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IB Chemistry HL Periodicity Review

1. The compounds Na2O, Al2O3 and SO2 respectively are

A. acidic, amphoteric and basic.

B. amphoteric, basic and acidic.

C. basic, acidic and amphoteric.

D. basic, amphoteric and acidic.


(Total 1 mark)
2. Which of the following salts form coloured solutions when dissolved in water?

I. ScCL3

II. FeCl3

III. NiCl2

IV. ZnCl2

A. I and II only

B. II and III only

C. III and IV only

D. I, II, III and IV


(Total 1 mark)
3. Which is an essential feature of a ligand?

A. a negative charge

B. an odd number of electrons

C. the presence of two or more atoms

D. the presence of a non-bonding pair of electrons


(Total 1 mark)
4. Which equation represents the third ionization energy of an element M?
+ 4+
A. M (g) M (g) + 3e
2+ 3+
B. M (g) M (g) + e
3+
C. M(g) M (g) + 3e
3+ 4+
D. M (g) M (g) + e
(Total 1 mark)
5. This question is about Period 3 elements and their compounds.

(a) Explain, in terms of their structure and bonding, why the element sulfur is a non-
conductor of electricity and aluminium is a good conductor of electricity.
(4)

1
(b) Explain, in terms of its structure and bonding, why silicon dioxide, SiO 2, has a high
melting point.
(2)
(Total 6 marks)
6. Which pair of elements reacts most readily?

A. Li + Br2

B. Li + Cl2

C. K + Br2

D. K + Cl2

(Total 1 mark)
7. Explain the following statements.

(a) The first ionization energy of sodium is

(i) less than that of magnesium.


(2)
(ii) greater than that of potassium.
(1)

(b) The electronegativity of chlorine is higher than that of sulfur.


(2)
(Total 5 marks)

2
8. Elements with atomic number 21 to 30 are d-block elements.

(a) Identify which of these elements are not considered to be typical transition elements.
(1)
(b) Complex ions consist of a central metal ion surrounded by ligands. Define the term
ligand.
(2)
(c) Complete the table below to show the oxidation state of the transition element.
(3)
2 2 3+
ion Cr2O7 [CuCl4] [Fe(H2O)6]
oxidation state
(d) Identify two transition elements used as catalysts in industrial processes, stating the
process in each case.
(2)
(e) Apart from the formation of complex ions and apart from their use as catalysts, state two
other properties of transition elements.
(2)
(Total 10 marks)
2+
9. Define the term ligand. Cu (aq) reacts with ammonia to form the complex ion
2+
[Cu(NH3)4] . Explain this reaction in terms of an acid-base theory, and outline the bonding in
2+
the complex ion formed between Cu and NH3.

(Total 4 marks)
10. The following table shows values that appear in the Data Booklet.
12
Table 1 Covalent (atomic) radii /10 m

N 0 F
70 66 58
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl
186 160 143 117 110 104 99
12
Table 2 Ionic radii/10 m
3 2
N O F
171 146 133
+ 2+ 3+ 4+ 3 2
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl
98 65 45 42 212 190 181

Explain why

(i) the magnesium ion is much smaller than the magnesium atom.
(2)
(ii) there is a large increase in ionic radius from silicon to phosphorus.
(2)
+
(iii) the ionic radius of Na is less than that of F .
(2)
(Total 6 marks)
11. Which of the following properties of the halogens increase from F to I?

I. Atomic radius

II. Melting point

3
III. Electronegativity

A. I only

B. I and II only

C. I and III only

D. I, II and III
(Total 1 mark)
12. Describe the acid-base character of the oxides of the period 3 elements Na to Ar. For sodium
oxide and sulfur trioxide, write balanced equations to illustrate their acid-base character.
(Total 4 marks)
13. Nitrogen is found in period 2 and group 5 of the periodic table.

(i) Distinguish between the terms period and group.


(1)

(ii) State the electron arrangement of nitrogen and explain why it is found in period 2 and
group 5 of the periodic table.
(3)
(Total 4 marks)

14. (i) Explain how the first ionization energy of K compares with that of Na and Ar.
(3)
(ii) Explain the difference between the first ionization energies of Na and Mg.
(4)
+
(iii) Suggest why much more energy is needed to remove an electron from Na than from
+
Mg .
(1)
(Total 8 marks)
15. Which of the physical properties below decrease with increasing atomic number for both the
alkali metals and the halogens?

I. Atomic radius

II. Ionization energy

III. Melting point

A. I only

B. II only

C. III only

D. I and III only


(Total 1 mark)

4
16. Table 6 of the Data Booklet lists melting points of the elements. Explain the trend in the melting
points of the alkali metals, halogens and period 3 elements.

(Total 8 marks)