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Simple Present Present Continuous Affirmative form Affirmative form Melanie usually wears Today Jane is wearing a fashionable clothes. special outfit for the wedding. Interrogative form _Interrogative form Does Melanie usually wear Is Jane wearing a special fashionable clothes? outfit for the wedding today? Negative form Negative form Melanie does not (doesn’t) Jane is not (isn’t) wearing usually wear fashionable a special outit for the dothes. wedding today. Simple Present Present Continuous » Habitual actions >» Actions in progress > He plays tennis every He is playing tennis on court Monday. 3 at the moment. » Permanentsituations > » ‘Temporary actions > Peter chives to work every Peter's caris broken, so he day. cycling to work this week. » Iris often used with > It is not usually used adverbs of frequency: + with stative verbs. > They often drink tea in the She likes vibrant colours. 7. Describe this picture of the Painter family in detail. Use the prompts below. 1, ttis Sunday and itis. 2. The Painters are having lunch; they (cat) 3, Meg usually has a sandwich in the school canteen but today she 4, Josh doesnt ike... so he is. 5, Mr Painter. 6, Mrs Painter. Underline the correct alternative in each sentence. 1. like / am iking these jewels very much 2. They are having / have a great time in New York now. 3, Becuse me, do you know / are you knowing the time? 4, don't understand. What is happening / happens? 5, Who do you wait / are you waiting for? 6. We usually get / are getting one hour of free time a day. 7. She is tying / ties to sleep because she is very tired & Janet doesn’t need / isn't needing @ new car at the moment. Michael wants / is wanting to stay for another year. 10, She often goes / is going shopping on Saturday moming Complete the dialogue using the Simple Present or the Present Continuous. George: Hi, Richard. What 1. (you / to do)? Richard: | 2. (to write) an email to Keira. George: Where 3. (che / to be) now? 4. (Ghe / stil to ive) in London? Richard: She 5. (to live) in London because she 6. (to be) sill at college, but at the moment she 7 (to spend) two months in South Africa. George: What 8. (she / to do) in South Aftica? 9 (che / to have) a holiday? Richard: No, she 10. (not to be). She n (to work) in an advertising industry in Cape Town, George: Oh, it sounds like an interesting experience! How much 12. (they / to pay) her every week? Richard: | 13. (not to know), but! 14, (to think) they 15. (io give) her enough money to live on and free accommodation. George: Please tell her | 16. (to plan) a flight to Johannesburg right now. Richard: Why 17. (you / not to phone) her to plan a weekend together? | ll Affirmative form > Regular verbs > subject + base form of verb + ed Tracy wanted to leave the gang. » Irregular verbs + subject + 2 part of the paradigm Tracy knew about the gang. ‘Negative form (regular and irregular verbs) > subject + did + not + base form of the verb Tracy didn't care, Interrogative form (regular and irregular verbs) > did + subject + base form of the verb Did she win 2 medal? The Simple Past tense is used for actions which take place at a specific time and are concluded in the past. “> When she was fourteen the gang recruited her. Affirmative form > subject + was / were + gerund Iwas working / You were working. Interrogative form > was / were + subject + gerund ‘Were they working? / Was she working? Negative form > subject + wac / wore + not + gerund | was not (wasn't) working, / We were not (weren't) working. The Past Continuous is used: » to describe actions taking place at a precise moment, in time in the past; > Last night at 6 o'lock | was eating. > todeseribe two actions taking place at the same time in the past. > | was studying whie/as he was making dinner. The Past Continuous cannot be used with verbs that do not take the Preseat Goniinucus (Elementary unit 10), ‘When an action taking place in the past is interrupted bya single past action, the Past Continuous is used for the action taking place and the Simple Pastis used for the single completed action. Iwas watching television when the doorbell rang. What were you doing when Peter called? They weren't stealing when the police arrived, Complete the sentences using the Simple Past of the verbs in brackets. NOWAWNS The English lesson (to begin) at 9 o'clock. She (to arrive) early yesterday. When (Tracy / to write) her story? The kids (not to skip) class yesterday, Which books (you / to buy) yesterday? You (not to tell) me your name. ‘Who (to push) her to enter the competition? 8. The police (to chase) the robbers last night, Simple Past vs. Past Continuous ‘Complete the text by putting the verbs below into the Simple Past or the Past Continuous. be | move | spend | serve | end | take | find | travel [kill | map | send | observe | break out | develop | sleep | steal | sal 1. The British explorer James Cook was bom in the vilage of Marton, Yorkshire, on 27 October, 1728, His family soon to another village, called Great Ayton, where Cook most of his childhood ‘As a teenager James Cook a fascination for the sea and eventually to Whitby where he a job ‘on a coal ship. 3. While he in the Royal Navy during the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763), Cook the command of a ship. 4, When the war Cook the vessel to Newfoundland to survey the coasts there. 5, While he the coasts of Newfoundland, he a solar eclipse off the North American coast. Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Past or the Past Continuous. 1 2 While he (to have) a shower, the telephone (to ring). Two men (to rob) the bank while the cashier (to count) money. 1 Qo drive) along the road when a lony (to gash) into my car. The students (to do) their exercises when the headmaster ((0 come) into the classroom. We (to try) to sleep when we (to heat) a loud noise. Affirmative form > subject + used to + base form of the verb Tracy used to be fascinated by the gang. ‘Negative form > subject + did not use to + base form of the verb ‘She didn't use to care about the violence. Interrogative form: » did + subject + use to + base form of the verb Did the yang use to chase other young peuple? Used to: > describes an action that was a habit in che past but is no longer done in the present; > When | was ‘a child ! used to go to the swimming pool every week. > contrasts a habitual action in the past with a present action. + She used to drink coffee, but now she drinks tea, Amy got married last month and completely changed her habits. Complete her friend Susan's questions about her life before her martiage and Amy's answers using used to. 1. “When / you / get up / in the morning?" “1 / wake up / at 7.30" 2, "What / you / do / in the morning?" *1/ study / for my university exams” 3. "How / you / spend / aftemoons?” “i / do the shopping / study / work out in the gym twice a week 4, ‘Who / you / meet / in the evenings?" *!/ go cout / friends and my boyfriend” 5. "Where / you / live?" "! / have / a big house” 6. ‘What kind of car / you / have?" “ / diive /a cty-cart erin Per indicare un‘abitudine nel passato si pud usare would + forma base in alternativa a used to. In questo caso & obbligatorio esprimere il riferimento al tempo. When | was a gitl, my mother would tell me bed-time stoties. Rewrite the sentences in the interrogative (?), negative (-) or affirmative (+) form. 1. They always used to encourage us to obey the law. (2) She didn't use to be so violent (+) ‘Tom used to drink and smoke. (-) He used to come on Sundays. (1) Did you use to ive in Leeds? (-) Milly didr't use to speak English so well. (2) OY RYN Rewrite the following sentences using used fo. 1. Tracy doesn't belong to a gang any longer. 2, The stieets are very dangerous thase days. 5. Wasn't Miss Jones your boss before she moved to another department? 4, We lived in London five years ago but now we ive in Liverpool. 5. Ihhad a sports car when | was twenty Rewrite the sentences to express a habit in the past. 1, When I was a child | got up very early in the moming. When | was a child! would get up very early in the moming 2. When we lived in the country the children played in the garden all day. 3. When my grandmother was ill she sat for hours by the window, 4, She helped her mother with the housework before getting manied. 5. Tracy took drugs when she belonged to the gang. 6. had cereal for breakfast when | was a child. ee The modal verb must is only used in the Simple Prevent tense. In the affirmative it expresses: 1, an order; 4 You must make your bed. 2. a strong suggestion; + He must remember to call Jane. imposed necessity; > 1 must help my mother today. . 4. a logical deduction. + tt must be five o'dock Must has the same form for all persons in the present, To have to substitutes must in all the other tenses. Did you have to change train to get here? They had to sell their house recently Having to wait is boring! In affirmative sentences in the Simple Present to have to expresses an obligation imposed by external authority or circumstances. You have to take off your shoes when you enter a mosque. ee In affirmative sentences in the Simple Present must and to have to express two different concepts: > must = self-imposed necessity; + I think we must do more exercises. > to have to~aan external person or institution imposing a necessity or rule. + My teacher says have to do more exercises. Match these sentences with one of the functions ‘of must (1-4) in the Grammar slide. a) Mr Owen must be the new English teacher. b) You must answer her email as soon as possible. ©) We must buy @ new car, Our old one is too slow. d) You must tidy up your room. ©) You must see that film. t's very amusing. f) Alex, you must go to bed at 10 o'clock. Rewrite ; the sentences with the correct form of to have to and the verbs in brackets. 1. | (to do) my homework yesterday. 2. (they / to buy) a new iPod last month? 3. They (to go) to the dentist's last Tuesday. 4, (you / to wear) a uniform at school? 5. Each student (to write) a project about ‘Shakespeare last term. We (nat to ask) the doctor for a prescription. 7. You (to fasten) your seat belt before take-off. 8, How many times (she / to phone) him before he answered? Underline the correct alternative. |. The chicken must / have to stay at school 2. Imust / have to eat less chocolate. 3. They must / have to phone their Grandma. It's her birthday today. 4, You must / have fo weigh your lugaage at the checkin desk. 5. We must / have to help Mum with dinner. She looks tired 6. She must / has to remember to buy some milk Complete the sentences with the correct form of must or to have to. (you) to wear a dress at the party? ' temember to phone my uncle. Look at all the umbrellas. it be raining! . Mary and Tom have gone to live in Paris, We go and visit them soon. Everyone in ourhouse keep their room tidy. (they)... make so much noise? At the airport you... check in before you go through security, 8. All the students finish their exercises before the end of the lesson. m PuNS Now EE Affirmative form > subject + amis/are + going to + base form of the verb 1am going to play in a band. Interrogative form > amyis/ate + subject + going to + base form of the verb ‘Are you going to play in a concert? Negative form > subject + am/is/are + not + going to + base form of the verb, She is not (isn’t) going to buy a ticket for the concert. To be going to is used! to express: 1. future plans and intentions; + 1 am going to study harder next year. 2, immediate predictions (based on present indicators); > The sky is really dark. | think itis going to rain, 3, immediate predictions based on intuition or evidence. + I feel this is going to be a difficult day. ‘When the main verb is to go, the repetition of the verbs is usually omitted. 1'm going to a concert tomorrow evening. pret The modal verbs may and might are used to express possibility in the future. ‘The difference in meaning is very slight: > may /may not is used for a possibility of 50%; I may goto the concert tonight or I may stay at home. They may not want to go and listen to jazz. > might / might not is used for a stronger anecatainty, a possibility of 30% or less. ‘Tom doesn't like the Rolling Stones. He might come to ‘their concert, but | doubt it. It is raining hard. We might not be able to play tennis. today. ‘These modals are not generally contracted. For the characteristics of modal verbs see Elementary Practice Book unit 10, pag. 62. Write three things you may do at the weekend and three things you might do. Complete the sentence with the correct form of to be going to and one of the verbs below. otto sing | to turn | to go | to be | to phone | to play to fail | to study | to learn 1. Look the sun’s coming out! It a nice day. 2. ‘Sam didn't study for the English test. | think he 3. must lose weight. Starting tomorrow | ‘more sports. 4, Hamish has a terrible voice, | hope he 5, t'm really cold. | heating on. 6. Where (you) next year? 7. For this new schodl year, | harder and | my friends less. 8, My brother loves music, so he to play the guitar, the central for your holiday Underline the correct modal verb to complete the sentences. 1. They might / can goto London for the weekend but Im not sure. Could / May you shut the door, please? May / Can you play the piano? He can't / may not stil be ill With a bit of luck, tomorrow can / might be sunny. 6. She may / can be Spanish, judging by her accent. 7, You must / might be right about the price, but {'m going to check anyway. 8. Phone Ann before going to her house. She can't / might not be there. 9. Dean and Sarah couldn't / might not get the tickets for the concert because they were sold out There was heavy snow in the mountains. The roads can / may be icy. weep Affirmative form » subject + will /'ll+ base form of verb Climate change will have an effect on water. Interrogative form > will + subject + base form of verb Will this encourage them to use less water? Negative form > subject + will not / won't + base form of verb They will not / won't be able to pay for extra water. Short answers ‘Will you use less water? 9 Yes, I ill,/No,1 won't. ‘The Single Fares sed to expres: a spontaneous decision at the time of speaking; + Wait rit help you. 2. predictions based on certainty or opinion with verbs, Tike: think, know, hope, expect, be sure; > I think water shortages wil increase dramatically in the next ten years. 3. a promise or resolution; + | will stop using too much water. 4, an inevitable future fact or event. + twill be my birthday tomorrow. “aa eo ‘The future is expressed in English in yarious forms: > Tobe going to is used for future intentions and plans or something about to happen. Our teacher is going to explain climate change. Its too high, he's going to fall. » The Present Continuous is used for set or fixed plans in the fuwure. We are having a test on future water problems next Tuesday morning. > The Simple Future is used for predictions, promises and spontaneous decisions The use of water iv remain an important problem for many years. There's no bread. I'l go and buy some. Complete the sentences with will or won't and the verb in brackets. 1. Temry is very thirsty! | (give) her 2 glass of water, 2. lexpect there (be) many problems with the use of water in the next few years. Rivets (probably tun) diy. (people / leam) to use water more intelligently? ‘There probably (not be) many glaciers. (the world’s temperature / tise)? | think people (begin) to take water problems seriously, NOORw Choose the correct alternative in the sentences below. 1. Lakes and rivers will / are going to definitely become smaller in the future. 2. Look how dark itis! It’s going to / will ran. 3. I think in the future we will leam / are learning to use less water in our homes. 4, My brother is going to / will be twenty next Monday. Will we / Are we going to be able to adapt to a world with less water? 6. We've got tickets for a concert next week, were going to see / re seeing the latest rock band. 7. What a mess! I heb / im helping you clear up. 8, Polar bears will / are going to suffer when the ice mets in the Arctic. Future tenses Underline the correct future form. 1. Peter is / will be fifty next Friday. 2. i's to0 hot in here!” "Vin going to / ‘tum the heating down" 3, lack is having / will have a dinner party next Saturday. 4, ‘ichn is hungry! ‘Don't worry 111/‘m going to make him a sandwich” 5. Look at that child on that bike! He will / is going ‘0 fall 6 We wont come / aren't coming to the party next weekend, 7. Look at those clouds! itis going to / will &. think Joan won't pass / n't passing her driving test. anil ‘The past participle is formed as follows: > Regular verbs + base form of the verb + - Write questions in the Present Perfect. you / ansiver / the question? Jenny / lock / her car door? (ave tenga renin is beak: Water / call / us / this week? you / ever / see / a picture of Mary's wedding? your parents / get / your postcard from Brazil? 1 2. 3, > Irregular verbs > third part of the paradigm i 6. it/ rain / much / recently? z 3. 9. 1 Have you seen the latest U2 video? recent Perle NT ‘The Present Perfect tense is used to express past actions without a specific time definition or actions whose time hasn't finished. how many times / we / sing / that song / today? Gwen / ever / watch / the film Twilight? how many books / Bob / read / recently? 10. you / ever / visit / New Delhi? Affirmative form » subject + have / has + past participle I have ({'ve) listened to that song three times. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the Simple Past or the Present Perfect. 1. (you / ever to sing) in a rock band? 2. No, | (never to sing) in public, but my father (to sing) in a band when he was young. 3. Bono (always to live) in Dublin, he (to go) to Negative form school there as a boy. > subject + have /has + not + past participle 4. U2 (to stay) together since the group (to I have not/haven't spoken to Gavin recently. begin), 5. My sister (to take) my phone again! She (to Short answers take) it yesterday and nearly (to break) it. Have you seen Tommy today? Yes, I have. / No, | haven't. 6. My mother (never to like) that song but she (to listen) to it last night. Interrogative form. > have /has + subject + past participle Has he/she read that article? Put the words in brackets into the correct tense (Simple Past or Present Perfect). The Present Perfect is used with: > ever (= mai) in interrogative sentences or with the Spee: 1. Imatraid we just (to break) your window by > never (= non... mai) in sentences with negative sense. playing football ‘These adverbs come before the past participle 2. Mark isn’t at home. He (to leave) for London Have you ever read that book? an hour ago. This is the best film | have ever seen! 3. (You / ever / to eat) Chinese food? I's great! They have never met his girfiiend. 4. My sister (to order) her new laptop by post two months ago, but t (not to arrive) yet 5. "When (he / to go out)” “He (to go out) two minutes ago.” (nen 6. How many books (you / to read) this year? ‘The Simple Past refers to an action that took place 7. Aninsect (lust / to bite) met at a specific time in the past and can be considered 8 Jennifer (to come) to see me last week. finished. 9. (you / 10 see) Bridget recently? 10. | (already / to decide) to change my job. “The Prevent Perfect refers to an action in the past that docs not have a specific time, The emphasis is on the action rather than on the time, Ihave tead the novel Twilight. | finished it yesterday. Have you ever seen U2 live in concert? (open) ‘Yes, | saw them in Milan last summer. (closed by definition of time) Zero Conditional > If-clause: if / unless (= if... not) + Simple Present > Main clause: simple Present ‘The Zev Gnditional indicates a factual, very probable or inevitable result, IF you walk in the rain without an umbrella, you get wet Unless the students have breakfast, they always get hungry at school, First Conditional > Ieclause: if / unless (if... not) + Simple Present > Main clause: Simple Future ‘The First Conditional (periodo ipotetico del 1° tipo) is used: 1. to express a concrete future possibility; If have enough apples, Ill make an apple pie. 2. awarning. f you open the window, you'll catch a cold, ‘The if-clause and the main clause can he in any order. When the i-clause comes firs, it is separated from the main clause by a comma. > If Peter goes to the disco, | won't go. When the main clause precedes the if-clause, there is no comma, + | won't go to the disco if Peter goes. > Itcluse: if / unless (= if... not) + Simple Past » Main clause: Present Conditional If fook an antibiotic, I'd (would) feel better. | would never stay athome from school unless felt really il. “The Second Conditional iperiodo ipotetico del 2° tipo) is used for hypothetical situations which can be possible (though often not probable) or imaginary. if were rich, | would travel the world. if my mother were well, she wouldn't be in hospital, In the if-clause were is used for all persons of the verb as for the 1 and 3" person singular is used only in colloquial English. If Lwere you, Id give up smoking. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Then decide if they are Zero or First Conditional. 1. Sally ahways (to dream) if she ((o go) to bed late. 2, Ifyou (0 eat) too much chocolate, you (fo have) a stomach ache 3 if (to ty) to be optimistic | (10 improve) my quality of life. 4, They say you (to win) a prize if you (0 dream) of numbers. 5, IfKate (to find) your horseshoe, she (0 give) it back to you. 6. My football team always (town) if (lo wear) my lucky green scart 7. Harry and Sue (to go) shopping this afternoon if they (co finish) work eth, Write the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1. if (to have) a broken leg I'd go to see a doctor. 2. If 1 (to feel) il, 'd go and lie down on the sofa. If he (o play) rugby professionally, he would be careful IF we (to be) rich, we (to buy) a new car. If he (to be) my friend, | (to invite) him to my party. The Browrs would go on holiday if they (to have) time. IF Christine (to study) harder, she (to do) better at school, IF (to be) you, | (not to go) to Rome by car. noose the correct ending (a-h) to complete the sentences (1-8). IF had e lot of money, . | would go ta see a specialist iF late too much chocolate, if Thad a headache, | would hurt my back... iF twisted my ankle, .. if spoke Japanese and Chinese, if went on a drastic diet, .. N OWA Ww © ON DUAUNS | would go to A&E for an x-ray. if hurt my shoulder. | might become slim again. | would go to bed straightaway, | would get a really good job. if | conied that heavy suitcase, | would have a serious stomach ache | would travel all over the word, za -pange