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Comparison of 4RSC Strategy For Solid Waste Management

At Universitas Negeri Malang

A.N.Latifah, A.A.P.Fauzi, D.Amaliya, N.Memiasih and Sueb

Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
Universitas Negeri Malang
Correponding email:,

Abstract. Waste problem has been becoming a problem that never ends. It is almost found everywhere. Campus waste is an
issue that needs to be controlled because the function as a place where students deepen their scientific knowledge. 4RSC strategy
is a simple waste management that can handle waste problem if implemented well. 4RSC strategy consists of Reduce, Reuse,
Recycle, Replace, Separate, and Composting. The purpose of this study is to compare 4RSC strategy among faculties at
Universitas Negeri Malang (UM). This research is a comparative study using 100 student samples of populations of all students
at Universitas Negeri Malang. Instrument of this research is interview and questionnaire. The result of interviews showed that
some students know waste management, although they did not know 4RSC strategy. They know waste management like 3R
strategy (Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle). The other result showed that the comparison of 4RSC strategy among faculties is not
different or same. Then, level of 4RSC strategy is in the low level.

Keywords: 4RSC strategy, campus waste


Waste is a material or substance, both organic and inorganic generated from any human activity. Activities can
be in the household, industrial, and commercial activities [1]. Waste is into a pretty serious problem for society,
especially in urban areas. During this time people throw away the waste and hand over to the next to the janitor and
the closed material. But the real problem is not finished up there. Heaps of waste in landfills into its own problems,
health problems, pollution and environmental beauty.
Campus waste is also one problem that needs to be controlled. This issue about campus waste focused on the
existence of all types of waste that are in the scope of the campus. Campus waste is not just a waste product in
general, but also litter from student research materials, such as chemicals and other hazardous materials. One place
that has a high production potential waste in a city is a college or university campus. With fixed users in universities
which have a routine activity, even in the holidays, of course there are various types of waste every day.
4RSC strategy is an attempt waste management consists of several steps, they are reduce, reuse, replace, recycle,
separate and compost [2]. According to [2] research results (1998) on the 4RSC strategy show that the character of
different communities in rural areas by region and urban elite. Heaps of waste paper and plastic waste is in the
region's largest and the urban elite. In addition, the results of interviews with a number of students concluded that
not many people know 4RSC strategy, most of which is 3R (Reduce, Reuse, and Recycling). They also do not apply
3R strategy in the life of a well. Given this research the mindset of students need to be changed about the concern
for good environmental hygiene factors influenced the residence, habits, or other factors.
Waste problem in Indonesia is like a cancer has reached stage IV. The latest report titled "What a Waste: A
Global Review of Solid Waste Management" published by the World Bank reveals that the number of urban solid
waste in the world will continue to rise by 70% this year up to 2025, from 1.3 billion tons per year to 2.2 billion tons
per year. The majority of the increase occurred in urban areas in developing countries. In Indonesia, the World Bank
said the solid waste production reached 151 921 tons per day. This means that every resident of Indonesia dispose of
solid waste on average 0.85 kg per day [3].
Interviews with a number of students about waste management has been done. They know a lot of waste
management business but not included in the scope of 4RSC strategy. Most of them only know the 3R (Reduce,
Reuse, and Recycle). Nonetheless, 3R also includes a component in the 4RSC strategy. Interview stretcher indicate
that students know the least waste management efforts will be specified in the 4RSC strategy.
Waste problems have a major impact on the environment. Environment is unity with all things space, power,
state, and living creatures, including humans and their behavior, which affect the survival and welfare of human
beings and other living things [4]. In fact, these elements have not been fused, plus human carelessness in treating
the environment both in terms of waste management or because of other environmental problems.
Waste problem is not immediately addressed, because it will cause more environmental damage. so we designed
a research of 4RSC strategy to raise awareness of students in waste management as well as to determine whether the
program is effective for managing solid waste in Universitas Negeri Malang or not. The purposes of this study are
to compare 4RSC strategy among faculties at Universitas Negeri Malang (UM) and to know the level of 4RSC
Strategy done by students at Universitas Negeri Malang.

Type of Research
This research is a comparative study among faculties at UM.
Time and Location of Research
This research was conducted in all faculties at UM on March 2017.

Research Instrument
There are few random questions on the questionnaire related with 4RSC strategy. This questionnaire provides as
many as 17 items with possible answers always, often, sometimes, and never.
This interview was conducted to students at Universitas Negeri Malang to corroborate the initial data
(Preliminary Study).
Population in this research are all student at UM.

Sample and Sampling Technique

This research use accidental sampling. Samples were taken by 100 students at UM.

Procedure of Data Collection

The procedures are carried out by recapitulating the answers from the questionnaire and classifyng the result into
several categories.

Data Analysis
The data analysis is single variance analysis by distinguishing 8 faculties. Analysis was assisted by SPSS.


Comparison 4RSC Strategy among Faculties in Universitas Negeri Malang

The analysis data of this research is Anova with means the data distributed normally. Continued by homogeneity
test, the significancy value is 0.907 > 0.05 so the data Kolmogorov-Smirnov Normality test continued by
Homogeneity Test. The absolute value in normality test is 0.069 > 0.05. If the data of 4RSC strategy are normal and
homogeneous can be continued by Anova.
Anova Test
Anova was nused to determine comparison level of 4RSC strategy at UM with a significance level 5 % ().
Table 1. ANOVA
Mean of 4RSC Strategy

Sum of Mean
Squares df Square F Sig.
Between Groups
1.426 7 .204 1.211 .305

Within Groups 15.479 92 .168

Total 16.905 99
Table 1 shows that F value > F table (1,211<2,111), so there is no significant difference among faculties at UM.
Average of 4RSC Strategy in all faculties can be talked that they are same. According to [5] in his research about
Factors Affecting Household Participation in Solid Waste Management Segregation and Recycling in Bangkok,
Thailand using ANOVA to investigate the mean difference in the level of participation on solid waste segregation
and recycling of household between residents who live in three zones in Bangkok namely inner, middle and outer
areas. It was revealed that the level of participation on solid waste segregation and recycling of residents in three
different zones were similar behavior in nature.

The Level of 4RSC Strategy at Universitas Negeri Malang

The level of strategy can be explained by descriptive statistics table which is matched by criteria table.
Table 2. Descriptive Statistics
Minimu Maximu Std.
N m m Mean Deviation
Mean Total 100 1.59 3.47 2.5088 .41323
Valid N

Table 3. The Score of Interpretation Criteria

N Average of score Criteria
o value
1 1.00-1.80 Very low
2 1.81-2.60 Low
3 2.61-3.40 Medium
4 3.41-4.20 High
5 4.21-5.00 Very high
Source: [6]
Table 2 shows the mean total of 4RSC strategy. Based on it, we know that the mean value is 2.5088. If this value
is matched with table 6, it means the criteria of 4RSC strategy in general is placed in low level. The very low
category is the attitude about burying the wet rubbish. The medium categories are the attitude about shopping more
careful, reusing plastic and glass bottles, giving useless thing to other people to be reused, reusing the paper in one
side, saving plastic bags to be reused, and the last is putting every kind of rubbish into a correct dustbin. Then, the
most attitude others are placed in low category.
According to [6] said in their research about Society Behavior towards Household Waste Management in
Tulungagung that Attitude is an evaluative response that would only arise if individuals are exposed to a stimulus
that calls for individual reactions. Evaluative response means that the reaction expressed as attitude arise due to the
evaluation process within the individual that gives a conclusion to the stimulus in the form of either positive or
negative, pleasant -unpleasant, which is then formed as a potential reaction to the object. Their results about average
value of the attitude variable is 2.99, included in the medium category, then the average value of action variable is
3.48, which included in high category. This indicates that the action of respondents to waste management in
Tulungagung is at a high level. Besides that, the average value of waste management variable is 3.60 (high
category). This indicates that the respondent's behavior towards waste management in Tulungagung is at a high
Acording to [7] in their research about Community attitude, perception and willingness towards solid waste
management in Bangalore city, Karnataka, India shows that the majority of the households about 71% are willing to
use the recyclable. About 12% are preferred to make waste as a resource and about 59% of the households are
willing to reduce waste generation at source. About 48% are willing to sort recyclables at the source. About 30.5%
of the households are ready to pay extra service fees for the collection of waste, as they did not find any problem
once the waste is out of there house. Thus, the average willingness to pay seems to be lower than that of the cost
required for the management of the waste. The Willingness to pay is also positively related to the household income
and household size.
According to [8] in their research about Assessment of Waste Management Practices among Residents of Owerri
Municipal Imo State Nigeria show that 51.4 % respondents collect the their waste in containers with cover, 88.3 %
respondents do not separate their waste before disposal.
Actually proper waste disposal management is essential to sustain healthy living conditions in any environment.
Good management is important for our environment. Based on the other research, 4RSC strategy gives a description
to managing the waste from the easier method that are easier too to be developed and will increase the quality of
environment significantly.

4RSC strategy is waste management in University which consists of Reducing, Reusing, Replacing, Separating,
Recycling, and Composting. We concludes that comparison 4RSC strategy among faculties at UM are not different.
The level of 4RSC strategy in general is low level. It means that the waste attitude or awareness at Universitas
Negeri Malang need to be developed. If 4RSC strategy developed well, it will help problem waste in university.

First of all, thanks to God because given us to complete this research just in a time. Even we faced with a lot of
difficult along to compete this research paper, we still manage to complete it. We would also like to show our
gratitude to Dr.H. Sueb, M.Kes for all of his support and guidance in helping us to finish this paper.
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