These limits should generally be the same as for nets that have low impedance connections to
other nets containing pins on the IC.
TestJet Panelization
When TestJet data for PCB 1 gets replicated into other PCBs during panelization , the next
available top probe is used as the first top probe in PCB 2. Successive top probes are used for
each TESTJET step that is replicated. If you would like to leave a gap between the last top
probe used on a PCB and the first top probe used on each next higher PCB, just insert dummy
TestJet steps for unused top probes on PCB 1 before replicating.

SMT-2 / TR-8-SMT-CAP Capacitor Polarity Module


Overview
The CheckSum SMT-2 module and the Model TR-8-SMT-CAP provide the capability for
testing electrolytic capacitors for proper installation polarity. It can be used on aluminum and
tantalum polarized capacitors in axial and SMT packages with values up to approximately
200F. Radial aluminum electrolytic capacitors generally cannot be tested using this
technology.
The SMT-2 and TR-8-SMT-CAP are based on TestJet Technology. To use the TR-8-SMT-
CAP on a CheckSum Model TR- 8, the TR-8-SMT option (which includes the right to use
TestJet Technology) must first be installed in the test system.
The SMT-2 and Model TR-8-SMT-CAP modules allow polarity testing with up to 24 top
probes. Up to sixteen SMT-2 or eight TR-8-SMT-CAP modules can be installed in a single
test system. Each uses one short 8-bit slot in the controller.
Capacitor polarity checking is performed by connecting each end of the capacitor to two TR-8
standard test-points. One test-point on each end is used for source, and the other for sense. A
special capacitive top probe with an electronic amplifier, manufactured by Agilent, is
positioned over the top of the capacitor. The test is performed by using special techniques to

12-12
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual TestJet Technology
SMT-2 / TR-8-SMT-CAP Capacitor Polarity Module

measure the ratio of the capacitance from each capacitor terminal to the outside of the
capacitor.
Module Installation/Configuration
The SMT-2 and the Model TR-8-SMT-CAP Modules are installed exactly like Model TR-8-
SMT Modules. The default base addresses for modules one through eight are 576-577 (1-24),
578-579 (25-48), 580-581 (49-72), 582-583 (73-96), 584-585 (97-120), 586-587 (121-144),
588-589 (145-168), and 590-591 (169-192).
Software configuration is performed using the Modules page of the Configuration Screen.
This screen works just like its equivalent TR-8-SMT screen.
Self-test is invoked by selecting the 'Self-Test' key. Ensure that nothing is connected to the
SMT-2 or TR-8-SMT-CAP module while running self-test, or erroneous failures may be
reported.
Once self-test is completed, and you have returned to the Modules page of the Configuration
Screen, press 'Save' to save the characterization data on disk.
Building Test Fixtures with Capacitor Polarity Testing Capability
Polarity checking top-probes are similar to standard TestJet Technology probes, but are a
different form-factor to support a smaller footprint on the UUT that is consistent with the size
of capacitors. The following figure shows the parts of a polarity-checking top-probe.

Polarity-Checking Top-Probe Assembly

12-13
TestJet Technology Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
SMT-2 / TR-8-SMT-CAP Capacitor Polarity Module

The sensor plate is available is several sizes. Available from CheckSum are part numbers
HPE3891A-50 (50-pack of size B/C sensor plates), and HPE3892A-50 (50-pack of size D
sensor plates).
The probe electronics are available from CheckSum as part number HPE3845-10 (10-pack of
probe electronics).
A tool for assembly of sensor plates and probe electronics is available from CheckSum as part
number HPE3893A. Instructions for assembly of the probes are included with this tool. See
the following figure for a drawing of this tool.

Polarity-Checking Top-Probe Assembly Tool

In most cases, your fixture vendor will be able to supply these parts, and they are also directly
available from Agilent. If you purchase fixturing from CheckSum that uses these capabilities,
CheckSum will include the necessary parts as part of its fixturing quotation to you.
The top probe is wired from the fixture to the back of the SMT-2 or TR-8-SMT-CAP Module.
Note that no external multiplexing is necessary. The back panel pin-out of the SMT-2 is
shown in SMT-2 Back Panel Wiring on page 12-6. The back panel pin-out of the Model TR-
8-SMT-CAP is the same as the Model TR-8-SMT as discussed in TR-8-SMT Back Panel
Wiring on page 12-6. Twisted-pair wired is recommended.
Ensure that each side of the capacitor is wired to two TR-8-1 test-points. One is used as
source, and the other as sense.

12-14
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual TestJet Technology
SMT-2 / TR-8-SMT-CAP Capacitor Polarity Module

Programming Capacitor Polarity Test Steps


Programming is performed using the TJetC test-type. The fields entered using the Edit/Enter
Spec Data Screen are shown in the following table.
Parameter Description
Test Type TJETC
Title Name of Capacitor Being Tested for Polarity (e.g.
C101)
Range Measurement Range:
0 = 300 fF range
2 = 3000 fF range
4 = 300 fF range
8 = 50 fF range
10 = 1600 fF range
16 = 1000 fF range
From (-) Point Test-Point on Negative Polarity of Capacitor
To (+) Point Test-Point on Positive Polarity of Capacitor
Low Limit Front-to-Back Minimum Ratio for Proper Polarity
High Limit Not used
Nominal Typical Front-to-Back Ratio
TJetC Test-Type Parameters

Once the data is entered into the Edit screen, select 'Measurement Analysis' from the 'Measure'
menu to obtain the TestJet Capacitance Measurement Analysis Screen shown in the following
figure.
Use the TestJet Capacitance Measurement Analysis Screen to enter the two sense test-points,
and the number of the TestJet top probe (as wired into the Model TR-8-SMT-CAP Module).
Then select 'Learn' from the 'Measure' menu to automatically generate the measurement range,
test limits and nominal value.
The measured value is representative of the ratio of capacitance from each end of the capacitor
to it's outside. By selecting 'Reverse Polarity' from the 'Measure' menu to reverse the polarity,
you can see the effect of reversing the capacitor. When you make a measurement with the test-
points reversed, the measurement should fail.

Note
Surrounding circuitry may affect the measurement ability of the reversal
check. If you want complete confidence that the polarity check will work,
remove the capacitor being tested and reverse it. The System should then
fail the test.

12-15
TestJet Technology Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
SMT-2 / TR-8-SMT-CAP Capacitor Polarity Module

TestJet Capacitance Measurement Analysis Screen

After returning polarity to normal, select 'Exit' from the 'Measure' menu to exit the screen,
saving the determined values, or 'Revert' to exit without changing anything.

12-16
Chapter 13
Boundary Scan Testing

Boundary Scan Testing


Overview
Boundary scan testing provides test coverage complimentary to MDA testing. MDA excels at
providing unpowered, non-destructive board tests covering a high percentage of typical board
defects. It identifies many improperly loaded discrete components, checks board continuity
and provides some checks on IC installation and identity by examining the external
characteristic of the IC protection diode map.
UUTs that have been designed for boundary scan (or have individual ICs with boundary scan
capability) can be tested to detect defects not found with MDA-only testing. Boundary scan
can provide tests for correct digital IC installation by checking IC I/O pin connections to the
assembly, tests for digital IC identity and functionality by providing tests of IC internal logic,
and allows functional testing of non-boundary scan ICs on nets that may not be probe-
accessible. Boundary scan provides a standard interface for testing the functionality of an
entire board or entire product.
Boundary scan requires further attention to design-for-testability than MDA. MDA testing
requires full nodal access to components to be tested. This is provided by meeting design
criteria during board layout. Boundary scan requires access to the boundary scan input and
output signals and attention to a functional test plan during the board functional design.
Functional design decisions for boundary scan include examination of test coverage from
simulations of boundary scan tests, selection of boundary scan accessible parts and selection of
scan paths linking groups of boundary scan components.
The five-wire digital interface for boundary scan was adopted as a standard for testing digital
ICs in 1990 (IEEE 1149.1). Since that time a growing number of IC vendors have
incorporated the boundary scan interface in their ICs. Today these parts include
microprocessors, FPGAs and bus interface devices.
CheckSum provides a software interface for executing boundary scan tests using one of several
PC controllers provided by two U.S. vendors of boundary scan test systems, Asset InterTech
and Corelis. This boundary scan hardware and software can be directly purchased from the
vendor, or purchased through CheckSum as the TR-8-BST-A1, TR-8-BST-C1 or TR-8-BST-
C2 option.
Boundary Scan Testing Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Boundary Scan Installation

CheckSum provides an environment for boundary scan test execution within Visual MDA
software to support combined MDA and boundary scan testing.
Related Topics
Boundary Scan Installation below
Boundary Scan Configuration below
Fixturing Considerations for Adding Boundary Scan to MDA on page 13-4
Incorporating Boundary Scan Tests into Test Programs on page 13-4

Boundary Scan Installation


Installation of boundary scan test capability involves installation of hardware and software into
your test system. Hardware installation is covered in the OEM hardware installation
instructions. Before installing an ISA boundary scan controller card, check the I/O addressing
options for the card. You can verify that the card has no I/O address conflicts with the other
cards installed in your CheckSum Test System by running self-test on the card from the
Modules Configuration on page 5-3 after adding it to the system configuration. Make sure to
turn power off on the PC prior to installing the BST hardware.

Boundary Scan Configuration


To configure the software for the boundary scan board, first select Configure System from the
System screen, then make sure you are on the'Modules' page.
Select 'Add Module', then 'Boundary Scan', and finally select the boundary scan option that
you have purchased, either TR-8-BST-C1, C2 or A1. Next, from the 'Modules' page, select
'Detail' to obtain the Boundary Scan Configuration screen shown in the following figure.
This screen allows you to inform the MDA test executive of the address location and controller
board type being used and the names and directory locations of the controller device driver and
test report filter program, if any.
If you purchased your boundary scan controller directly from CheckSum, the driver and
controller files are automatically installed by the batch file provided. If you purchased the
controller from an OEM, you will need to install these files manually.

13-2
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Boundary Scan Testing
Boundary Scan Configuration

Boundary Scan Configuration

'Board' allows you to select between the supported boundary scan controller board
choices or to specify no controller.
'Board Address' allows you to enter the first I/O address that the selected controller card
is located at, if any.
'Driver Name' specifies the name of the boundary scan controller driver file found in the
location specified by 'Driver Directory'.
'Driver Directory' specifies the location on the hard drive where the boundary scan
controller card driver file is located. This is an .EXE program that accepts, amongst its
input parameters, the name of the boundary scan test file to be executed, to generate and
apply a sequence of boundary scan test vectors to the board under test.
'Report Filter Name' names the test result report filter program used to generate test
result reports for each boundary scan tests. In the case of the Asset card, this program also
returns 0 or 1 depending on whether the test results showed no failures or failures,
respectively.
'Report Filter Directory' allows you to specify the directory location for a test result
report filter program used to generate the test result lines seen in the test result report for
boundary scan tests.
'Close' returns you to the Modules screen.

13-3
Boundary Scan Testing Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Fixturing Considerations for Adding Boundary Scan to MDA

Fixturing Considerations for Adding Boundary Scan to


MDA
Combining boundary scan testing with MDA has the same three primary considerations as
doing any functional test along with MDA in a fixture. These are providing UUT power and
power switching, isolating edge or loading sensitive signals during functional test from MDA
test lines and providing isolation of MDA lines from voltages exceeding those from the PC
supply.
1. The choice of the UUT power source depends upon UUT power requirements. Typical
choices include using PC supply voltages, using CheckSum programmable voltage sources
or running a custom power source from the PC supplies or AC line voltage. Switching
control to provide power to the UUT only during functional test is typically controlled by
one of the TR-8 system controller I/O bits.
2. During power-up testing, some UUT test points are intolerant of the loading, cross talk or
termination provided by leaving them connected up to their MDA channel. These points
should be switched out from their connection to the MDA channel during functional
testing. Without providing isolation on such points a UUT may function improperly or
erratically during power-up testing. Control of this switching is typically provided by
different digital I/O bit on the system board (e.g. TR-8) than the one used to switch UUT
power on and off.
3. The third consideration is to disconnect any MDA test points during functional testing
which have voltages exceeding +/-12V referenced to the PC supply. This is necessary to
avoid damage to the solid state MDA test points multiplexer ICs.
Isolation can be provided with CheckSum Model TR-4-SWOs (50-points each), the TR-6-
2 with TR-6-2-SWOs (17-points each) or by using a fixturing option such as dual level or
dual well fixturing. Voltage isolation by dual-level fixturing is not advised because
variations in lead-trim length can cause the fixture to make contact regardless of level.

Incorporating Boundary Scan Tests into Test Programs


The Boundary Scan Test-Type
The BSCAN test-type can execute boundary scan test files that have been generated by
software available from Asset or Corelis.
A BSCAN test step is specified with the BSCAN test-type and the step range. The range
indicates which boundary scan test to be executed from the table of boundary scan tests. To
view this table, insert a BSCAN test step in the Edit screen, then select 'Step Analysis'. This
displays the Boundary Scan Commands menu shown in the next figure, from which you can
specify detailed information about the testing to be performed.
Boundary Scan Results Reporting
Boundary scan test results are generated by the boundary scan test execution software. These
results can be filtered to include specific information prior to placing them into the final test
results for the assembly.

13-4
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Boundary Scan Testing
Incorporating Boundary Scan Tests into Test Programs

The sequence is as follows:


1. Results are generated by the boundary scan execution software.

2. If a filter is invoked, it filters selected results from the test.

3. The results are placed in a temporary results file whose default name is batch.bst. This file
holds the results of boundary scan tests from the current test run which will be used to
report boundary scan results in the Assembly Test Report.
4. When results are reported by the system, they are copied from the temporary results file to
the output device.
Besides providing options to report passing and/or failing test results, BSCAN test result reporting
includes a verbose mode. Verbose mode reports details on the boundary scan test sequence executed
and any resulting errors generated during test execution or test result processing. Reporting options are
individually controllable for each BSCAN test.

Entering Data Into the Boundary Scan Table


The boundary scan table contains up to 20 boundary scan tests. Each test consists of up to
three command strings that are executed when the test step is executed:
1. The first command string is required. This string identifies the parameters sent to the
boundary scan controller card driver to generate and apply test vectors to the assembly
under test.
2. A second command string identifies an executable file and perhaps some parameters that
are executed following completion of the first command. This second command can
provide such things as post processing of the raw test results generated from the first
command execution.
3. The third command string consists of any report filter options used by the report filter
program identified in the Boundary Scan Configuration screen shown in the previous
figure.
The boundary scan test table displays the first command string of each test on the current page
following the test number for that test. If you double-click on the first command string, it will
be expanded to show the additional two lines. The second line is denoted by a double circle
indication, and the third by a note-pad indication. To enter data into a line, click on it, then on
the 'Edit Entry' line to enter the new data. When you press enter in the 'Edit Entry' area, the
data is transferred to the selected line above.

13-5
Boundary Scan Testing Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Incorporating Boundary Scan Tests into Test Programs

Boundary Scan Tests

In the lower part of the Boundary Scan Commands, you can alter the testing with several
options:
Filter Options specify when the test report filter program is used. Choices are never or
any combination of passing of failing test results. This choice controls whether or not test
results get filtered before being included in the boundary scan test results batch file
specified. For test reporting of only pass/fail results for boundary scan tests both this filter
option and the options in the Boundary Scan Test Parameters can be set to none. This
minimizes boundary scan test result processing and minimizes boundary scan test
execution time. When a filtering option is selected, a graphic is displayed next to the
command: left hemisphere for pass, right hemisphere for fail, or both hemispheres for pass
and fail.
Verbose Mode Selecting verbose mode enables verbose reporting which causes the
details of the commands executed and their resulting error and exit codes to be reported.
When you have selected verbose mode for a test step, a note-pad with a pencil appears
beside the command.
Global allows you to view the Boundary Scan Test Parameters menu shown in the
following figure.
OK returns you to the Edit screen.

13-6
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Boundary Scan Testing
Incorporating Boundary Scan Tests into Test Programs

Boundary Scan Test Parameters

Test Vector Directory specifies the hard drive directory where the boundary scan test
vector files for this test program are located. If the location is blank, then the current
directory is used; this generally is the directory from which MDA is started.
Temporary Results Directory specifies the location of the temporary test result file. The
default file name for the temporary test result file is batch.bst. The information remains in
the file until the assembly is retested or the next assembly is tested. This data from the
temporary file is copied into the test result report for the program when the report is
generated. It contains the test result output for all BSCAN tests executed during the
current UUT test.
Temporary Results File Name specifies the name of the batch file with the boundary
scan test result reports described above.
Temporary Results Ouput specifies when boundary scan test results are to be included
in the boundary scan test results file. You can select from none, pass, fail or pass+fail.
OK returns you to the Boundary Scan Tests screen.
Debugging Boundary Scan Tests
Some UUTs can be tested and debugged stand-alone, removing the need to do boundary scan
test debugging with the board in the test fixture. In this case, the boundary scan ports can be
connected directly to the UUT via temporary wiring.
If the fixture has combined MDA and boundary scan tests, it may be necessary to do
debugging from within the MDA software. This allows UUT power (and in some cases
isolation) to be controlled by the MDA software. During such debugging, you can monitor the
test results file from another Window with a text editor such as WordPad, and modify the test
program from another Window with VisualMDA software.
Helpful Hints
Note that the Asset scanengn and composit commands have -q options to suppress output
to the console. For the Corelis bec driver use -v.

13-7
Boundary Scan Testing Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Incorporating Boundary Scan Tests into Test Programs

Running any of the Asset, Corelis or geterrs executables without any parameters yields a
help screen print out on usage.
Note that geterrs expects to find an error.err file in the MDA start up directory after
execution of each boundary scan test. This is the standard output file from the Corelis bec
driver. Asset error output should be sent to this file by using the -e command line
parameter to composit, i.e. "-eerror.err".
BSCAN processing runs fastest if no boundary scan test result detail output and no report
filtering is specified in the Boundary Scan Test Parameters menu (Figure 12-3). Also
driver and report filter directories should be correct. (If an executable is not found in the
specified directory then the system searches through the path directories to find the
executable.)
Note that the current version on the Corelis bec driver only accepts at most 12 characters
to specify path plus test program prefix as its test-name parameter.

13-8
Chapter 14
Wiring Diagrams

Wiring Diagrams
Overview
This section is composed of the diagrams of the system module connectors as follows:
TR-8 Back Panel Connector on page 14-2
SMT-2 Back Panel Connector on page 14-3
TR-8-SMT Back Panel Connector on page 14-4
TR-8-SMT-RLY on page 14-5
Power Module Back Panel Connector on page 14-6
DIG-1 Back Panel Connector on page 14-7
FUNC-2 / TR-6 Back Panel Connector on page 14-9
FUNC-2 / TR-6 Digital I/O Interface on page 14-10
TR-6-1 Back Panel Connector on page 14-11
HP-1 Back Panel Connector on page 14-12
CR-2 Back Panel Connector on page 14-13
Wiring Diagrams Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
TR-8 Back Panel Connector

TR-8 Back Panel Connector


Fixture 1 Control Connector

+5 V 1
VCC 50 14
Dig I/O bit 2 2
Dig I/O bit 1 15
GND 3
Dig I/O bit 4
Dig I/O bit 3 16
Dig I/O bit 6 4
Dig I/O bit 5 17
Dig I/O bit 8 5
Dig I/O bit 7 18
Fixture Control 2 6
Fixture Control 1 19
ESC switch 7
F1 switch 20
F2 switch 8
F3 switch 21
F4 switch 9
F5 switch 22
F6 switch 10
F7 switch 23
11
+12V 24
Red LED/ 12
250
Green LED/ 25
13
Yellow LED/

System Probe Connector

TR-8 Back Panel Connector

14-2
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Wiring Diagrams
SMT-2 Back Panel Connector

SMT-2 Back Panel Connector

Switched Ground
or
Relay Power 1 2
TestJet Probe 1 3 4
TestJet Probe 2 5 6
TestJet Probe 3 7 8
TestJet Probe 4 9 10
TestJet Probe 5 11 12
TestJet Probe 6 13 14
TestJet Probe 7 15 16
TestJet Probe 8 17 18
TestJet Probe 9 19 20
TestJet Probe 10 21 22
TestJet Probe 11 23 24
TestJet Probe 12 25 26
TestJet Probe 13 27 28
TestJet Probe 14 29 30
TestJet Probe 15 31 32
TestJet Probe 16 33 34
TestJet Probe 17 35 36
TestJet Probe 18 37 38
TestJet Probe 19 39 40
TestJet Probe 20 41 42
TestJet Probe 21 43 44
TestJet Probe 22 45 46
TestJet Probe 23 47 48
TestJet Probe 24 49 50

UUT Ground Test Point Switched Ground (see Pin 1 above)


SMT-2 Switched Ground (Range 0)

UUT Ground Test Point PC Ground (Pin 4, 6, 8 . . .)

Relay Power (Pin 1)


PC Ground (Pin 2)
In-Fixture Relay Power (Range 1)

SMT-2 Back Panel Connector

14-3
Wiring Diagrams Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
TR-8-SMT Back Panel Connector

TR-8-SMT Back Panel Connector


Relay Power 1 2
TestJet Probe 1 3 4
TestJet Probe 2 5 6
TestJet Probe 3 7 8
TestJet Probe 4 9 10
TestJet Probe 5 11 12
TestJet Probe 6 13 14
TestJet Probe 7 15 16
TestJet Probe 8 17 18
TestJet Probe 9 19 20
TestJet Probe 10 21 22
TestJet Probe 11 23 24
TestJet Probe 12 25 26
TestJet Probe 13 27 28
TestJet Probe 14 29 30
TestJet Probe 15 31 32
TestJet Probe 16 33 34
TestJet Probe 17 35 36
TestJet Probe 18 37 38
TestJet Probe 19 39 40
TestJet Probe 20 41 42
TestJet Probe 21 43 44
TestJet Probe 22 45 46
TestJet Probe 23 47 48
TestJet Probe 24 49 50

In-Fixture Relay

UUT Ground Test Point PC Ground (Pin 4, 6, 8 . . .)

Relay Power (see above)


PC Ground (Pin 2)

TR-8-SMT Back Panel Connector

14-4
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Wiring Diagrams
TR-8-SMT-RLY

TR-8-SMT-RLY
The Model TR-8-SMT-RLY can be used to connect the UUT ground to PC chassis ground
during TestJet tests. When ordered from CheckSum, an NEC EA2-12NJ or equivalent relay is
provided. Alternate 12V DC relays may be used as long as coil current does not exceed
100mA. Relay pins are numbered like a 10-pin DIP package, with a bar showing the pin-1 end.
Pin 2
Pin 3
(UUT GND) Pin 4 (SMT pin 4)

Pin 9
Pin 8
Pin 7
Pin 1(+) (SMT pin 1)
Pin 10(-) (SMT pin 2)
TR-8-SMT-RLY

14-5
Wiring Diagrams Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Power Module Back Panel Connector

Power Module Back Panel Connector


Relay 1 Com

Relay 1 NC TP1631 1 2 TP1632


TP1633 3 4 TP1634
Relay 1 NO TP1635 5 6 TP1636
TP1637 7 8 TP1638
TP1639 9 10 TP1640
TP1641 11 12 TP1642
Relay 2 Com TP1643 13 14 TP1644
TP1645 15 16 TP1646
Relay 2 NC Gnd 17 18 Relay 2 NC
Relay 1 NC 19 20 Relay 2 NO
Relay 2 NO Relay 1 NO 21 22 Relay 2 Com
Relay 1 Com 23 24 Relay 4 NC
Relay 3 NC 25 26 Relay 4 NO
Relay 3 NO 27 28 Relay 4 Com
Relay 3 Com 29 30
Relay 3 Com Sense 2 31 32
Sense 1 33 34 Gnd
Relay 3 NC Out 2 35 36
Out 1 37 38
Relay 3 NO Dig I/O 1 39 40 Dig I/O 2
Dig I/O 3 41 42 Dig I/O 4
Dig I/O 5 43 44 Dig I/O 6
Dig I/O 7 45 46 Dig I/O 8
Relay 4 Com Gnd (switched) 47 48 +5V Fused, switched
-12V Fused, switched 49 50 +12V Fused, switched
Relay 4 NC
Back Panel Connector
Relay 4 NO
Fuse 1
+5V +5V Fused, switched
Fuse 2
-12V -12V Fused, switched
Pull Up for Digital I/O Fuse 3
+12V +12V Fused, switched
12V 5V (default)
JP5 GND GND (switched)
Fuse 1,3 Wickmann TR5 Time-lag 1A
Fuse 2 Wickmann TR5 Time-lag 0.1A

PWR Back Panel Connector

14-6
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Wiring Diagrams
DIG-1 Back Panel Connector

DIG-1 Back Panel Connector

DigI/O 1 1 2 DigI/O 2
DigI/O 3 3 4 DigI/O 4
DigI/O 5 5 6 DigI/O 6
DigI/O 7 7 8 DigI/O 8
DigI/O 9 9 10 DigI/O 10
DigI/O 11 11 12 DigI/O 12
DigI/O 13 13 14 DigI/O 14
DigI/O 15 15 16 DigI/O 16
DigI/O 17 17 18 DigI/O 18
DigI/O 19 19 20 DigI/O 20
DigI/O 21 21 22 DigI/O 22
DigI/O 23 23 24 DigI/O 24
DigI/O 25 25 26 DigI/O 26
DigI/O 27 27 28 DigI/O 28
DigI/O 29 29 30 DigI/O 30
DigI/O 31 31 32 DigI/O 32
DigI/O 33 33 34 DigI/O 34
DigI/O 35 35 36 DigI/O 36
DigI/O 37 37 38 DigI/O 38
DigI/O 39 39 40 DigI/O 40
DigI/O 41 41 42 DigI/O 42
DigI/O 43 43 44 DigI/O 44
DigI/O 45 45 46 DigI/O 46
DigI/O 47 47 48 DigI/O 48
GND (switched) 49 50 +5V Fused, switched

Back Panel Connector

Fuse 1
+5V +5V Fused, switched
DIGR
GND GND (switched)
Fuse 1 Wickmann TR5 Time-lag 1A

5V or 3.3V

10K
DIGI
DIGR
DIGO DigI/O
Switched in 1 of 48
groups of 8
DIGA

14-7
Wiring Diagrams Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
DIG-1 Back Panel Connector

DIG-1 (PCB Header)


JP3
TDO Source 1 2
TDI Source 3 4
TCK Source 5 6
TMS Source 7 8 GND
TDO to UUT 9 10
TDI to UUT 11 12
TCK to UUT 13 14
TMS to UUT 15 16
Switched GND
Pins are shown from component side of PCB

Boundary-Scan Aux Connector


1
TDO Source 9
GND 2
TDI Source 10
GND 3
TCK Source 11
GND
4
TMS Source 12
GND 5
TDO to UUT 13
GND 6
TDI to UUT 14
GND 7
TCK to UUT
Switched GND 15
8
TMS to UUT
(viewed facing back panel from rear)

DIG-1 Program Control


JP5
1 Normal (Jumper 1 to 2)
2
3 Program (Jumper 2 to 3)

14-8
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Wiring Diagrams
TR-6/FUNC-2 Back Panel Connector

TR-6/FUNC-2 Back Panel Connector


2
Relay 1 NC TP1601 1 2 TP1602
3 4
Relay 1 NO TP1603 3 4 TP1604
Relay 1 COM TP1605 5 6 TP1606
TP1607 7 8 TP1608
2 TP1609 9 10 TP1610
Relay 2 NC
3 4 TP1611 11 12 TP1612
Relay 2 NO
TP1613 13 14 TP1614
Relay 2 COM
TP1615 15 16 TP1616
Chassis GND 17 18 Relay 2 NC
2 Relay 1 NC 19 20 Relay 2 COM
Relay 3 NC
3 4 R elay 1 COM 21 22 Relay 2 NO
Relay 3 NO
Relay 3 COM Relay 1 NO 23 24 Relay 4 NC
Relay 3 NC 25 26 Relay 4 COM
Relay 3 COM 27 28 Relay 4 NO
2
Relay 4 NC Relay 3 NO 29 30 UCT Ch 2 In
3 4
Relay 4 NO UCT Gate In 31 32 UCT Ch 1 In
Relay 4 COM SqrV Out 33 34 Analog GND
Sine Out 35 36 DCV Out
Pull Up for Digital I/O DMM In Low 37 38 DMM In High
Dig I/O 1 39 40 Dig I/O 2
JP1 Dig I/O 3 41 42 Dig I/O 4
+5V +12V Dig I/O 5 43 44 Dig I/O 6
Note: Remove jumper JP1 on Dig I/O 7 45 46 Dig I/O 8
FUNC-2 for 3V pull up External IO 47 48 +5V Fused, switched*
-12V Fused, switched* 49 50 +12V Fused, switched*
Fused DMM Measurement F1 & F2 0.25 Amp Back Panel Connector
F3 1 Amp
+5V +5V Fused, switched*
F4 0.1 Amp
-12V -12V Fused, switched*
switched
F5 1 Amp
+12V +12V Fused, switched*
* Note: Relay switched outputs on FUNC-2 module only

TR-6/FUNC-2 Back Panel Connector

14-9
Wiring Diagrams Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
TR-6/FUNC-2 Digital I/O Interface

TR-6/FUNC-2 Digital I/O Interface


U38 Digital Readback RN2 Dip
18 2 1 16
1Y1 1A1
16 4 2 15
1Y2 1A2
14 1Y3 1A3 6 3 14
12 8 4 13
1Y4 1A4
9 11 5 12
2Y1 2A1
7 2Y2 2A2 13 6 11
5 2Y3 2A3 15 7 10
3 17 8 9
2Y4 2A4
1 10k
1G
19
2G

74HCT244
12 11 9 8 7 5 3 2

14 1
+5V

DN2
U46
1 22
CLR OUTEN Digital Output Drive
2 21
STRB VDD
3 IN1 20 DigIO1
OUT1
4 19
IN2 OUT2 DigIO2
5 18 DigIO3
IN3 OUT3
6 17 DigIO4
IN4 OUT4
7 16
IN5 OUT5 DigIO5
8 IN6 15 DigIO6
OUT6
9 14
IN7 OUT7 DigIO7
10 13
IN8 OUT8 DigIO8
11 12
GND CMN +12V

UCN-5801A
987654 32
R-Net normally installed in socket,
either polarity is equivalent R N 3
10k FUNC-2 Jumper normally removed for +3V
TR-6 Jumper normally installed for +5V

1 +5V 1
10 2 JP1
+12V 3

Pull-up for Digital Out

TR-6/FUNC-2 Digital I/O Interface

14-10
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Wiring Diagrams
TR-6-1 Back Panel Connector

TR-6-1 Back Panel Connector

TP1 1 2 TP2
TP3 3 4 TP4
TP5 5 6 TP6
TP7 7 8 TP8
JP3 TP9 9 10 TP10
2 TP11 11 12 TP12
K1A 1 2 13 14
3 4 4 3 TP13 TP14
3 4 TP15 15 16 TP16
2 K3A
5 6 TP17 17 18 TP18
K2A 2
7 8 TP19 19 20 TP20
3 4 4 3
9 10 TP21 21 22 TP22
2 K4A
11 12 TP23 23 24 TP24
K2B 9
13 14 TP25 25 26 TP26
8 7 15 16 TP27 27 28 TP28
TP29 29 30 TP30
TP31 31 32 TP32
TP33 33 34 TP34
Independent Isolated Relays TP35 35 36 TP36
TP37 37 38 TP38
TP39 39 40 TP40
TP41 41 42 TP42
TP43 43 44 TP44
TP45 45 46 TP46
TP47 47 48 TP48
TP49 49 50 TP50
Back Panel Connector

14-11
Wiring Diagrams Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
HP-1 Back Panel Connector

HP-1 Back Panel Connector


Test Points
Module 1 / Module 2
GND 49 50 HVEN/
TP1974/1998 47 48 N/C
TP1973/1997 45 46 N/C
TP1972/1996 43 44 N/C
TP1971/1995 41 42 N/C
TP1970/1994 39 40 N/C
TP1969/1993 37 38 N/C
TP1968/1992 35 36 N/C
TP1967/1991 33 34 N/C
TP1966/1990 31 32 N/C
TP1965/1989 29 30 N/C
TP1964/1988 27 28 N/C
TP1963/1987 25 26 N/C
TP1962/1986 23 24 N/C
TP1961/1985 21 22 N/C
TP1960/1984 19 20 N/C
TP1959/1983 17 18 N/C
TP1958/1982 15 16 N/C
TP1957/1981 13 14 N/C
TP1956/1980 11 12 N/C
TP1955/1979 9 10 N/C
TP1954/1978 7 8 N/C
TP1953/1977 5 6 N/C
TP1952/1976 3 4 N/C
TP1951/1975 1 2 N/C

HP-1 Back Panel Female Connector

Note
Whenever the 500 volt range is used, pin 50 "HVEN/" must be pulled low
(to GND) to enable any HP-1 test point output to become active. This is
used as a safety interlock and normally controlled by a safety switch on the
test fixture.

14-12
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Wiring Diagrams
CR-2 Back Panel Connector

CR-2 Back Panel Connector


Source Sense
TP 1 1 2 TP 2
TP 3 3 4 TP 4
TP 5 5 6 TP 6
TP 7 7 8 TP 8
TP 9 9 10 TP 10
TP 11 11 12 TP 12
TP 13 13 14 TP 14
TP 15 15 16 TP 16
TP 17 17 18 TP 18
TP 19 19 20 TP 20
TP 21 21 22 TP 22
TP 23 23 24 TP 24
TP 25 25 26 TP 26
TP 27 27 28 TP 28
TP 29 29 30 TP 30
TP 31 31 32 TP 32
TP 33 33 34 TP 34
TP 35 35 36 TP 36
TP 37 37 38 TP 38
TP 39 39 40 TP 40
TP 41 41 42 TP 42
TP 43 43 44 TP 44
TP 45 45 46 TP 46
TP 47 47 48 TP 48
GND 49 50 GND
Back Panel Connector
Note: Both the source (odd numbered TP) and
sense (even numbered TP) test points
must be connected.

CR-2 Back Panel Connector

14-13
Wiring Diagrams Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
CR-2 Back Panel Connector

14-14
Chapter 15
Sample Reports

Sample Reports
This section is composed of report examples.
Test Results Report Example on page 15-2
Test Program Report Example on page 15-3
Batch Report Example on page 15-4
Test Program in ASCII on page 15-5
Statistics Data File Example on page 15-6
Wire Run Report Example on page 15-7
Production Report Example on page 15-8
Pareto Failure Report Example on page 15-9
X-Bar/Sigma Report Example on page 15-10
Sample Reports Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Test Results Report Example

Test Results Report Example

Example Test Results Report (*at the end of a line indicates a failed test step)

15-2
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Sample Reports
Test Program Report Example

Test Program Report Example

Example Test Program Report

15-3
Sample Reports Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Batch Report Example

Batch Report Example

Example Batch Report

15-4
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Sample Reports
Test Program in ASCII

Test Program in ASCII

Example Test Program in ASCII Format

15-5
Sample Reports Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Statistics Data File Example

Statistics Data File Example

Example Statistics Data File

15-6
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Sample Reports
Wire Run Report Example

Wire Run Report Example

Example Wire Run Report

15-7
Sample Reports Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Production Report Example

Production Report Example

Example Production Report

15-8
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Sample Reports
Pareto Failure Report Example

Pareto Failure Report Example

Example Pareto Failure Report

15-9
Sample Reports Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
X-Bar/Sigma Report Example

X-Bar/Sigma Report Example

Example X-Bar/Sigma Control Report (Printer Version)

15-10
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Sample Reports
X-Bar/Sigma Report Example

Example X-Bar/Sigma Control Report (Print to File Version)

15-11
Sample Reports Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
X-Bar/Sigma Report Example

15-12
Chapter 16
Command Line Parameters

Command Line Parameters


The Model TR-8 Test System allows you to specially tailor operation with command line
parameters.
Command line parameters are used when you first invoke the Software. The parameters are
entered on the line after 'VISMDA'. Each parameter is separated by one or more spaces and
can be in upper or lower case.
Command Line Parameters Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Command Line Parameters

Command Line Parameters


Parameter Action
/r Open, load and run a test program. When /r is followed by a test program
name, the System automatically loads the requested test program, then
begins execution.
/rq Open, load, run a test program, then quit VISMDA when test completes.
When /rq is followed by a test program name, the System automatically loads
the requested test program, executes the program and terminates.
/l Open and load the test program specified after the command (for example, '/l
MY_TEST'). The main system screen is displayed.
/lt Open and load the test program specified after the command (for example, '/lt
GO_TEST'). The test screen is displayed.
/nc No calibration. Normally, the System measures internal reference values
each time the VISMDA software is invoked. If the System is started with this
parameter, the internal references are not measured during power up.
Instead, the reference values determined during the last self-test are used.
Use of this parameter can provide more consistent operation if the PC is
powered up and the software started at a greatly different ambient
temperature than normal operating temperature.
/cf Configuration File. Specify the file name (optionally preceded by a path) for
the station configuration file. If not specified, the file name is $TR8$.DAT in
the same directory as the VISMDA.EXE file. The /cf parameter can be used
in network configurations so that the VISMDA.EXE file can be shared, but
each station can use its own configuration file which includes the station's
unique calibration and setup information.
/sf Show Failures. When executing a test program, display the failed test
outcomes on the CRT, even if the System does not halt on the test step. This
can be used to allow the operator to keep better track of System test activity,
but at the expense of a little test speed.
/sfp Show Failures and Passes. Same as /sf, but also shows passed test steps.
/net Set network retry time. Allows you to specify how long, in seconds, to wait for
the system to wait for a network file to become available for use. This time is
necessary when more than one System is sharing a file and it is necessary
for one System to close the file before the other can use it. The default is 10
seconds. To set a maximum delay of 30 seconds for example, specify /net
30.
/pw Password for exit. If the System is started with this command line parameter,
the operator must enter the System password before exiting from the System
Menu).
/spc Additional SPC Log File output. If /spc . <ext > is specified, the System,
whenever writing SPC data to the disk, will also write to the log file having the
.<ext> suffix specified. If the <File > is not present, it will be created. The
log file name prefix matches that of the default SPC Log File.
/tl Time logging. If /tl is specified, the System keeps track of execution time of
each test step. This capability can be used to fine-tune test program
execution speed by identifying test steps which take excessive time. When /tl
is specified, you can press [Control-M] while in the Edit screen, and the
System will display the execution time (in mSec) of each test step in the
range column. Resolution of the times is about 50mSec. Pressing [Control-
M] again returns to the regular display.
/t Specify temporary file directory. If /t is specified, the string that follows it
specifies the location of the directory used to hold temporary files. These files
are used e.g. to create test result reports sorted by PCB number. If no
location is specified, then the current directory at the time mda.exe is
executed is used. The temporary file location should generally not be a

16-2
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Command Line Parameters
Command Line Parameters

server location shared by more than one test station.


/li Automatically logs in a user having a blank password when /li is followed by
the user name which is one of the login user dialog name choices. Does
nothing if Login is disabled.
/log Specify output file for LOGIC test details.
/km Load the lower eight bits of the specified value into the operator keypad mask
register (see the Operator Keypad Installation and Usage on page 4-4 for
keypad mask bit information).
/ppath Specifies the test program directory location in the string following this option.
This overrides the spec data path stored in the system configuration.
/spath Specifies the SPC Log File directory location in the string following this
option. This overrides the statistics data path stored in the system
configuration.
/mpxlimit Specifies the maximum allowed multiplex offset value.
/nocapdcisweep Disables DCI cap measurements during measurement sweeps (e.g. from
SHIFT F3) of the measurement analysis screen for capacitors. This is
intended to speed analysis of non-DCI capacitor measurements.
/loglo Specifies the Logic low source voltage. This is specified in the parameter that
follows. This is the voltage the TR-6 sources when driving digital inputs low.
The default is 0 volts.
/loghi Specifies the logic high source voltage. This is specified in the parameter that
follows. This is the voltage the TR-6 sources when driving digital inputs high.
The default is 5 volts. This value should be changed in order to test 3 volt
logic.
/multiple This allows a second session of vismda to run. This must be the last
parameter in the command line parameter list. It is only used on the
command line of the second vismda session.
/oldspcfilename Specifies SPC data to be saved in files named 'YYYMMDD.DAT' rather than
'YYYYMMDD.DAT'. The year 2003 will use '103MMDD.DAT' files rather than
'2003MMDD.DAT' files.
/func2sup Enables FUNC-2 supply outputs for +5VDC, -12VDC and +12VDC. The
value following the command specifies which outputs are enabled. Combine
bit masks of 32, 64, or 128 to enable any combination of the +5VDC, -12VDC
and +12VDC outputs, respectively.
/-skip_q Disables the question regarding PCB skip selection for panelized assemblies
at the start of the batch.
/no_histogram Disables the X-Bar/Sigma Report Histogram generation. This is useful if the
system memory resources are limited.

Note that if you have configured automatic reporting, the System will save the results data for
you during testing. Following are examples of using command line parameters:
1. Automatically load and begin execution of the test program 'PN324':
VISMDA /r pn324
2. Run two test programs (named 'SPEC1' and 'SPEC2') in succession, transparently, from a
batch file and print a message to the operator telling whether each passed or failed:
echo off
VISMDA /r spec1
if ERRORLEVEL 1 echo "part 1 fail"
if NOT ERRORLEVEL 1 echo "part 1 pass"

16-3
Command Line Parameters Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Command Line Parameters

VISMDA /r spec2
if ERRORLEVEL 1 echo "part 2 fail"
if NOT ERRORLEVEL 1 echo "part 2 pass"
3. Start the System using station configuration data stored in the file 'STATION9.DAT' in
the directory 'CONFIG' on device 'E:' VISMDA /cf E:\config\station9.dat
4. Start the System enabling time logging: VISMDA /tl

16-4
Chapter 17
Trouble Shooting

In Case of Problems
If you suspect problems in the operation of your Test System, you should run the self-test that
is available from the Configure screen on the Modules page. See the Module Self-Test on
page 5-6 section in the System Configuration chapter for running the self-test.
Display Problems
If the Visual MDA windows do not display fully (they look cut off), you will need to adjust the
Windows display properties settings. The Display Properties settings are controlled in the
Windows Control Panel. The Display Properties Font Size is controlled under the Advanced
button option. Select the Control Panel > Display > Settings tab > Advanced button >
Display Font Size and set this selection to Small Fonts. If the Font Size selection is set to
Large Fonts, several Visual MDA windows may not display properly.
Serial Printer Problems
In general, first review the manual provided with the printer. If you are using a serial printer
and it appears to be working normally but stops printing at times, check the baud rate setup.
The baud rate is set with switches inside the printer and in the test system in the Configure
System > External Hardware tab > Test Screen Report Device COM1 (or COM2) > Baud
Rate 1200. Some serial printer problems can be fixed if you set the baud rate to 1200 for both
the printer and in the test system configuration. In the serial printer, set DIP switch 6 and
switch 7 to OFF to configure the printer for 1200 baud. Be sure to turn-off the power before
changing the switch settings. The printer baud rate is set at power-up of the printer. The
printer DIP switch is located under a cover on the bottom of the printer (see the printer
manual). All the other switch settings are normally in the ON position.
Configuration Problems
If the self-test reports a number of errors, it is likely to be caused by an installation problem
such as address jumpers improperly installed or an address conflict with another module in the
PC.
Trouble Shooting Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
In Case of Problems

Failed Components
If a single test-point or group of points give errors that are the same each time you run the test,
there may be a failed component on the MPX Module. If this is the case, you may want to
inspect the MPX Module for damage or return it for analysis.
Addresses and Jumpers
Ensure that you do not have any overlapping addresses in the way that you have jumpered the
Modules. The address ranges for each Module are shown in the Modules screen.
Interrupts
The CheckSum Modules (other than the Model GPIB) do not use interrupts or DMA channels
so there can be no conflicts in these areas.
I/O Channel Conflicts
If you still have problems, there may be a conflict on the PC's I/O channel. The standard
default address range (beginning at 768/300 hex) is reserved by IBM for use with the prototype
card so there should be no conflicts with standard PC hardware.

Note
Network interface cards are often set to the address range beginning at 768
(300 hex) creating a conflict.

To determine if there are address conflicts, you may wish to remove suspected cards from your
computer and try the CheckSum Modules again. Don't forget to remove power and observe
static-sensitive rules when you do this!
In the event another card in the PC is using this I/O space, you may rejumper that card to
another spot. Otherwise, you may wish to rejumper the CheckSum Modules to another base
address.

Note
In some cases, other PC cards may use smaller address spaces than the
CheckSum Modules, so it may be easier to find an open area by
rejumpering another card.

Base Address Decimal (Hex)


9 512 (200 H)
8 256 (100 H)
7 128 (80 H)
6 64 (40 H)
5 32 (20 H)
4 16 (10 H)
3 8 (8 H)
2 4 (4 H)
Base Address Settings

17-2
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Trouble Shooting
In Case of Problems

The base address is the sum of the values shown above for all of the positions that have
jumpers installed. The Modules screen shows the base address range and corresponding
jumper setting for each module. The addresses of each module installed in the System must
not overlap or conflict with other hardware installed in the computer.
The default addresses when shipped are 640 decimal (280 hex, set by jumpers on positions 9
and 7) for the Model TR-8 System Module and 776 decimal (308 hex, jumpers on positions 9,
8 and 3) for the Model TR-8-1 MPX Module. If additional MPX modules are included in the
System, they are jumpered at successive address locations (i.e., multiplexer 2 is at 780 decimal
or 30C hex, multiplexer 3 is at 784 decimal or 310 hex, etc). The Model TR-6 is set to base
address 816 decimal (330 hex, jumpers on 9, 8, 5 and 4). Model TR-6-1 relay MPX modules
are installed in 16 address increments beginning at 832 decimal (340 hex, jumpers on 9, 8 and
6). The DIG-1 modules are all set to Base Address 672 decimal (2A0 hex, jumpers on
positions 9, 7 and 5) as the default. The first DIG-1 module Board Select address is set for 33
decimal (21 hex, jumpers on positions 5 and 0). The second DIG-1 module Board Select
address is set for 34 decimal (22 hex, jumpers on positions 5 and 1).
The default base address and jumper settings for all of the modules as shipped from CheckSum
are discussed in the following topics:
Modules Configuration on page 5-3
System Configuration on page 5-1
Environment Configuration on page 5-11
When you change a module's base address, you must also go to the Module screen and change
the corresponding base address entries to match the jumpers of the modules.
The configuration screen allows you to enter the base address for each module. After you have
entered the address, the System displays the jumper positions that correspond to that module.
If the address that you enter is different once it is displayed, it is because the address that you
entered cannot be jumpered. For example, it is an odd base address when only even base
addresses can be jumpered. Alternatively, you can use the modules page of the configuration
screen to alter the jumper settings, than read out the resultant base address.
The following table shows how many PC's use their I/O ports:

User PC/XT AT
DMA Controller 000-00F 000-01F
Interrupt Controller 020-021 020-03F
Timer 040-043 040-05F
PPI 060-063 N/A
Keyboard N/A 060-06F
DMA Page Register 080-083 080-09F
NMI Mask Register 0A 070-07F
Interrupt Controller 2 N/A 0A0-0BF
DMA Controller 2 N/A 0C0-0DF
Math Coprocessor N/A 0F8-0FF

Joystick/Game Controller 200-20F 200-20F

17-3
Trouble Shooting Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Test-Point Electronics

Expansion Unit 210-217 N/A


Parallel Printer N/A 278-27F
Serial Port (primary) 3F8-3FF 3F8-3FF
Serial Port (secondary) 2F8-2FF 2F8-2FF
Prototype Card 300-31F 300-31F
Fixed Disk 320-32F 1F0-1F8
Parallel Printer (pri) 378-37F 378-37F
SDLC 380-38F 380-38F
Bisynchronous Com. N/A 3A0-3AF
Mono Adapter/Printer 3B0-3BF 3B0-3BF
CGA Adapter 3D0-3DF 3D0-3DF
Diskette Controller 3F0-3F7 3F0-3F7
Computer I/O Port Assignment

Test-Point Electronics
TR-6/FUNC-2 and TR-6-1 Modules
The Model TR-6/FUNC-2 and TR-6-1 use relays for test-point switching. These relays do not
normally require replacement except in cases of extreme abuse (in which case there are likely
to be other failures on the module). The relays are not field-replaceable and the modules
should be returned to CheckSum in the event of a failure.
TR-8-1 Modules
The Model TR-8-1 Modules use high-performance solid-state multiplexers to switch the test
signals. These are very reliable parts, but can be damaged from extreme electrostatic discharge
or abuse. The multiplexer ICs are socketed on the circuit boards for ease of replacement
without damage to the module.
On the TR-8-1 Modules, the multiplexer ICs are arranged as follows:

U10 U11 U12 U13 U14


U23
U20 U21
U35
U32 U33
U47
U44 U45

17-4
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Trouble Shooting
Test-Point Electronics

TR-8-1 Module IC Locations (component side shown)

When the multiplexer module experiences an input voltage at a test-point that is greater than
12V from the computer chassis, the protection networks and multiplexer IC protection circuits
attempt to prevent permanent damage to the module.
However, sustained over-voltages can still damage the multiplexer ICs or protection networks.
If one of the test-points fails self-test, you can find its multiplexer IC on the following chart,
then replace it. In some cases, the protection network can also be damaged from over-voltage
input. In most cases, this can be detected by measuring the voltage at the test-points with a
10M input DMM while the system is powered up and reset (in the main menu window). The
voltage should be less than one volt referenced to the PC chassis. If you observe higher
voltages, the problem is likely to be caused by a faulty multiplexer IC and/or protection
network.

Note
Some earlier TR-8-1 modules use a DIP-style protection network, if your
TR-8-1 modules have these networks, the following chart does not apply.

The protection networks are located physically adjacent to the multiplexer ICs that correspond
to the same test-point numbers. The following table shows the correlation between the test-
points (TPs), protection network (DN), and the solid-state switches (multiplexer IC) on the
TR-8-1 modules.

17-5
Trouble Shooting Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Test-Point Electronics

Model TR-8-1 MDA TEST-POINT MODULE


Multiplexer IC: CheckSum PN 4000-001
Protection Network: CheckSum PN 1500-050
TR-8-1 Test Protection Network Multiplexer IC
Points
1-8 DN 25 U47
9 - 16 DN 24 U47
17 - 24 DN 17 U35
25 - 32 DN 16 U35
33 - 40 DN 9 U23
41 - 48 DN 8 U23
49 - 56 DN 23 U45
57 - 64 DN 22 U45
65 - 72 DN 15 U33
73 - 80 DN 14 U33
81 - 88 DN 7 U21
89 - 96 DN 6 U21
97 - 104 DN 21 U44
105 - 112 DN 20 U44
113 - 120 DN 13 U32
121 - 128 DN 12 U32
129 - 136 DN 5 U20
137 - 144 DN 4 U20
145 - 152 DN 19 U13
153 - 160 DN 18 U13
161 - 168 DN 11 U11
169 - 176 DN 10 U11
177 - 184 DN 3 U12
185 - 192 DN 1 U12
193 - 200 DN 2 U10
TR-8-1 Module Field-Replaceable Parts

MPX-3-200 Modules
The MPX-3-200 Modules use high-performance solid-state multiplexers to switch the test
signals. These are very reliable parts, but can be damaged from extreme electrostatic discharge
or abuse. The multiplexer ICs are in sockets on the circuit boards for ease of replacement
without damage to the module.
On the MPX-3-200 Modules, the multiplexer ICs are arranged as follows:

17-6
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Trouble Shooting
Test-Point Electronics

BASE ADDRESS BOARD SELECT


9 8 7 6 5 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
JP1 MPX-3
JP2 JP3
U4 U5

U14 U15 U16 U17

U23 U24 U25 U26

<P1
U32 <P2
U33 <P3
U34 <P4
U35
TP 151-200 TP 101-150 TP 51-100 TP 1-50

MPX-3-200 Module IC Locations (component side shown)

When the multiplexer module experiences an input voltage at a test point that is greater than
the protection/clamp voltage from the computer chassis, the protection networks and
multiplexer IC protection circuits attempt to prevent permanent damage to the module. If a
functional, power-up, test requires that the MPX-3-200 test points are exposed to greater than
10V but less than 12V, then the test program must include a command to increase the
clamp/protection voltage from the 10V default setting to 12V (see the FLAGS test step, range
96 on page 22-99).
However, sustained over-voltages can still damage the multiplexer ICs or protection networks.
If one of the test-points fails self-test, you can find its multiplexer IC on the following chart,
then replace it. In some cases, the protection network can also be damaged from over-voltage
input. In most cases, this can be detected by measuring the voltage at the test-points with a
10M input DMM while the system is powered up and reset (in the main menu window). The
voltage should be less than one volt referenced to the PC chassis. If you observe higher
voltages, the problem is likely to be caused by a faulty MPX-3-200 IC and/or protection
network.
The table below shows the correlation between the test-points (TPs), protection networks
(DNs), and the solid-state switches (ICs) on the MPX-3-200 modules.

17-7
Trouble Shooting Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Test-Point Electronics

Model MPX-3-200 MDA TEST-POINT MODULE


Multiplexer IC: CheckSum PN 4000-001
Protection Network: CheckSum PN 1500-150
MPX-3-200 TPs Protection Network Multiplexer IC
1 - 16 DN16 (1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15) U35
DN15 (2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16)
17 - 32 DN16 (17,19,21,23,25,27) U26
DN15 (18,20,22,24,26,28)
DN8 (29,31)
DN7 (30,32)
33 - 48 DN8 (33,35,37,39,41,43,45,47) U17
DN7 (34,36,38,40,42,44,46,48)
49 - 50 DN8 (49) U4
DN7 (50)
51 - 66 DN14 (51,53,55,57,59,61,63,65) U34
DN13 (52,54,56,58,60,62,64,66)
67 - 82 DN14 (67,69,71,73,75,77) U25
DN13 (68,70,72,74,76,78)
DN6 (79,81)
DN5 (80,82)
83 - 98 DN6 (83,85,87,89,91,93,95,97) U16
DN5 (84,86,88,90,92,94,96,98)
99 - 100 DN6 (99) U4
DN5 (100)
101 - 116 DN12 (101,103,105,107,109,111,113,115) U33
DN11 (102,104,106,108,110,112,114,116)
117 - 132 DN12 (117,119,121,123,125,127) U24
DN11 (118,120,122,124,126,128)
DN4 (129,131)
DN3 (130,132)
133 - 148 DN4 (133,135,137,139,141,143,145,147) U15
DN3 (134,136,138,140,142,144,146,148)
149 - 150 DN4 (149) U4
DN3 (150)
151 - 166 DN10 (151,153,155,157,159,161,163,165) U32
DN9 (152,154,156,158,160,162,164,166)
167 - 182 DN10 (167,169,171,173,175,177) U23
DN9 (168,170,172,174,176,178)
DN2 (179,181)
DN1 (180,182)
183 - 198 DN2 (183,185,187,189,191,193,195,197) U14
DN1 (184,186,188,190,192,194,196,198)
199 - 200 DN2 (199) U4
DN1 (200)
MPX-3-200 Module Field-Replaceable Parts

17-8
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Trouble Shooting
Model TR-6/FUNC-2 Fuses

Model TR-6/FUNC-2 Fuses


The Model TR-6 provides fused, unswitched power at its back panel. The Model FUNC-2
provides fused, switched power at its back panel. Three supplies are provided: +12V, +5V,
and -12V. The high and low inputs from the relay MPXs are also protected against severe
input overloads with two additional fuses.
The fuses are checked during self-test of the TR-6/FUNC-2 Module. In the event of a failure,
you are advised of the likely fuse failure.
Fuses are plugged into the top rear of the Model TR-6/FUNC-2 System Module. The
following table shows the fuse values and uses:

TR-6/FUNC-2 Fuses
Fuse Value Usage Replacement
F1 0.25A Relay Test-Point Lo Input Wickmann TR5 Fast-Acting 0.25 A
F2 0.25A Relay Test-Point Hi Input Wickmann TR5 Fast-Acting 0.25 A
F3 1A +5V Power Output Wickmann TR5 Time-Lag 1 A
F4 0.1A -12V Power Output Wickmann TR5 Time-Lag 0.1 A
F5 1A +12V Power Output Wickmann TR5 Time-Lag 1 A
Model TR-6/FUNC-2 Fuses

Model TR-8-PWR Fuses


The Model TR-8-PWR provides switched power at its back panel. Three supplies are
provided: +12V, +5V, and -12V.
These fuses are checked during self-test of the TR-8-PWR Module. In the event of a failure,
you are advised of the likely fuse failure.
Fuses are plugged into the top rear of the Model TR-8-PWR Module. The following table
shows the fuse values and uses:
Model TR-8-PWR Fuses
Fuse Value Usage Replacement
F1 1A +5V Power Output Wickmann TR5 Time-Lag 1 A
F2 0.1A -12V Power Output Wickmann TR5 Time-Lag 0.1 A
F3 1A +12V Power Output Wickmann TR5 Time-Lag 1 A
Model TR-8-PWR Fuses

17-9
Trouble Shooting Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Model TR-8-PWR Fuses

17-10
Chapter 18
Error Messages

Error Messages
Errors while reading or writing the computer's disk or during other operations include:
Error Messages Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Error Messages

Error Message
Error 1 Invalid DOS function number
Error 2 File not found
Error 3 Path not found
Error 4 Too many files open
Error 5 File access denied
Error 12 Invalid file access code
Error 15 Invalid drive number
Error 97 Incorrect test program revision
Error 99 Not a valid spec data file
Error 100 Disk Read error
Error 101 Disk out of space
Error 103 File Open error
Error 105 File not open for output (is LPT1 printer connected?)
Error 150 Disk is write-protected
Error 152 Drive is not ready
Error 156 Disk seek error
Error 160 Device Write-Fault (normally printer)
Error 162 Hardware failure
Error 200 Division by zero
Error 201 Range check error
Error 202 Stack overflow error
Error 203 Heap overflow error
Error 205 Floating point overflow
Error 206 Floating point underflow
Error 207 Invalid floating point operation
Error 209 Overlay file read error
Error 216 General protection fault
System Error Messages

18-2
Chapter 19
Test Program Examples

Example Test Program Segments


The CheckSum Model TR-8 Test System provides a flexible software environment to solve
unique testing problems. This section of the manual shows example test program segments for
special testing situations that you might come across.
The first example shows how to check for the position of a switch or jumper on the assembly
that you are testing.
The next two other examples show ways to provide operator adjustment routines (using a
potentiometer as an example). These operations are also available with simple pre-written test
types (i.e. SWCHR, JMPER, POTR), but are shown here as a series of other test types to
demonstrate how the System can be used to solve complicated and unique testing problems.
The last example shows how to control the screen text and background colors during program
execution.
Related Topics
Jumper/Switch Checking below
Potentiometer Adjustments I on page 19-3
Potentiometer Adjustments II on page 19-3
Screen and Display Attribute Manipulation on page 19-4

Jumper/Switch Checking
The following example shows how the System can check for the presence of a closed switch
(or installed jumper) on the assembly. The System presents a message to the operator to close
the switch, then loops until the switch is closed. The operator can press the [F1] key to exit
and record a failure in the event the desired closure can not be achieved.
Test Program Examples Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Jumper/Switch Checking

The first two lines in the test program segment display DISP messages one and two that
instruct the operator to set the switch on.
The next test step, RETRY, turns off failure retries and discharging for the subsequent JMPR
test. This allows the loop to execute much faster when the test step is not passing.
Following the RETRY test step is a label (START) defining the beginning of the loop.
A JMPR test step measures the switch to see if it is less than 100.
If the measurement is less than 100, the test passes and control goes to the DONE label. If
not, a JMPK test step checks to see if the operator has pressed the [F1] key. If the [F1] key has
been pressed, control passes to the DONE label. If [F1] has not been pressed, the System
JMPs back to the START label to test the switch again.
When the loop is terminated (by a measurement less than 100 or the operator pressing the
[F1] key), the System executes a RETRY 'Reset' test step to restore the RETRY parameters to
those when the test program was started. It then erases the displays with a DISPE test step.
Finally, the System makes an RES measurement to log the results of the test and generate a
pass/fail.
The same technique can be used for testing for open switches (or removed jumpers). Just
substitute low and high limits of the JMPR and RES test steps to be something like 100 and
20M or O_Rng. This high limit value, displayed as > 19 M, is greater than any normally
measured value, and will never cause a failure on the high side. An over-range measurement is
shown as O_Rng in the measured value. When testing for open conditions (no connection)
you can increase the speed by fixing a low range (like Range = 1, the 100 range, 190
maximum). This will prevent the System from autoranging and consequently increase test
speed.

19-2
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Program Examples
Potentiometer Adjustments I

Potentiometer Adjustments I
The following example shows how the System can prompt the operator to adjust a
potentiometer to a desired value. The System presents a message to the operator to adjust
within certain test limits, then loops, making a measurement each time and displaying it to the
operator. When the desired resistance value is obtained, or the operator presses the [F1] key,
the System measures the final adjusted value and generates a pass or fail result based on the
value measured.

This test program segment works almost exactly like the previous example that shows how
jumpers and switches are tested and set.
The main difference in this example is that the System displays a measurement each time
through the loop. This is done by putting {Meas} into the DISPlay refreshed in the loop.
When the System sees {Meas} in a DISPlay line, it substitutes the last measured value from an
analog test step.

Potentiometer Adjustments II
The following example shows how the System can prompt the operator to adjust a
potentiometer to a desired value. This is similar to the last example. However, in this case, the
System stays in the loop until the operator presses the [F1] key. This allows the operator to
use his discretion about when the best adjustment is achieved. When the desired adjustment is

19-3
Test Program Examples Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Screen and Display Attribute Manipulation

obtained and the operator has pressed the [F1] key, the System measures the final adjusted
value and generates a pass or fail result based on the outcome.

This test program segment works almost exactly like the previous two examples so you can
refer to the description of those for the general idea of how the program flow works.
In this case, however, the System takes a measurement, and in all cases continues on through
the loop. The tolerances of the JMPR are set loose enough such that the test always passes
(e.g., 0 and 20 M). This prevents the System from performing any failure retries and
hence speeds operation. In fact, on fast computers you may want to put a PAUSE, as shown in
the example, to slow down the refresh rate in the loop.

Screen and Display Attribute Manipulation


The following examples show how to use the SCRN test type for manipulating display
attributes (i.e. text color and background color).
First we make the area from row 2 to 7, column 10 to 40 to have yellow text color (0) and
black background color (16). Use the Set Display Attribute operation (512) to turn-on this set
of attributes. The resulting total range value is 656 (0+16+512 = 528). Then we write
something in this region.
Next we make the adjacent area from column 41 to 70 to have white text color (15) and red
background color (64). Use the Set Display Attribute operation (512) to turn-on this set of
attributes. The resulting total range value is 591. Then we write something else in this second
region.

19-4
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Program Examples
Screen and Display Attribute Manipulation

The operator is told to press any key. After a key is pressed, the text is erased on the entire
display (rows 1-8 and columns 1-80). The background is not affected.
Then, we save the area, text and background, in rows 2 to 7 and columns 10 to 70 in a file
named screen.txt. (We will load in this file the next example). Finally, we ask the operator to
press any key to finish. A final message is displayed across both regions.

Example Program for Display Attribute Manipulation

19-5
Test Program Examples Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Screen and Display Attribute Manipulation

Test Program Display Messages

The following is the result if we run the test program.

Example Screen Result for SCRN Test Type

The following examples show how to use the SCRN test type for loading an existing message
and attribute file. We will use the screen.txt file created in the previous example. However,
instead of putting the message and attribute in row 2 to 7 and column 10 to 70, this time we put
them in row 1 to 6 and column 7 to 67.

19-6
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Program Examples
Screen and Display Attribute Manipulation

Example Program for SCRN Load Operation

The following is the result if we run the test program.

Example Screen Result for SCRN Load

19-7
Test Program Examples Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Screen and Display Attribute Manipulation

19-8
Chapter 20
Theory of Operation

Model TR-8 Theory of Operation


Overview
The CheckSum Model TR-8 Manufacturing Defects Analyzer has been designed to effectively
measure a variety of components, both out-of-circuit and in-circuit. To deal with the variety of
in-circuit conditions that can occur, the System offers several measurement methods and
techniques.
This section describes these techniques and gives you an idea about how to best use them to
solve testing problems. For most measurements, you can use the System interactively to
choose the best technique and it is not necessary for you to know the details of the
measurements. However, if you want to obtain optimum results on problem measurements or
guarding, or simply to better understand the system, you should read this section.
The System contains two separate measurement modes:
Current Mode - Uses a DC constant-current stimulus for taking measurements.
Voltage Mode - Uses either AC or DC voltage stimulus for taking measurements.
Each of these measurement modes is described separately. Finally, some guidelines about how
to test in general are included. This section also gives tips on how to test various specific
components.
Main Topics
Current Mode on page 20-2
Voltage Mode on page 20-5
Measurement Guidelines on page 20-9
Theory of Operation Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Current Mode

Current Mode
Overview
The Current Mode uses a precision constant-current source in conjunction with a voltage
measurement capability to effectively test resistors, semiconductor junctions, and capacitors.
Each is discussed below.
The System can provide DC constant-current in six-decade steps from 0.1A to 10mA and has
three voltage measurement ranges of 20mV, 200mV and 2V full range. Between combinations
of source currents and measurement ranges, the System can provide a number of unique
measurement ranges. Typically, 2V full-range values provide better accuracy. However,
when measuring in-circuit, it may be necessary to use 200mV ranges to prevent diode
junctions from turning on and adversely affecting the readings.

Current Rx Voltage
Source Cx Measure
Qx

Current Mode Block Diagram

As shown in the figure above, the System is connected in a four-wire Kelvin configuration so
that the voltage is sensed on the component side of the solid-state relays that provide the
constant-current to the unknown resistance. The Kelvin technique takes advantage of the fact
that you can make an accurate voltage measurement through a resistance (such as switches in
the measurement side) as long as the input impedance of the measurement circuit is very high.
Since the current through the sense leads is very small, there is essentially no voltage drop
across the switches. Consequently, the resistance of the switches are not significant, allowing
accurate voltage measurements to be made.
The paths from the internal sense point to the end of the cables can add up to approximately
15 to the resistance on each test point. This resistance, shown as Rp in the following figure,
is measured during System self-test/calibration and is automatically subtracted from readings
that you take.
If you need to take precise readings of low impedances, you can instruct the System to
remotely sense at the assembly that you are testing. To use this technique, wire two additional
test points to the fixture measurement point. This will effectively eliminate the effect of all of
the resistance in the switching and lead paths. The following figure shows how external
sensing can be used to eliminate virtually all of the extraneous impedances in the measurement
path.

20-2
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Theory of Operation
Current Mode

Internal Sense (+)

Rp
External Sense (+)
Current Rx
Voltage
Source Cx
Measure
Qx
External Sense (-)
Rp

Internal Sense (+)

Rp = Lead/Path resistance 2-15


External Sensing Diagram

Testing Resistors
The Current Mode measures resistors by applying a constant-current source to the unknown
resistance and then measuring the voltage drop across the unknown resistance. From the
known current and measured voltage, resistance is calculated with Ohm's law.
Using the various current and voltage combinations available, the System provides resistance
measuring ranges with mid-scale readings from 10 to 10M. Depending on the range, full-
range voltage is either 2V, 200mV or 20mV.
The System can be configured to provide variable delays between the time when the current
source is applied and when the measurement is taken. You may also specify how many
samples are averaged in each measurement range. If the assembly that you are testing has
capacitors that can become charged during testing, you can specify that the System check for a
voltage across the resistor prior to making the measurement, and if so, discharge the point.
Testing Capacitors
The Current Mode tests capacitors by applying a constant current, then measuring at small
precise time intervals to determine the rise time of the voltage as the capacitor charges. From
the voltage change, the time, and the amount of constant-current applied, the capacitance can
be computed.
For capacitance measurements the Model TR-8 uses the same constant-current source and
voltage measurement circuitry used for measuring resistance. However, when measuring
capacitance, the System measures a number of samples at precise intervals for 100 mSecs.
From the gathered information, the System computes the capacitance. Prior to each
measurement, the System discharges the point as necessary.
Both 2V and 200mV full-range voltages and 1mA to 0.1A constant-current source ranges can
be selected to measure capacitance.
Testing Diodes/Semiconductors
The Current Mode measures diodes in a fashion similar to that of testing resistors. A
selectable constant-current source (10mA to 0.1A) is connected to the semiconductor

20-3
Theory of Operation Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Current Mode

junction, then the voltage drop across the junction is measured. You can also measure zener
diodes up to about 10 volts with diode measurements.
Current Guarding
The Model TR-8 allows you to apply guard points to help eliminate the effect that parallel
components have on the measurement. Consider the circuit shown in the following figure. If
you measure Rx, you are also measuring the parallel combination of Ry + Rz. Using guarding,
you can eliminate (or reduce) the effects of Ry and Rz from the measurement.
(+) te st point

Ry
Rx

Rz
(-) test point

Circuit with Parallel Components

The following figure shows the same circuit with current guarding applied. The guard point,
applied to the junction of Ry and Rz, applies current to bring the guard point to the same
voltage potential as the (+) test point. Once this is achieved, there is little or no current flow
through Ry. Consequently, all of the source current flows through Rx, and as a result, the
effects of Ry and Rz are eliminated from the measurement.
You can apply up to six simultaneous guard points with a current mode measurement. Each of
the guard points can be externally sensed to more accurately cancel the currents of the parallel
resistances. The System can apply up to 15mA of guard current for a DC current
measurement. The system can also be instructed to use all of the test points as guard points,
with selected points eliminated.
(+) test point

Ry
Rx G uard point +
-
Rz
(-) test point

Circuit with Current Guarding

20-4
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Theory of Operation
Voltage Mode

Voltage Mode
Overview
The Voltage Mode provides the capability to measure resistors, capacitors and inductors. It
can measure using DC voltage or AC frequencies of 100Hz, 1kHz, 10kHz and 100kHz as
stimulus. The following figure shows a block diagram of the voltage System.

Voltage
Source

Rx Voltage
Cx Measure
Ix

-
+
Current
Measure

Voltage Mode Block Diagram

Compared to the Current Mode, the Voltage Mode provides advantages for many in-circuit
measurements:
1. Since complex measurements are taken, the System can provide better measurements
when connected to circuits that contain both resistive and inductive or capacitive
components.
2. Capacitance readings taken at 1kHz and above are much faster than capacitance
measurements taken with the Current Mode.
3. Measurements of smaller capacitances are possible.

4. Ability to measure inductance is available.

The voltage source can provide 2V, 200mV or 20mV full-range stimulus of DC, 100Hz, 1kHz,
10kHz or 100kHz. The AC signals are low-distortion sine waves. Internal output impedance
of the stimulus system is about 600, limiting the current and voltage at the component to be
tested. Maximum current through the tested component will not exceed about 3mA.
Once the stimulus signal is applied, the System measures the voltage drop across the unknown
component. The System then measures the current to ground (which is the (-) measurement
test point) through the unknown component. From this information, the impedance of the
component being measured can be calculated via Ohm's law.
In AC-voltage measurements, the System also measures the 90-degree quadrature voltage and
current components through the unknown. Knowing the voltage and current both in-phase and

20-5
Theory of Operation Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Voltage Mode

in 90-degree phase, the System can calculate the capacitive, inductive, and resistive
components of the unknown impedance.
Testing Resistors
When taking resistance measurements with AC, measurements that have an inductive
component are calculated using a series LR calculation model as shown in the Series LR
Model figure. For other AC-resistance measurements the System uses the parallel RC model
as shown in the Parallel RC Model figure.

Series LR Model

The System can also measure resistors using DC voltage. When measuring resistors with this
mode, only two in-phase readings (voltage and current) are made and the resistance computed
using Ohm's law.
The System can measure resistance values from 0 to 19M.

Parallel RC Model

Testing Capacitors
Small capacitance values (less than 1F) use the parallel RC model shown in the Parallel RC
Model figure. Large capacitance values use the series RC model shown in the Series RC
Model figure. The active measurement range is 1pF - 2,000F at 1kHz (and above) and 10pF -
20,000F at 100Hz.

Series RC Model

Testing Inductors
Inductors use the series LR model shown in the Series LR Model figure. The effective
measurement range of inductors is 6H to 1000H.
Use of Offset
The AC stimulus from the System can be offset. If the System is not offset, the source signal
(+ test point) is symmetrical above and below the potential of the (-) test point. If positively
offset, the signal is entirely above potential of the (-) test point, and if negatively offset,
entirely below the potential of the (-) test point. The effects of offsetting on the output signal
are shown in the following figure.

20-6
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Theory of Operation
Voltage Mode

N o B ias P ositive B ias N eg ative B ias

0V

Offset

Offsetting can be valuable when measuring across diodes and sometimes can provide better
readings when measuring polarized capacitors. Offset operation is slower than normal
operation. Since offsetting can effectively leave a charge on the component being tested, it
may be necessary to discharge it before other measurements are taken.
Frequency Selection
You may choose between DC, 100Hz, 1kHz, 10kHz and 100kHz when using Voltage Mode
measurements. This section discusses the theoretical reasons for choosing the frequency.
For purposes of speed, whenever practical, 1kHz and above should be used in place of 100Hz
since measurements at the higher frequencies are about 10 times faster than 100Hz
measurements. In most cases, the speed of capacitor measurements taken in Current Mode are
slower than 1kHz measurements and faster than 100Hz measurements.
From a measurement standpoint, selection of frequency is a choice based primarily on the
value of the component being measured and its surrounding circuitry.
For small inductors and small capacitors, use higher frequencies. For large inductors and large
capacitors, use lower frequencies.
When measuring components that have other components in parallel, you should use the
frequency that makes the impedance of the unknown component small compared to the
surrounding components.
For example, consider that you are measuring a 10k resistor in parallel with a 0.1F
capacitor. The impedance of the capacitor depends on the frequency (F). As you probably
recall:

For capacitors XC = 1/( 2 F C )


For inductors: XL = 2 F L
In our hypothetical measurement of the 10k resistor in parallel with a 0.1F cap, the
capacitor's impedance is:
Frequency (F) Impedance
100Hz 15.9k
1000Hz 1.59k

You want to minimize the effect of the parallel capacitance upon the resistor, therefore 100Hz
is better since it will decrease the parallel load. If you were measuring the capacitor, you
would want to use 1kHz or higher since it makes the capacitor more dominant with respect to
the resistor.

20-7
Theory of Operation Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Voltage Mode

Voltage Guarding
The Model TR-8 allows the use of voltage guarding. Guarding is a technique by which you
can reduce the effect of parallel components upon the measurement.
Consider the circuit shown in the following figure. If we measure Rx, we will actually
measure the combination of Ry + Rz in parallel with Rx.
If we add a guard point, as shown in the following figure, we can minimize the effects of the
parallel resistance of Ry and Rz.
(+) te st point

Ry
Rx G uard point

Rz
(-) test po int

Circuit with Voltage Guarding

In the Model TR-8 Voltage Mode, guard points drive the guarded circuit point to ground
potential. When the guard is active, it forces the top of Rz and the (-) Test Point to be at the
same voltage potential. As a result, no current can flow through Rz and consequently all of the
current that we measure at the (-) Test Point flows through Rx. Since we have accurately
measured the current through Rx and we can accurately measure the voltage across Rx, we can
determine its value with the effects of Ry and Rz guarded out.
The Model TR-8 allows you to have up to six simultaneous guard points. This allows you to
eliminate the current paths from several surrounding circuits. Each of the six guard points can
be externally sensed at the UUT to provide the most effective guarding. You can also specify
all test points to be guards, with selected non-guarded points.
You can guard out resistors, capacitors or inductors with the System. The effectiveness of
guarding increases as does the impedance of the component between the (+) test point and the
guard point (Ry in the previous example). If the impedance of this component is small (less
than 1/100 the value of Rx, for example), guarding is not likely to be highly effective. In the
example shown in the previous figure, if Rz is a larger resistance than Ry, you could improve
the effectiveness of guarding by reversing the polarity of the measurement.
Note that as you add guard points to the Model TR-8 Voltage Mode, the amplitude of the
stimulus signal becomes smaller and smaller. If the guarded impedances are small, you may
eventually get to the point where the stimulus is so small that repeatability of the readings
decreases.
The TR-8-PWR module can be used to increase the guard current up to 100mA. As a practical
matter, additional guard current seldom helps the measurement. The reason is that at higher
currents, the resultant additional voltage drops at the fixture contact points can induce
measurement errors.

20-8
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Theory of Operation
Measurement Guidelines

Measurement Guidelines
This section discusses guidelines that you can use to obtain the best test results in your testing
application.
Overview
For most readings, the System will automatically choose the best method and ranges. If that
fails, you can easily get a display showing a variety of measurements taken on the points in
question. From the displayed alternatives you can simply choose the best one and use it.
However, in some cases you may want to make a detailed analysis to determine the best
measurement method. This section gives some guidelines to help.
Note that no matter what test equipment you use, CheckSum's or an alternative, you are likely
to run across occasional components that you can't effectively test with standard automated
techniques. For these points you'll have to rely on the continuity test or other inspection
methods.
General Guidelines
The following general guidelines apply to all component measurements:
1. All other things being equal, choose the 2V output voltage rather than 200mV or lower.
This will result in more accurate, repeatable measurements. The exception to this is the 10
and 100 DC constant-current resistance measurement ranges (200mV output at 1mA
and 10mA), which are the most accurate way to measure resistances less than 160.
2. For DC readings (current or voltage), try reversing the polarity and measuring again. This
can provide a solution if there are diodes in the measurement circuit.
3. For AC readings where unguardable parallel circuitry exists, choose the frequency that
makes the impedance of the measured component low compared to parallel impedances.
In general, the System will take good measurements if the parallel impedance is greater
than 10% of the impedance of the component that you are measuring.
4. For DC current measurements, look at the Dynamic Point Analysis screen for clues. You
might find that there is a slowly charging cap across the resistor or an inductor causing a
negative slope on the display. You might also see a diode junction turning on at about
0.6V, indicating that you need to use a low-voltage range.
5. On AC measurements, try positive and negative offset to see if the readings improve. Try
the 200mV output range before experimenting with offset changes.
6. The relative measurement speed of the System is approximately as listed in order from
fastest to slowest:
Continuity measurements
DC-current resistance/diode measurements
DC-voltage resistance measurements
AC-voltage 1kHz and above capacitance/inductance/resistance measurements
DC-current capacitance measurements
AC-voltage 100Hz capacitance/inductance/resistance measurements

20-9
Theory of Operation Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Measurement Guidelines

7. To optimize testing speed, you can organize your program so that readings are grouped
together by frequency. This allows testing to proceed with minimal settling time. The
system function of sort for speed performs this sort for you.
8. If the readings that you are getting are too high, it may be a case of significant series
resistance in the measurement path. If you have wired other test points to the component,
use external sensing to eliminate the effects of path resistance beyond the local sense
points on the MPX modules.
9. If the readings are too low and there are parallel paths with a test point in the middle of the
components in the parallel path, it is likely that guarding will have a positive influence.
10. For Voltage Mode guarding, choose guard points that have some resistance (impedance)
between both the (+) test point and the (-) test point. It is best if the guard points have the
highest value of resistance in the path between the (+) test point and the guard points. You
can rearrange the polarity of the measurement if need be to obtain this effect. It is only
necessary to consider guarding of the points that are ultimately connected to the (-) test
point. See the following figure "Choosing Voltage Mode Guards" for an idea of where to
guard when using the Voltage Mode.
11. For Current Mode guarding, choose guard points in a similar fashion to Voltage Mode
guarding, but arrange the guard points so that the highest resistance is between the (-) test
point and the guard point. Remember that the Current Mode guard is limited to about
15mA of guard current, so if the resistance between the guard point and the (-) test point is
less than about 13 (130 on the 2V ranges), you will have better luck using the Voltage
Mode for guarding. With the Current Mode, it is only necessary to consider guarding of
impedances that connect to the (+) test point. See the following figure "Choosing Current
Mode Guards" for an idea of where to guard when using the Current Mode.
The preceding general guidelines apply to all measurements. The remaining sections deal with
specific component types that are to be tested.
(+) test point Don't Guard
Don't Guard

Rx

(-) test point Guard!


Guard!

Choosing Voltage Mode Guards

20-10
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Theory of Operation
Measurement Guidelines

(+) test point Guard!


Guard!

Rx

(-) test point Don't Guard


Don't Guard

Choosing Current Mode Guards

Testing Resistors
As a first choice for testing resistors, select a measurement with the Current Mode since it will
generally be the fastest and most accurate. For high values (e.g., 2M and above), DC-V or
1kHz and above readings may be faster. The DC-voltage measurement mode works similar to
most hand-held meters and works in a variety of circuits, but is not as fast as current-based
measurements.
In general, with the Current Mode, use the highest output voltage in conjunction with the
highest current that gives good results. For values below about 160, the 0.2V / 1mA range is
the most accurate. For values below about 15, the 0.2V / 10mA range is the most accurate.
If no readings (AC or DC) seem to work, look at the Dynamic Point Analysis screen. You
might find that a cap in parallel is charging and that you can either discharge it previously with
a DISCH test step, use the remeasurement delay, RES discharge parameter, or set the RESRG
delay time to help.
Testing Capacitors
Although not always the case, in general, the Voltage Mode is preferable for small capacitors
(about 10 F or less) and the Current Mode is best for larger capacitors.
In addition to the general guidelines, try the 'swap model' parameter to see if you get better
results. This changes the calculation model used (see Theory of Operation). The System
automatically tries to choose the best method. However, it can not correctly make this choice
in all cases. Consequently, you may find your results change dramatically by swapping the
calculation model.
For large capacitors, better measurement results are obtained if the fixture is wired for external
sense. Since impedance of large capacitors is small, the characteristic resistance (up to about
15) in each test point can cause significant errors without external sense.
Testing Inductors
Inductance measurements are subject to the same guidelines as capacitors, with only the
calculations changed. Inductance measurements are available only with the Voltage Mode.
On low value inductors (less than about 50H), use of external sense wiring greatly increases
the measurement effectiveness.

20-11
Theory of Operation Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Measurement Guidelines

Continuity Tests
Continuity tests are optimized for speed. As a result, you might find that the automatically
generated continuity tests contain some erroneous connections or opens that are caused by
charged or discharged capacitors. If this is the case, and it causes some testing problems, you
can turn these into don't-cares and use RESistance tests for the problem points.
Testing ICs/Transistors/Diodes
For testing ICs, the ICs Test is typically used. Diode tests can be used for transistors, ICs and
diodes. Most semiconductor junctions measure about 600mV when forward-biased.
Transistors and FETs can usually be tested with the Beta test type.
With a single diode test you can ensure that the diode or semiconductor is installed, that it is in
the proper polarity, and that it is not open or shorted.
With ICs, the diode test is typically used to measure the protection diodes present between the
input and output pins and power/ground. You can typically find an asymmetrical set of diode
junctions on the pins of the IC to confirm that the IC is clocked properly. You may also find a
combination that has a different number of diode junctions in series in one IC orientation.

20-12
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual TR-8 MDA Specifications

Chapter 21
TR-8 Specifications

21-1
TR-8 MDA Specifications Model TR-8 Instruction Manual

TR-8 Specifications Capacitance Measurement


Capacitors are measured with a choice of DC-constant-
Resistance Measurement current or AC-complex-impedance measurements.
Resistors are measured with a choice of DC-constant- Measurements can be effectively made from 2 pF -
current, DC-constant-voltage, or AC-complex-impedance 20,000 F 3.
measurements. Low impedance measurements can be Range Accuracy
externally sensed.
100KHz 10KHz 1KHz 100Hz 1mA 10mA
Measurement using DC Current Stimulus 0-100pF 4%1 4%1 4%1
Range,F.S. Current Voltage at F.S. Accuracy 100pF - 1000pF 4%2 4%2 4%2 10%2
19 10 mA .2 V 2% F.S. 1000pF - .01F 10% 4% 4% 4%
190 * 10 mA 2V 1% F.S. .01F - .1F 4% 4% 4%
1.9K * 1 mA 2V 1% F.S. .1F - 1F 10% 4% 4%
19K * 0.1 mA 2V 1% F.S. 1F - 10F 4% 4%
190K * 10 A 2V 1% F.S. 10F - 100F 10% 4% 4%
1.9M * 1 A 2V 2% F.S. 100F - 1000F 10% 10% 4%
19M 0.1 A 2V 5% F.S. 1000F - 20000F 10% 20% 10%
*.2V ranges are also available. For .2V ranges, multiply typical accuracy Notes:
by 3. For internally sensed measurements, add 2 to accuracy. 1. 5pF
Maximum voltage may exceed full-scale value during overrange.
2. 10pF
Measurement using AC/DC Voltage Stimulus 3. While small isolated capacitances (pF region) can effectively be
tested by the system, often times in-circuit influences such as parallel
Range Source Voltage, Typical Accuracy impedances in ICs degrade measurements.
0 to 10K 3.8V DC or 2V AC RMS 1% Value+0.5 Specifications assume residual capacitance is offset and apply to 2V
10K to 100K 3.8V DC or 2V AC RMS 2% Value source. 0.2V and .02V sources are also available. For .2V, multiply
accuracy by 3. For .02V, multiply accuracy by 10. Technique is fully
100K to 1M 3.8V DC or 2V AC RMS 4% Value auto ranging. Source current <10mA.
10% Value
1M to 10M 3.8V DC or 2V AC RMS
(20% @ 1KHz)
Guarding Capability
.2V & .02V sources are also available. For .2V, multiply accuracy by
3. For .02V, multiply accuracy by 10 (not specified above 1 M). The Model TR-8 provides guarding to minimize the
Available AC stimulus frequencies 100Hz and 1KHz. For internally effects of parallel impedances. Without special wiring,
sensed measurements, add 2 to accuracy. Technique is fully auto any test point can be used as a measurement point, a
ranging. Source current <10mA.
guard point, or an external sense point. All points can be
Inductance Measurement guarded (with selected deletions), or up to six individual
Inductors are measured with AC-complex-impedance guard-points can be simultaneously used. Since each
measurements. Effective measurement range is 1H - measurement or guard point can be externally sensed,
1000H. up to sixteen test points can be active in a single
Range Accuracy measurement.
100KHz 10KHz 1KHz 100Hz Guarding uses a separate guard amplifier for each guard
0H - 10H 4%+0.5H 4%+0.5H 10%+2H point to provide extremely precise guarding. If the
10H - 100H 4%+2H 4%+2H 10%+4H optional Model TR-8-PWR Module is specified, the
100H - 1mH 4% 4% 4% 10% system can provide additional guarding current. This
1mH - 10mH 10% 4% 4% 4% current, available through specially wired points, can
10mH - 100mH 10% 4% 4% allow measurement of components with extremely low
100mH - 1H 10% 4% parallel impedance. Even without guarding, the system
1H - 10H 10% can often directly measure components of different
10H - 100H 10% types connected in parallel, such as a capacitor and a
100H - 1000H 20% resistor, using complex-impedance measurements.
Specifications assume residual inductance is offset. Specifications
apply to 2V source. 0.2 and .02V sources are also available. For
.2V, multiply accuracy by 3. For .02V, multiply accuracy by 10.
Technique is fully auto ranging. Source current <10mA. Measure-
ments <100H should be externally sensed for full accuracy.

21-2
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual TR-8 MDA Specifications

Guarding Opens/Shorts Measurement


Maximum Current per Test Point: 10mA Continuity measurement is performed to find the most
Max. Number of Simultaneous 6 (or guard-all common manufacturing fault, shorts. The system self-
Guard Points: less selected learns a known-good UUT, then tests against this map.
points) The map can be edited and no-care conditions can be
Maximum Total Guard Current specified for measurements where components exist,
(TR-8): 20mA and either condition is acceptable.
Maximum Total Guard Current
(TR-8-PWR): 120mA Connection/Open Thresholds: Separately program-
mable from 2 - 50 K.
Typical Test Time for 600 Test Points: 4 seconds
Typical Resistance Measurement Accuracy Degradation (Test time depends on UUT circuit topology)
when using Guarding:
IC-Orientation/Presence Measurement
Guard Ratio Multiply Accuracy IC presence and orientation is verified by checking the
1:1 x1 semiconductor junctions of the protection diodes
10:1 x2 typically present between IC pins and the UUT power
100:1 x3 supplies. Using a proprietary algorithm, the system self-
Any test point can be designated as a guard or external guard sense learns a mapping of these ICs and tests against this
point without special wiring, except TR-8-PWR points. map. The map can be manually edited for specification
of specific tests and no-cares.
Voltage Measurement
HP TestJet technology
The Model TR-8 can measure DC voltages, such as on-
A common fault in surface mount technology manufac-
board batteries or for UUT power-on testing.
turing is open connections. On components with bussed
Measurement Range Accuracy connections or high impedance pins, these faults may
0.2V 4 mV not be detected by normal analog in-circuit measure-
2.0V 40 mV ments.
10 V 200 mV
The optional Model TR-8-SMT provides the capability to
Ranges are bipolar.
detect these faults using HP TestJet technology. A flat
Stimulus may float up to 6V from ground.
probe is built into the fixture over each component to be
tested. The system measures from this top probe to each
Diode and Zener Diode Measurement
signal pin on the SMT device.
Standard diodes, LEDs and zener diodes are tested by
Measuring minute capacitance values, the system can
applying a constant current to the anode and cathode,
detect open connections. This measurement method may
then measuring the resultant voltage (forward voltage
also be used to verify connector integrity. Since the probes
drop). Measurements of up to 18V using 10 mA of
are active, this technique is very repeatable and usable
current are available, extended up to 100 mA of applied
without degradation from fixture wiring capacitance and
current when the Model TR-8-PWR option is used (see
cross-talk.
Power Source Capability section).
Because the top-probe multiplexing is built into the test
Diode Test Type system, fixture-resident multiplexing is unnecessary. This
Accuracy reduces the recurring cost of fixturing. A good pin is
Range Source Current typically 20 fF to 200 fF, depending on the packaging
10mA 1mA .1mA technology. The system can discriminate up to three pins
2V 40 mV 40 mV 40 mV on the same network on the same IC. 24 top probes can
10V 200 mV 200 mV 200 mV be connected to each module, expandable up to 8
modules. Each module contains a relay driver for low
Zener Test Type impedance grounding in the fixture. Relay drive is 100mA
Accuracy at 12V.
Range 10 mA Source Current Measurement Range Resolution
18V 300 mV 0 fF to 300 fF 2 fF
20 fF to 3000 fF 20 fF

21-3
TR-8 MDA Specifications Model TR-8 Instruction Manual

Capacitance Polarity The Model DIG-1 or Model G-80 can provide additional
A system with the Model TR-8-SMT option can be ex- digital I/O points. The optional Model DIG-1 Digital I/O
panded to measure polarity of capacitors with the Model Module provides 48 more digital bits per module, 8
TR-8-SMT-CAP option. This option, which makes use of modules maximum per system. The optional Model G-80
special top-sensing probes, can be used for aluminum and Digital I/O Module provides 96 more digital bits per
tantalum polarized capacitors in axial and SMT packages, module, 1 module maximum per system.
up to approximately 200F. Radial aluminum electrolytics
generally cannot be tested using this technology. The
standard TR-8-SMT-CAP can test up to 24 capacitors on a Power Source Capability
UUT, with expansion (by additional TR-8-SMT-CAP mod- The Model TR-8-PWR Module option can be used to provide
ules) up to 192 capacitors. higher current outputs from the system. These higher
In some cases, polarity testing can be done by applying a current outputs can be used to actuate UUT relays, power-
constant current, then measuring the voltage. The up low power UUTs, provide additional guard current, or
developed voltage may be lower if the polarized apply stimulus for power-up testing. The module has dual
capacitor is installed with incorrect polarity. The system voltage-programmable high current outputs that can be set
can apply between 0.1A and 100 mA (with the TR-8- from +12V to -12V (up to 24V differential). For switching
PWR option) for these tests. Suitability depends on the these outputs to the UUT, 16 relay test point outputs are
UUT circuit topology and nature of the capacitors being provided. Voltage and current output can be monitored.
measured. Fixed supplies provide +12V, +5V and -12V at the back
panel. These outputs can be switched on or off via on-board
3-Terminal Semiconductor Measurement relays. The outputs are fused for protection of the system
Three terminal devices can be measured between the and UUT. Eight other outputs can be used for digital output
power terminals (e.g., source and drain) while biasing or to energize external relays.
the control terminal with another test point using Programmable Power Supplies
voltage or current. This can effectively measure the
No. of Channels: 2
operation, and in most cases the polarity of devices such
No. of Test Points: 16
as FETs, SCRs and transistors.
Programmable Voltage: -12V to +12V, in 6mV increments
Third Terminal Source: Current -1mA to +1mA Maximum Total Current: see the plot below
or Voltage -10V to +10V Current Measurement: 10%
Voltage Measurement: (10%+300mV) when in current
Boundary-Scan limit
The Model TR-8 can be expanded to include integrated
boundary-scan testing of UUTs that have ICs designed to TR-8 Power Module Source
take advantage of this technology. You or your bound- 150
ary-scan provider can generate the specific boundary- 140
scan test sequences to control your UUT. The execution 130
and test results are integrated in the CheckSum TR-8 test 120
and operating environment. CheckSum provides 110
Output Current (mA)

boundary-scan hardware and execution driver software 100


90
environment for boundary-scan implementations.
80
70
Digital I/O Capabilities
60
The base system includes eight individually bi-directional 50
digital bits, each of which can be tri-stated or configured 40
for input or output. 30
20
Each bit can sink 24 mA or source 2.6 mA, and uses a 10
10 K pull-up resistor for TTL/CMOS compatibility. 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Output Voltage

21-4
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual TR-8 MDA Specifications

Fixed Power Supplies:


+12V at 1 A, +5V at 1 A, -12V at .1A
Switched for rear panel output only
Undedicated Relays:
4 Independent relays each SPDT (Form C), 1A at 24V

Operator's Keypad
The Model TR-8-KEYPAD allows the operator to use the
system without a standard keyboard. The keypad
provides three system status LEDs (green for pass, red for
fail, amber for busy). The keypad has eight keys for
operator control. F1 through F7 keys are used for most
operations such as next-test or retest, and the ESCape
key aborts most operations. The keypad is connected
directly to the TR-8 System Module back panel. (See Test
Accessories section).

General Notes
To obtain stated accuracies, low impedance measure-
ments (less than about 100) may require external
sensing to compensate for typical 5-10 lead resistance
beyond internal sense points. Self-test performs auto-
matic offset characterization for this lead resistance.
All specifications shown are typical accuracies when
measuring isolated components. Accuracies may
degrade depending on surrounding circuitry. Specifica-
tions are typical for a 400-point system with externally
sensed measurements when impedances are less than
100 .

21-5
TR-8 MDA Specifications Model TR-8 Instruction Manual

21-6
Chapter 22
Test Descriptions

Test Type Descriptions


Overview
The descriptions in this chapter provide detailed information about each of the test types that
can be used in a test program. These test types are entered with the Edit screen described in
Entering Test Steps. Writing Test Programs also gives general information about how many of
these test types are used in a program. This table includes test step descriptions that apply to
the Model TR-8 system, and also for options that can be added to the test system, such as the
Model TR-8-PWR/PWR-2, SMT-2, G-80, DIG-1, and the Model TR-6/FUNC-2 Functional
test system. In most cases, notes are included that show which steps apply to optional modules
that you may or may not have in your System.
Get HELP Fast: To access the test type help page quickly, type in the test type, press the
Enter key, and press the F1 function key.
The following list shows all of the test step types that are available and where to find them:
Analog Measurement Test Types on page 22-4
Resistance Test RES on page 22-7
Low Resistance Test LORES on page 22-33
Capacitance Test CAP on page 22-8
Diode Junction Test DIODE on page 22-8
Zener Diode Test ZENER on page 22-9
IC Test ICS on page 22-10
Set IC Test Range Limits ICRNG on page 22-11
Inductance Test INDUC on page 22-11
Voltage Test VOLT on page 22-12
Continuity (Opens/Shorts) Test CONT on page 22-12
Discharge Point DISCH on page 22-14
Pause a Specified Time PAUSE on page 22-15
Set Measurement Retry Parameters RETRY on page 22-16
Set Low-Level Measurement Parameters RESRG on page 22-16
Adjust Potentiometer POTR / POTU / POTD on page 22-18
Install/Remove UUT Jumpers JMPER on page 22-19
UUT Switch Test SWCHR / SWCHD on page 22-19
Test Descriptions Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Test Type Descriptions

Make Cable Connection WIRE on page 22-20


DMM Measurement Test DMM on page 22-21
Universal Counter/Timer Measurement Test UCT on page 22-22
UCT Trigger Setup UCTTR on page 22-25
Dynamic Measurement Calibration ZERO / GAIN on page 22-25
TestJet - SMT Opens Test TESTJ on page 22-26
Capacitor Polarity Test TJETC on page 22-27
Transistor/FET Beta BETA on page 22-27
Transformer Polarity Test XFMR on page 22-28
High-Voltage Test HIPOT / HP1 on page 22-29

Analog Stimulus Test Types on page 22-35


Source Sine Wave SINEV on page 22-36
Source Square Wave SQRV on page 22-37
Source DC Voltage DCV on page 22-37
Monitor TR-8-PWR/PWR-2 Output PWRMN on page 22-38
External Signal Input/Output EXTIO on page 22-38

Digital Test Types on page 22-39


Digital Input Test DIGI on page 22-46
Digital Output DIGO on page 22-47
Digital I/O Configuration DIGA on page 22-48
DIG-1 Control DIGR on page 22-49
Digital Hardware Test LOGIC on page 22-51
PC Port Input Test PORTI on page 22-52
PC Port Output PORTO on page 22-52
Boundary-Scan Test BSCAN on page 22-52
In System Programming ISP on page 22-53

Transfer of Control Test Types on page 22-54


Specify Label LABEL on page 22-55
Jump Unconditionally JMP on page 22-55
Jump Based on Resistance Measurement JMPR on page 22-56
Jump Based on Capacitance Measurement JMPC on page 22-56
Jump Based on Diode Measurement JMPD on page 22-56
Jump Based on Inductance Measurement JMPI on page 22-57
Jump Based on Voltage Measurement JMPV on page 22-57
Jump Based on PWR Measurement JMPWR on page 22-57
Jump Based on DMM Measurement JMPDM on page 22-58
Jump Based on UCT Measurement JMPU on page 22-58
Jump Based on Result of Digital Input JMPDI on page 22-59
Jump Based on Result of Port Input JMPPI on page 22-59
Jump Based on Result of Key Input JMPK on page 22-60
Set Error Counter Used for JMPE ERROR on page 22-60
Jump Based on Number of Errors JMPE on page 22-61
Jump Based on Zener Measurement JMPZ on page 22-61
Jump Based on Self-test JSTST on page 22-62
Jump Based on Fixture ID JFXID on page 22-62
Call a Subroutine CALL on page 22-63
Return from a Subroutine RET on page 22-63

22-2
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Descriptions
Test Type Descriptions

Load and Run a Test Program RUN on page 22-63


Load and Run a Test Sub-Program RUNT on page 22-64
Return from a Test Sub-Program RETT on page 22-65

Operator Message Test Types on page 22-65


Display a Short Message to the Operator DISPL on page 22-66
Display a Message to the Operator DISP on page 22-66
Erase an Operator Message DISPE on page 22-66
Display a Picture Image PICT on page 22-67
Wait for a Key to be Pressed WAITK on page 22-68
PCB Number Being Tested PCB on page 22-69
Screen Test Type Table SCRN on page 22-70

User-Defined Tests on page 22-72


Generate Test Result EVAL on page 22-72
Execute User-Written Routine EXEC on page 22-72

Memory Manipulation Test Types on page 22-74


Memory Manipulation (Integer) MEMI on page 22-75
Memory Manipulation (Real) MEMR on page 22-78
Memory Manipulation (String) MEMS on page 22-80

General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB) I/O on page 22-83


GPIB (IEEE-488) Control GPIB on page 22-83

RS232 Serial Interface I/O on page 22-86


RS232 Control RS232 on page 22-86

Miscellaneous Tests on page 22-89


Turn Fixture Vacuum On and Off VACUM on page 22-90
Fixture Control FIXCT on page 22-90
Fixture Identification FIXID on page 22-91
Control Relays RELAY on page 22-92
Self-test Module STST on page 22-94
BreakPoint BRKPT on page 22-95
Fixture-Check FIXCH on page 22-96
Print Test Results RPRTS on page 22-97
Sound PC's Beeper BEEP on page 22-99
Set Test Conditions FLAGS on page 22-99
Put a Remark in the Test Program REM on page 22-100
Conditional Test Report Output RSLTS on page 22-100

The following list shows the general test types that are available and where to find them in this
section:
Analog Measurement Test Types on page 22-4
Analog Stimulus Test Types on page 22-35
Digital Test Types on page 22-39

22-3
Test Descriptions Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Analog Measurement Test Types

Transfer of Control Test Types on page 22-54


Message Test Types on page 22-65
User-Defined Tests on page 22-72
Memory Manipulation Test Types on page 22-74
General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB) I/O on page 22-83
RS232 Serial Interface I/O on page 22-86
Miscellaneous Tests on page 22-89

Analog Measurement Test Types


Analog Measurement Test Types
Test Step Range Values on page 22-5
Resistance Test on page 22-7
Low Resistance Test on page 22-33
Capacitance Test on page 22-8
Diode Test on page 22-8
Zener Diode Test on page 22-9
IC Test on page 22-10
IC Test Range Limiting on page 22-11
Inductor Test on page 22-11
Voltage Test on page 22-12
Continuity Test on page 22-12
Discharge Point on page 22-14
Pause a Specified Time on page 22-15
Set Measurement Retry Parameters on page 22-16
Set Low-Level Measurement Parameters on page 22-16
Adjust Potentiometer on page 22-18
Install/Remove Jumpers on page 22-19
Set Switch on page 22-19
Make Cable Connection on page 22-20
DMM Measurement Test on page 22-21
Universal Counter/Timer Measurement Test on page 22-22
UCT Trigger Setup on page 22-25
Dynamic Measurement Calibration on page 22-25
Test for SMT Opens on page 22-26
Test for Capacitor Polarity on page 22-27

22-4
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Descriptions
Analog Measurement Test Types

Test for Transistor/FET Beta on page 22-27


Test for Transformer Polarity on page 22-28
High-Voltage Test on page 22-29
Test Step Range Values
For most analog measurements (resistance, capacitance and inductance) the range column in
the test program specifies the measurement range, whether guarding is used, and so on. In
most cases, the System automatically generates the range value used for each analog test step
in the test program for you. As a result, you normally don't have any reason to be concerned
about specifics of the range value.
However, you may be interested in how the actual range value is derived or create your own
range and then type it in. The following table shows the specifics of the range as it applies for
most of the TR-8 analog measurement test types. The System chooses the appropriate value
from each section of the table and adds them all together to form the final range value. For
example, the test step range for a CAPacitance test using 200mV output stimulus at 1kHz
would be 49.

Resistance DCI Auto-Range Note


Res range values with the six least significant bits set to 0 cause the system
to take auto-range resistance DCI measurements. See ResRg range 106 on
page 22-16 for additional Res DCI auto-range control.

22-5
Test Descriptions Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Analog Measurement Test Types

Test Step Range for RES/CAP/INDUCT


Parameter Value Description
Voltage/Current Range 0-12 For Current Mode measurements, see the range
value in the test type description
0 2V output range for Voltage Mode
1 200mV output range for Voltage Mode
2 20mV output range for Voltage Mode
Frequency/Function 0 DCI
16 DCV
32 100Hz
48 1kHz
20 10kHz
24 100kHz
Bias 0 No Bias
(AC Voltage Mode Only) 64 Positive Bias
128 Negative Bias
Guarding 0 No Guarding
256 Guarding Active
External Sense 0 No External Sense
512 External Sense Active
Initial Current Meas Range 0 12mA
(Voltage Mode Only) 1024 1.2mA
2048 120A
3072 12A
4096 1.2A
Initial Voltage Meas Range 0 4.8V
(Voltage Mode Only) 8192 0.48V
16384 48mV
24576 4.8mV
Swap Calculation Model 0 Normal Calculation Model
(Voltage Mode Only) 32768 Swap Calculation Model

22-6
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Descriptions
Analog Measurement Test Types

Resistance Test
Measures the resistance value between two test points and generates a result.

Range Note
The ranges shown in the table below apply to the DC-Current measurement
method. If the voltage measurement mode is used, see the test step range
value table on page 22-5 at the beginning of this section. The nominal
ranges shown below are usable to 90% over-range (minus about 15 when
not externally sensed). For example, the 1k range can be used for
readings up to 1.9k.

Also see the RETRY and RESRG test types for further specification of how the measurements
are taken.

O_Rng Note
To enter a value higher than the system can measure, type in 20M or
O_Rng. This value, displayed as > 19 M, is greater than any normally
measured value, and will never cause a failure on the high side. An over-
range measurement is shown as O_Rng in the measured value.

The menu selection Measure > Step Analysis (or press the F6 function key) in the edit test
program window opens the analysis window. The analysis window allows you to specify
certain measurement parameters such as range, settling delay time, external sense points,
polarity, offset, and gain.
Parameters Description
Test Type RES
Title Description of measured component (e.g., R234)
Range 1 = 100 (0.2V/1mA)
2 = 1k (2V/1mA)
3 = 10k (2V/0.1mA)
4 = 100k (2V/10A)
5 = 1M (2V/1A)
6 = 10M (2V/0.1A)
7 = 1k (0.2V/0.1mA)
8 = 10k (0.2V/10A)
9 = 100k (0.2V/1A)
10 = 1M (0.2V/0.1A)
11 = 100 (2V/10mA)
12 = 10 (0.2V/10mA)
17 = Default entry (see Range Note above)
From (-) Point Negative polarity test point
To (+) Point Positive polarity test point
Low Limit Low test limit in ohms
High Limit High test limit in ohms

22-7
Test Descriptions Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Analog Measurement Test Types

Capacitance Test
Measures capacitance between two test points and generates a test result.
The ranges shown in the following table apply to the DC-Current measurement method. If the
AC voltage measurement mode is used, see the test step range table on page 22-5 at the
beginning of this section.
Also see the RETRY test type for further specification of how the measurements are taken.

O_Rng Note
To enter a value higher than the system can measure, type in 20M or
O_Rng. This value, displayed as > 50 m, is greater than any normally
measured value, and will never cause a failure on the high side. An over-
range measurement is shown as O_Rng in the measured value.

Parameter Description
Test Type CAP
Title Description of measured component (e.g., C31)
Range 1 = 5,000F (0.2V/1mA)
2 = 500F (2V/1mA)
3 = 50F (2V/0.1mA)
4 = 5F (2V/10A)
5 = 0.5F (2V/1A)
6 = .05F (2V/0.1A)
8 = 500F (0.2V/0.1mA)
9 = 50F (0.2V/10A)
10 = 5F (0.2/1A)
11 = 0.5F (0.2V/0.1A)
13 = 5,000F (2V/10mA)
14 = 50,000F (0.2V/10mA)
49 = Default entry (see Test Step Range Values on page 22-5)
From (-) Point Negative polarity test point
To (+) Point Positive polarity test point
Low Limit Low test limit in farads
High Limit High test limit in farads

Diode Test
Applies a constant current across the semiconductor junction, measures the voltage drop and
generates a test result.
For typical diode measurements, the 'From(-)' test point is connected to the cathode of the
diode and the 'To(+)' test point is connected to the anode of the diode. The voltage drop of
typical diodes is approximately .6 V. The measured voltage is expected to be between the Low
and High Limits. The voltage range is 0 through 9.9 volts. Measurements taken on the 2V
range can be guarded. Guarding can also be used on adjacent circuit points to apply more
current across the diode being measured.

22-8
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Descriptions
Analog Measurement Test Types

Also see the RETRY test type for further specification of how the measurements are taken.
See the ZENER test type for diode measurements that need additional current or higher
voltages.

O_Rng Note
To enter a value higher than the system can measure, type in 20M or
O_Rng. This value, displayed as O_Rng, is greater than any normally
measured value, and will never cause a failure on the high side. An over-
range measurement is shown as O_Rng in the measured value.

Parameter Description
Test Type DIODE
Title Description of measured component (e.g., D101)
Range 1, 2 = Source 1mA, measure up to 2V
3 = Source 0.1mA, measure up to 2V
4 = Source .01mA, measure up to 2V
5 = Source 1A, measure up to 2V
6 = Source 0.1A, measure up to 2V
7 = Source 1mA, measure up to 10V
8 = Source 0.1mA, measure up to 10V
9 = Source .01mA, measure up to 10V
10 = Source 1A, measure up to 10V
11 = Source 0.1A, measure up to 10V
12 = Source 10mA, measure up to 2V
13 = Source 10mA, measure up to 10V
From (-) Point Cathode (-) test point for diode
To (+) Point Anode (+) test point for diode
Low Limit Low test limit in volts (typically 0.4 V)
High Limit High test limit in volts (typically 0.9 V)

Zener Diode Test


Applies approximately 10mA of DC constant-current through the diode and measures a
voltage of up to 18 VDC using the solid-state test points (MPX modules). If the TR-8-
PWR/PWR-2 source is specified (by using test point numbers between 1631 and 1646), the
source current is 100mA and voltages up to 12V can be measured.
The ZENER test can be used in place of the DIODE test type when current greater than 1mA is
necessary or when voltages greater than 10 volts need to be measured.

O_Rng Note
To enter a value higher than the system can measure, type in 20M or
O_Rng. This value, displayed as > 18, is greater than any normally
measured value, and will never cause a failure on the high side. An over-
range measurement is shown as > 18 in the measured value.

The menu selection Measure > Step Analysis (or press the F6 function key) in the edit test
program window opens the analysis window. The analysis window allows you to specify
measurement parameters such as the settling delay time and power source.

22-9
Test Descriptions Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Analog Measurement Test Types

Parameters Description
Test Type ZENER
Title Description of measurement (e.g., CR3)
Range Time, in mSec, to wait after applying the current and before
beginning the voltage measurement. This can be used to allow
time for parallel capacitances to charge.
From (-) Point Negative polarity test point
To (+) Point Positive polarity test point
Low Limit Low test limit in volts
High Limit High test limit in volts

IC Test
Allow for measurement of diode junctions at the pins of ICs. These diodes are typically
present at the inputs and outputs of ICs to protect the IC from damage by clamping the input
voltage between the power supply rails (e.g., VCC and GND for typical logic ICs).
This test type can measure from two power supply rails (e.g., VCC and GND) to all other pins
on the assembly. The system measures by applying a constant current, then measuring the
voltage drop and ensuring that it falls between the high and low test limits.
The measurement points for this test step type are programmed by using the Edit/Enter IC Test
Data window. The menu selection Measure > Step Analysis F6 in the edit test program
window opens the Edit/Enter IC Test Data window.
By using four different ICs test steps in a program (each with its own range value of 1, 2, 3, or
4), UUTs with up to eight power supply rails can be verified to each point. Under normal
circumstances, the System uses 1mA as the measurement current, but this can be reduced in
decade values by specifying special range values. Also see the ICRNG test type for
information on bounding the test point ranges to accommodate multi-PCB panels.

22-10
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Descriptions
Analog Measurement Test Types

Parameter Description
Test Type ICS
Title Description of measured component (e.g., IC Tests)
Range Sum of the following:
1 = Use first set of test data
2 = Use second set of test data
3 = Use third set of test data
4 = Use fourth set of test data
0 = Use 1mA measurement current
16 = Use 0.1mA measurement current
32 = Use 10A measurement current
64 = Use 1A measurement current
From (-) Point More negative (-) power supply rail to test from
(e.g., GND)
To (+) Point More positive (+) power supply rail to test from
(e.g., VCC)
Low Limit Low test limit in volts (typically 0.4V)
High Limit High test limit in volts (typically 0.9V)

IC Test Range Limiting


Allow for limiting the range of test points that are used when executing the next ICS test step.
This test type can be used to separate a single range of IC test data (range = 1, 2, 3 or 4) into
several distinct sections, such as when testing multiple PCB panels. When non-overlapping
ICRngs are used, the to and from pins of ICS test steps using the same range of data can be
different.
Parameter Description
Test Type ICRNG
Title Description (typically not used)
Range Not used
From (-) Point Beginning test point
To (+) Point Ending test point
Low Limit Not used
High Limit Not used

Inductor Test
Measures inductance between two test points and generates a test result.

22-11
Test Descriptions Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Analog Measurement Test Types

Parameter Description
Test Type INDUC
Title Description of measured component (e.g., L302)
Range See the test step range table on page 22-5 at the beginning of
this section. Measurements use 100Hz, 1kHz, 10kHz, or 100kHz
stimulus.
From (-) Point Negative polarity test point
To (+) Point Positive polarity test point
Low Limit Low test limit in henrys
High Limit High test limit in henrys

Voltage Test
Measures a DC voltage and generates a test result. This test can be used to test on-board
batteries or to test for charged capacitors. The usable voltage range is 0 through +9.9 volts
referenced to ground potential. See the DMM test type (available with optional Model TR-
6/FUNC-2) for more general voltage measurements.
Parameter Description
Test Type VOLT
Title Description of measured component (e.g., BT101)
Range 1 = Measure up to 200mV
2 = Measure up to 2V
0, 3 = Measure up to 10V
Range Not used
From (-) Point Most negative test point for voltage
To (+) Point Most positive test point for voltage
Low Limit Low test limit in volts
High Limit High test limit in volts

Continuity Test
Measures all combinations of solid-state test points between the `From (-) Point' and `To (+)
Point', and TR-6/FUNC-2/TR-6-1 relay test points between the Low Limit and High Limit for
opens and shorts. There are 2 data sets that can contain unique continuity connections. There
can be multiple CONT tests in a single test program using one data set, but the range of tested
points cannot overlap between any of the individual CONT tests since there is only one failure
database for the data set. Using the 2 data sets with separate threshold limits allows testing for
low resistance for connected test points and high resistance for non-connected test points.
To use the Model HP-1, High Voltage Testing on page 22-29 with the CONTinuity test type,
the range of points specified in the `From (-) Point' and `To (+) Point' columns will be from
1951 to 1998. The `From (-) Point' must be 1951 or higher and the `To (+) Point' must be
1998 or lower.
To automatically learn or specify the expected outcome of individual CONT tests, select the
CONT test step in the Edit Test Program window, and then select 'Step Analysis'. The menu
selection Measure > Step Analysis F6 in the edit test program window opens the Continuity

22-12
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Descriptions
Analog Measurement Test Types

/ No Care Information window. Each CONT test step uses one set of resistance thresholds.
The test program contains four sets of resistance thresholds. In the Continuity / No Care
Information window, use the menu item Setup > Set Threshold to select and/or edit the set of
thresholds used by the CONT test step. Also see Assigning Continuity Thresholds on page 9-
28 setup.
The Continuity Failure Analysis on page 9-28 can often provide additional information to help
isolate the failure.

22-13
Test Descriptions Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Analog Measurement Test Types

Parameter Description
Test Type CONT
Title Description (typically not used, or 'Opens/Shorts')
Range 0 = Normal test using the first continuity data set
1 = The test will ignore inactive points in the first continuity data set during
continuity testing optimizations. Any point that is inactive is not included in any
continuity measurements and is not connected to any other points during a
continuity test. This slows test execution, but can be used to help prevent continuity
errors on points connected to batteries on the UUT. For reliable test results on
assemblies with batteries or large capacitors, set at least one point connected to
the voltage as inactive and set the CONT test step Range to 1 (or 3). Remember
to relearn the CONT map (Measure > Self-Learn All) after making the points
inactive and setting the Range to 1 (or 3).
2 = Normal test using the second continuity data set
3 = Same as Range 1 using the second continuity data set
Advanced features:
Add 256 = Test for opens is not performed
Add 512 = Test for shorts is not performed
256 = Test only to verify non-connected points using the first continuity data set.
Connected points are not verified.
257 = Test only to verify non-connected points and ignore inactive points in
the first continuity data set during continuity testing optimizations.
Connected points are not verified.
258 = Test only to verify non-connected points using the second continuity
data set. Connected points are not verified.
259 = Test only to verify non-connected points and ignore inactive points in the
second continuity data set during continuity testing optimizations.
Connected points are not verified.
512 = Test only to verify connected points using the first continuity data set.
Non-connected points are not verified.
513 = Test only to verify connected points and ignore inactive points in
the first continuity data set during continuity testing optimizations.
Non-connected points are not verified.
514 = Test only to verify connected points using the second continuity
data set. Non-connected points are not verified.
515 = Test only to verify connected points and ignore inactive points in the
second continuity data set during continuity testing optimizations.
Non-connected points are not verified.

From (-) Point Lowest test point number of continuity test for solid-state test points (1-1600 or
2001-8400). Specify 1951-1998 for the HP-1.
To (+) Point Highest test point number of continuity test for solid-state test points (1-1600 or
2001-8400). Specify 1951-1998 for the HP-1.
Low Limit If non-zero, lowest test point number for continuity test of relay test points (1601-
1950).
High Limit If non-zero, highest test point number for continuity test of relay test points (1601-
1950).

Discharge Point
The specified test points are both connected to ground potential for a specified time. The
ground path (with range = 0) is approximately 400 resistance (or about 600 between the
two points through ground).

22-14
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Descriptions
Analog Measurement Test Types

If the Low Limit is 1 through 6, the System uses the System's current source to charge the two
test points in the specified polarity. The Low Limit indicates the current range to use. This
function can be used to discharge caps or reverse the charge between two points. The System's
current source can source, but not sink, current.
If the Low Limit is 7, the System connects all of the test points in the System together,
effectively discharging everything.

Note
If Low Limit = 7 is used, the discharge impedance is low (about 50 ), so
caution must be taken that the current through the discharge path does not
exceed 15mA. Doing so can damage the MDA System. Consequently
there should not be more than about .75V present between any two points.

Parameter Description
Test Type DISCH
Title Not used
Range Time to pause in milliseconds
From (-) Point Point to discharge or charge (-)
To (+) Point Point to discharge or charge (+)
Low Limit 0 = Discharge Points
1, 2 = Charge points at 1mA
3 = Charge points at 0.1mA
4 = Charge points at .01mA
5 = Charge points at 1A
6 = Charge points at 0.1A
11 = Charge points at 10mA
7 = Discharge all test points (see note above)
High Limit Not used

Pause a Specified Time

Parameter Description
Test Type PAUSE
Title Not used
Range Time to pause in milliseconds (0-32000 mSec)
From (-) Point Not used
To (+) Point Not used
Low Limit Not used
High Limit Not used

22-15
Test Descriptions Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Analog Measurement Test Types

Set Measurement Retry Parameters


Specifies re-measurement actions the System takes if a test step failure occurs for RES, CAP
and DIODE test types.
Also affected by these settings are the associated JMP for each analog test, i.e., JMPR, JMPC,
JMPI, and JMPD.
This test type allows modification, at program execution-time, of the measurement parameters
set in the 'Setup' menu in the Edit screen. This test type can be used to increase the values for
problem points, or to increase the speed of failures when executing JMP-type analog
measurements.
Parameter Description
Test Type RETRY
Title Normally not used, but if the title is RESET, the other fields are ignored and the
default retry characteristics (as present when beginning the test) are restored.
Range The maximum time, in mSec, to retry a DIODE test before reporting a failure. Can
be used when capacitors in parallel with the diode need to charge.
From (-) Point The maximum number of retries before reporting a RES failure.
To (+) Point The maximum number of retries before reporting a CAP failure.
Low Limit The maximum time, in mSec, to wait for the test points used in a RES test to
discharge before beginning a measurement (when using Current Mode). If this
parameter is set to 0, no checking for charged test points is made prior to RES
measurements.
High Limit Maximum time, in mSec, to wait between repeating a RES measurement. During
this time, the System endeavors to charge or discharge the measurement to the
correct value. Used for Current Mode measurements only.

Set Low-Level Measurement Parameters


Specifies measurement parameters such as delay time and number of samples averaged on
analog measurements such as RES, JMPR, VOLT, CAP and INDUC. This test-type can be
used to modify some of the analog measurement parameters during a test sequence to optimize
measurements. Many of these values are the same as those set in the Resistance Measurement
Characteristics screen and replace those values for the remainder of the test.
When range values of 1-10 are specified, current-mode measurements are modified. When
range values of 11-14 are specified, voltage mode measurements are modified. Range values
of 17-22 modify VOLT test-type measurements.
This test type can be used to increase the values for problem measurements or to increase
accuracy. The menu selection Measure > Step Analysis F6 in the editor provides an easy to
use, push button method, to setup this test step.

22-16
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Descriptions
Analog Measurement Test Types

Parameter Description
Test Type RESRG
Title Normally not used, but if the title is RESET, the other fields are ignored and
the default measurement characteristics (as present when beginning the
test) are restored.
Range 1 = 100 (0.2V/1mA)
2 = 1k (2V/1mA)
3 = 10k (2V/0.1mA)
4 = 100k (2V/10A)
5 = 1M (2V/1A)
6 = 10M (2V/0.1A)
7 = 1k (0.2V/0.1mA)
8 = 10k (0.2V/10A)
9 = 100k (0.2V/1A)
10 = 1M (0.2V/0.1A)
11 = Samples averaged for voltage-mode RES readings
12 = Samples averaged for voltage-mode CAP readings
13 = Samples averaged for voltage-mode INDUC readings
14 = Re-measures reference voltages to which voltage
measurements are calibrated.
15 = 100 (2V/10mA)
16 = 10 (.2V/10mA)
17 = Samples averaged for each VOLT reading group
19 = High Limit contains number of groups averaged for
VOLT readings (default = 1, maximum = 1000)
20 = High Limit contains discard value for VOLT readings if groups
averaged is greater than one. Any group readings above specified
percentage greater than reading average are discarded (default = 0).
For example, if High Limit is 50, group samples greater than 50%
above the average are discarded. Low Limit is similar, but discards
readings specified percentage below the average. For example, if
Low Limit is 50 (default = 0), group samples less than 50% of the
average are discarded.
21 = High Limit contains time, in mSec, after switching, but before taking
a VOLT reading (default = 0).
22 = High Limit contains scale factor for VOLT readings (default = 1).
24 = Sets the logic low and high thresholds to the Low Limit and High
Limit values respectively. See the command line parameters for
/loglo (logic low) and /loghi (logic high).
99 = Samples averaged and delay for TESTJ readings.
105 = Updates the current test program from the ASCII file named
in the Test Title. The directory of this ASCII file is the same as
the Visual MDA executable, normally "C:\checksum".
106 = Sets the maximum Res DCI range used during an auto-range
measurement. The Low Limit controls the maximum range and
sequence.
From (-) Point Not used
To (+) Point Not used
Low Limit For range values 10 or less (and 15, 16), the delay, in mSec, after applying
the constant-current source and before beginning the measurement. For
range value 20, specifies low discard range for VOLT readings.
For range value 106, set the Low Limit to 0 to use the default auto-ranging
(starting range is 12 then 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6). Set the Low Limit to 12, 11, 2, 3,
4, 5, or 6 and the highest auto-range will be set in this sequential order. See
the Res test type on page 22-7 for the meaning of the range values 2
through 12. The measured value is determined by the first measurement
that is not over-range (O_Rng).

22-17
Test Descriptions Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Analog Measurement Test Types

High Limit For range values 17 or less, the number of samples averaged for the
measurement. For other range values, see specific range description for
assignment.

Adjust Potentiometer
Allow operator adjustment of a potentiometer on the UUT using resistance, voltage or
counter/timer measurements. The System first measures the two test points. If the
measurement falls between the test limits, a result is logged (just as with a RES, UCT or DMM
test), and the next test step is executed (uses TR-8 for POTR, TR-6/FUNC-2 for POTU and
POTD).
If the initial reading is not within limits, the System displays the name of the component (taken
from the test title), the upper and lower limits (taken from the test limits), an analog meter
representation, and a request to the operator to make an adjustment. The System then displays
an updated measurement value, both graphically and numerically, to allow the operator to
make the adjustment. When the operator is done with the adjustment, any key can be pressed
to continue, after which the System makes a pass/fail evaluation based on the last reading
taken.
If a different adjustment criteria is required, you can create alternatives to this routine by using
several discrete test types as shown in the Test Program Examples section.
If the test title contains an up-arrow (^), the System will not display the analog meter on the
screen. If the test title contains an at-sign (@), the System requests that the operator adjust the
pot regardless of whether the initial reading is in-limits or not. If the test title contains an
ampersand (&), the analog meter movement polarity is reversed. This can be used to give the
operator a better sense for the direction to turn the pot during the adjustment.

O_Rng Note
To enter a value higher than the system can measure, type in 20M or
O_Rng. This value, displayed as > 19 M (for POTR) or > 250 (for POTD),
is greater than any normally measured value, and will never cause a failure
on the high side. An over-range measurement is shown as O_Rng in the
measured value.

Parameter Description
Test Type POTR (measuring TR-8 resistance)
POTU (measuring with UCT)
POTD (measuring with DMM)
Title Description of measured component (e.g., R234). Also see the
description above for more detailed information about modifying
operation of the POTx test with the test title.
Range All of these fields are
From (-) Point the same as:
To (+) Point See test type RES for POTR
Low Limit See test type UCT for POTU
High Limit See test type DMM for POTD

22-18
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Descriptions
Analog Measurement Test Types

Install/Remove Jumpers
Allow operator installation or removal of missing or additional jumpers on the UUT. The
System first measures the resistance of the two test points. If the measurement falls between
the test limits, a result is logged (just as with a RES test) and the next test step is executed.
If the initial reading is not within limits, the System displays the name of the jumper (taken
from the test title) to remove or install. If the Low Limit is zero, the operator is instructed to
install the jumper. If the Low Limit is not zero, the operator is instructed to remove the
jumper. Once the test passes (such as when the operator corrects the jumpers), the next test is
executed. The operator can abort the test step (causing a failure) by pressing the F1 key.
If different operator interaction criteria is required, you can create alternatives to this routine
by using several discrete test types as shown in the Test Program Examples section. The
System generates two lines on the monitor when using this test type, then erases them when
completed.
Typical Low and High Limits for an installed jumper are 0 and 100. Typical limits for an
open jumper are 100 and 20M (which is displayed as > 19M).

O_Rng Note
To enter a value higher than the system can measure, type in 20M or
O_Rng. This value, displayed as > 19 M, is greater than any normally
measured value, and will never cause a failure on the high side. An over-
range measurement is shown as O_Rng in the measured value.

Parameter Description
Test Type JMPER
Title Description of measured component (e.g., JP3-4)
Range same as RES test type
From (-) Point same as RES test type
To (+) Point same as RES test type
Low Limit same as RES test type
High Limit same as RES test type

Set Switch
Allows testing for correct switch settings on the UUT. The System first measures the between
the two test points (TR-8 resistance for SWCHR or a TR-6/FUNC-2 DMM measurement with
SWCHD). If the measurement falls between the test limits, a result is logged (just as with a
RES or DMM test) and the next test step is executed.
If the initial reading is not within limits, the System asks the operator to toggle the switch (the
name of which is taken from the test title).
Once the test passes (such as when the operator corrects the switch setting), the next test is
executed. The operator can abort the test step (causing a failure) by pressing the [F1] key.
If different operator interaction criteria is required, you can create alternatives to this routine
by using several discrete test types as shown in the Test Program Examples section. The

22-19
Test Descriptions Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Analog Measurement Test Types

System generates two lines on the monitor when using this test type, then erases them when
completed.
When using SWCHR, typical Low and High Limits for a switch to be closed are 0 and 100.
Typical limits for a switch that is to be open are 100 and 20M (which is displayed as >
19M).

O_Rng Note
To enter a value higher than the system can measure, type in 20M or O_Rng. This value,
displayed as > 19 M, is greater than any normally measured value, and will never cause a
failure on the high side. An over-range measurement is shown as O_Rng in the measured
value
Parameter Description
Test Type SWCHR (for resistance measurement)
SWCHD (for DMM measurement)
Title Description of measured component (e.g., SW3-c)
Range All of these fields are the same as:
From (-) Point RES for SWCHR, or
To (+) Point DMM for SWCHD
Low Limit
High Limit

Make Cable Connection


Allows specification of a connection to be made when building a cable or harness. The
System measures between the two test points, compares the reading to the high and low test
limits, and generates a pass or fail based on the result.
If the "From (-) Point" is probed, the system displays a message to the operator:
Connect from <From-point name> to <To-point name>
Press [F1] to fail test...
If the test title is not blank, it can be used to provide a customized message to the operator. In
this case, the System replaces the text after "Connect from" with the contents of the test title.
The first up-arrow (^) found in the test title is replaced with the From (-) Point name. The
second up-arrow found in the test title is replaced with the To (+) Point name. When used in
this mode, the test title that would be the equivalent of the standard message would be "^ to ^".
After presenting the message, the System waits for the connection to be completed, another
point to be probed, or the [F1] key to be pressed. When any of these events occur, the System
beeps and then erases the above message from the CRT. In order to optimize speed, when
performing this test the System always uses the 100 current mode range to perform the
measurements. As such, expected measurements should be less than 160 .
An example test program to build a simple cable with four connections is shown below. When
this test program is executed, the System will wait until all the connections are made before
ending execution. The number of connections not made is shown in the upper right corner of
the display as the number of errors. The operator can either make each connection without

22-20
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Descriptions
Analog Measurement Test Types

instructions, or probe a point shown as a "From (-) Point", then receive the message about how
to make the connection.
Parameter Description
Test Type WIRE
Title If used, contains a custom description of connection to be made if
the "From (-) Point" is probed (e.g., Red to J2-2)
Range not used (System always uses 100 DC Current range)
From (-) Point same as RES test type
To (+) Point same as RES test type
Low Limit same as RES test type
High Limit same as RES test type

Example Test Program for Building a Cable

DMM Measurement Test


Measures the AC (true-RMS), DC voltage, or resistance value between two test points and
generates a result. The measurement is made and compared against the high and low test
limits. Requires that you have the optional Model TR-6/FUNC-2 for use of this test type.
DMM AC and DC voltage measurements can be made from either TR-8-1 MPX test points or
TR-6(-1) relay test points. DMM Resistance measurements can only be made through the
back panel or TR-6/FUNC-2 relay test points since the Model TR-8 solid state test points
cannot accommodate the 100mA source current. If resistance measurements are to be made to
Model TR-8 test points, use the Model TR-8 RESistance test type.

22-21
Test Descriptions Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Analog Measurement Test Types

Parameters Description
Test Type DMM
Title Description of measurement (e.g., VCC)
Range Sum of the following:

0 = DC V function
64 = AC V rms function
128 = Resistance function

0 = autorange
1 = 200mV, 2
2 = 600mV, 6
3 = 2V, 20
4 = 6V
5 = 20V
6 = 60V
7 = 200V
8 = 600V (usable to 250V)

256 = AC Coupling for ACV, DC Filter for DCV/RES

512 = Measurement delay divided by 2


1024 = Measurement delay times 2
2048 = Measurement delay times 10

4096 = Samples averaged times 10


8192 = Samples averaged times 100

16384 = 'Three Point' measurement is used


32768 = The FUNC-2 will take floating voltage measurements for
ranges above 6V. Otherwise, readings on ranges above 6V are
made with the low test point connected to ground through
approximately 1K.
From (-) Point Negative polarity test point (1625 if back panel only)
To (+) Point Positive polarity test point
Low Limit Low test limit in volts or ohms
High Limit High test limit in volts or ohms

Universal Counter/Timer Measurement Test


Measures frequency, period, or counts between two test points and generates a result. In the
case of Period measurements a separate channel can be used to determine the pulse end
condition. The measurement is made, compared against the high and low test limits, and a
pass or fail result generated. This test step requires that you have an optional Model TR-
6/FUNC-2 installed in your system.
The input can be measured from the TR-6/FUNC-2 back panel, a TR-8 MPX point, or a TR-
6/FUNC-2 relay test point. The source is typically taken with Chan 1, but can be routed
through Chan 2 (back panel only) or taken through the DMM input divider. Inputs of up to 5
volts can be accommodated through Chan 1 and Chan 2 inputs. The DMM input is usable up
to 50kHz and offers differential input in conjunction with amplification or attenuation of the
input signal, depending on the range. When the DMM input is used, you should use the full-
range DMM value that is closest to the amplitude of the signal that you are measuring.

22-22
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Descriptions
Analog Measurement Test Types

The trigger level is zero volts unless otherwise specified. The trigger levels are usable with
Chan 1 and Chan 2 inputs and can range from -2.2V to +2.2V in approximately 100mV steps.
The input is normally AC coupled, but can be DC coupled when used with low frequency
signals (e.g., < 30Hz). The time constant of AC coupled Chan 1 and Chan 2 inputs is
approximately 63 mSec., while that of the DMM is 1.6 sec.
The Model TR-6-2 Fixture Interface can be used to buffer and frequency-divide signals in the
proximity of the UUT. This allows measurement of high frequency signals (up to about
50MHz) or at circuit locations that are sensitive to capacitance or loading.
See also the UCTTr test type for triggering during measurements.
Frequency Measurement Note: The higher the frequency range, the faster the measurement is
made. Even low frequency measurements can be made on a high frequency range. The
following shows the minimum frequency measurement on each range:
Frequency Minimum Frequency
Range Code FUNC-2 TR-6
20 153Hz 79Hz
16 77Hz 39Hz
12 10Hz 4Hz
8 2Hz 0.4Hz
4 0.2Hz 0.04Hz

22-23
Test Descriptions Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Analog Measurement Test Types

Parameters Description
Test Type UCT
Title Description of measurement (e.g., Osc X2)
Range Function:
0 = Frequency function
1 = Period function
2 = Count function

Range:
Period Frequency Count
4 = 12.8 uSec (1000 period avg) 5kHz 12.8 Sec
8 = 128 uSec (100 period avg) 50kHz 1.28 Sec
12 = 1.28 mSec (10 period avg) 500kHz 128 mSec
16 = 12.8 mSec (1 period) 5MHz 12.8 mSec
20 = 128 mSec (1 period) 10MHz
24 = 1.28 Sec (1 period)
28 = 12.8 Sec (1 period)
32 = 128 Sec (1 period)

Coupling:
00 = AC Coupling
64 = DC Coupling

Input Selection:
000 = Chan 1
128 = Chan 2
256 = DMM Input
384 = Chan 1 to Chan 2
512 = Chan 2 to Chan 1

Trigger Slope (period/count only):


0000 = Start Slope +
1024 = Start Slope -
0000 = Stop Slope +
2048 = Stop Slope -

Settled measurement:
0000 = Use first reading
4096 = Ignore first reading
Input Range (DMM Only):
0000 = 600V
8192 = 200V
16384= 60V
24576= 20V
32768= 6V
40960= 2V
49152= 600mV
57344= 200mV
From (-) Point Negative polarity test point (1625 if back panel)
To (+) Point Positive polarity test point
Low Limit Low test limit in Hertz/Sec/Counts
High Limit High test limit in Hertz/Sec/Counts

22-24
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Descriptions
Analog Measurement Test Types

UCT Trigger Setup


Allows change of a source signal from the optional Model TR-6/FUNC-2 during a UCT
measurement. This can be used to initiate a non-repetitive signal from the UUT after the UCT
is armed for period or count measurements.
With this capability, you can specify the following sequence of events:
1. Set up an initial source value from the TR-6/FUNC-2 with use of the DCV, SINEV,
SQRV, RELAY or DIGO test steps,
2. Use the UCTTR test step to save a pointer to the source test step and specify a new
stimulus value,
3. During execution of the next UCT test step, once the UCT is armed for a measurement, the
specified source is reprogrammed to the new high limit value (contained in the UCTTR
High Limit), then the UCT measurement taken, and
4. The UCTTR setup is automatically disabled until the next UCTTR is executed. The
stimulus is left at the value programmed by the UCTTR step.
Parameters Description
Test Type UCTTR
Title Typically not used.
Range If non-zero, indicates which subsequent step number (relative to
present step) that is used as type of stimulus. For example, a
range of 1 points to the next test step.
From (-) Point Not used
To (+) Point Not used
Low Limit Not used
High Limit Stimulus value that the specified source is reprogrammed to during
the UCT measurement. This value is used as the High-Limit
program value for the test step specified in the range.

As an example, the following three test steps will program 0.5 volts to test point 5, arm the
UCT for a period measurement, reprogram the stimulus at test point 5 to 4.5 volts, then take a
period measurement at test point 10:

UCTTr 1 4.5
3 GND 5 R3-3 DCV 1 0 0.5
3 GND 10 P2-2 UCT 21 10u 20u

Dynamic Measurement Calibration


Allows test-time measurement of an external value, after which the System adjusts the gain
and/or the zero offset of similar test steps to reflect the error of the measured value.
These test step types allow you to measure a known-good component value, then calibrate
similar measurements so that they are corrected to match. For example, if you are going to
measure some resistors that are more accurate than the System specification, you can measure

22-25
Test Descriptions Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Analog Measurement Test Types

a known-good value resistor in the fixture, then correct the subsequent measurements to match.
This technique allows you to use the short-term stability of the System rather than the long-
term accuracy.
When a ZERO or GAIN test type is executed, the System uses the measured value of the most
recent analog measurement (e.g., a RES or DMM test) as the reference. This test step is found
by searching back from the present test step until the first analog measurement is found. Next,
the system searches the range of test steps specified by the Low Limit and High Limit, and for
each test step that matches the reference test type (e.g. if the last analog measurement was a
CAP test type, it processes all of the CAP test types in the range), it replaces the existing
GAIN or ZERO value with that determined by the reference measurement.

Parameters Description
Test Type ZERO, GAIN
Title Typically not used.
Range Not used
From (-) Point Not used
To (+) Point Not used
Low Limit The first step number in the range of test step to modify if the test
types match. If 1000 is added to the step number, the value is
forward-relative to the present step (e.g., 1002 refers to the
second step ahead of the present step). If 2000 is added to the
step number, the value is backwards-relative to the step number
(e.g., 2002 refers to 2 steps before the present step).
High Limit The last step number to consider for modification. Uses the same
conventions as the 'Low Limit'.
Nominal Val For GAIN, this value specifies the numerator when determining
the new gain factor. Typically, it will be the actual (nominal) value
of the component measured in the last step. For ZERO, this value
is typically 0, but it can be a non-zero value if you are offsetting for
a non-zero measurement.

Test for SMT Opens


Allows testing for open connections to ICs and connectors using the optional SMT-2 or TR-8-
SMT module. This test is normally used on surface mount technology (SMT) parts since they
have more of a tendency to have open connections than through-hole technology.
The test step shown here has underlying data that is entered in the Enter/Edit TestJet Data
window on page 12-8. Also, see TestJet Technology on page 12-1 for more information.

22-26
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Descriptions
Analog Measurement Test Types

Parameters Description
Test Type TESTJ
Title Name of part being testing (e.g., U101).
Range 0 = Connect pin #1 on the SMT-2 module to the test system
ground during the test. Use Range 0 if you have made a
connection from the UUT ground to pin #1 on the SMT-2 module.
1 = Connect pin #1 on the module to +12Vdc power during the
test. Use Range 1 if you have installed a grounding relay in the
fixture and need to power the relay to connect UUT ground to
system ground.
This switched ground (Range 0) or switched power (Range 1) is
only connected during the execution of the TestJet test step.
Note: The TR-8-SMT and TR-8-SMT-CAP require Range 1.
From (-) Point Test point number that is UUT ground.
To (+) Point TestJet probe number.
Low Limit Not used
High Limit Not used
Nominal Val Not used

Test for Capacitor Polarity


Allows testing for capacitor polarity using the optional SMT-2 or TR-8-SMT-CAP module.
This test is used on aluminum and tantalum polarized capacitors in axial and SMT packages up
to about 200 F.
The test step shown here has underlying data that is entered in the TestJet Capacitance
measurement analysis screen. See TestJet Technology on page 12-12 for more information.
Parameter Description
Test Type TJETC
Title Name of Capacitor Being Tested for Polarity (e.g. C101)
Range Measurement Range:
0 = 300 fF range
2 = 3000 fF range
4 = 300 fF range
8 = 50 fF range
10 = 1600 fF range
16 = 1000 fF range
From (-) Point Test-Point on Negative Polarity of Capacitor
To (+) Point Test-Point on Positive Polarity of Capacitor
Low Limit Front-to-Back Minimum Ratio for Proper Polarity
High Limit Not used
Nominal Typical Front-to-Back Ratio

Test for Transistor/FET Beta


FET/transistor testing is performed with the Beta test-type. The Beta test type is entered using
the Edit screen like any other standard test, with additional information entered in a lower-

22-27
Test Descriptions Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Analog Measurement Test Types

level screen. See the section Entering Test Steps, Transistor and FET Testing on page 9-18
for more details about entering Beta tests.
The parameters entered from the Edit screen are shown below:

Parameter Description
Test Type BETA
From (-) Point The more-negative current terminal of the device:
PNP Transistor = Collector
NPN Transistor = Emitter
P-FET = Drain
N-FET = Source
To (+) Point The more-positive current terminal of the device:
PNP Transistor = Emitter
NPN Transistor = Collector
P-FET = Source
N-FET = Drain
Range The type of component being tested:
1 = NPN Transistor (add 8 to this to do a fast mode sweep)
2 = PNP Transistor (add 8 to this to do a fast mode sweep)
3 = N-FET
4 = P-FET
Title Used to describe the component being tested, such as Q203 or
Q1003.
Low Limit Most negative acceptable bias current (or for FETs, gate voltage).
For transistors, the lowest measurable bias current is -1mA. For
FETs, the minimum measurable gate voltage is -10V. PNP
transistors will typically have negative values. NPN transistors will
typically be positive values.
High Limit Most positive acceptable bias current (or for FETs, gate switch-on
voltage). For transistors, the highest measurable bias current is
+1mA. For FETs, the highest measured gate voltage is +10V. To
enter a value higher than the system can measure, type in 20M or
0_Rng. This value, displayed as O_Rng, is greater than any
normally measured value, and will never cause a failure on the
high side.

Test for Transformer Polarity


Transformer polarity is performed with the XFMR test-type. The XFMR test type is entered
using the Edit screen like any other standard test. See the section in Entering Test Steps,
Transformer Testing on page 9-33, for more information about entering XFMR test steps.
The menu selection Measure > Step Analysis F6 in the edit window provides an easy to
use, fill-in the form method, to select the test setup. The parameters entered from the Edit
screen are shown below:

22-28
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Descriptions
Analog Measurement Test Types

Parameter Description
Test Type XFMR
From (-) Point Primary Winding Low Test Point
To (+) Point Primary Winding High Test Point
Range The frequency used for the measurement (default is 1kHz):
32 = 100Hz
48 = 1kHz
20 = 10kHz
24 = 100kHz
Title Used to describe the component being tested, such as L103 or T345.
Low Limit Secondary Winding Low Test Point
High Limit Secondary Winding High Test Point

HP-1 High-Voltage Tests


The CheckSum Model HP-1 is used to test cables, harnesses and circuit assemblies for
continuity and high-voltage leakage and breakdown. The Model HP-1 can make
measurements for continuity using as low as a 1k threshold, and measurements for leakage
and breakdown for values as high as 500M using stimulus of 500 volts dc.

Note
The Model HP-1 can be controlled by the same software as CheckSum
MDA test systems. If you have both MDA and HP-1 modules installed in
the same System, take extreme care that high-voltages from the HP-1
cannot feed back into the MDA modules. Doing so will damage the MDA
modules.

CAUTION
The safety shield must be interlocked with the high-voltage electronics to provide
double protection to the operator. Ensure that the operator cannot touch any
points with high -voltage with the safety shield in place.

Programming tests using the Model HP-1 can be done with several different types of test steps
in the test program: Continuity Testing, High-voltage Testing, Resistance Testing, Breakdown
Testing, and Checking Status.
After the test type, HP1, is entered, the Measure > Step Analysis (F6) screen can be used to
setup the measurement:

22-29
Test Descriptions Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Analog Measurement Test Types

The "Select Measurement Module" selects the HP-1 module that is connected to the "From (-)
Point" as the module which both sources and senses the measurement result. For high-voltage
measurements, the interlock is checked on the measurement module as well as the module
connected to the "From (-) Point" and the "To (+) Point". Measurement module selection
allows the option of connecting separate fixtures to separate HP-1 modules within the same
test controller.
HP-1 Continuity Testing
A continuity test is used to ensure that the cable is wired correctly. This test is performed
using the CONTinuity test type. To use the Model HP-1 with the CONTinuity test type, the
range of points specified in the `From (-) Point' and `To (+) Point' columns will be from 1951
to 1998. The ` From (-) Point' must be 1951 or higher and the ` To (+) Point' must be 1998 or
lower. The system measures continuity using a 12VDC maximum stimulus, with maximum
current of 6mA.
Normally you should specify a measurement range of 10mA, which is the default. With the
10mA measurement range, the System tests for opens and shorts using a default threshold of
approximately 1k. There is some hysteresis (about 10%) in the measurement to prevent false
failures. In the editor menu, Measure > Step Analysis (F6) > Setup > Set Thresholds, you can
select from measurement ranges of:
Default Test Threshold Measurement Range
1k 10mA
20k 1mA
200k 100A
2M 10A
Low-Voltage CONT Ranges

HP-1 High-Voltage Testing


High-voltage testing ensures that the assembly does not have any high resistance shorts, or
specifically shorts caused by the application of up to 500VDC to each circuit.

22-30
Model TR-8 Instruction Manual Test Descriptions
Analog Measurement Test Types

Programming for a high-voltage test is just like programming a CONTinuity test, except the
test type is HIPOT. The other screens appear the same. The ` From (-) Point' must be 1951 or
higher and the ` To (+) Point' must be 1998 or lower. The default measurement range is 1mA,
which provides a threshold of approximately 1M. In the editor menu, Measure > Step
Analysis (F6) > Setup > Set Thresholds, you can select from measurement ranges of:
Default Test Threshold Measurement Range
100k 10mA
1M 1mA
10M 100A
100M 10A
High-Voltage CONT Ranges

Following are the parameters for the HIPOT test-type:


Parameter Description
Test Type HIPOT
Title Description (typically not used, or 'HiPot Shorts')
Range Normally 0. If 1, instructs the System to ignore inactive pins during continuity
testing optimizations.
From (-) Point Lowest test point number of test, must be 1951 or higher
To (+) Point Highest test point number of test, must be 1998 or lower
Low Limit Not used
High Limit Not used

HP-1 Resistance Testing


In some cases, you may wish to make an individual measurement between two points. To do
so, use the HP1 test-type. You have the choice of measuring resistance using low-voltage or
high-voltage.
Low-voltage measurements are made at approximately 12 volts (with 2 k source impedance)
into an open circuit. High-voltage measurements are made at approximately up to 500 volts
(with 64 k source impedance or up to 250 volts maximum with 32k source impedance on
HP-1 boards marked "40-250").
Remember that the safety switch must be closed (pin 50 connected to pin 49) in order to make
high-voltage measurements.
Following are the parameters for the HP1 test-type for resistance:

22-31
Test Descriptions Model TR-8 Instruction Manual
Analog Measurement Test Types

Parameters Description
Test Title HP1
Title Description of measurement (for example, Lo/Hi Ohms)
Range Maximum
Value Source Voltage Minimum Maximum
Current (Vdc) R Usable R

1 6mA 12 0 10k
2 1mA 12 10k 118k
3 100A 12 118k 1.2M
4 10A 12 1.2M 12M

9 8mA 500 0k 436k


10 1mA 500 436k 4.936M
11 100