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Chapter 4

Results and Discussion

Chapter 4 includes two parts: (1) Results and (2) Discussion

Part one, results; it shows the data gathered throughout the research and findings of the


Part two, discussion, it contains the result and identified themes that describe the

experiences and narratives of teenage fathers.

Qualitative Results

The study is focused on the knowledge, support, coping mechanism, and significant

effects or changes in physical, psychological, emotional, and social aspects.

The data in this chapter were obtained from interviews with three (3) teenage fathers.

The respondents of the study are presented individually with their fictitious names:

A. Marlou

B. Jake

C. Xander
Clients Profile

Marlou (not his real name), a single, 20-year-old student who often describes himself as

rebellious and carefree.

The interview was held at a quiet, secluded coffee shop downtown near his school where he felt

comfortable in because there was only him and the researchers inside. It begun with him

recounting his life before he became a father and his reaction when he first found out he was

going to be a father.

Sang una sang waay pa ko bata, ang hobbies pang teenager gid ang akon gina ubra. For

example, tambay, upod sa mga barkada, inom. he said, glancing up at the interviewers,

Syempre kung may barkada ka nga palainom ang hobby daw pareho man. Thats how sa sobra

nga gwa, ang nanay sang bata ko nakilala ko. He added with a smile. He paused when the

orders were served.

(Back before I had a kid, I had hobbies typical of a teenager. For example, hanging out with my

friends, skipping classes, drinking, smoking, and using drugs, like that. Of course when you

have friends who like to drink, you tend to share the same hobbies. Thats how, from going out

too much, I met the mother of my child.)

Taking a sip of his Miga ko gd siya ya. He said, his smile slowly fading, Paguna ko gid nga nga gabusong siya, daw waay ko bala nagfocus gid sa iya kay syempre bata pa ko kag

perme ko daan gina hambalan sang ginikanan ko bala nga unahon ko akon pageskwela,

syempre sa utok ko waay ko man gin focus ang bata eh. he was hunching over his linked

hands, his expression unreadable, Syempre teenager pa lang ko, tama pa ko ka bata, amo na

dayun nga waay ko nagfocus sa bata kag sa nanay bala, nangita pa gid ko ya babaye. The

subong, gaestoryahanay pa kami sang nanay sang bata ko, galing waay na kami relationship.
He let out a sigh, before sitting up straight. (She was my girlfriend. When I first found out that

she was pregnant, I didnt really pay attention to it, I mean, I was young and my parents

always told me to focus on my studies first so I just put it out of my mind. Of course, I was just

a teenager, too young, thats why I ignored the baby and left my partner. I looked for another

girl. The mother of my child and I still talk but were not in a relationship with each other


Mga 2 months na siya nga ga busong pagkabalo namon. Nakulbaan gid ko to. he said,

referring to what he first felt when he found out he was going to be a father, Sang una, kami

lang gid duwa kabalo, nag live in kami. He took a sip of his coffee, and took a deep breath

before continuing. Wala na kabalo ang ginikanan ko. Nangita kami sang ilistaran namon. Duwa

lang kami. Indi, bale, barkada man kami. He back tracked, Bale amo na eh, sa isa ka balay na

mag barkada kami tapos pares pares kami na.

(She was 2 months pregnant when we found out. I was scared. At the beginning, we kept it

between the two of us, we also lived in. My parents didnt know that we looked for a place to

stay, just the two of us. Wait, no, we were with our group of friends. So, we were in one house,

our whole group, and then we just paired up.)

Ipadagdag niya gid tani, his fingers curled into a fist as he recounted, Syempre, nag away

kami duwa kay ako indi ko ya pagdagdag kay syempre sala na. Teh waay sala ang bata.

Syempre, bata man ang babaye teh daw indi niya pa mabaton, amo na ipadagdag niya gid to

tani. Marlou paused, taking a deep breath as if to calm himself down.

(She wanted to abort it. We fought over it because I didnt want to because thats wrong. The

baby had no fault. I think, because she was young, and she found it hard to accept her
pregnancy, that she wanted it aborted.)

Mga 7 months gin sugid namon nga gabusong siya. Si mama ko ara sa gwa, amo to dayun nga

okay man sa pamilya ka baye kay gin paestorya na lang ni mama ang family ko kag ang family

sang baye para daw wala na lang bala gamo. He stated, looking seriously at the researchers,

Sa akon naman ya pamilya, daw waay man, bale daw gapasalamat sila nga may bata na ko

kay syempre para indi na ko magdinungol. He smiled sheepishly. Sa amon man gani lugar,

daw waay man lang. Syempre sa amon daan dungol ko teh daw waay mn ko gna bully, gina

congrats pa gd ko ya gani. Ang mga barkada ko lang ang daw may problema. Bale kung

magkit.anay kami daw gina bully ko nila kag gina tawag ko nila traidor pero waay ko sila gna


We told our families when she was 7 months. My mom works abroad you see, so she had my

family talk with the girls family to settle things. My family seemed okay with it, I mean, they

actually seemed relieved that I had a kid now because to them it meant Id stop being

irresponsible. It was the same thing in our community, instead of bullying me, they actually

congratulated me. The only problem I had was with my group of friends that time. Whenever

we saw each other, theyd bully me and call me a traitor, but I didnt really listen to them.)

Gapuli di si Mama every 2 years. He began, looking resigned, Waay ko tatay. Bale broken

family kami. Since birth, wala ko na siya nakita. One of the interviewers asked if having no

father prompted him to accept responsibility of the baby. He took a few moments to reply.

Huo. Law-ay magdako nga waay tatay. Kulang gid ya. Looking down at his hands on his lap,

he shifted on his seat, looking uncomfortable. (My mom comes home every 2 years. Were a
broken family. I dont have a dad. Ive never met him since birth.) (Yes. Growing up without a

dad is awful. It feels incomplete.)

Bale 6 years old na siya subong. Gin schedule namon nga kung Friday to Saturday lang siya sa

akon. He stopped to listen to a question one of the interviewers asked, Sang una, waay gid ko

ya knowledge mag alaga sa iya, bale kung magmasakit siya be for example, sa una gaassist lng

ko pero subong ako na lng gaalaga. Daw step by step man lang. he smiled, his previous

discomfort forgotten. (Hes 6 years old now. We scheduled so I could have him from Friday to

Sunday. Before, I absolutely had no idea how to care for him. But, when hes sick for example,

I assist first, and then next time I know what to do. Its like a step by step process.)

Marlou finished his coffee and asked the researchers what else they needed to know. They

proceeded to ask him about his sex life. Nagsugod ko bale mga 14, pag first year high school.

Halin na siguro sa influence sang barkada ko. He shrugged his shoulders, Naka duwa na ko ka

miga nga na amo ko na before sa nanay sang bata ko. He added. The researches asked him if

he used contraceptives to which he replied with yes, he used condoms. Bale, gin ko

sang barkada ko. Sang mga una nga natabo na upod sa nanay sang bata ko, gagamit pa ko,

pero sang ulihi wala na. for the second time during the interview, he smiled sheepishly at the

researchers. (It started when I was 14 years old, first year of high school. I think my friends

influenced me. I had 2 girlfriends I did it with before I met the mother of my child.) (My friends

were also the ones to teach me how to use a condom. At the beginning, I used it with the

mother of my child, but at the end I became careless.)

Gasulod mn sa utok ko bala nga kung pwede lang i-roll back, kung pwede lang ibalik sa una
tane wala ko na lang gin himo, budlay gid siya. He said, expressing his thoughts on being a

teenage father. (It just runs across my mind that if I could roll it back, if I could go back to the

beginning, I wouldnt have done it because its so hard.)

Before the interview ended, the researchers asked Marlou one last question: What defines an

ideal father for you?

Ang mayo nga tatay para sa akon? Daw indi ko mahambal kay teh daw waay ko nagmayo nga

tatay kay gn ko man ang iya nga nanay sang una. (What defines a good father to me?

I dont think I can answer that because I wasnt one because I left his mother.)
Jake, not his real name, is 20 years old, male, single and a first year student, taking up his third course in

Bachelor of Hotel Restaurant Management at University of San Agustin. He is a father of a 1 year and 9

months old, from Santa Barbara, Iloilo.

He described himself as happy go lucky person, who always likes to go out with friends, drink alcoholic

beverages, and play computer games. And claimed that he was not focused on his studies, having jumped

from one course to another. First he took up Business administration at University of San Agustin, then

Information Technology at Central Philippine University, finished Culinary at a Culinary school, and is

currently taking up his recent course.

The interview was done at Stonesbar Restaurant, Sta. Barbara, approximately 50 meters away from his

house. He was quite shy at first but verbalized that he was really willing to share his story and


Kabudlay abe kay samtang gahanggod ako, kis a ko lang makita akon tatay kay gaubra tana sa Manila,

he started, looking down at the red table top. Strikto gid tana kag perfectionist gid sa mga bagay bagay.

Isa man dan sa mga rason kung insaw nawili ko sa mga barkada kag lagaw lagaw. Kag si mama lang

abe imaw ko sa balay kag ang 9 years old ko nga libayon nga lalaki. he says as he looks away, avoiding

eye contact.

(It was hard for me because as I grew up I rarely got to see my father due to his work in Manila. He is

strict and a perfectionist This is one of the reasons why I chose to spend a lot of time with my barkada

and go out with them. I only have mama and my 9 year old brother with me at home.)
Ti kay gabarkada barkada, daw na curious man ko sa ginatawag nga sex kag gusto ko man maman-an

kung ano ang feeling, he added, while smiling shyly. (Because of hanging out with my friends, I got

curious of what sex is and what it feels like.) He claimed that he wasnt using any contraceptives when he

engages in premarital sex, and his current girlfriend and mother of his child, is the fourth person he had

sex with.

He also verbalized that he was 19 years old when he became a father. He was on a vacation back then,

for two months in Manila, when is girlfriend contacted him that her monthly period was delayed. They

both got nervous and encouraged her to buy a pregnancy test kit, and the result turned out to be


Kang naman an ko, siyempre nakulbaan una eh kay bata pa gid ko kag makaraan gid ko sa balay. Kay

may rules kami daan sa balay, hmbal ni papa daan nga kung makabusong kaw, pagwaon ka gd sa balay,

indi kagid pagbuligan, waay na allowance, kag indi kadun kaagto sa mga okasyon. Ti tuya gid ko

nakulbaan nga waay nagid ko bulig nga kwaon kananda eh, he says while making eye contact. On the

other hand, he was also thinking that his family might accept his girlfriends pregnancy because their

relationship was very open to their family and they knew her very well. (I was scared in the beginning

because I was too young to have a child, and I knew Id get scolded at home. We had rules in the

household, my Papa said that if we got someone pregnant wed be thrown out of the house, they wont

help us at all, no allowance, wed be forbidden from attending family occasions. Thats where I was really

scared about, the fact that they wouldnt help me.)

Waay gid nagsulod sa paminsaron ko nga ipahulog amon nga bata kay indi ko gusto nga mag ubra sang

dako nga sala. Kag sang wala pa siya gabusong, ginhambalan ko naman siya nga daan nga incase nga

magbusong gidman siya, dapat makagradauate gid siya biskan ako pa maubra para maka eskwela siya,

he told the researchers, his voice holding plenty of conviction. He further claimed that he was, without a

doubt, the father of his girlfriends baby.

One week prior to the birth of his child, he decided to confess to his parents that his girlfriend was

pregnant. They were reprimanded by their parents, especially by his girlfriends uncle who financially

supports her education. And so, they went back to Iloilo and had their agreement with his girlfriends

parents. Sa tulad nga nakabata dun miga ko kag tatay dugid ako, time management gid ang problema.

Kay ako daan mahilig maglagaw upod barkada kag kis a amo dan ginaawayan namon kay waay ko

gabulig bantay sa bata, he explained, scratching the back of his head. (Now, that my girlfriend had

already given birth and that I am already a father, time management is really my problem. I used to

spend time going out with my friends, and this often leads to arguments with my girlfriend because I

wasnt able to help her in taking care of our child.)

Sa subong, ang gamotivate gid sa akon nga panindugan ang pagiging isa ka tatay, amo ang akon bata

eh, ginaisip ko gid iya kaayuhan, ano nalang matabo bay kung waay siya tatay, He smiled as the

interview progressed,
Ang tatay nga ara perme sa bata ya kag padakuon siya mayu. Ang maka guide gid sa iya

Client profile

Xander, not his real name, is an 18-year-old male senior high school student who had a child at the age

of 17 with his long term girlfriend of 2 years. He currently lives with them together with his brother at
Cabatuan, Iloilo. He spent most of his time with his friends and they always skipped classes just to drink

and smoke at a nearby restobar. He didnt put so much effort and focus on his studies because he

involved himself with a fraternity.

The interview was conducted in the quiet and conducive balcony at their house located at Cabatuan,

Iloilo. Prior to the interview, consent was given and the purpose of the study was explained and questions

were addressed appropriately. Consent form was signed by him and he fully agreed in sharing his

experiences on being a teenage father.

Nagsugod gid ni kay naimpluwensyahan ko sang barkada kag na curious ko kung ano kag kung paano

ang ginatawag nga sex. he said, looking at each of the researchers. He asked a prompt on what else the

researchers wanted to know. wasnt using any form of contraceptives whenever he and his girlfriend

engages in premarital sex. He started engaging in premarital sex when he was 15 years old with the

mother of his child, who is also his current girlfriend and his only sex partner.

He got nervous when he found out that he was going to be a father because they were both still very

young and he didnt have any idea on how to be a father especially since his father abandoned their

family when he was in kindergarten and his mother was not around to guide him. When asked if he had a

plan to abort the baby, he said Waay man, hanggud gd daan nga sala. Akon man na daan bata, wala gid

na isip nga indi siya akon. (I didnt plan to. The baby had no fault. Hes my baby after all, I never

doubted that fact.)

His family got mad at him at first when they knew that he got his girlfriend pregnant and financially they
struggled and also said that they dont have stable means of earning money. Nangara akon nga mga

magurang e pero waay duman sanda ti mahimo gin akseptar dulang nanda. He told the researchers,

fidgeting on the end of his T-shirt.

The idea of him having a family motivated him to take part in the role of being a father and his brother

who also had his own family.

He shared that their father abandoned them when he was at a very young age and that he didnt have a

father figure and didnt know of how to take care of the child, he only takes the child to the rural health

unit and private doctor for consultation.

Xander is now living with the child and his partner. They still continue to have sexual intercourse but said

they are more careful now.

Kisa gaka depress man ko eh, kadamo sang problema kag kung paano ko makaya, nagsulod na gani sa

ulo ko ma suicide ugaring na panumdum ko man ya girlfriend kag bata ko he shared, looking down at his

hands with a concentrated expression.

When asked how he copes with problems he said Ga istorya ko sa mga barkada ko ka ga inom kag ga


Xander now lessened his time with his friends and would rather study and help his partner take care of

the child, he managed to cope with the role by managing his time. kung sa skwelahan ga focus gd ko sa

pag tuon eh, pay kung sa balay nabuslan ko man y amiga ko sa pag atipan sa bata namon

The results were_________________The phenomenon in focus is fatherhood. This study was conducted

with the sole purpose of describing and formulating patterns in the lives and experiences of Ilonggo

teenage fathers. From these patterns the researchers were able to form an acronym to best represent the

themes gleaned from each interview, namely, (1) Situational Adjustment; (2) Personal Coping; (3)

Occuring changes; (4) Taking on the Role; (5) Life Balance; (6) Insights; (7) Gains and Loses; (8) Home

Impact; and (9) Time Management.

Situational Adjustment.

For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction, as Newton states. This principle isnt limited to

the laws of physics, however, as it is something that also encompasses life on a day to day basis. For

each decision made, each option chosen, there are consequences that occur. In the case of the key

informants in this study, the theme Situational Adjustment is the analysis of how they are adapting to the

change in their social, emotional, psychological, and spiritual life.

With a major stressor such as unpreparedness for the fatherhood role added to the developmental

demands of a teenager not being in congruence with each other, the rate at which a person adjusts to the
role is crucial as it may help determine the necessity for support and other techniques to aid in stress


Personal Coping.

Putting into consideration the fact that each person is an individual entity with specific differences in

thoughts, perceptions and actions, personal coping also differs. This theme paints a picture of how the

key informants usually handle stressful situations, be it before or after becoming a father, and how it will

in some way affect the individual in the future.

Occurring Changes.

Change is a constant, whether it is large scale like global warming, or something seemingly insignificant

like a slight shift in wind direction, it is always there remolding the patterns of daily life. This theme

exhibits the different changes brought about by the sudden role change in the key informants.

Taking on the Role.

In plays and in movies, a role is a character an actor/actress plays as. It is where he/she gathers all these

different characteristics that meet the criterion for the role to be effectively delivered. It takes preparation,

emotional balance, and a calm and confident mindset to reach this goal. For teenage fathers, these three

factors are usually lacking.

Life Balance.
The main goal each individual aspires to reach is to find solid ground to stand on in the ever-changing

landscape that is life. Everyone craves the calm floating through life like a paper boat on a still lake,

peaceful, undisturbed. This theme explores how close the key informants are to reaching that level of



Some say that to completely understand something is to experience it for yourself. Obtained knowledge

through experience trumps second-hand accounts in textbooks any day. To personally see a phenomenon,

to feel, and think, and do at the very moment a situation occurs, it opens up the mind to a new

perception of the situation.

Gains and Loses.

There is nothing permanent in life. What we gain, we will eventually lose. This theme introduces the

things the key informants have gained and have lost throughout the process of accepting the role of


Home Impact.

Family is the basic unit of the community. It is here that many firsts occur. It is the epicenter of support,

learning, and love. This is the theme that addresses the role and reaction of the family towards the

sudden role shift of a member from son/cousin/brother to father.

Time Management.
Time slips through greedy fingers like water. In the scheme of things, its easy to lose track of time when

there are too many things to do. The key informants cited proper time management as a key in balancing

their roles as fathers, students, and friends.