Sei sulla pagina 1di 392

CSC-103

Line Protection IED


Technical Application Manual
CSC-103 Line Protection IED
Technical Application Manual

Compiled: Jin Rui

Checked: Hou Changsong

Standardized:Wu Shuna

Inspected: Cui Chenfan

Version V1.02
Doc.Code0SF.451.083 (E)

Issued Date2013.9
VersionV1.02

Doc. Code0SF.451.083(E)

Issued Date2013.9
Copyright owner: Beijing Sifang Automation Co., Ltd

Note: the company keeps the right to perfect the instruction. If equipment
does not agree with the instruction at anywhere, please contact our company
in time. We will provide you with corresponding service.


is registered trademark of Beijing Sifang Automation Co., Ltd.

We reserve all rights to this document, even in the event that a patent is issued and a different
commercial proprietary right is registered. Improper use, in particular reproduction and
dissemination to third parties, is not permitted.

This document has been carefully checked. If the user nevertheless detects any errors, he is
asked to notify us as soon as possible.

The data contained in this manual is intended solely for the product description and is not to be
deemed to be a statement of guaranteed properties. In the interests of our customers, we
constantly seek to ensure that our products are developed to the latest technological
standards as a result; it is possible that there may be some differences between the
hardware/software product and this information product.

Manufacturer:
Beijing Sifang Automation Co., Ltd.

Tel: +86-10-62961515
Fax: +86-10-62981900
Internet: http://www.sf-auto.com
Add: No.9, Shangdi 4th Street, Haidian District, Beijing, P.R.C.100085
Preface
Purpose of this manual

This manual describes the functions, operation, installation, and placing into service
of device CSC-103. In particular, one will find:

Information on how to configure the device scope and a description of the device
functions and setting options;

Instructions for mounting and commissioning;

Compilation of the technical specifications;

A compilation of the most significant data for experienced users in the Appendix.

Target Audience

Protection engineers, commissioning engineers, personnel concerned with


adjustment, checking, and service of selective protective equipment, automatic and
control facilities, and personnel of electrical facilities and power plants.

Applicability of this Manual

This manual is valid for SIFANG Distance Protection IED CSC-103; firmware version
V1.00 and higher

Indication of Conformity
Additional Support

In case of further questions concerning IED CSC-103 system, please contact


SIFANG representative.

Safety information

Strictly follow the company and international safety regulations.


Working in a high voltage environment requires serious approch to
aviod human injuries and damage to equipment
Do not touch any circuitry during operation. Potentially lethal
voltages and currents are present

Avoid to touching the circuitry when covers are removed. The IED
contains electirc circuits which can be damaged if exposed to static
electricity. Lethal high voltage circuits are also exposed when covers
are removed

Using the isolated test pins when measuring signals in open circuitry.
Potentially lethal voltages and currents are present

Never connect or disconnect wire and/or connector to or from IED


during normal operation. Dangerous voltages and currents are
present. Operation may be interrupted and IED and measuring
circuitry may be damaged

Always connect the IED to protective earth regardless of the


operating conditions. Operating the IED without proper earthing may
damage both IED and measuring circuitry and may cause injuries in
case of an accident.

Do not disconnect the secondary connection of current transformer


without short-circuiting the transformers secondary winding.
Operating a current transformer with the secondary winding open will
cause a high voltage that may damage the transformer and may
cause injuries to humans.

Do not remove the screw from a powered IED or from an IED


connected to power circuitry. Potentially lethal voltages and currents
are present

Using the certified conductive bags to transport PCBs (modules).


Handling modules with a conductive wrist strap connected to
protective earth and on an antistatic surface. Electrostatic discharge
may cause damage to the module due to electronic circuits are
sensitive to this phenomenon
Do not connect live wires to the IED, internal circuitry may be
damaged

When replacing modules using a conductive wrist strap connected to


protective earth. Electrostatic discharge may damage the modules
and IED circuitry

When installing and commissioning, take care to avoid electrical


shock if accessing wiring and connection IEDs

Changing the setting value group will inevitably change the IEDs
operation. Be careful and check regulations before making the
change
Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction ............................................................................................................1
1 Overview ...............................................................................................................................2
2 Features................................................................................................................................3
3 Functions ..............................................................................................................................6
3.1 Protection functions...............................................................................................6
3.2 Monitoring functions ..............................................................................................7
3.3 Station communication .........................................................................................8
3.4 Remote communication ........................................................................................8
3.5 IED software tools .................................................................................................8
Chapter 2 General IED application ...................................................................................... 11
1 Display information ............................................................................................................12
1.1 LCD screen display function...............................................................................12
1.2 Analog display function ....................................................................................... 12
1.3 Report display function ....................................................................................... 12
1.4 Menu dispaly function ......................................................................................... 12
2 Report record ..................................................................................................................... 13
3 Disturbance recorder .........................................................................................................14
3.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................14
3.2 Setting ..................................................................................................................14
4 Self supervision function ...................................................................................................16
4.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................16
4.2 Self supervision principle .................................................................................... 16
4.3 Self supervision report ........................................................................................ 16
5 Time synchronization .........................................................................................................18
5.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................18
5.2 Synchronization principle .................................................................................... 18
5.2.1 Synchronization from IRIG .................................................................................19
5.2.2 Synchronization via PPS or PPM.......................................................................19
5.2.3 Synchronization via SNTP ..................................................................................19
6 Setting .................................................................................................................................20
6.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................20
6.2 Operation principle .............................................................................................. 20
7 Authorization ...................................................................................................................... 21
7.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................21
Chapter 3 Basic protection elements ..................................................................................23
1 Startup element ..................................................................................................................24
1.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................24
1.2 Sudden-change current startup element ........................................................... 24
1.3 Zero-sequence current startup element ............................................................ 25
1.4 Overcurrent startup element...............................................................................26
1.5 Low-voltage startup element (for weak infeed systems)..................................27
1.6 Steady state consistence loosing startup .......................................................... 27

1
2 Phase selector ................................................................................................................... 28
2.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 28
2.2 Sudden-change current phase selector ............................................................ 28
2.3 Symmetric component phase selector .............................................................. 29
2.4 Low-voltage phase selector................................................................................ 30
3 Directional elements .......................................................................................................... 31
3.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 31
3.2 Memory voltage directional element .................................................................. 31
3.3 Zero sequence component directional element ............................................... 31
3.4 Negative sequence component directional element ........................................ 32
3.5 Impedance directional elements ........................................................................ 33
4 Setting parameters ............................................................................................................ 34
4.1 Setting list ............................................................................................................ 34
4.2 Setting explanation.............................................................................................. 35
Chapter 4 Line differential protection .................................................................................. 37
5 Line differential protection ................................................................................................. 38
5.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 38
5.2 Protection principle.............................................................................................. 38
6 Phase-segregated current differential protection ............................................................ 39
7 Sudden-change current differential protection ................................................................ 41
8 Zero-sequence current differential protection.................................................................. 43
9 Other principle .................................................................................................................... 45
9.1 Startup element ................................................................................................... 45
9.1.1 Weak-source system startup....................................................................... 45
9.1.2 Remote beckon startup ............................................................................... 45
9.2 Capacitive current compensation ...................................................................... 46
9.3 CT saturation discrimination ............................................................................... 48
9.4 Tele-transmission binary signals ........................................................................ 49
9.5 Direct transfer trip ................................................................................................ 49
9.6 Time synchronization of Sampling ..................................................................... 49
9.7 Redundant remote communication channels ................................................... 50
9.8 Switch onto fault protection function .................................................................. 50
9.9 Logic diagram ...................................................................................................... 50
9.10 Input and output signals ..................................................................................... 52
9.11 Setting parameters .............................................................................................. 53
9.11.1 Setting list ..................................................................................................... 53
9.11.2 Setting explanation ...................................................................................... 55
9.12 Reports................................................................................................................. 58
9.13 Technical data ...................................................................................................... 60
Chapter 5 Distance protection ............................................................................................. 61
1 Distance protection ............................................................................................................ 62
1.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 62
1.2 Protection principle.............................................................................................. 62
1.2.1 Full scheme protection ................................................................................ 62
1.2.2 Impedance characteristic ............................................................................63
1.2.3 Extended polygonal distance protection zone characteristic ................... 64
1.2.4 Minimum operating current .........................................................................66
1.2.5 Measuring principle ...................................................................................... 66
1.2.6 Distance element direction determination ..................................................69
1.2.7 Power swing blocking ..................................................................................70
1.2.8 Phase-to-earth fault determination ............................................................. 79
1.2.9 Logic diagram ............................................................................................... 79
1.3 Input and output signals...................................................................................... 85
1.4 Setting parameters .............................................................................................. 86
1.4.1 Setting list .....................................................................................................86
1.4.2 Setting explanation ...................................................................................... 91
1.4.3 Calculation example for distance parameter settings ............................... 93
1.5 Reports ...............................................................................................................106
1.6 Technical data ...................................................................................................107
Chapter 6 Teleprotection .................................................................................................... 110
1 Teleprotection schemes for distance .............................................................................. 111
1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 111
1.2 Teleprotection principle..................................................................................... 111
1.2.1 Permissive underreach transfer trip (PUTT) scheme ............................. 111
1.2.2 Permissive overreach transfer trip (POTT) scheme ................................ 112
1.2.3 Blocking scheme ........................................................................................ 113
1.2.4 Additional teleprotection logics ................................................................. 115
1.3 Input and output signals.................................................................................... 116
1.4 Setting parameters ............................................................................................ 117
1.4.1 Setting list ................................................................................................... 118
1.4.2 Setting explanation .................................................................................... 118
1.5 Reports ............................................................................................................... 119
1.6 Technical data ................................................................................................... 119
2 Teleprotection for directional earth fault protection ....................................................... 120
2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................120
2.2 Protection principle............................................................................................ 120
2.3 Input and output signals.................................................................................... 121
2.4 Setting parameters ............................................................................................ 122
2.4.1 Setting lists .................................................................................................123
2.5 Reports ...............................................................................................................123
Chapter 7 Overcurrent protection ...................................................................................... 126
1 Overcurrent protection .....................................................................................................127
1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................127
1.2 Protection principle............................................................................................ 127
1.2.1 Measured quantities .................................................................................. 127
1.2.2 Time characteristic ..................................................................................... 127
1.2.3 Direciton determination feature .................................................................129
1.2.4 Logic diagram ............................................................................................. 130

3
1.3 Input and output signals ................................................................................... 131
1.4 Setting parameters ............................................................................................ 132
1.4.1 Setting list ................................................................................................... 133
1.5 Reports............................................................................................................... 134
1.6 Technical data ................................................................................................... 134
Chapter 8 Earth fault protection ......................................................................................... 138
1 Directional/Non-directional earth fault portection .......................................................... 139
1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 139
1.2 Protection principle............................................................................................ 139
1.2.1 Time delays characteristic ......................................................................... 140
1.2.2 Inrush restraint feature .............................................................................. 141
1.2.3 Earth fault direction determination ............................................................ 142
1.2.4 Logic diagram ............................................................................................. 144
1.3 Input and output signals ................................................................................... 146
1.4 Setting parameters ............................................................................................ 147
1.4.1 Setting lists ................................................................................................. 147
1.4.2 Setting calculation example ...................................................................... 150
1.5 Reports............................................................................................................... 150
1.6 Technical data ................................................................................................... 151
Chapter 9 Emergency/backup overcurrent and earth fault protection ............................ 154
1 Emergency/backup overcurrent protection .................................................................... 155
1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 155
1.2 Protection principle............................................................................................ 155
1.2.1 Tripping time characteristic ....................................................................... 155
1.2.2 Inrush restraint feature .............................................................................. 156
1.2.3 Logic diagram ............................................................................................. 157
1.3 Input and output signals ................................................................................... 157
1.4 Setting parameters ............................................................................................ 158
1.4.1 Setting lists ................................................................................................. 158
1.5 Reports............................................................................................................... 160
1.6 Technical data ................................................................................................... 160
2 Emergency/backup earth fault protection ...................................................................... 162
2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 162
2.2 Protection principle............................................................................................ 162
2.2.1 Tripping time characteristic ....................................................................... 162
2.2.2 Inrush restraint feature .............................................................................. 163
2.2.3 Logic diagram ............................................................................................. 164
2.3 Input and output signals ................................................................................... 164
2.4 Setting parameters ............................................................................................ 165
2.4.1 Setting list ................................................................................................... 165
2.5 IED report........................................................................................................... 166
2.6 Technical data ................................................................................................... 167
Chapter 10 Switch-Onto-Fault protection............................................................................ 170
1 Switch-Onto-Fault protection .......................................................................................... 171
1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................171
1.2 Function principle .............................................................................................. 171
1.2.1 Function description ................................................................................... 171
1.2.2 Logic diagram ............................................................................................. 172
1.3 Input and output signals.................................................................................... 172
1.4 Setting parameters ............................................................................................ 174
1.4.1 Setting lists .................................................................................................174
1.4.2 Setting calculation example ......................................................................175
1.5 Reports ...............................................................................................................175
1.6 Technical data ...................................................................................................176
Chapter 11 Overload protection ........................................................................................... 178
1 Overload protection .........................................................................................................179
1.1 Protection principle............................................................................................ 179
1.1.1 Function description ................................................................................... 179
1.1.2 Logic diagram ............................................................................................. 179
1.2 Input and output signals.................................................................................... 179
1.3 Setting parameters ............................................................................................ 180
1.3.1 Setting lists .................................................................................................180
1.4 Reports ...............................................................................................................180
Chapter 12 Overvoltage protection ...................................................................................... 182
1 Overvoltage protection ....................................................................................................183
1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................183
1.2 Protection principle............................................................................................ 183
1.2.1 Phase to phase overvoltage protection .................................................... 183
1.2.2 Phase to earth overvlotage protection ..................................................... 184
1.2.3 Logic diagram ............................................................................................. 184
1.3 Input and output signals.................................................................................... 184
1.4 Setting parameters ............................................................................................ 185
1.4.1 Setting lists .................................................................................................186
1.5 Reports ...............................................................................................................186
1.6 Technical data ...................................................................................................187
Chapter 13 Undervoltage protection.................................................................................... 188
1 Undervoltage protection ..................................................................................................189
1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................189
1.2 Protection principle............................................................................................ 189
1.2.1 Phase to phase underovltage protection ................................................. 189
1.2.2 Phase to earth undervoltage protection ................................................... 190
1.2.3 Depending on the VT location ...................................................................190
1.2.4 Logic diagram ............................................................................................. 191
1.3 Input and output signals.................................................................................... 192
1.4 Setting parameters ............................................................................................ 194
1.4.1 Setting lists .................................................................................................194
1.5 Reports ...............................................................................................................195
1.6 Technical data ...................................................................................................195

5
Chapter 14 Circuit breaker failure protection ...................................................................... 198
1 Circuit breaker failure protection..................................................................................... 199
1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 199
1.2 Function Description ......................................................................................... 200
1.2.1 Current criterion evaluation ....................................................................... 201
1.2.2 Circuit breaker auxiliary contact evaluation ............................................. 202
1.2.3 Logic diagram ............................................................................................. 203
1.3 Input and output signals ................................................................................... 207
1.4 Setting parameters ............................................................................................ 208
1.4.1 Setting lists ................................................................................................. 208
1.5 Reports............................................................................................................... 209
1.6 Technical data ................................................................................................... 210
Chapter 15 Dead zone protection ........................................................................................ 212
1 Dead zone protection ...................................................................................................... 213
1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 213
1.2 Protection principle............................................................................................ 213
1.2.1 Function description................................................................................... 214
1.2.2 Logic diagram ............................................................................................. 214
1.3 Input and output signals ................................................................................... 215
1.4 Setting parameters ............................................................................................ 216
1.4.1 Setting lists ................................................................................................. 216
1.5 Reports............................................................................................................... 217
1.6 Technical data ................................................................................................... 217
Chapter 16 STUB protection ................................................................................................ 218
1 STUB protection............................................................................................................... 219
1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 219
1.2 Protection principle............................................................................................ 219
1.2.1 Function description................................................................................... 219
1.2.2 Logic diagram ............................................................................................. 220
1.3 Input and output signals ................................................................................... 220
1.4 Setting parameters ............................................................................................ 221
1.4.1 Setting lists ................................................................................................. 221
1.5 Reports............................................................................................................... 222
1.6 Technical data ................................................................................................... 222
Chapter 17 Poles discordance protection ........................................................................... 224
1 Poles discordance protection .......................................................................................... 225
1.1 Introdcution ........................................................................................................ 225
1.2 Protection principle............................................................................................ 225
1.2.1 Function description................................................................................... 225
1.2.2 Logic diagram ............................................................................................. 226
1.3 Input and output signals ................................................................................... 226
1.4 Setting parameters ............................................................................................ 228
1.4.1 Setting lists ................................................................................................. 228
1.5 Reports............................................................................................................... 228
1.6 Technical data ...................................................................................................229
Chapter 18 Synchro-check and energizing check function ...............................................230
1 Synchro-check and energizing check function .............................................................. 231
1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................231
1.2 Function principle .............................................................................................. 231
1.2.1 Synchro-check mode ................................................................................. 231
1.2.2 Energizing ckeck mode .............................................................................232
1.2.3 Override mode............................................................................................ 233
1.2.4 Logic diagram ............................................................................................. 233
1.3 Input and output signals.................................................................................... 234
1.4 Setting parameters ............................................................................................ 235
1.4.1 Setting lists .................................................................................................235
1.4.2 Setting explanation .................................................................................... 236
1.5 Reports ...............................................................................................................236
1.6 Technical data ...................................................................................................237
Chapter 19 Auto-reclosing function ..................................................................................... 240
1 Auto-reclosing .................................................................................................................. 241
1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................241
1.2 Function principle .............................................................................................. 241
1.2.1 Single-shot reclosing ................................................................................. 241
1.2.2 Multi-shot reclosing .................................................................................... 243
1.2.3 Auto-reclosing operation mode .................................................................245
1.2.4 Auto-reclosing initiation .............................................................................246
1.2.5 Cooperating with external protection IED ................................................247
1.2.6 Auto-reclosing logic.................................................................................... 248
1.2.7 AR blocked conditions ...............................................................................250
1.2.8 Logic diagram ............................................................................................. 251
1.3 Input and output signals.................................................................................... 254
1.4 Setting parameters ............................................................................................ 255
1.4.1 Setting lists .................................................................................................255
1.5 Reports ...............................................................................................................257
1.6 Technical data ...................................................................................................258
Chapter 20 Secondary system supervision ........................................................................260
1 Current circuit supervision............................................................................................... 261
1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................261
1.2 Function diagram............................................................................................... 261
1.3 Input and output signals.................................................................................... 261
1.4 Setting parameters ............................................................................................ 262
1.4.1 Setting lists .................................................................................................262
1.4.2 Setting explanation .................................................................................... 262
1.5 Reports ...............................................................................................................262
2 Fuse failure supervision ..................................................................................................263
2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................263
2.2 Function principle .............................................................................................. 263

7
2.2.1 Three phases (symmetrical) VT Fail ........................................................ 263
2.2.2 Single/two phases (asymmetrical) VT Fail............................................... 264
2.2.3 Logic diagram ............................................................................................. 264
2.3 Input and output signals ................................................................................... 265
2.4 Setting parameters ............................................................................................ 266
2.4.1 Setting list ................................................................................................... 266
2.5 Technical data ................................................................................................... 267
Chapter 21 Monitoring .......................................................................................................... 270
1 Check Phase-sequence for voltage and current ........................................................... 271
1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 271
2 Check 3I0 polarity ............................................................................................................ 271
2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 271
3 Check the third harmonic of voltage ............................................................................... 271
3.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 271
4 Check auxiliary contact of circuit breaker ...................................................................... 271
4.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 271
5 Broken conductor............................................................................................................. 272
5.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 272
5.1.1 Logic diagram ............................................................................................. 272
5.2 Input and output signals ................................................................................... 272
5.3 Setting parameters ............................................................................................ 273
5.3.1 Setting list ................................................................................................... 273
5.4 Reports............................................................................................................... 274
6 Fault locator...................................................................................................................... 275
6.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 275
Chapter 22 Station communication...................................................................................... 278
1 Overview........................................................................................................................... 279
2 Protocol............................................................................................................................. 279
2.1 IEC61850-8 communication protocol .............................................................. 279
2.2 IEC60870-5-103 communication protocol....................................................... 279
3 Communication port ........................................................................................................ 280
3.1 Front communication port ................................................................................. 280
3.2 RS485 communication ports ............................................................................ 280
3.3 Ethernet communication ports ......................................................................... 280
4 Typical communication scheme...................................................................................... 280
4.1 Typical substation communication scheme .................................................... 280
4.2 Typical time synchronizing scheme ................................................................. 281
5 Technical data .................................................................................................................. 282
5.1 Front communication port ................................................................................. 282
5.2 RS485 communication port .............................................................................. 282
5.3 Ethernet communication port ........................................................................... 282
5.4 Time synchronization ........................................................................................ 283
Chapter 23 Remote communication .................................................................................... 284
1 Binary signal transfer ....................................................................................................... 285
2 Remote communication channel .................................................................................... 285
2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................285
3 Technical data .................................................................................................................. 287
3.1 Fiber optic communication ports ......................................................................287
Chapter 24 Hardware............................................................................................................290
1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 291
1.1 IED structure ......................................................................................................291
1.2 IED appearance.................................................................................................291
1.3 IED module arrangement ................................................................................. 292
1.4 The rear view of the protection IED .................................................................292
2 Local human-machine interface ..................................................................................... 293
2.1 Human machine interface................................................................................. 293
2.2 LCD .................................................................................................................... 294
2.3 Keypad ...............................................................................................................294
2.4 Shortcut keys and functional keys ...................................................................295
2.5 LED..................................................................................................................... 296
2.6 Front communication port ................................................................................. 297
3 Analog input module ........................................................................................................298
3.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................298
3.2 Terminals of Analogue Input Module (AIM) .................................................... 298
3.3 Technical data ...................................................................................................299
3.3.1 Internal current transformer.......................................................................299
3.3.2 Internal voltage transformer ......................................................................300
4 CPU module ..................................................................................................................... 301
4.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................301
4.2 Communication ports of CPU module (CPU) ................................................. 301
5 Communication module...................................................................................................303
5.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................303
5.2 Substaion communication port .........................................................................303
5.2.1 RS232 communication ports .....................................................................303
5.2.2 RS485 communication ports .....................................................................303
5.2.3 Ethernet communication ports ..................................................................303
5.2.4 Time synchronization port .........................................................................304
5.3 Terminals of Communication Module .............................................................. 304
5.4 Operating reports .............................................................................................. 305
5.5 Technical data ...................................................................................................305
5.5.1 Front communication port..........................................................................305
5.5.2 RS485 communication port .......................................................................306
5.5.3 Ethernet communication port ....................................................................306
5.5.4 Time synchronization ................................................................................. 307
6 Binary input module .........................................................................................................308
6.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................308
6.2 Terminals of Binary Input Module (BIM) .......................................................... 308
6.3 Technical data ...................................................................................................310

9
7 Binary output module....................................................................................................... 311
7.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 311
7.2 Terminals of Binary Output Module (BOM) ..................................................... 311
7.2.1 Binary Output Module A ............................................................................ 311
7.2.2 Binary Output Module C ............................................................................ 314
7.3 Technical data ................................................................................................... 315
8 Power supply module ...................................................................................................... 317
8.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 317
8.2 Terminals of Power Supply Module (PSM) ..................................................... 317
8.3 Technical data ................................................................................................... 319
9 Techinical data ................................................................................................................. 320
9.1 Basic data .......................................................................................................... 320
9.1.1 Frequency................................................................................................... 320
9.1.2 Internal current transformer....................................................................... 320
9.1.3 Internal voltage transformer ...................................................................... 320
9.1.4 Auxiliary voltage ......................................................................................... 321
9.1.5 Binary inputs ............................................................................................... 321
9.1.6 Binary outputs ............................................................................................ 321
9.2 Type tests .......................................................................................................... 322
9.2.1 Product safety-related tests ...................................................................... 322
9.2.2 Electromagnetic immunity tests ................................................................ 323
9.2.3 DC voltage interruption test....................................................................... 325
9.2.4 Electromagnetic emission test .................................................................. 325
9.2.5 Mechanical tests ........................................................................................ 326
9.2.6 Climatic tests .............................................................................................. 326
9.2.7 CE Certificate ............................................................................................. 327
9.3 IED design ......................................................................................................... 327
Chapter 25 Appendix ............................................................................................................ 328
1 General setting list ........................................................................................................... 329
1.1 Function setting list ........................................................................................... 329
1.2 Binary setting list ............................................................................................... 341
2 General report list ............................................................................................................ 349
3 Typical connection ........................................................................................................... 357
4 Time inverse characteristic ............................................................................................. 360
4.1 11 kinds of IEC and ANSI inverse time characteristic curves ....................... 360
4.2 User defined characteristic ............................................................................... 360
5 CT requirement ................................................................................................................ 362
5.1 Overview ............................................................................................................ 362
5.2 Current transformer classification .................................................................... 362
5.3 Abbreviations (according to IEC 60044-1, -6, as defined)............................. 363
5.4 General current transformer requirements...................................................... 364
5.4.1 Protective checking current ....................................................................... 364
5.4.2 CT class ...................................................................................................... 365
5.4.3 Accuracy class ........................................................................................... 367
5.4.4 Ratio of CT..................................................................................................367
5.4.5 Rated secondary current ...........................................................................367
5.4.6 Secondary burden...................................................................................... 367
5.5 Rated equivalent secondary e.m.f requirements ............................................368
5.5.1 Line differential protection .........................................................................368
5.5.2 Transformer differential protection ............................................................ 369
5.5.3 Busbar differential protection ....................................................................370
5.5.4 Distance protection .................................................................................... 371
5.5.5 Definite time overcurrent protection and earth fault protection ..............372
5.5.6 Inverse time overcurrent protection and earth fault protection ...............373

11
Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 1 Introduction

About this chapter


This chapter gives an overview of SIFANG line Protection
IED.

1
Chapter 1 Introduction

1 Overview
The CSC-103 is selective, reliable and high speed comprehensive
transmission line protection IED (Intelligent Electronic Device) for
overhead lines, cables or combination of them, with powerful capabilities
to cover following applications:

Overhead lines and cables at all voltage levels

Two and three-end lines

All type of station arrangement, such as 1.5 breakers arrangement


double bus arrangement, etc.

Extremely long lines with series compensation

Short lines

Heavily loaded lines

Satisfy the requirement for single and /or three pole tripping

Communication with station automation system

The IED provides line differential protection functions based on


phase-segregated measurement with high sensitivity for faults and reliable
phase selection. The full scheme distance protection is also provided with
innovative and proven quadrilateral characteristic. Five distance zones
have fully independent measuring and setting which provides high
flexibility of the protection for all types of lines. Many other functions are
also employed to provide a complete backup protection library.

The wide application flexibility makes the IED an excellent choice for both
new installations and retrofitting of the existing stations.

2
Chapter 1 Introduction

2 Features
Protection and monitoring IED with extensive functional library, user
configuration possibility and expandable hardware design to meet
special user requirements

Redundant A/D sampling channels and interlocked dual CPU modules


guarantee the high security and reliability of the IED

Single and/or three phase tripping/reclosing

High sensitive startup elements, which enhance the IED sensitivity in


all disturbance conditions and avoid mal-operation

Current sudden-change startup element

Zero sequence current startup element

Over current startup element

Undervoltage startup element for weak-infeed end of lines

Three kinds of faulty phase selectors are combined to guarantee the


correction of phase selection:

Current sudden-change phase selector

Zero sequence and negative sequence phase selector

Undervoltage phase selector

Four kinds of directional elements cooperate each other so as to


determine the fault direction correctly and promptly:

Memory voltage directional element

Zero sequence component directional element

Negative sequence component directional element

Impedance directional element

Line differential protection (87L):

Phase-segregated measurement with high sensitivity

Charging current compensation

High reliability against external fault with CT saturation detection

Automatic conversion of CT ratios

Time synchronization of sampling

Redundant communication channels without channel switching

3
Chapter 1 Introduction

delay

Full scheme phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth distance protection


with five quadrilateral protection zones and additional extension zone
characteristic (21, 21N)

Power swing function (68)

Proven and reliable principle of power swing logic

Unblock elements during power swing

All common types of tele-protection communication scheme (85)

Permissive Underreach Transfer Trip (PUTT) scheme

Permissive Overreach Transfer Trip (POTT) scheme

Blocking scheme

Inter-tripping scheme

Particular logic for tele-protection communication scheme

Current reversal

Weak-infeed end

Evolving fault logic

Sequence tripping logic

Contacts and/or up to two fiber optical ports can be used for


tele-protection communication scheme

A complete protection functions library, include:

Distance protection with quadrilateral characteristic (21,21N)

Power swing function (68)

Tele-protection communication scheme for distance protection


(85-21,21N)

Tele-protection communication scheme with dedicated earth fault


protection (85-67N)

Overcurrent protection (50, 51, 67)

Earth fault protection (50N, 51N, 67N)

Emergency/backup overcurrent protection (50, 51)

Emergency/backup earth fault protection (50N, 51N)

Switch-onto-fault protection (50HS)

4
Chapter 1 Introduction

Overload protection (50OL)

Overvoltage protection (59)

Undervoltage protection (27)

Circuit breaker failure protection (50BF)

Poles discordance protection (50PD)

Dead zone protection (50SH-Z)

STUB protection (50STUB)

Synchro-check and energizing check (25)

Auto-recloser function for single- and/or three-phase reclosing


(79)

Voltage transformer secondary circuit supervision (97FF)

Current transformer secondary circuit supervision

Self-supervision on all modules in the IED

Complete IED information recording: tripping reports, alarm reports,


startup reports and general operation reports. Any kinds of reports can
be stored up to 1000 and be memorized even if power interruption
occurs.

Remote communication

Tele-protection contacts for power line carrier protection interface

Up to two fiber optical ports for remote communication applied to


protection function, like tele-protection

Vast range fiber internal modem, applied singlemode optical


fiber cable

External optical/electrical converter, which support


communication through SDH or PCM, for G.703 (64kbit/s) and
G.703E1 (2048kbit/s)

Up to three electric /optical Ethernet ports can be selected to


communicate with substation automation system by IEC61850 or
IEC60870-5-103 protocols

Up to two electric RS-485 ports can be selected to communicate with


substation automation system by IEC60870-5-103 protocol

Time synchronization via network(SNTP), pulse and IRIG-B mode

Configurable LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) and output relays satisfied


users requirement

5
Chapter 1 Introduction

Versatile human-machine interface

Multifunctional software tool CSmart for setting, monitoring, fault


recording analysis, configuration, etc.

3 Functions

3.1 Protection functions

IEC 61850 IEC 60617


Description ANSI Code Logical Node graphical
Name symbol
Differential protection

Line differential protection 87L PDIF

Distance protection

Distance protection 21, 21N PDIS Z<

Power-swing function 68 RPSB Zpsb

Tele-protection
Communication scheme for distance
8521,21N PSCH
protection
Communication scheme for earth fault
8567N PSCH
protection
Current protection
3IINV>
Overcurrent protection 50,51,67 PTOC 3I >>
3I >>>
I0INV>
50N, 51N,
Earth fault protection PEFM I0>>
67N
I0>>>
Emergency/backup overcurrent 3IINV>
50,51 PTOC
protection 3I >
Emergency/backup earth fault I0INV>
50N,51N PTOC
protection I0 >
3I >HS
Switch-onto-fault protection 50HS PSOF
I0>HS
Overload protection 50OL PTOC 3I >OL

Voltage protection
3U>
Overvoltage protection 59 PTOV
3U>>

6
Chapter 1 Introduction

3U<
Undervoltage protection 27 PTUV
3U<<
Breaker control function
3I> BF
Breaker failure protection 50BF RBRF I0>BF
I2>BF
Dead zone protection 50SH-Z

STUB protection 50STUB PTOC 3I>STUB


3I< PD
Poles discordance protection 50PD RPLD I0>PD
I2>PD
Synchro-check and energizing check 25 RSYN

Auto-recloser 79 RREC OI

Single- and/or three-pole tripping 94-1/3 PTRC

Secondary system supervision

CT secondary circuit supervision

VT secondary circuit supervision 97FF

3.2 Monitoring functions

Description

Redundant A/D sampling data self-check

Phase-sequence of voltage and current supervision

3I0 polarity supervision

The third harmonic of voltage supervision

Synchro-check reference voltage supervision

Auxiliary contacts of circuit breaker supervision

Broken conductor check

Self-supervision

Logicality of setting self-check

Fault locator

Fault recorder

7
Chapter 1 Introduction

3.3 Station communication

Description

Front communication port

Isolated RS232 port

Rear communication port

0-2 isolated electrical RS485 communication ports

0-3 Ethernet electrical/optical communication ports

Time synchronization port

Communication protocols

IEC 61850 protocol

IEC 60870-5-103 protocol

3.4 Remote communication

Description

Communication port

Contact(s) interface for power line carrier

0 2 fiber optical communication port(s)

Communication distance

Up to 100kM

Connection mode

Direction fiber cable connection

Digital communication network through converter

3.5 IED software tools

Functions

Reading measuring value

Reading IED report

Setting

8
Chapter 1 Introduction

Functions

IED testing

Disturbance recording analysis

IED configuration

Printing

9
Chapter 1 Introduction

10
Chapter 2 General IED application

Chapter 2 General IED application

About this chapter

This chapter describes the use of the included software


functions in the IED. The chapter discusses general
application possibilities.

11
Chapter 2 General IED application

1 Display information

1.1 LCD screen display function

The LCD screen displays measured analog, report ouputs and menu.

1.2 Analog display function

The analog display includes measured Ia, Ib, Ic, 3I0, IN, Ua, Ub, Uc, UX

1.3 Report display function

The report display includes tripping, alarm and operation recording.

1.4 Menu dispaly function

The menu dispaly includes main menu and debugging menu, see
Chapter 24 for detail.

12
Chapter 2 General IED application

2 Report record
The report record includes tripping, alarm and operation reports. See
Chapter 25 for detail.

13
Chapter 2 General IED application

3 Disturbance recorder
3.1 Introduction

To get fast, complete and reliable information about fault current, voltage,
binary signal and other disturbances in the power system is very
important. This is accomplished by the disturbance recorder function and
facilitates a better understanding of the behavior of the power system and
related primary and secondary equipment during and after a disturbance.
An analysis of the recorded data provides valuable information that can
be used to explain a disturbance, basis for change of IED setting plan,
improvement of existing equipment etc.

The disturbance recorder, always included in the IED, acquires sampled


data from measured analogue quantities, calculated analogue quantity,
binary input and output signals.

The function is characterized by great flexibility and is not dependent on


the operation of protection functions. It can even record disturbances not
tripped by protection functions.

The disturbance recorder information is saved for each of the recorded


disturbances in the IED and the user may use the local human machine
interface or dedicated tool to get some general information about the
recordings. The disturbance recording information is included in the
disturbance recorder files. The information is also available on a station
bus according to IEC 61850 and IEC 60870-5-103.

Fault wave recorder with great capacity, can record full process of any
fault, and can save the corresponding records. Optional data format or
wave format is provided, and can be exported through serial port or
Ethernet port by COMTRADE format.

3.2 Setting

Abbr. Explanation Default Unit Min. Max.


Time setting for recording time
T_Pre Fault 0.05 s 0.05 0.3
before fault occurred

14
Chapter 2 General IED application

Abbr. Explanation Default Unit Min. Max.


Time setting for recording time
T_Post Fault 1 s 0.50 4.50
after fault occurred
Sample rate for fault recording
DR_Sample Rate (0: 600 sample/cycle, 1:1200 0 0 1
sample/cycle)

15
Chapter 2 General IED application

4 Self supervision function

4.1 Introduction

The IED may test all hardware components itself, including loop out of
the relay coil. Watch can find whether or not the IED is in fault through
warning LED and warning characters which show in liquid crystal display
and display reports to tell fault type.

The method of fault elimination is replacing fault board or eliminating


external fault.

4.2 Self supervision principle

Measuring the resistance between analog circuits and ground

Measuring the output voltage in every class

Checking the zero drift and scale

Verifying alarm circuit

Verifying binary input

Checking actual live tripping including circuit breaker

Checking the setting values and parameters

4.3 Self supervision report

Table 1 Self supervision report

Abbr.(LCD Display) Description


Sample Err AI sampling data error
Soft Version Err Soft Version error
EquipPara Err Equipment parameter error
ROM Verify Err CRC verification for ROM error
Setting Err Setting value error

16
Chapter 2 General IED application

Abbr.(LCD Display) Description


Set Group Err Pointer of setting group error
BO No Response Binary output (BO) no response
BO Breakdown Binary output (BO) breakdown
SRAM Check Err SRAM check error
FLASH Check Err FLASH check error
BI Config Err BI configuration error
BO Config Err BO configuration error
BI Comm Fail BI communication error
BO Comm Fail BO communication error
Test BO Un_reset Test BO unreset
BI Breakdown BI breakdown
DI Input Err BI input error
NO/NC Discord NO/NC discordance
BI Check Err BI check error
BI EEPROM Err BI EEPROM error
BO EEPROM Err BO EEPROM error
Sys Config Err System Configuration Error
Battery Off Battery Off
Meas Freq Alarm Measurement Frequency Alarm
Not Used Not used
Trip Fail Trip fail
PhA CB Open Err PhaseA CB position BI error
PhB CB Open Err PhaseB CB position BI error
PhC CB Open Err PhaseC CB position BI error
3Ph Seq Err Three phase sequence error
AI Channel Err AI channel error
3I0 Reverse 3I0 reverse
3I0 Imbalance 3I0 imbalance

17
Chapter 2 General IED application

5 Time synchronization

5.1 Introduction

Use the time synchronization source selector to select a common source


of absolute time for the IED when it is a part of a protection system. This
makes comparison of events and disturbance data between all IEDs in a
SA system possible.

5.2 Synchronization principle

Time definitions

The error of a clock is the difference between the actual time of the clock,
and the time the clock is intended to have. The rate accuracy of a clock is
normally called the clock accuracy and means how much the error
increases, i.e. how much the clock gains or loses time. A disciplined clock
is a clock that knows its own faults and tries to compensate for them, i.e.
a trained clock.

Synchronization principle

From a general point of view synchronization can be seen as a


hierarchical structure. A module is synchronized from a higher level and
provides synchronization to lower levels.

18
Chapter 2 General IED application

A module is said to be synchronized when it periodically receives


synchronization messages from a higher level. As the level decreases,
the accuracy of the synchronization decreases as well. A module can
have several potential sources of synchronization, with different
maximum errors, which gives the module the possibility to choose the
source with the best quality, and to adjust its internal clock from this
source. The maximum error of a clock can be defined as a function of:

The maximum error of the last used synchronization message

The time since the last used synchronization message

The rate accuracy of the internal clock in the module.

5.2.1 Synchronization from IRIG

The built in GPS clock module receives and decodes time information
from the global positioning system. The module is located on the
Communication Module (MASTER). The GPS interfaces to the IED
supply two possible synchronization methods, IRIGB and PPS (or PPM).

5.2.2 Synchronization via PPS or PPM

The IED accepts PPS or PPM to the GPS interfaces on the


Communication Module. These pulses can be generated from e.g.
station master clock. If the station master clock is not synchronized from
a world wide source, time will be a relative time valid for the substation.
Both positive and negative edges on the signal can be accepted. This
signal is also considered as a fine signal.

5.2.3 Synchronization via SNTP

SNTP provides a Ping-Pong method of synchronization. A message is


sent from an IED to an SNTP-server, and the SNTP-server returns the
message after filling in a reception time and a transmission time. SNTP
operates via the normal Ethernet network that connects IEDs together in
an IEC61850 network. For SNTP to operate properly, there must be a
SNTP-server present, preferably in the same station. The SNTP
synchronization provides an accuracy that will give 1ms accuracy for
binary inputs. The IED itself can be set as a SNTP-time server.

19
Chapter 2 General IED application

6 Setting

6.1 Introduction

Settings are divided into separate lists according to different functions.


The printed setting sheet consists of two parts -setting list and
communication parameters.

6.2 Operation principle

The setting procedure can be ended at the time by the key SET or
QUIT. If the key SET is pressed, the display shows the question
choose setting zone. The range of setting zone is from 1 to 16. After
confirming with the setting zone-key SET, those new settings will be
valid. If key QUIT is pressed instead, all modification which have been
changed will be ignored.

20
Chapter 2 General IED application

7 Authorization

7.1 Introduction

To safeguard the interests of our customers, both the IED and the tools
that are accessing the IED are protected, subject of authorization
handling. The concept of authorization, as it is implemented in the IED
and the associated tools is based on the following facts:

There are two types of points of access to the IED:

local, through the local HMI

remote, through the communication ports

There are different levels (or types) of guest, super user and
protection engineer that can access or operate different areas of the
IED and tools functionality.

21
Chapter 2 General IED application

22
Chapter 3 Basic protection elements

Chapter 3 Basic protection


elements

About this chapter

This chapter describes basic protection elements including


startup elements, phase selectors and directional elements.

23
Chapter 3 Basic protection elements

1 Startup element

1.1 Introduction

Startup elements are designed to detect a faulty condition in the power


system and initiate all necessary procedures for selective clearance of
the fault, e.g. determination of the faulted loop(s), delaying time starting
for different functions. IED startup can release DC power supply for
binary output contacts. Once startup element operates, it does not reset
until all abnormal conditions have reset.

Startup element includes:

Current sudden-change startup element(abrupt current)

Zero-sequence current startup element

Over current startup element

Low-voltage startup element in weak-source

steady state consistence loosing startup

1.2 Sudden-change current startup element

Sudden-change current startup element is the main startup element that


can sensitively detect most of faults. Its criteria are as followings:

i I _ abrupt

or

3i0 I _ abrupt

Equation 1

where

24
Chapter 3 Basic protection elements

i is the sudden-change value of phase current sample

means AB,BC or CA, e.g. iAB= iA-iB

3i0 is sudden-change value of zero sequence current sample

I_abrupt is the setting value of sudden-change current startup


element.

The sudden-change current startup operates when any phase-to-phase


current sudden-change i or zero-sequence sudden-change current
3i0 continuously exceed the setting I_abrupt.

1.3 Zero-sequence current startup element

In addition to current sudden-change startup element, zero-sequence


current element has also been considered to improve required sensitivity
of the fault detection at faults with high resistance. As an auxiliary startup
element, it operates with a short time delay. Its criterion is as following:
3I0 > kI0dz

Equation 2

Where

3I0 is the trippled value of zero-sequence current

k is internal coefficient

I0dz is Min{3I0_Tele EF, 3I0_EF1, 3I0_EF2, 3I0_EF Inv, 3I0_Em/BU


EF, 3I0_Inv_Em/BU EF, 3I0_SOTF}

3I0_Tele EF is setting value of teleprotection based on earth fault


protection

3I0_EF1 is the setting value of definite time stage 1 of the earth fault
protection

3I0_EF2 is the setting value of definite time stage 2 of the earth fault
protection

3I0_EF Inv is the setting value of inverse time stage of the earth fault
protection

25
Chapter 3 Basic protection elements

3I0_Em/BU EF is the setting value of emergency/backup earth fault


protection
3I0_Inv_Em/BU EF is the setting value of emergency/backup earth
fault protection

3I0_SOTF is the zero-sequence current setting of SOTF protection

1.4 Overcurrent startup element

If overcurrent protection function is enabled, over current startup element


is also considered to improve fault detection sensitivity. Same as zero
sequence current startup and to get reliable action, overcurrent startup
operates with 30ms delay as an auxiliary startup element. Its criteria are
as follows:
Ia > kIoc
or
Ib > kIoc
or
Ic > kIoc

Equation 3

where

Ia(b,c) is measured phase currents

k is internal coefficient

Ioc is min{ I_OC1, I_OC2, I_OC Inv, I_Em/BU OC, I_Inv_Em/BU OC,
I_STUB, I_SOTF }

I_OC1 is the setting value of definite time stage 1 of the overcurrent


protection function.

I_OC2 is the setting value of definite time stage 2 of the overcurrent


protection function.

I_OC Inv is the setting value of inverse time stage of the overcurrent
protection function.

I_Em/BU OC is the setting value of emergency/backup overcurrent


protection

26
Chapter 3 Basic protection elements

I_Inv_Em/BU OC is the setting value for inverse time stage of


emergency/backup overcurrent protection

I_STUB is the setting value of STUB protection

I_SOTF is the setting value of SOTF protection

1.5 Low-voltage startup element (for weak infeed


systems)

In conditions that one end of the protected line has a weak-source and
accordingly the fault sudden-change phase to phase current is too low to
startup the IED, low-voltage startup element can come into service to
startup the tele-protection communication scheme with weak-echo logic.
When IED receives signaIs from another side, its operation criteria are as
follows:

Upe < kUpe_Secondary

or

Upp < kUpp_Secondary

Equation 4

where:

Upe is each phase-to-earth voltage

Upp is each phase-to-phase volatge.

k is internal coefficient

U_Secondary is the system secondary rated voltage

1.6 Steady state consistence loosing startup

The operation criteria of steady state consistance loosing startup are (OR
logic) as followings:

Ia > I_PSB, Ib > I_PSB, Ic > I_PSB, and the sudden-change current

27
Chapter 3 Basic protection elements

startup element hasn't operated

All the phase-to-phase impedance of AB, BC and CA are located in


zone 3 area, and the sudden-change current startup element hasn't
operated

If any of the conditions has continued for 30ms, steady state consistence
loosing startup will operated.

2 Phase selector

2.1 Introduction

To efficiently detect faulty phase(s), An integrated phase selector is used


for various fault types. By processing on the currents and voltages values,
IED detects whether a fault is single-phase or multiple-phase. Therefore,
selected phase(s) is (are) used to issue phase selective trip command.
Three types of phase selector are designed:

Sudden-change current phase selector

Fault current symmetric component (zero and negative sequence)


phase selector

Low voltage phase selector

Current sudden-change phase selector routine operates immediately


after sudden-change current startup. In addition, symmetric component
phase selector is implemented. However, both current sudden-change
phase and symmetric component phase selector are not applicable for
weak-infeed sides. Therefore, low-voltage phase selector is employed in
this condition.

2.2 Sudden-change current phase selector

Current Sudden-change phase selector employs phase-to-phase


differential currents IAB, IBC and ICA (IXY=IX-IY). Faulty phases
can be determined by comparing the values of these differential current
toward each other.

Table 2 shows the relative value of the phase-to-phase differential current


IAB, IBC and ICA at the various fault types. In this table + means

28
Chapter 3 Basic protection elements

the larger value,++ the largest oneand - indicates the small one.
Therefore after any current sudden-change startup, the value of IAB,
IBC and ICA are sorted into three categories mentioned above.
Accordingly, 7 categories, each of them indicates one type of fault, may
happen. For example, if the values of IAB and ICA are large while
IBC is small (with regard to each other), IED will select fault type as
phase A fault. Nevertheless, if IAB is very large, while IBC and ICA
are small at the same time, IED will determine fault type as AB.

Table 2 Current sudden-change phase selection scheme

Phase
Selected
A B C AB BC CA ABC

I
IAB
IBC
ICA

2.3 Symmetric component phase selector

As mentioned before, IED additionally applys symmetric component


phase selector. This method mainly uses the angle between zero and
negative sequence components of the fault current. It also confirms the
seleted phases by calculating phase-phase impedances.

Theoretical analysis has demonstrated that the angle betweenzero and


negative sequence current components ( I 2 I 0 ) can be usded to
select faulty phases. This concept has been shown in Figure 1 and Table
3.

I0a
0 0
+30 AN,BCN -30

ABN BCN
0 0
+90 -90
CN,ABN BN,CAN

0 0
+150 CAN -150
.

Figure 1 relation between angle of zero and negative sequence component for various

29
Chapter 3 Basic protection elements

fault types

Table 3 Symmetric component phase selector scheme

mode Angle range Selected fault type


1 +30 to -30 AG or BCG
2 +90 to +30 ABG
3 +150 to +90 CG or ABG
4 -150 to +150 CAG
5 -90 to -150 BG or CAG
6 -30 to -90 BCG

For example, if the angle between I2 and I0 is in the range of -30to +30
the fault type may be A-phase to ground or BC-phases to ground.

As indicated inTable 3, areas 2, 4 and 6 directly determines related fault


type, but areas 1, 3 and 5 indicate that two type of fault may happen. In
this case, the two fault types can be differentiated by phase-to-phase
impedance calculation. If the impedance is larger than specified value,
then phase-to-phase fault is impossible and single-phase to ground fault
will be confirmed. Otherwise phase-to-phase fault will be selected.

2.4 Low-voltage phase selector

In the case of weak-infeed source, two previous phase selector cannot


operate reliablly. Therefore low-voltage phase selector has been
considered in the weak-infeed sides. In this case the IED will monitor VT
Fail condition. When there is no problem with VT and IED receives
signaIs from another side, low-voltage phase selector can operate
according to the following criteria:

Upe < kUpe_Secondary

or

Upp < kUpp_Secondary

Equation 5

where:

30
Chapter 3 Basic protection elements

Upe and Upp are phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase volatges,


respectively.

U_Secondary is the system secondary rated voltage

k is the internal coefficient

3 Directional elements

3.1 Introduction

Four kinds of directional elements are employed for reliable


determination of various faults direction. The related protection modules,
such as distance protection, tele-protection, overcurrent and earth fault
protections, utilize the output of the directional elements as one of their
operating condition. All the following directional elements will cooperate
with the above protection functions.

3.2 Memory voltage directional element

The IED uses the memory voltage and fault current to determine the
direction of the fault. Therefore, transient voltage of short circuit
conditions wont influence the direction detection. Additionally, it improves
the direction detection sensitivity for symmetrical or asymmetrical
close-in faults with extremely low voltage. But it should be noted that the
memory voltage cannot be effective for a long time. Therefore, the
following directional elements will work as supplement to detect direction
correctly.

3.3 Zero sequence component directional element

Zero-sequence directional element has efficient features in the solidly


grounded system. The directional characteristic only relates to zero
sequence impedance angle of the zero sequence network of power
system, regardless of the quantity of load current and/or fault resistance
throughout the fault. The characteristic of the zero sequence directional
is illustrated in Figure 2.

31
Chapter 3 Basic protection elements

90
3I 0

0
3U 0_Ref
Angle_EF

Angle_Range
EF

Forward Bisector
-3 I 0

Figure 2 Characteristic of zero sequence directional element

where:

Angle_EF: The settable characteristic angle

Angle_Range EF: 80

The angle of direction characteristic can be adjusted by Angle_EF setting


value to comply with different system condition. Fault direction is
detected as forward if -3i0 phasor is in shaded area of Figure 2.

3.4 Negative sequence component directional


element

Negative sequence directional element can make an accurate direction


discrimination in any asymmetric fault. The directional characteristic only
relates to negative sequence impedance angle of the negative sequence
network of power system, regardless the quantity of load current and/or
fault resistance throughout the fault. The characteristic of the negative
sequence directional element is illustrated in Figure 3.

32
Chapter 3 Basic protection elements

3I2 90

0
3 U 2_ Ref
Angle_Neg
Angle_Range
Neg

Forward
-3 I 2 Bisector

Figure 3 Characteristic of negative sequence directional element

where:

Angle_Neg: The settable characteristic angle

Angle_Range Neg: 80

The angle of direction characteristic can be adjusted by Angle_Neg


setting value to comply with different system condition. Fault direction is
detected as forward if -3i2 phasor is in shaded area of Figure 3.

3.5 Impedance directional elements

The characteristic of the impedance directional element (shown in Figure


4) is the same with the characteristic of distance protection.

33
Chapter 3 Basic protection elements

X
X_Set

Forward

-nR_Set
R_Set
R

Reverse

-nX_Set

Figure 4 Impedance direction detectioncharacteristic element

where:

R_SET: The resistance setting value of relevant zone of distance protection

X_SET: The reactance setting of relevant zone of distance protection

n: Multiplier for reverse directional element, which makes the reverse


directional element more sensitive than forward one. For distance
protection, n should be selected as 1; for teleprotection, n should be
selected as 1.25;

4 Setting parameters

4.1 Setting list

Table 4 Basic protection element setting list

Default
Min. Max.
Setting Unit setting Description
(Ir:5A/1A) (Ir:5A/1A)
(Ir:5A/1A)
Sudden-change
I_abrupt A 0.08Ir 20Ir 0.2Ir current threshold of
startup element
T_Relay Reset s 0.5 10 1 The reset time of relay
Rated primary voltage
U_Primary kV 30 800 230
(phase to phase)
U_Secondary V 100 120 100 Rated secondary

34
Chapter 3 Basic protection elements

Default
Min. Max.
Setting Unit setting Description
(Ir:5A/1A) (Ir:5A/1A)
(Ir:5A/1A)
voltage (phase to
phase)
CT_Primary kA 0.05 5 3 Rated primary current
Rated secondary
CT_Secondary A 1 5 1
current

4.2 Setting explanation

The setting values are all secondary values if there is no special note.
Impedance setting is set according to impedance of line.

In this manual, wherever zero-sequence current is refered, the meaning


is 3I0.

1) I_abrupt0.2In is commonly recommended.

In general, the primary value of settings I_abrupt and I_PS must be


consistent in both sides of the protected line. However, if the difference
between the sensitivity angles (of the too sides) is too large, the settings
of two sides may also be different.

2) I_PSBshoule be set more than maximum load current.

3) Primary rated voltageIs set according to the actual rated primary


voltage of VT in kV..

4) Primary rated current: Is set according to the rated primary current in


kA.

5) Secondary rated current: Can be set to 1A or 5A.

6) Secondary rated voltage: Can be set to 100V to 120V.

35
Chapter 3 Basic protection elements

36
Chapter 4 Line differential protection

Chapter 4 Line differential


protection

About this chapter

This chapter describes the protection principle, input and


output signals, parameter, IED report and technical data
used for line differential protection function.

37
Chapter 4 Line differential protection

5 Line differential protection

5.1 Introduction

The line differential protection consists of three protection functions,


phase segregated differential protection function, sudden change current
differential protection function and zero sequence current differential
protection function. These three functions are associated to achieve high
sensitivity and reliability with capacitive charge current compensation and
reliable phase selection, during various system disturbances. The
precise time synchronization of sampling ensures the differential
protection of both end IEDs to operate reliably.

5.2 Protection principle

M N
CB TA TA CB

IM ABC IM ABC

CSC-103 Channel CSC-103

IN ABC IN ABC

Figure 5 Structure of digital current differential system

In Figure 5, two IED are settled at terminals M and N, the protection is


connected to communication terminal equipment with optic cables. The
optical termination of the relay is fixed on its rear panel.

38
Chapter 4 Line differential protection

6 Phase-segregated current differential


protection
The protection provides two-slope percent differential characteristic, as
shown in Figure 6.

IDiff

operating area

K2

I_2Diff

K1
I_1Diff

I_1Res I_2Res IRes

Figure 6 Characteristic of phase-segregated current differential protection

where:

IDiff: Differential currents, calculated separately in each phase

IRes: Restraining currents calculated separately in each phase

K1 = 0.6

K2 = 0.8

I_1Diff= 1 I_Set

I_2Diff= 3 I_Set

I_1Res= 3 I_Set

I_2Res= 5 I_Set

39
Chapter 4 Line differential protection

I_Set= I_Diff High, the different current high setting

The differential current IDiff and the restraining current IRes are
calculated in the IED using the measured current flowing through both
ends of the protected feeder (end M and end N), according to following
formula:

IDiff ( IM IMC ) ( IN INC )

I Re s ( IM IMC ) ( IN INC )

where:

IMC and INC: The capacitive charging current in each phase of the
protected line, which are calculated from the measured voltage in each
end of the line

The characteristics can be described with following formula:

IDiff I _ Set

IDiff K1I Re s , at 0 IDiff 3I _ Set
IDiff K 2 I Re s I _ Set , at 3I _ Set

40
Chapter 4 Line differential protection

7 Sudden-change current differential


protection
The sudden-change current differential protection calculates the fault
current only, the sudden change variable part of whole current. Without
influence of load current, the protection function has high sensitivity,
especially, to fault through arc resistance on heavy load line. However,
for the sudden change current, the variable will fade out quickly in short
time, thus, the whole current differential protection presented above is
still needed to cover entire fault detection and clearance period.

The protection provides two-slope percent differential characteristic


shown in Figure 7.

IDiff

operating area

K2

I_2Diff

K1
I_1Diff

I_1Res I_2Res IRes

Figure 7 Characteristic of sudden-change current differential protection

where:

IDiff : Sudden-change of differential currents

IRes : Sudden-change of restraining currents

K1 = 0.6

K2 = 0.8

I_1Diff= 1 I_Set

41
Chapter 4 Line differential protection

I_2Diff= 3 I_Set

I_1Res= 3 I_Set

I_2Res= 5 I_Set

I_Set: I_Diff High, the different current high setting

IDiff and IRes calculated by using the calculated change in current


flowing through both ends of the protected feeder (end M and end N) in
each phase, according to the following formula.

IDiff IM IN

I Re s IM IN

IM : Variable of current flowing toward the protected feeder from end M

IN : Variable of current flowing toward the protected feeder from end N

The characteristics can be described with following formula:

IDiff I _ Set

IDiff K1I Re s , at 0 IDiff 3I _ Set
IDiff K 2I Re s I _ Set , at IDiff 3I _ Set

42
Chapter 4 Line differential protection

8 Zero-sequence current differential


protection
As a complement to phase segregated differential protection, the zero
sequence current differential protection is used to enhance the sensitivity
on the earth fault through high arc resistance. It always clears the fault
after a delay time. The protection provides one slope percent differential
characteristic, as shown in Figure 8.

I0Diff

Operating area

I_0Diff

I0Res

Figure 8 Characteristic of zero-sequence current differential protection

where:

I0Diff: Zero sequence differential currents

I0Res: Zero sequence restraining currents

K=0.75

I_0Diff: I_Diff ZeroSeq, the zero sequence differential current setting

The differential current I0Diff and the restraining current I0Res are
calculated in the IED using the measured current flowing through both
sides of the protected feeder (End M and N), according to following
formula.

43
Chapter 4 Line differential protection

I 0 Diff (I MA IMAC ) (I MB IMBC ) (I MC IMCC ) ( INA INAC ) ( INB INBC ) ( INC INCC )

I 0 Diff (I MA IMAC ) (I MB IMBC ) (I MC IMCC ) ( INA INAC ) ( INB INBC ) ( INC INCC )

where:

IMx and INx: the measured currents of phase x flowing toward the
protected object in ends M and N, respectively

IMxC and INxC: the capacitive charging currents calculated for phase x in
ends M and N, respectively

x: represents Phase A, B or C

The characteristics can be described with following formula:

I 0 Diff I _ Set

I 0 Diff kI 0 Re s

44
Chapter 4 Line differential protection

9 Other principle

9.1 Startup element

9.1.1 Weak-source system startup

If one of the ends of the protected line is weak source or without source,
the current may be very small when internal fault occurs and IED cant be
initiated. Under this circumstance, the weak-source system startup
element could be started by low-voltage and differential current.

If all the following conditions are satisfied, IED in weak-source end could
be started after it receives startup signal from remote terminal. Thus, it
will trip after sending out a permissive signal to the remote end (to let it
trip).

Receive startup signal from remote terminal.

There is at least one phase differential current larger than the


operation current: IA(,B,C)_Diff> I_Diff.

The corresponding phase ro earth voltage Upe is less than 36V or


phase-to-phase voltage Upp less than 60V.

9.1.2 Remote beckon startup

If fault occurs in high resistance line, IED far from fault location may not be
able to start as its current may be very small, even if IED near the fault
location can start reliably. Under this circumstance, the remote beckon
startup element could be started by differential current and
sudden-change voltage. If all the following conditions are satisfied, Remote
beckon startup element could be started:

Receive startup signal from opposite side.

Zero-sequence differential current is larger than the operation


current: 3I0 > I_Diff ZeroSeq, or segregated-phase differential
current is larger than the operation currentIA(,B,C)_Diff> I_Diff;

Local IED: UPE>8V or 3U0 >1V.

45
Chapter 4 Line differential protection

9.2 Capacitive current compensation

Ic I M IN is calculated as actual measured charging current under

normal operation(before startup).

IC is taken as floating threshold after startup.

The actual voltage of both terminals is used to accurately compensate


charging current that is called half compensation scheme which half
charging current of both terminals are compensated respectively.

Figure 9 Positive equivalent circuit of line using a PI section

Figure 10 Negative equivalent circuit of line using a PI section

Figure 11 Zero-sequence equivalent circuit of line using a PI section

Positive-, negative- and zero-sequence equivalent circuit of line using a PI

46
Chapter 4 Line differential protection

section are shown as above figures. Their charging currents can be


calculated as follows:

Based on A-phase, each sequence charging current of terminals M are


respectively as below.

UM 1
IMC1
j 2 XC1

UM 2
IMC 2
j 2 XC 2

UM 0
IMC 0
j 2 XC 0

If XC1 XC2, each phase charging current of terminals M are respectively


as below.

IMAC IMC1 IMC 2 IMC 0

UM 1 UM 2 UM 0 UM 0 UM 0
j 2 XC1 j 2 XC 0
UMA UM 0 UM 0

j 2 XC1 j 2 XC 0

2
IMBC * IMC1 * IMC 2 IMC 0

2
*UM 1 *UM 2 UM 0 UM 0
UM 0
j 2 XC1 j 2 XC 0
UMB UM 0 UM 0

j 2 XC1 j 2 XC 0

47
Chapter 4 Line differential protection

2
IMCC * IMC1 * IMC 2 IMC 0

2
*UM 1 *UM 2 UM 0 UM 0
UM 0
j 2 XC1 j 2 XC 0
UMC UM 0 UM 0

j 2 XC1 j 2 XC 0

In the same way, each phase charging current of terminals N are


respectively as below.

UNA UN 0 UN 0
INAC
j 2 XC1 j 2 XC 0

UNB UN 0 UN 0
INBC
j 2 XC1 j 2 XC 0

UNA UN 0 UN 0
INCC
j 2 XC1 j 2 XC 0

9.3 CT saturation discrimination

Based on current waveform principle, the protection can discriminate the


CT saturation condition. Once under this condition, the protection will use
a new differential and restraint characteristic shown in Figure 12, to
guarantee the security of the protection.

48
Chapter 4 Line differential protection

IDiff
Operating area

I_LDiffCT

IRes

Figure 12 Characteristic of phase segregated differential protection at CT saturation

where:

I_LDiffCT= Max (I_Diff High, I_Diff Low, 0.5 CT_Secondary)

CT_Secondary: The CT secondary rated current

K=0.9

9.4 Tele-transmission binary signals

In the IED, two binary signals can be transmitted to the remote end of the
line in the binary bits of each data frame, which are tele-transmission
command 1 and tele-transmission command 2. When the remote IED
receives the signals, relevant operation will be performed.

9.5 Direct transfer trip

In the IED, one binary input is provided for remote trip to ensure the
remote IED fast tripping when fault occurs between CT and circuit
breaker, or in case of a breaker failure. It is used to transmit the trip
command of dead zone protection or circuit breaker failure protection to
trip the opposite end circuit breaker.

9.6 Time synchronization of Sampling

The differential protection of both end IEDs can be set as master or slave

49
Chapter 4 Line differential protection

mode. If one IED is set as master, the IED at the other end should be set
as slave. To ensure sampling synchronization between both IEDs, the
salve IED sends a frame of synchronization request to master IED. After
the master IED receives the frame, it returns a frame of data including its
local time. Then the slave IED can calculate both the communication
delay time and the sampling time difference with the master IED. Thus,
the slave IED adjusts its sampling time and the IEDs of both ends come
to complete sampling synchronization.

9.7 Redundant remote communication channels

The differential protection is able to receive data from the redundant


remote communication channels in parallel. When one of the channels is
broken, there is no time delay for primary channel switching.

9.8 Switch onto fault protection function

Under either auto reclosing or manual closing process, the protection


function is able to discriminate these conditions to give an instantaneous
tripping once closing on permanent faulty line.

9.9 Logic diagram

3I0>I_Diff ZeroSeq A
N T_Diff ZeroSeq
Relay trip
No CT Fail D

Figure 13 Zero-sequence current differential protection

Note: if the setting Diff_Zero Init AR is enabled, AR could be initiated by


Zero-sequence current differential protection.

50
Chapter 4 Line differential protection

Offside: BI_PhA CB Open

Offside: BI_PhB CB Open O A


Offside: BI_PhC CB Open R N
Offside:startup D

Offside: Func_Diff Curr On


A
Channel OK A N
N D
Relay startup A
N D
Func_Diff Curr On
D A Relay trip
N
IA_diff>I_Diff High A
D
N
A Phase CT fail D

A O
IA_diff>I_Diff TA Fail
N R
Block Diff CT_Fail off D

IB_diff>I_Diff High A
N O
B Phase CT fail D R

A O
IB_diff>I_Diff TA Fail
N R
Block Diff CT_Fail off D

IC_diff>I_Diff High A
N
C Phase CT fail D

A O
IC_diff>I_Diff TA Fail R
N
Block Diff CT_Fail off D

A Phase CT fail
O
B Phase CT fail
R
C Phase CT fail A
N
Block Diff CT_Fail on D

Block 3Ph Diff CT_Fail on

Figure 14 Phase-segregated current differential protection logic

51
Chapter 4 Line differential protection

A DTT By Z2 on
ZONE2 forward
N
D
DTT By Z3 on
ZONE3 forward A
N
D DTT By startup
O
General startup R
DTT By Z2 on

DTT By Z3 on A
N
DTT By startup on D

A
Relay trip
N
Dtt singal receive
D

Figure 15 DTT logic

9.10 Input and output signals

IP1 Trip PhA


IP2 Trip PhB

IP3 Trip PhC


UP1 Trip 3Ph
UP2 Relay Block AR
UP3 Curr Diff Trip

Tele_Trans1 BO_DTT

Tele_Trans2 Tele_Trans1
DTT Tele_Trans2
Chan_A_Test Channel A Alarm

Chan_B_Test Channel B Alarm


Relay Startup

Relay Trip

Table 5 Analog input list

Signal Description
IP1 Signal for current input 1
IP2 Signal for current input 2
IP3 Signal for current input 3
UP1 Signal for voltage input 1
UP2 Signal for voltage input 2
UP3 Signal for voltage input 3

52
Chapter 4 Line differential protection

Table 6 Binary input list

Signal Description
Tele_Trans1 Tele transmission binary input 1
Tele_Trans2 Tele transmission binary input 2
DTT DTT
Chan_A_Test Channel A test
Chan_B_Test Channel B test

Table 7 Binary output list

Signal Description
Relay Startup Relay Startup
Relay Trip Relay Trip
Trip PhA Trip phase A
Trip PhB Trip phase B
Trip PhC Trip phase C
Trip 3Ph Trip three phases
Relay Block AR Permanent trip
Curr Diff Trip Current differential protection trip
BO_DTT DTT binary output
Tele_Trans1 Tele transmission binary output 1
Tele_Trans2 Tele transmission binary output 2
Channel A Alarm Channel A alarm
Channel B Alarm Channel B alarm

9.11 Setting parameters

9.11.1 Setting list

Table 8 Line differential protection function setting list

Min. Default setting


No. Setting Unit Max. (Ir:5A/1A)
(Ir:5A/1A) (Ir:5A/1A)
high current threshold of
I_Diff High A 0.1Ir 20Ir 0.4Ir
differential protection
low current threshold of
I_Diff Low A 0.1Ir 20Ir 0.4Ir
differential protection
current threshold of
I_Diff TA Fail A 0.1Ir 20Ir 2Ir
differential protection at

53
Chapter 4 Line differential protection

CT failure

zero sequence current


I_Diff threshold of zero
A 0.1Ir 20Ir 0.2Ir
ZeroSeq sequence differential
protection
delay time of zero
T_Diff
s 0.1 60 0.1 sequence differential
ZeroSeq
protection
T_DTT s 0 10 0.1 delay time of DTT
CT Factor 0.2 1 1 convert factor of CT ratio
positive sequence
XC1 Ohm 40 9000 9000 capacitive reactance of
line
zero sequence capacitive
XC0 Ohm 40 9000 9000
reactance of line
positive sequence
X1_Reactor Ohm 90 9000 9000 reactance of shunt
reactor
zero sequence reactance
X0_Reactor Ohm 90 9000 9000
of shunt reactor
Local identified code of local
0 65535 00000
Address end of line
Opposite identified code of
0 65535 0
Address opposite end of line

Table 9 Line differential protection function setting list

Default
Min. Max.
Setting Unit setting Description
(Ir:5A/1A) (Ir:5A/1A)
(Ir:5A/1A)
Func_Diff differential protection
0 1 1
Curr enable(1)/disable(0)
sudden change
Func_Diff
0 1 1 differential protection
Curr Abrupt
enable(1)/disable(0)
double
Dual_Channel 0 1 1 channels(1)/single
channel(0)
master mode (1)/
Master Mode 0 1 1
slaver mode (0)
capacitive current
Comp
0 1 0 compensation
Capacitor Cur
enable(1)/disable(0)

54
Chapter 4 Line differential protection

CT failure block
Block Diff
0 1 1 differential protection
CT_Fail
enable(1)/disable(0)
CT fail block 3
Block 3Ph Diff
0 1 0 phases(1)/ CT fail
CT_Fail
block single phase(0)
AR initiated by zero
Diff_Zero Init
0 1 1 sequence differential
AR
protection
Channel A apply
Chan_A external clock
0 1 0
Ext_Clock enable(1)/internal
clock disable(0)
Channel A at 64Kb/s
Chan_A 64k
0 1 0 enable(1)/2M Kb/s
Rate
disable(0)
Channel B apply
Chan_B
0 1 0 external clock
Ext_Clock
enable(1)/disable(0)
Chan_B 64k Channel B at 64Kb/s
0 1 0
Rate enable(1)/disable(0)
channel loop test
Loop Test 0 1 0 mode
enable(1)/disable(0)
DTT By DTT under startup
0 1 1
Startup element control
DTT under Zone 2
DTT By Z2 0 1 distance element
control
DTT under Zone 3
DTT By Z3 0 1 distance element
control

9.11.2 Setting explanation

9.11.2.1 Explanation of part setting

1) I_Diff HighFor the long lines, set to be larger than 2-times


capacitive current if capacitive current compensation is employed, or
larger than 2.5-times capacitive current if capacitive current
compensation is not enabled. For the short lines, current differential
protection has higher sensitivity due to few capacitive current of line, then,
this setting can be raised properly.

55
Chapter 4 Line differential protection

2) I_Diff LowFor the long lines, set to be larger than 1.5-times


capacitive current if capacitive current compensation is employed, or
larger than 1.875-times capacitive current if capacitive current
compensation is not enabled. It has 40ms time delay. I_Diff ZeroSeq
Set to avoid the maximum unbalanced current at external three-phase
fault while it has enough sensitivity at internal earth fault with high
resistance. It is generally believed that setting of zero-current differential
protection is less than 0.1In. This setting of both terminal protections
ought to be set as secondary values based on the same primary values.

3) I_Diff TA Fail Set to avoid the maximum load current during


normal operation. This setting of both terminal protections ought to be set
as secondary values based on the same primary values. Attention If
Block Diff CT_Fail is enabled, differential protection will lose selectivity
when external fault occurs after TA fail.

4) CT Factor It is set to be 1 for the protection with the biggest


rated primary current of CT, compensation factor of the other protections
is set to be the value obtained by dividing primary rated current of local
TA by the maximum primary rated current. For example, TA ratio of
terminal M is 1200/1that of terminal N is 800/5, and that of terminal T is
600/5. Compensation factor of M can be set to 1that of N is
800/1200=0.6667and that of T is 600/1200=0.5.

5) XC1, XC0 Set according to secondary value of line full-length.

1
XC1 NTA / NTV
2fC1

1
XC 0 NTA / NTV
2fC 0

When the capacitive current is less than 0.1In, capacitive current of


compensation is needless, so the control world Comp Capacitor Cur set
"0", and the positive- and zero-sequence capacitive reactance of line
could be set as 9000.

When the capacitive current exceeds 0.1In. The control world Comp
Capacitor Cur should be set "1". Set according to secondary value of
line full-length. Table 10 provide reference to capacitive reactance and
capacitive current of per 100 km. When adjusting setting, TA
transformation ratio and TV transformation ratio should be considered.

56
Chapter 4 Line differential protection

Table 10 Compensation capacitor setting

Voltage Positive-sequence Zero-sequence Capacitive


grade capacitive reactance capacitive reactance currentA
(kV)
220 3736 5260 34
330 2860 4170 66
500 2590 3790 111
750 2242 3322 193

Secondary value calculation:

Xc (100 / l ) TA ratio / TV ratio

l: the line length

Xc: Capacitive reactance per 100 km

For exampleThe 220 kV line length is 130km, the TA transformation ratio


is 1200/1=1200, the TV transformation ratio is 220/0.1=2200, then:

XC13736*(100/130)*1200/2200=1567

XC05260*(100/130)*1200/2200=2206

6) X1_Reactor, X0_ReactorConvert the capacity of shunt


reactor into secondary value to set.

2
X1_ Reactor NTA / NTV U / S

2
X 0 _ Re actor NTA / NTV (U / S+3XN)

Where, XN is the neutral-point earthing reactance of shunt reactor.

For example, a shunt reactor, rated voltage U800kVrated capacity S


3100Mvar, the neutral-point earthing reactance is 500, TA ratio NTA
2000/1, TV ratio NTV750/0.1, then

2 6
XDK 1 2000 / 7500 800000 / 3 100 10 568.8

XDK 0 2000 / 7500 3 500 400

57
Chapter 4 Line differential protection

If shunt reactor is not installed at one terminal of line, this setting is set to
the upper limit secondary value

XDK1 = 9000

XDK0 = 9000

Each pilot protection system has one and only address identification
code in the power grid. Identification code of equipment address can be
set via the setting of Local Address and Opposite Address.

7) The IED sends Local Address together with reports to the remote
when reports are transportted. Only the address code in received report
equals to Opposite Address could the IED work normally. If the address
code in received report not equal to Opposite Address, but equal to
Local Address, the IED will alarm Chan_A(B) Loop Err. If the address
code in received report neither equals to Local Address nor equals to
Opposite Address, the IED will alarm Chan_A(B) Addr Err.

8) To make optic self-looping test, the control bit of Loop Test has to
be set to 1. In normal operation, this setting should be set as 0.

9.12 Reports

Table 11 Event report list

Abbr. Meaning
Curr Diff Trip Current differential protection trip
Zero Diff Trip Zero-sequence current differential protection trip
Curr Diff Evol Current differential evolvement trip
DTT DTT
Tele_Trans1 OPTD Tele transmission 1 operated
Tele_Trans2 OPTD Tele transmission 2 operated
Tele_Trans1 Drop Tele transmission 1 dropout
Tele_Trans2 Drop Tele transmission 2 dropout
WeakInfeed Init WeakInfeed initiated
OppositeEnd Init Opposite end initiated
3Ph Diff_Curr Current for three phase differential current
3PH Res_Curr Current for three phase restraining current
BI_DTT DTT binary input
BI_Tele_Trans1 Tele transmission 1 binary input
BI_Tele_Trans2 Tele transmission 2 binary input
OppositeEnd Trip Opposite end Trip
Sample No_Syn sample without synchronization

58
Chapter 4 Line differential protection

Abbr. Meaning
Sample Syn OK sample is synchronized successfully
Channel A Data Data from channel A
Channel B Data Data from channel B
Curr Diff SOTF SOTF on current differential fault

Table 12 Alarm report list

Abbr. Meaning
Local CT Fail Local CT fail
Opposite CT Fail Opposite CT fail
Diff_Curr Alarm Differential current exists for long period
TeleSyn Mode Err Synchronizing mode error
Chan_A Loop Err Channel A loop error
Chan_B Loop Err Channel B loop error
Chan_A Comm Err Channel A communication error
Chan_B Comm Err Channel B communication error
Chan_A Samp Err No sampling data for channel A
Chan_B Samp Err No sampling data for channel B
BI_DTT Alarm DTT binary input alarm
Chan_Loop Enable Channel loop enabled
Chan_A Addr Err Channel A address error
Chan_B Addr Err Channel B address error
ChanA_B Across Channel A and B across
Opposite CommErr Opposite side communication error
Func_CurDiff Err Current differential error
DoubleChan Test Double channel test

Table 13 Operation report list

Abbr. Meaning
Func_DiffCurr On Differential current protection on
FuncDiffCurr Off Differential current protection off
Chan_A Tele_Loop Channel A loop on
Chan_A Loop Off Channel A loop off
Chan_B Tele_Loop Channel B loop on
Chan_B Loop Off Channel B loop off
Chan_A Comm OK Channel A communication resumed
Chan_B Comm OK Channel B communication resumed
OppositeEnd On Opposite end on
OppositeEnd Off Opposite end off

59
Chapter 4 Line differential protection

9.13 Technical data

Table 14 Line differential protection technical data

NOTE:
Ir: CT rated secondary current, 1A or 5A;

Item Rang or Value Tolerance


Differential current of 0.1 Ir to 20.00 Ir 3% or 0.02Ir
Phase segregated
differential protection
Sudden change
differential protection
Differential current of 0.1 Ir to 4.00 Ir 3% or 0.02Ir
Zero sequence differential
protection
Time delay of Zero 0.00 to 60.00s, step 0.01s 1% or +20 ms
sequence differential
protection
Operating time of 25ms typically at 200% setting,
Phase segregated and IDifferential>2IRestraint
differential protection
Sudden change
differential protection

60
Chapter 5 Distance protection

Chapter 5 Distance protection

About this chapter

This chapter describes the protection principle, input and


output signals, parameter, IED report and technical data for
distance protection function.

61
Chapter 5 Distance protection

1 Distance protection

1.1 Introduction

Transmission line distance protection covers five full scheme protection


zones in addition to one zone extension. The IED employes separated
measuring element for three single-phase fault loops and three phase to
phase fault loops for each individual zones.

Individual settable zones in resistance and reactance component give the


flexibility for useing on overhead lines and cables of different types and
lengths.

The independent measurement of impedance for each fault loop together


with a sensitive and reliable built in phase selection makes the function
suitable in applications with single phase auto-reclosing. Figure 16
illustrates the different available zone characteristics.

X
Zone 5
Zone 4
Zone 3

Zone 2

Zone Ext.

Zone 1

Zone 4 Reverse
(optional)

Zone 5 Reverse
(optional)

Figure 16 Distance protection zone characteristics

1.2 Protection principle

1.2.1 Full scheme protection

62
Chapter 5 Distance protection

The execution of the different fault loops are of full scheme type, which
means that each fault loop for phase to earth faults and phase to phase
faults for forward and reverse faults are executed in parallel.

Figure 17 presents an outline of the different measuring loops for the


basic five, impedance-measuring zones and zone extension.

L1-E L2-E L3-E L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 ZONE 1

L1-E L2-E L3-E L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 EXTENDED


ZONE 1

L1-E L2-E L3-E L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 ZONE 2

L1-E L2-E L3-E L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 ZONE 3

L1-E L2-E L3-E L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 ZONE 4

L1-E L2-E L3-E L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 ZONE 5

Figure 17 Different measuring loops at phase-earth fault and phase-phase fault

Each distance protection zone performs like one independent distance


protection IED with six measuring elements.

1.2.2 Impedance characteristic

The IED utilizes quadrilateral characteristic as shown in Figure 18.

X_Zset

_Ztop

_Zleft
_Zright

R_Zset R
_Zbottom

63
Chapter 5 Distance protection

Figure 18 Characteristics of distance protection

where:

R_Zset: R_ZnPP or R_ZnPE;

X_Zset: X_ZnPP or X_ZnPE;

R_ZnPP: Resistance reach setting for phase to phase fault. Subscript n


means the number of protection zone. Subscript PP means phase to
phase fault.

n: value range: 1, 1Ext, 2, 3, 4, 5.

R_ZnPE: Resistance reach setting for phase to earth fault. Subscript X


means the number of protection zone. Subscript PE means phase to
earth fault.

X_ZnPP: Reactance reach setting for phase to phase fault

X_ZnPE: Reactance reach setting for phase to earth fault

_Ztop: The upper boundary angle of the characteristic in the first


quadrant is designed to avoid distance protection overreaching when a
close-in fault happens on the adjacent line

_Zbottom: The bottom boundary angle of the characteristic in the fourth


quadrant improves the reliability of the IED to operate reliably for close-in
faults with arc resistance

_Zright: The right boundary angle of characteristic in the first quadrant


is used to deal with load encroachment problems

_Zleft: The left boundary angle of the characteristic in the second


quadrant considers the line impedance angle which generally is not
larger than 90. Thus this angle guarantees the correct operation of the
IED.

1.2.3 Extended polygonal distance protection zone


characteristic

When a fault occurs on the piont of the protection relay installed, the

64
Chapter 5 Distance protection

voltage can be zero, theoretically, at the point of the fault. Considering


the VT and other errors, when the polarity of the impedance
measurement does not reflect the true distance from the fault, two
incorrect cases may occur:

The fault is near the bus and in the forward direction but measured
impedance is not within the forward quadrilateral characteristic.

The fault is near the bus and in the reverse direction but measured
impedance is not within the reverse quarilateral characteristic

Using fault phase current and voltage only, resistance value can not
accurately determine whether fault occurs in the reverse direction or the
forward direction. To solve the problem, IED considers the small
rectangle near to origin to extend protection zones. Therefore, to
increase relay reliable operation in addition to the tripping characteristic
mentioned above, an extended zone area with a little rectangular
characteristic is involved. In this case, final direction is determined based
on both extended zone charachterisitc and the criteria mentioned in
Figure 19, including memory voltage direction element, the zero
sequence directional element, and the negative sequence direction
element. In other words, relay generates trip if both direction and
extended zone impedance confirm each other.

This rectangular area, which is called impedance-offset characteristic,


has been shown in Figure 19 which is added to the characteristic shown
in Figure 18.

XSet
Top

Left
XOffset Right

Bottom R
ROffset RSet

65
Chapter 5 Distance protection

Figure 19 Extended polygonal distance protection zone characteristic

The rectangular offset characteristic (illustrated in Figure 19) is calculated


automatically according to the related distance zones settings.

where:

X Offset :Min{ X Set/2 , 0.5(when In=5A)/2.5 (when In=1A)}

R Offset: Min{ Max{ Min{ 8XOffset , RSet/4 }, 2XOffset } , RSet}

R_ZSet: R_ZnPP or R_ZnPE

X_ZSet: X_ZnPP or X_ZnPE

1.2.4 Minimum operating current

The operation of the distance measuring zone is blocked if the


magnitudes of input currents fall below certain threshold values.

For both phase-to-earth loop and phase-to-phase loop, Ln is blocked if


ILn < 0.1In

ILn is the RMS value of the current in phase Ln.

1.2.5 Measuring principle

A separate measuring system has been provided for each of the six
possible impedance loops A-E, B-E, C-E, A-B, B-C, C-A. The impedance
calculation will be continued whether a fault has been detected.

Based on the following differential equations, measuring elements


calculates relevant loop impedances with real-time voltages and
currents.

Measuring of the single phase impedance for a single phase fault is as


follows:

d(I K X 3I 0 )
U L R (I K r 3I 0 ) : A, B, C
dt

66
Chapter 5 Distance protection

Equation 6

Measuring of the phase-phase impedance for multi-phase faults is as


follows:

dI
U L R I : AB, BC, CA
dt

Equation 7

Where, Kx and Kr are residual compensation factors. Matching of the


earth to line impedance is an essential prerequisite for the accurate
measurement of the fault distance (distance protection, fault locator)
during earth faults. This compensation will be done by residual
compensation settings value:

Kx=(X0-X1)/3X1

Equation 8

and

Kr=(R0-R1)/3R1

Equation 9

Measuring resistance R and reactance X (L=2fL) at IED location can


be obtained by solving above differential equations.

For example, solving above equations leads to the following relation for
phase-phase (A-B) short circuit which can be used to calculate the
phase-to-phase loop impedance.

67
Chapter 5 Distance protection

Figure 20 Phase-phases (A-B) short circuit

IL1 ZL IL2 ZL = UL1-E UL2-E

Equation 10

With:

U, I the (complex) measured quantities and

Z = R + jX the (complex) line impedance

The line impedance is computed as:

U L1-E -U L2-E
ZL =
I L1 -I L2

Equation 11

In addition, solving differential equation for single phase (e.g. A-E)


results:

Figure 21 Single-phases (A-B) short circuit

RE X
U L1-E =I A R L +JX L -I E ( R L J E X L ) I A R L +JX L -I E (K r R L JK x X L )
RL XL
Equation 12

This can be used for resistance and reactance calculation by separating


it to real and imaginary parts.

The impedances of the unfaulted loops are also influenced by the


short-circuit currents and voltages in the short-circuited phases. For
example, during an A-E fault, the short-circuit current in phase L1 also

68
Chapter 5 Distance protection

appears in the measuring loops A-B and C-A. The earth current is also
measured in loops B-E and C-E. In addition to the load currents which
may flow, the unfaulted loops will be affected by faulted loop current
which have nothing to do with the actual fault distance/impedance.

Effect in the unfaulted loops is usually larger than the short-circuit


impedance of the faulted loop, because the unfaulted loop only carries a
part of the fault current and always has a larger voltage than the faulted
loop. As mentioned before, after triggering impedance calculations by
any startup element, all impedance loops will be calculated by separated
(non-switch) measuring systems. First, the symmetric component phase
selector chooses the influenced loops, than the IED compare the
impedance of these loops to remove the unfaulted loops.

1.2.6 Distance element direction determination

Considering the VT and other errors, the polarity of the measured


impedance may not reflect the true distance from the fault. So, the IED
judges the fault direction through using integrated directional elements.

Using memory voltage to judge the direction of the distance protection is


an efficient method. Therefore, IED also uses the memory voltage and
fault current to determine the direction of the fault. Under normal
circumstances, using memory voltage to judge the direction of the fault
has merit, since the transient process has not been affected. But the
memory voltage can not be a long effective quantity. Therefore, IED
needs to rely on forward and reverse direction to expand the logic. IED
uses the direction of zero sequence and negative sequence directional
elemenst to supplement the direction of the distance protection.

Zero-sequence directional element has very good features in the neutral


grounding system. The directional characteristics only relates to zero
sequence impedance angle of the zero sequence network of back power
system which has large or small load current and/or fault resistance
effects. There is no memory voltage problem, and direction can be
reliably detected using zero-sequence directional element. For more
detail about zero sequence direction detection refer to Earth fault
protection.

Negative sequence directional element has very clear direction in any


asymmetric fault. The directional characteristics only relate to negative
sequence impedance angle of the negative sequence network of back
power system which has large or small load current and/or fault

69
Chapter 5 Distance protection

resistance effects, etc. Like zero sequence, there is also no memory


voltage problem, and direction can be reliably detected in this case by
using negative sequence. For more detail refer the chapter earth fault
protection.

In summary, the distance protection has two essential conditions to


operate: corresponding direction detection element is satisfied and
calculated impedance is entered into the impedance characteristics zone.
The usage of direction elements is different for five zone characteristics:

The first zone: it is used as fast zone commonly. Since high speed
and required selectivity are quite essential, requirements for the direction
component must be forward direction.
The extended first zone: it is different from the other five zones. It
doesn't work until the Auto-reclosing has been fully charged. It is a back
up of teleprotection.
The second zone: it is used as time delay zone commonly.
Considering enough reliability, its direction criterion is not reverse
direction.
The third zone: Generally, it is used as the last forward direction zone.
The delay time is longer. Its direction criterion is not reverse direction.
The fourth zone: it is used as non-forward direction zone commonly, so
requirement for the direction component is not forward direction.
The fifth zone: like zone 4, if it is used as reverse direction, its
direction criterion is not forward direction.

For three phase faults, direction checking is only determined by memory


voltage. In this case, IED considers impedance characteristics as well as
memory voltage determination.

If there is neither a current measured voltage nor a memorized voltage


available which is sufficient for measuring the direction, the IED selects
the forward direction. In practice this can only occur when the circuit
breaker closes onto a de-energized line, and there is a fault on this line
(e.g. closing onto an earthed line).

1.2.7 Power swing blocking

70
Chapter 5 Distance protection

1.2.7.1 Introduction

Power swings are oscillations in power flow. The power grid is a very
dynamic network that connects generation to load via transmission lines.
A disturbance-such as a sudden change of load whereas the mechanical
power input to generators remains relatively constant, a power system
fault, or a trip of a large generation unit-may break the balance, cause the
oscillations among the generator rotor angles and force the generators to
adjust to a new operating condition. The adjustment will not happen
instantaneously due to the inertia of the generator prime movers.
Oscillation rate is determined by the inertia of the system and
impedances between different generators.

1.2.7.2 Principle of operation

Power swings are variations in power flow that occur when the internal
voltages of generators at different locations of the power system slip
relative to each other. In this way, voltage and current waveforms will
have a low frequency oscillation over the power system nominal
frequency. Therefore impedance trajectory seen by a distance IED may
enter the fault detection zones and cause unwanted IED operation. For
example consider a simple case with two machine system shown in
Figure 22 to show the system behavior in power swing condition.

Figure 22 Two machine system to simulate power swing behavior

1.2.7.3 Impedance trajectory

The current passing through the feeder (IL) will be calculated in any time
by:
ES ER
IL
ZS ZL ZR

Equation 13

The direction of current flow will remain the same during the power swing
event. Only the voltage displacement will change.

71
Chapter 5 Distance protection

The impedance measured at an IED at bus A would then be:

VA ES IL.ZS ES ES.(ZS ZL ZR)


Z ZS ZS
IL IL IL ES ER

Equation 14

It is assumed that that ES has a phase advance of over ER and that the
ratio of the two source voltage magnitudes, ES/ER, is k. Then:

ES k (cos j sin ) k (k cos ) j sin



ES ER k (cos j sin ) 1 (k cos ) 2 sin 2

Equation 15

For the particular case where the two sources magnitudes are equal or k
is one, Equation 15 can be expressed as:

ES 1
(1 j cot )
ES ER 2 2

Equation 16

And finally the impedance measured at the IED will be:

VA (ZS ZL ZR)
Z (1 j cot ) ZS
IL 2 2

Equation 17

Therefore, the trajectory of the measured impedance at the IED during a


power swing varies when the angle between the two source voltages
changes. Figure 23 shows the impedance trajectories for different
voltage ratios between two machines.

72
Chapter 5 Distance protection

Figure 23 Impedance trajectories for k values

Figure 24 shows the practical possible impedance trajectory which may


happen in the power system. Cases 1 and 2 indicate a stable power
swing which entered the distance protection tripping zone. Case 3 is
unstable power swing which enters and exits the trip zones. Case 4 also
shows the impedance trajectory in the case of short circuit occurrence in
the power system.

Figure 24 Impedance trajectories for different power swing conditions

1.2.7.4 Power swing blocking/unblocking

To ensure the correct operation of the protection logic and avoiding IED
mal-operation in power swings conditions, power swing blocking function

73
Chapter 5 Distance protection

has been integrated in IED. The main purpose of the PSB function is to
differentiate between faults and power swings and block distance.
However, faults that occur during a power swing must be detected and
cleared with a high degree of selectivity and dependability. Power swing
blocking happens if one of the following conditions remains for 30ms.

All phase currents are bigger than the current setting of I_PS, and
the sudden-change current elements have not operated.

All phase-to-phase impedances loops enter into the largest zone of


distance relay, and the sudden-change current elements have not
operated.

As mentioned, if any of the above conditions has been valid for 30ms,
power swing startup will operate and protection program is switched to
power swing blocking routine. At the same time, I_PS STARTUP (for
the first condtion) or Z STARTUP (for the second condition) and
RELAY STARTUP signals are reported. It should be note that I_PSB
should be set larger than maximum load current in the protected feeder.

Operation of sudden-change current indicates a fault occured in the


power system network. In short circuit conditions, the measured
impedance jumps instantaneously from load impedance area to the fault
detection zones. On the other hand, power swings have a slow behavior.
So, lack of operation of current sudden-change element beside high
measured current and/or low calculated impedance indicates that power
swing happened in the system. Therefore above condition has been used
to initiate power swing startup element.

In addition, experimental results of power swing show that it is not


possible for impedance vector to come into the first distance zone in 150
msec after current sudden-change startup operation. Therefore, power
swing blocking logic has been designed such that in 150 msec after
current sudden-change startup, power swing blocking will not happen
and distance protection can trip in this duration if required conditions
fulfill.

System power swings are normally three-phase symmetrical processes.


Therefore, in general, a certain degree of measured value symmetry may
be assumed. Accordingly, beside current sudden-change startup, zero
sequence current startup will be used to remove or prevent power swing
blocking. In addition fault detection during a power swing removes power
swing blocking in the tripping logic.

This unblocking logic of the zones which have already blocked with

74
Chapter 5 Distance protection

power swing blocing has been shown in Figure 25. In this logic,
Z1(2,3,4,5)_PS blocking indicates corresponding setting value for
blocking of the zones in power swing condition.

I_PSB startup

Zero- sequence
current startup O A
R N
D
|150 0|
Current change A O NO PS 1 (2,3,4,5)
startup N R
D

Fault detect swing A


unblocking N
D

Z1(2,3,4,5)_PS blocking

Figure 25 Power swing unblocking release logic

The amount of kinetic energy gained by the generators during a fault is


directly proportional to fault duration and the positive sequence voltage at
the point of fault. Therefore, application of highspeed relaying systems
and high-speed breakers is essential in locations where fast fault clearing
is important. So, the faults that occur during a power swing must be
detected and cleared with a high degree of selectivity and dependability.
For this purpose, IED considers different fault detector elements during
power swing occurrence for symmetric and asymmetric faults. It also
provides six binary settings which can be set to block individually each
protection zones (Zx_PS blocking where x, 1, 1Ext, 2, 3, 4,5, indicates
zone number).

In the duration of power swing, there is a special program module to


detect whether power swing has been finished or not. So, after removing
of all the conditions that indicate power swing occurrence, IED will be
reset and exited from power swing module by Relay reset time.

1.2.9.4.1 Asymmetric faults detection element

Power swing is generally a three phase system and some degree of


symmetric behavior is considered in this condition. Therefore, zero and
negative sequence current can distinguish fault from power swing. The
criterion is described as following:

|I0|>m1|I1| or I 2>m2|I 1|

75
Chapter 5 Distance protection

Equation 18

Factors m1 and m2 ensure that power swing can be reliability


differentiated from internal asymmetric faults. When only power swing
occurs in the network, zero and negative sequences will be close to zero
and it is not possible for the above equations to be fulfilled. When both
power swing and external asymmetric fault occur, the zero and negative
sequences, which will be seen by IED, are not so considerable to satisfy
above equations. But in the case of power swing and internal asymmetric
fault happening at the same time, zero and negative sequence of the
measured current will be large enough to detect the fault in the power
swing durations.

Therefore, mal-operation of the protection IED will be prevented by


checking above criteria.

1.2.9.4.2 Three phase fault detection element

As mentioned, the amount of kinetic energy in the generator rotors is


proportional to duration of faults which may be dangerous for system
stability, particularly in three phase faults. Therefore, a three phase fault
in power swing duration should be cleared as soon as possible. IED
guarantees fast tripping of the three phase faults in power swing duration
by considering following states.

Impedance and resistance trajectory in the power swing

During power swing, measuring resistance or impedance at the IED


location will change continuously with time. Changing rate will be affected
by the inertia of the system and impedances between different
generators. In addition, this rate is also characterized by swing period
and the machine angle, . Figure 26 shows a typical trajectory of
measuring resistance in the power swing duration. Rf indicates normal
load resistance component and Tz power swing period. During power
swing, whether the trajectory of measuring impedance is a line or a
circular arc on R-X plane depends on the voltage ratios between
machines in an equivalent two machine system.

76
Chapter 5 Distance protection

(a) Resistance (Rm) trajectory in normal and power swing condition

(b) Impedance trajectory on R-X plane in power swing condition

Figure 26 Trajectory of the measuring impedance during power swing

Resistance trajectory in three phase faults

When a three phase fault occurs on the protected line, resistance


component of measuring impedance maybe changes due to short circuit
arc. Analysis shows that arc resistance rating in three phase fault is far
less than that of resistance changing corresponding to the possibly
largest swing period. Figure 27 illustrates measured resistance trajectory
in normal and three phase fault conditions. In this figure RK indicates
resistance in three phase short circuit. Unlike power swing conditions,
resistance variation after three phase fault is negligible.

77
Chapter 5 Distance protection

Figure 27 Measuring resistance trajectory in normal and three phase faults

Therefore, power system is determined to be in power swing condition if


its measuring resistanceis continuously changing in a monotony manner.
Conversely, three phase short circuit will be determined if resistance
variations seem to be a small constant.

To determine the resistance variation threshold value, worst case


condition is considered. This will happen when the difference between
internal angles of generators is 180(in an equivalent two machine
system) and power system has maximum power swing period TZMAX.
This condition has been shown in Figure 28.

Figure 28 Trajectory of the measuring resistance with =180o and TZMAX

Therefore, a minimum resistance variation Rmin(180,TZMAX,) is


obtained by introducing a measuring window time equal to . In this way,
for any swing period, the following relation will be valid for measured
resistance variation:

R Rmin(180,TZMAX, )

Equation 19

Considering measuring error and margin coefficient, above criterion


should be changed to:

R KRmin(180,TZMAX, )

78
Chapter 5 Distance protection

Equation 20

where K is a less than 1.

Considering above processes, fault detection criteria in power swing


condition will be as following:

If resistance variation follows: R < Rmin(180o,TZMAX, ), it is

concluded that three phase short has occurred during the power
swing.

If resistance variation follows: R Rmin(180o,TZMAX, ), it is

concluded power swing condition without three phase fault has


happened.

Fault detection using impedance jumping

In conditions when three phase fault suddenly occurs on the protected


line outside the power swing center point or the generator difference
angle () is not approximately 180, the magnitude and angle of
measured impedance will jump and exceed rated changes. Based on this
behavior, distance element can be unblocked quickly when three-phase
fault happen with above conditions.

1.2.8 Phase-to-earth fault determination

For phase-to-earth fault logic, zero-sequence current or zero-sequence


voltage should also be considered. For solid earthed system, only if the
measured trinal zero-sequence current is no less than the setting
3I0_Dist_PE could phase-to-earth fault be determined; For isolated
netral system, only if the measured trinal zero-sequence current is no
less than the setting 3I0_Dist_PE, and the measured trinal
zero-sequence voltage is no less than the setting 3U0_Dist_PE, could
phase-to-earth fault be determined.

1.2.9 Logic diagram

79
Chapter 5 Distance protection

1.2.9.1 Distance protection tripping logic

As mentioned, when a fault occurres, one or more startup elements,


including current sudden-change startup, zero sequence current startup
and low-voltage startup, will detect the fault. Impedance calculation
computes all measuring loops (A, B, C, A-B, B-C, C-A) simultaneously
using 6 measuring systems. Additionally, phase selector sequence will
run and determines faulted loops accurately. Finarlly, selected fault
impedance and setting values will be compared to verify that fault is
within protection zones.

By checking and fulfilling the fault detection criteria, IED distance


protection will trip according to the following logics for different faults and
zones:

No Power swing

One of the main criteria in tripping logic of different zones is that IED
doesnt detect power swing. Power swing blocking can be activated
individually by different binary settings (Zx_PS blocking, where x
indicates a zone number). In IED, power swing will be detected by power
swing startup elements (for detail information refers under heading
Power swing blocking/unblocking).

Zone 1 faults

Zone 1 fault detection logic is shown as following figure:

Impedance
Within Z1

Forward direction

No PS 1

A Z1 detection
Func_Z1=1 N
D

Imp.Oper.Zone=0

Test Pos.Imp=0

80
Chapter 5 Distance protection

Figure 29 Zone 1 fault detection logic

A fault is considered in Zone 1 if the calculated impedance lies within Z1


characteristic zone and direction checking criteria confirms that the fault
is forward direction. In addition, power swing unblocking should be
released. As mentioned before, power swing blocking for zone 1 can be
selected individually by binary setting Z1_PS blocking. If the Z1_PS
blocking is set to off, power swing blocking is disabled. If the setting
Z1_PS blocking is set to on, power swing blocking will be enabled.

Zone 2 faults

Zone 2 fault detection logic is shown in Figure 30.

Impedance
Within Z2

Not reverse direction

No PS 2

A Z2 detection
Func_Z2=1 N
D

Imp.Oper.Zone=0

Test Pos.Imp=0

Figure 30 Zone 2 fault detection logic

A fault is considered in Zone 2 if the calculated impedance lies within Z2


characteristic zone and direction checking criteria confirms that the fault
is not reverse. In addition, power swing unblocking should be released.
As mentioned above, power swing blocking for zone 1 can be selected
individually by binary setting Z2_PS blocking. If Z2_PS blocking is set
to off, power swing blocking is disabled. If Z2_PS blocking is set to
on, power swing blocking will be enabled.

Zone 3 faults

81
Chapter 5 Distance protection

Impedance Within Z3

Not reverse direction


Asymmetric fault
A
No PS 3 N
D
Func_Z3=1

Imp.Oper.Zone=0 O Z3 detection
Test.Pos.Imp=0 R

Impedance Within Z3

Symmetric fault

No PS 3 A
Func_Z3=1 N
D
Imp.Oper.Zone=0

Test Pos.Imp=0

Figure 31 Zone 3 fault detection tripping logic

Above figure shows the fault detection logic of zone 3. The main
condition of detection is that the calculated impedance lies within Z3
characteristic zone. In addition, detection logic is different for symmetric
and asymmetric faults. For asymmetric faults IED checks direction
criteria to be not reverse while in symmetric faults only the calculated
impedance will be considered. Same as previous ones, power swing
blocking for zone 3 can also be selected individually by binary setting
Z3_PS blocking. If Z3_PS blocking is set to off, power swing
blocking is disabled. If Z3_PS blocking is set to on, power swing
blocking will be enabled.

Zone 4 & 5 faults

Figure 25 shows fault detection logic of zones 4 and 5. Same as zone3,


calculated impedance vector is the main criteria of the zones 4 and 5
detection logic. Since these zones can be selected as forward or reverse
direction, detection logic will be different in these two cases. Forward
direction will be selected if direction detection criteria conciders that the
fault is Not Reverse. Conversely, inverse direction will be selected if
direction detection checking determines fault as Not Forward. Here, it is
also possible to select zones 4 and 5 blocking in power swing condition by
binary settings Z4_PS blocking and Z5_PS blocking.

82
Chapter 5 Distance protection

Impedance Within Z4

NOT reverse direction


Func_Z4=1
A
Reverse_Z4=0 N
D
Imp.Oper.Zone=0

Test.Pos.Imp=0

No PS 4
O Z4 detection
R
Impedance Within Z4

NOT forward direction

Func_Z4=1 A
N
Reverse_Z4=1 D

Imp.Oper.Zone=0

Test Pos.Imp=0

Impedance Within Z5

NOT reverse direction


Func_Z5=1
A
Reverse_Z5=0 N
D
Imp.Oper.Zone=0

Test.Pos.Imp=0

No PS 5
O Z5 detection
R
Impedance Within Z5

NOT forward direction

Func_Z5=1 A
N
Reverse_Z5=1 D

Imp.Oper.Zone=0

Test Pos.Imp=0

Figure 32 Zones 4 and 5 fault detection in tripping logic

1.2.9.2 Tripping logic

Distance protection tripping will be blocked in the case of VT Fail

83
Chapter 5 Distance protection

detection (for more detail, refer to under heading VT Fail detection). In


addition in the case of Switch-onto-Fault condition, the delay timers of
zone 1, 2 and 3 will be bypassed and short circuit will be immediately
removed.

IED provides two binary settings, AR Init by 3p AR Init by 2p to set


auto-reclosing operation for three phase faults, phase to phase fault, and
single phase faults.

If both binary settings AR Init by 3p and AR Init by 2p are disabled,


IED only initiates auto-reclosing for single phase faults.

If both AR Init by 3p and AR Init by 2p are enabled, IED can operate


both for three phase faults, phase to phase fault, and single phase faults.

If binary setting AR Init By 2p is enabled, while AR Init By 3p is


disabled, AR will only be initiated by phase to phase fault or single phase
faults.

Tripping of distance protection by Zone 2 to 5 is also considered to be


permanent without any auto-reclosing initiation.

VT fail
Func_SOTF On
A
SOTF N
D

O
R

A
Z1 detection |T1 0|
N Unpermenent trip

Ext Z1 detection |T1Ext 0|

A O
Z2 detection |T2 0| Permenent trip
N R
Z3 detection |T3 0|
O D
R
Z4 detection |T4 0|

Z5 detection |T5 0|

84
Chapter 5 Distance protection

Figure 33 Distance protection tripping logic

AR not ready
A Trip single
phase
N
Single fault D
Relay Trip 3pole off

Relay Trip 3pole on


A
BI 1P Trip N O Trip Tree
Block phase
D R
AR Init By 2p on
Two phase fault
AR Init By 2p off

AR Init By 3p on
Permenent
Three phase fault Trip
O
AR Init By 3p off
R
AR Init By 2p off O
R

Figure 34 Trip logic

Note:

The above trip logic applies to the first zone and the extended first zone
of distance protection as well as teleprotection

1.3 Input and output signals

IP1 Trip PhA

IP2 Trip PhB

IP3 Trip PhC


IN Trip 3Ph
INM Relay Block AR
UP1 Zone1 Trip
UP2 Zone2 Trip

UP3 Zone3 Trip


Zone4 Trip

Zone5 Trip

Zone1Ext Trip

PSB Dist OPTD

Relay Startup
Relay Trip

85
Chapter 5 Distance protection

Table 15 Analog input list

Signal Description

IP1 Signal for current input 1


IP2 Signal for current input 2
IP3 Signal for current input 3
IN External input of zero-sequence current
IN(M) External input of zero-sequence current of
adjacent line
UP1 Signal for voltage input 1
UP2 Signal for voltage input 2
UP3 Signal for voltage input 3

Table 16 Binary output list

Signal Description

Relay Startup Relay Startup


Relay Trip Relay Trip
Trip PhA Trip phase A
Trip PhB Trip phase B
Trip PhC Trip phase C
Trip 3Ph Trip three phases
Relay Block AR Permanent trip, or AR being blocked
Zone1 Trip Zone1 distance protection trip
Zone2 Trip Zone2 distance protection trip
Zone3 Trip Zone3 distance protection trip
Zone4 Trip Zone4 distance protection trip
Zone5 Trip Zone5 distance protection trip
Zone1Ext Trip Extended zone1 distance protection trip
PSB Dist OPTD Distance operated in power swing

1.4 Setting parameters

1.4.1 Setting list

86
Chapter 5 Distance protection

Table 17 Distance protection function setting list

Max. Default
Min.
Setting Unit (Ir:5A/1 setting Description
(Ir:5A/1A)
A) (Ir:5A/1A)
compensation factor of zero
Kx -0.33 8 1
sequence reactance
compensation factor of zero
Kr -0.33 8 1
sequence resistance
compensation factor of zero
Km -0.33 8 0 sequence mutual
inductance of parallel line
positive reactance of the
X_Line Ohm 0.01 600 10
whole line
positive resistance of the
R_Line Ohm 0.01 600 2
whole line
Line length km 0.1 999 100 Length of line
current threshold of power
I_PSB A 0.5 20Ir 2Ir
system unstability detection
resistance reach of zone 1
R1_PE Ohm 0.01/0.05 120/600 1/5 of phase to earth distance
protection
reactance reach of zone 1 of
X1_PE Ohm 0.01/0.05 120/600 1/5 phase to earth distance
protection
resistance reach of zone 2
R2_PE Ohm 0.01/0.05 120/600 1.6/8 of phase to earth distance
protection
reactance reach of zone 2 of
X2_PE Ohm 0.01/0.05 120/600 1.6/8 phase to earth distance
protection
resistance reach of zone 3
R3_PE Ohm 0.01/0.05 120/600 2.4/12 of phase to earth distance
protection
reactance reach of zone 3 of
X3_PE Ohm 0.01/0.05 120/600 2.4/12 phase to earth distance
protection
resistance reach of zone 4
R4_PE Ohm 0.01/0.05 120/600 3/15 of phase to earth distance
protection
reactance reach of zone 4 of
X4_PE Ohm 0.01/0.05 120/600 3/15 phase to earth distance
protection
R5_PE Ohm 0.01/0.05 120/600 3.6/18 resistance reach of zone 5

87
Chapter 5 Distance protection

Max. Default
Min.
Setting Unit (Ir:5A/1 setting Description
(Ir:5A/1A)
A) (Ir:5A/1A)
of phase to earth distance
protection
reactance reach of zone 5 of
X5_PE Ohm 0.01/0.05 120/600 3.6/18 phase to earth distance
protection
resistance reach of
R1Ext_PE Ohm 0.01/0.05 120/600 1.6/8 extended zone 1 of phase to
earth distance protection
reactance reach of
X1Ext_PE Ohm 0.01/0.05 120/600 1.6/8 extended zone 1 of phase to
earth distance protection
delay time of zone 1 of
T1_PE s 0 60 0 phase to earth distance
protection
delay time of zone 2 of
T2_PE s 0 60 0.3 phase to earth distance
protection
delay time of zone 3 of
T3_PE s 0 60 0.6 phase to earth distance
protection
delay time of zone 4 of
T4_PE s 0 60 0.9 phase to earth distance
protection
delay time of zone 5 of
T5_PE s 0 60 1.2 phase to earth distance
protection
delay time of extended zone
T1_Ext_PE s 0 60 0.05 1 of phase to earth distance
protection
resistance reach of zone 1
R1_PP Ohm 0.01/0.05 120/600 1/5 of phase to phase distance
protection
reactance reach of zone 1 of
X1_PP Ohm 0.01/0.05 120/600 1/5 phase to phase distance
protection
resistance reach of zone 2
R2_PP Ohm 0.01/0.05 120/600 1.6/8 of phase to phase distance
protection
reactance reach of zone 2 of
X2_PP Ohm 0.01/0.05 120/600 1.6/8 phase to phase distance
protection

88
Chapter 5 Distance protection

Max. Default
Min.
Setting Unit (Ir:5A/1 setting Description
(Ir:5A/1A)
A) (Ir:5A/1A)
resistance reach of zone 3
R3_PP Ohm 0.01/0.05 120/600 2.4/12 of phase to phase distance
protection
reactance reach of zone 3 of
X3_PP Ohm 0.01/0.05 120/600 2.4/12 phase to phase distance
protection
resistance reach of zone 4
R4_PP Ohm 0.01/0.05 120/600 3/15 of phase to phase distance
protection
reactance reach of zone 4 of
X4_PP Ohm 0.01/0.05 120/600 3/15 phase to phase distance
protection
resistance reach of zone 5
R5_PP Ohm 0.01/0.05 120/600 3.6/18 of phase to phase distance
protection
reactance reach of zone 5 of
X5_PP Ohm 0.01/0.05 120/600 3.6/18 phase to phase distance
protection
resistance reach of
R1Ext_PP Ohm 0.01/0.05 120/600 1.6/8 extended zone 1 of phase to
phase distance protection
reactance reach of
X1Ext_PP Ohm 0.01/0.05 120/600 1.6/8 extended zone 1 of phase to
phase distance protection
delay time of zone 1 of
T1_PP s 0 60 0 phase to phase distance
protection
delay time of zone 2 of
T2_PP s 0 60 0.3 phase to phase distance
protection
delay time of zone 3 of
T3_PP s 0 60 0.6 phase to phase distance
protection
delay time of zone 4 of
T4_PP s 0 60 0.9 phase to phase distance
protection
delay time of zone 5 of
T5_PP s 0 60 1.2 phase to phase distance
protection
delay time of extended zone
T1_Ext_PP s 0 60 0.05
1 of phase to phase

89
Chapter 5 Distance protection

Max. Default
Min.
Setting Unit (Ir:5A/1 setting Description
(Ir:5A/1A)
A) (Ir:5A/1A)
distance protection
zero sequence current
3I0_Dist_P
A 0.1Ir 2Ir 0.1Ir threshold of phase to earth
E
distance protection
zero sequence voltage
3U0_Dist_
V 0.5 60 1 threshold of phase to earth
PE
distance protection

Table 18 Distance protection binary setting list

Abbr. Explanation Default Unit Min. Max.

First zone distance protection


Func_Z1 1 0 1
operating mode (On/Off)
Second zone distance
Func_Z2 protection operating mode 1 0 1
(On/Off)
Third zone distance protection
Func_Z3 1 0 1
operating mode (On/Off)
Fourth zone distance
Func_Z4 protection operating mode 1 0 1
(On/Off)
Setting for fourth zone
Reverse_Z4 distance protection operation 0 0 1
as reverse
Fifth zone distance protection
Func_Z5 1 0 1
operating mode
Setting for fifth zone distance
Reverse_Z5 protection operation as for 0 0 1
reverse
Extended zone 1 distance
Func_Z1Ext protection operating mode 1 0 1
(On/Off)
Blocking of the first zone
Z1_PS Blocking distance protection in power 1 0 1
swing
Blocking of the second zone
Z2_PS Blocking distance protection in power 1 0 1
swing
Z3_PS Blocking Blocking of the third zone 1 0 1

90
Chapter 5 Distance protection

Abbr. Explanation Default Unit Min. Max.

distance protection when


power swing
Blocking of the fourth zone
Z4_PS Blocking distance forward protection in 1 0 1
power swing
Blocking of the fifth zone
Z5_PS Blocking distance forward protection in 1 0 1
power swing
Blocking of the extended zone
Z1Ext_PS Blocking 1 distance forward protection 1 0 1
in power swing
Second zone distance
protection speedup operating
Z2 Speedup 0 0 1
mode by auto-reclosing on to
fault
Third zone distance protection
Z3 Speedup speedup operating mode by 0 0 1
auto-reclosing on to fault
Distance protection speedup
Z23 Speedup Inrush Block 0 0 1
operating blocked by inrush
(0)The direction element is
active; The small rectangular
near zero point is reactive;
Imp.Oper.Zone (1)The direction element is 1 0 1
reactive; The small
rectangular near zero point is
active
(0)The direction element is
Test Pos.Imp active ; (1)The direction 1 0 1
element is reactive

Note: The two settings, Imp.Oper.Zone and Test Pos.Imp, should set
as 1 only for testing. They must be set as 0 in service.

1.4.2 Setting explanation

Kx: Reactance compensation factor,It should be calculated based on


the actual line parameters. Finally, the setting value should be less
than or close to calculation value.

91
Chapter 5 Distance protection

KX = (X0-X1) / 3X1

Kr: Resistance compensation factor, It should be Calculated based on


the actual line parameters. Finally, the setting value should be less
than or close to calculation value.

KR = (R0-R1) / 3R1

Km: Compensation factor for zero sequence mutual reactance of


parallel lines, It shoule be calculated based on the actual line
parameters.The setting value should be less than or close to
calculation value. X0m is the zero sequence mutual reactance in the
parrallel lines. X1 is the positive sequence reactance of the line where
IED is located.

Km= X0m/3X1

X_Line and R_Line: Line positive reactance and resistanceIt is set


according to secondary values of actual line parameters.

Zone 1 FUNC, Zone Ext FUNC, Zone 2 FUNC, Zone 3 FUNC, Zone 4
FUNC and Zone 5 FUNC can be set by Func_Z1, Func_Z1Ext
Func_Z2, Func_Z3, Func_Z4, Func_Z5individually.

Reverse_Z4 and forward_Z4: zone 4 of the distance can be selected


to operate for reverse direction or forward direction. The mode of
operation can be set in these binary settings.

Reverse_Z5 and forward_Z5: zone 5 of the distance can be selected


to operate for reverse direction or forward direction. The mode of
operation can be set in these binary settings.

Power swing Blocking: the operation of zone 1, extension zone 1,


zone 2, zone 3, zone 4 and zone 5 can be separately selected to be
block or unblock during power swing. When the bit is set to 1,
distance protection zones are disabled by power swing blocking
elements. If the bit is set to 0, for any distance protection zone, the
relay can send trip command even in power swing condition.

3I0_Dist_PE and 3U0_Dist_PE: minimum zero-sequence current


and minimum zero-sequence voltage for phase-to-earth protection
operation.

92
Chapter 5 Distance protection

1.4.3 Calculation example for distance parameter settings

The solidy grounded 400kV overhead Line A-B has been shown in
A B
C
127km 139km

21/21N

21/21N

PTR:400/0.1kV
CTR:2000/5

Figure 35 and line parameters are as follows. It is assumed that the line
does not support teleprotection scheme beacuase lack of any
communication link.

A B
C
127km 139km

21/21N

21/21N

PTR:400/0.1kV
CTR:2000/5

Figure 35 400kV Overhead Line (A-B) protected by distance protection

For line 1 (line AB):

S1 (length): 127 km

Current Transformer: 2000 A/5 A

Voltage transformer: 400 kV/0.1 kV

Rated Frequency: 50 Hz

Rated power of the line: 300MVA

Full scale current of the line: 433A

R+Line1 =0.030 /km

93
Chapter 5 Distance protection

X+Line1 =0.353 /km

R0line1 =0.302 /km

X0Line1 =0.900 /km

For line 2:

S2 (length) = 139 km

R+Line2 =0.030 /km

X+Line2 =0.352 /km

R0line2 =0.311 /km

X0Line2 =0.898 /km

So, The line angle can be derived from the line parameters:

= arctan (X+ / R+)

So Line 1 Angle: 85.1

The resistance ratio RE/RL and the reactance ratio XE/XL should be
applied for zero sequence compensation calculations. They are calculated
separately, and do not correspond to the real and imaginary components
of ZE/ZL.

R 0 R1
RE/RL = =3.00
3R1

X 0 X1
XE/XL = 0.52
3X 1

x' = 0.04 /km in secondary side

Time Delays

T1-p-e or p-p time delay 0.0 sec

T2-p-e or p-p time delay 0.3 sec

94
Chapter 5 Distance protection

T3-p-e or p-p time delay 0.6 sec

T4-p-e or p-p time delay 0.3 sec

T5 inactive

Zone Z1 impedance settings


The resistance settings of the individual zones have to cover the fault
resistance at the fault location. For the Zone 1 setting only arc faults will
be considered. The length of the arc is greater than the spacing between
the conductors (ph-ph), because the arc is blown into a curve due to
thermal and magnetic forces. For estimation purposes it is assumed that
arc lenght is twice the conductor spacing. To obtain the largest value of
Rarc, which is required for the setting, the smallest value of fault current
must be used. According to the conceptthat arc approximately has the
characteristic with 2500V/m, the arc resistance will be calculated with the
following equation:

2500 / m 2 ph ph spacing
Rarc
I 3PH MIN
To calculate the minimum three phase short circuit current, it is required
to calculate the short circuit current in the end of line:

Min 3ph short circuit current in the local end, Isc: 10 kA

Short circuit capacity=SCC=3VLIsc: 6920 MVA

S_base: 1000 MVA

SCC_pu: 6.92 pu

Z_source_pu 1/Scc_pu: 0.14 pu

Z_source_ohm: 23.12

L_source= 0.073598 H

Positive sequence impedance: 0.03024+ j0.35276


/km

Connected Line length: 127.0 km

Positive sequence impedance, Z_Line: 3.840+ j44.8 =0.024+

95
Chapter 5 Distance protection

j0.280 pu

I3ph- min=1pu/[Z_source+Z_Line] : 2.350 pu =3.396 kA

On secondary I3ph- min: 8.489 A

So, by considering the 3 m Ph-Ph spacing:

Rarc =4.417

By addition of a 20 % safety margin and conversion to secondary


impedance the following minimum setting is calculated (division by 2 is
because of this fact that Rarc appears in ph-ph loop measurement while
the setting is done as phase impedance or positive sequence
impedance):

1.2 Rarc CTR / PTR


R( Z1)
2

So, R (Z1)min=0.265 in Secondary Side

This calculated value corresponds to the smallest setting required to


obtain the desired arc resistance coverage. Depending on the X(Z1)
reach calculated, this setting may be increased to obtain the desired
Zone 1 polygon symmetry.

For phase to phase fault

X1+ =0.353 /km

CTR=2000/5A

CTR/PTR=0.100

PTR=400/0.1kV

L1=127km

Xline1+ =4.48 Secondary

Rline+ =0.384 Secondary

Since, there is not any tele-protection scheme, to get fast tripping on the

96
Chapter 5 Distance protection

longer length, Z1 setting for phase to phase fault is set to %85 of the line
instead %80.

X (Z1) =0.85 X+Line1 -Secondary

So, X (Z1) = 3.81 in Secondary Side

X ()
XDZ
7

14

63.4
14 RDZ R ()

Figure 36

Line
X (ohm) angle
0.04

3.81 7

85.1
63.4
R (ohm)

0.33

Figure 37

According to the above figure, reactance setting of the zone 1 is


considered as:

X (Z1)SET = 3.81 + 0.04 =3.85 in Secondary Side

For phase to ground fault

Considering some error in the parameter calculation of RE/RL and XE/XL,

97
Chapter 5 Distance protection

the reactance reach is considered as %80 of line A-B.

XE (Z1) = 0.8 X+Line1-Secondary

So,

XE (Z1) =3.58 in Secondary Side

Line
X (ohm) angle
0.04

3.58 7

85.1
63.4
R (ohm)

0.33

Figure 38 Characteristic zone example

According to the above figure, reactance setting of the zone 1 is


considered as:

XE (Z1)SET =3.58 + 0.04=3.62 in Secondary Side

For phase to phase fault

Considering minimum setting vaule of R(Z1) calculated before, for


overhead line protection applications, the following rule of thumb may be
used for the R(Z1) setting to get the best symmetry on polygon
characteristic:

0.8 X ( Z1) R( Z1) 2.5 X ( Z1)

So,

3.05 R (Z1) 9.53

Therefore, in this case, setting value for R(Z1) is considered as:

98
Chapter 5 Distance protection

R (Z1) = 3.10 in Secondary Side

For phase to earth fault

The phase to earth fault resistance reach is calculated along the same
way as ph-ph faults. For the earth fault however, not only the arc voltage
but also the tower footing resistance must be considered.

I2
RTF (1 ) Effective Tower Resistance
I1

It is assumed that each tower resistance equals to: 15

Effective tower resistance considering the parallel connection of multiple


tower footing resistance 2

In the above equation, I2/I1 is the ratio between earth fault currents at the
opposite end to the local one. Where no information is available on the
current ratio, a value of approx. 3 is assumed for a conservative
approach.

Assumed I2/I1=3

So,

RTF=8

For the calculation of Rarc using the formula introduced above, without
detail information about the tower configuration, ph totower spacing is
assumed to be 3m in the worst case (conservative solution).

Assumed ph-tower spacing: 3m

2500V 2 Ph Tower Spacing


Rarc
I 1 ph min

Min 1ph short circuit current in the local end, Isc: 5kA

S_base: 1000 MVA

I_base: 1.445 kA

Isc pu: 3.46 pu

99
Chapter 5 Distance protection

Zs=2Z+source+Z0source_pu 1/(Isc pu/3): 0.87pu

Positive sequence impedance: 0.0302+ j0.353


/km

Zero sequence impedance 0.302+ j0.900


/km

Connected Line lengh: 127.0 km

Positive sequence impedance, Z1_Line: 3.840+ j44.8


=0.024+ j0.28
pu

Zero sequence impedance, Z0_Line: 38.354+ 114.3


=0.240+
j0.714 pu

I1ph- min=31pu/[Zs+2Z1_Line+Z0_Line] : 1.374490915


pu = 1.986
kA

And on secondary side,

I3ph- min=4.965 A

So, arc resistance will be:

Rarc=7.55

1.2 ( Rarc RTF ) CTR / PTR


RE ( Z1)
RE
1
RL

So, RE (Z1) =0.5 in Secondary Side

This calculated value corresponds to the smallest setting required to


obtain the desired resistance coverage. Depending on the X(Z1) reach
calculated above, this setting may be increased to obtain desired Zone 1
polygon symmetry.

100
Chapter 5 Distance protection

XE
1
0.8 X ( Z1) RE ( Z1) XL 2.5 X ( Z1)
RE
1
RL

So, 3.05RE (Z1)3.62

Therefore, in this case, setting value for RE(Z1) is considered as:

RE (Z1) =3.10 in Secondary Side

Operating mode Z1 Forward

R(Z1), Resistance for ph-ph-faults 3.10

X(Z1), Reactance 3.81

RE(Z1), Resistance for ph-e faults 3.10

XE(Z1), Reactance 3.58

Tele protection scheme inactive

Power swing blocking zones All zones

Zone Z2 & Z3 impedance setting

According to the grading requirement:

X ( Z 2) 0.8 X Line1 0.8 X Line2shortest


CTR
PTR

X+Line1 =44.8 in primary

X+Line2 =48.928

CTR=2000/5 A

CTR/PTR=0.100

PTR=400/0.1kV

So,

101
Chapter 5 Distance protection

X (Z2) =6.72 in secondary side

Line
X (ohm) angle
0.07

6.72 7

85.1
63.4
R (ohm)

0.58

Figure 39 Zone 2 protection characteristic setting

According to the above figure, reactance setting of the zone 1 is


considered as:

XZ2)SET =XE (Z2)SET =6.72 + 0.07= 6.79 in secondary side

Resistance coverage for all arc faults up to the set reach must be applied.
As this zone is applied with overreach, an additional safety margin is
included, based on a minimum setting equivalent to the X(Z2) setting and
arc resistance setting for internal faults, R(Z1) setting. Therefore:

X ( Z 2)
R( Z 2) Min R(Z1)
X ( Line1sec ondary )

SoR (Z2) Min =4.65 in secondary side

According to the above minimum value, the setting is considered as:

R (Z2) =4.70 in secondary side

Similar to the R(Z2) setting, the minimum required reach for RE(Z2)
setting is based on the RE(Z1) setting which covers all internal fault
resistance and the X(Z2) setting which determines the amount of
overreach. Alternatively, the RE(Z2) reach can be calculated from the
R(Z2) reach with the following equation:

X ( Z 2)
RE ( Z 2) 1.2 RE ( Z1)
X ( Line1secondary )

102
Chapter 5 Distance protection

So,

RE (Z2)Min=5.58 in secondary side

Here the maximum value between R(Z2) and RE(Z2)min is selected:

So, RE (Z2) =5.58 in Secondary Side

On the other hand, the resistance reach setting for Z2 and Z3 are set
according to the maximum load current and minimum load voltage. The
values are set somewhat (approx. 10 %) below the minimum expected
load impedance.

Maximum transmission power =250MVA

Imax =401 A at Vmin=0.9*Vn

Zload_Prim. = (0.9 400kV) / (401 3) =518.334

Zload_Sec=52

When applying a security margin of 10 % the following is set:

Zload_Sec. =47

Assuming a minimum power factor of Cosmin at full load condition = 0.85

So, Rload_Sec. =40

The spread angle of the load trapezoid load (-E) and load (-)
must be greater (approx. 5) than the maximum arising load angle
(corresponding to the minimum power factor cos).

load = ArcCos (0.85) + 5 37

Therefore, according to the protection zones characteristic and maximum


calculated load impedance and angle, we will have:

103
Chapter 5 Distance protection

X ()
XDZ
7

14

63.4
14 RDZ R ()

Figure 40 Characteristic zone example

X (ohm)

30.1

26.6
37 63.4
R (ohm)
Rload=40

15.1

Figure 41 Characteristic zone example

Therefore the maximum setting of R-Z3 should be as: 40-15.1=24.91

The calculated resistance for Z2 is far from the above maximum value
and so is acceptable. Finally, the zone 2 and 3 setting should as follows:

Operating mode Z2
Forward

R(Z2), Resistance for ph-ph-faults 4.70


X(Z2), Reactance 6.79


RE(Z2), Resistance for ph-e faults 5.58

104
Chapter 5 Distance protection

XE(Z2), Reactance 6.79

Without any information about line3, Z3 is set %50 larger than Zone2, as
follows:

Operating mode Z3
Forward

R(Z3), Resistance for ph-ph-faults 7.05

X(Z3), Reactance 10.19

RE(Z3), Resistance for ph-e faults 8.37

XE(Z3), Reactance 10.19

Zone Z4

Zone 4 is considered to protect %30 of the zone 1 in reverse direction.

So, X (Z4) =0.3X(Z1)=1.16 in secondary side

So, XE(Z4) =0.3XE(Z1)=1.07 in secondary side

So, R (Z4) = 0.3R(Z1)= 0.93 in secondary side

Similar to the R(Z4) setting, the upper and lower limits are defined by
minimum required reach and symmetry. In this application RE(Z4) reach
is set same as R(Z4). And finally:

RE(Z4) = 0.3RE(Z1)= 0.93 in secondary side

Operating mode Z4 Reverse

R(Z4), Resistance for ph-ph-faults 0.93Ohm

X(Z4), Reactance 1.16Ohm

105
Chapter 5 Distance protection

RE(Z4), Resistance for ph-e faults 0.93Ohm

XE(Z4), Reactance 1.07Ohm

Zone Z5

Zone 5 is set to be inactive.

1.5 Reports

Table 19 Event report list

Abbr. Meaning
Relay Startup Protection startup
Dist Startup Impedance element startup
3I0 Startup Zero-current startup
I_PS Startup Current startup for Power swing
Zone1 Trip Zone 1 distance trip
Zone2 Trip Zone 2 distance trip
Zone3 Trip Zone 3 distance trip
Zone4 Trip Zone 4 distance trip
Zone5 Trip Zone 5 distance trip
Zone1Ext Trip Zone 1 Extended distance trip
Distance element instantaneous trip after switching on to fault
Dist SOTF Ttrip
(SOTF)
PSB Dist OPTD Distance operated in power swing
Z2 Speedup Trip Z2 instantaneous trip in SOTF or auto-reclosing on fault
Z3 Speedup Trip Z3 instantaneous trip in SOTF or auto-reclosing on fault
Trip Blk AR(3T) Permanent trip for 3-ph tripping failure
Relay Trip 3P Trip 3 poles
3P Trip (1T_Fail) three phase trip for 1-ph tripping failure
Distance zone 1 evolvement trip, for example, A phase to earth fault
Dist Evol Trip happened, and then B phase to earth fault followed, the latter is
considered as an evolvement trip
Fault Location Fault location
Impedance_FL Impedance of fault location

Table 20 Alarm report list

106
Chapter 5 Distance protection

Abbr. Meaning

Func_Dist Blk Distance function blocked by VT fail

Table 21 Operation report list

Abbr. Meaning
Test mode On Test mode On
Test mode Off Test mode Off
Func_Dist On Distance function on
Func_Dist Off Distance function off
Func_PSB On PSB function on
Func_PSB Off PSB function off

1.6 Technical data


Table 22 Distance protection technical data

NOTE:
Ir: CT rated secondary current, 1A or 5A;

Item Rang or Value Tolerance


Number of settable zone 5 zones, with additional
extended zone
Distance characteristic Polygonal
Resistance setting range 0.01120, step 0.01, 5.0% static accuracy
when Ir=5A; Conditions:
0.05600, step 0.01, Voltage range: 0.01 Ur to 1.2
when Ir=1A; Ur
Reactance setting range 0.01120, step 0.01, Current range: 0.12 Ir to 20 Ir
when Ir=5A;
0.05600, step 0.01,
when Ir=1A;
Time delay of distance zones 0.00 to 60.00s, step 0.01s 1% or +20 ms, at 70%
operating setting and setting
time > 60ms
Operation time 22ms typically at 70% setting
of zone 1
Dynamic overreaching for 5%, at 0.5<SIR<30
zone 1

107
Chapter 5 Distance protection

108
Chapter 5 Distance protection

109
Chapter 6 Teleprotection

Chapter 6 Teleprotection

About this chapter

This chapter describes the protection principle, input and


output signals, parameters, IED report and technical data
used for teleprotection function.

110
Chapter 6 Teleprotection

1 Teleprotection schemes for distance

1.1 Introduction

Distance teleprotection is an important function in the IED to get fast


tripping of the short circuit in the area near to remote end. The function
employs carrier sending and receiving feature, power line carrier (PLC)
or dedicated fiber optic communication channels, to implement different
tele-protection scheme configuration.

1.2 Teleprotection principle

1.2.1 Permissive underreach transfer trip (PUTT) scheme

By setting the binary PUR mode to 1/on, teleprotection logic works in


permissive under reach mode. The permissive under reach transfer trip is
shown in Figure 42. The scheme is based on receiving and sending
signals. IED sends distance carrier signal if its startup elements operate
and a fault occurs in the first protection zone (Z1). To get reliable
operation in remote line end, the carrier send signal is prolong for 200
msec after resetting of the trip signal.

According to this scheme, IED will generate a trip command if a fault has
been detected in second protection zone (Z2) and a carrier signal has
been received for at least 5 msec. According to the mode selected (single
phase operation, three phase protection and also auto-reclosing mode),
teleprotection scheme can generate single or three phase tripping.For
more detail about tripping mode refer under heading Automatic reclosing
function.

In the following, different conditions are considered to show the operation


of the IED in the permissive under reach transfer trip mode.

111
Chapter 6 Teleprotection

Relay startup A
N
Relay reset D
A
O |200 0| CARR Send
N signal
Zone 1 operation R Trip
D

A
Zone 2 operation A
N Relay trip
N
D
D
Delay time 5ms A
N
D
CARR Received

Figure 42 Teleprotection logic for permissive under reach transfer trip

Internal fault-faults within protected line

Startup element operates when an internal fault occurs. If the fault has
been detected in Z1, IED trips local CB and sends signal to the remote
end. If fault occurs in the protected line outside Z1 setting, local CB will
be tripped instantaneously by detection of fault in Z2 and receiving of the
carrier signal from remote end for at least 5 msec.

External fault-faults outside of the protected line

For external faults in reverse direction, protection IED doesnt send a


distance carrier signal. Therefore, remote end distance relay doesnt
generate an instantaneous trip command by only detection of a fault in its
Z2 characteristic. Conversely, for external faults in forward direction, local
IED may detect the fault in Z2 but it doesnt generate trip command
because lack of any receiving carrier signal from remote end. Therefore
both local and remote end distance protection will be stable for the
external faults without any tripping.

1.2.2 Permissive overreach transfer trip (POTT) scheme

This mode of operation can also be useful for extremely short lines where
a typical setting of 85% of line length for Z1 is not possible and selective
non-delayed tripping could not be achieved. In this case zone Z1 must be
delayed by a time, to avoid non- selective tripping of distance protection
by Z1.

Teleprotection logic works in permissive overreach mode if binary setting

112
Chapter 6 Teleprotection

POR mode is set to 1-on. The permissive overreach transfer trip logic
has been shown in the below figure.

Relay startup A
N
Relay reset D
A
O |200 0| CARR Send
N signal
R Trip
D

A
Zone 2 operation A
N Relay trip
N
D
D
Delay time 5ms A
N
D
CARR Received

Figure 43 Teleprotection logic for permissive over reach transfer trip

This scheme is based on receiving and sending signals. IED sends


distance carrier signal if startup elements operate and a fault occurs in
the Z2 protection zone. To get reliable operation of the remote end, any
carrier sent signal is prolonged for 200ms after resetting of trip signal.
Additionally, to support permissive overreach scheme in the case of weak
infeed sources, special echo logic is considered in IED.

In this scheme, IED generates a trip command if a fault has been


detected in Z2 zone and a carrier signal received for at least 5 msec.
According to mode selected (single phase operation, three phase
protection and also auto-reclosing mode), teleprotection scheme can
generate single or three phase tripping. For more detail about tripping
mode refer under heading Automatic reclosing function.

1.2.3 Blocking scheme

In this scheme of operation, the transferring signal is utilized to block the


IED during external faults. The blocking signal should only be transmitted
when the fault is outside the protected zone in reverse direction.

The significant advantage of the blocking procedure is that no signal


needs to be transferred during faults on the protected feeder.
Teleprotection blocking will be applied in if the binary setting Blocking
mode is set to 1-on. Related logic is shown in Figure 44

113
Chapter 6 Teleprotection

Relay startup A
N
Relay reset D
A
CARR Send
Zone 4 reverse N signal
operation D

Zone 2 operation A A
N N Relay trip
D D
Delay time 25ms A
N
CARR Received D

Figure 44 Blocking scheme

IED sends blocking signal if startup elements operate and a fault has
been detected in reverse direction, e.g. Z4 considered as reverse. In this
scheme, IED generates a trip command if a fault has been detected in Z2
of the protection zones and no blocking signal received for at least 25
msec. According to the selected mode (single phase operation, three
phase protection and also auto-reclosing mode), teleprotection scheme
can generate single or three phase tripping. For more detail about
tripping mode refer under heading Auto-reclosing function.

In the following, different conditions will be considered to show operation


of the protected IED in the blocking mode.

Internal faults - faults within protected line

If an internal fault occurs, startup element operates and IED trips local
CB instantaneously if it is within Z1 zone. Since the fault is not reverse,
no blocking signal will be sent and remote end will generate trip
command by detection the fault in its Z2 zone. If fault occurs in the
protected line but outside of the Z1 setting, local CB tripping happen
instantaneously by detection of fault in Z2 and no receiving blocking
signal from remote end for at least 25 msec.

External faults - faults outside of protected line

For external faults in the reverse direction, IED sends a distance carrier
blocking signal. Therefore, remote end distance relay doesnt generate
an instantaneous trip command by only detection of a fault in its Z2
characteristic zone. Conversely, in the case of external fault in forward
direction, local IED may detect the fault in Z2 but it doesnt generate trip
command because of the receiving blocking signal from remote end.

114
Chapter 6 Teleprotection

Therefore both local and remote end distance IED will not trip for this
external fault.

1.2.4 Additional teleprotection logics

1.2.4.1 Direction reversing for external fault

For parallel lines, an external fault can cause direction reversal that may
generate unwanted tripping, if no suitable solution is considered. For
example, in Figure 45, there are parallel lines protected by distance
protection on each side. Additionally, the lines are protected using POTT
scheme. In this figure, a fault is occurred on line C-D and next to breaker
D. IED A can see the fault in its Z2 but its tripping will be prevented
because no carrier signal is received from side B. Now, if breaker in D is
tripped by its local IED before circuit breaker C, the fault current direction
in line A-B will suddenly reverse. This may cause distance teleprotection
in B to send carrier signal and therefore generate unwanted tripping of
breaker A. To have a reliable and selective trip command in each side
and solve the problem in these transition situations, some coordination
time should be considered. For this purpose, IED sends signal with a
setting delay time, T_Tele Reversal, if direction changes from reverse to
forward. This setting delay time exceeds the period when both sides
detect forward direction. Additionally, to have a reliable and selective trip
command for another internal fault, both sides will trip only after receiving
signal for at least 15msec.

Figure 45 Direction reversing for external fault in parallel lines

1.2.4.2 Weak infeed feeders

A special case for the application of permissive over reach transfer trip is
that fast tripping must be achieved for a feeder that has a weak infeed at
one end. In this case an additional echo-circuit with tripping supplement
must be provided at this end.

115
Chapter 6 Teleprotection

During a fault behind the weak infeed end, short circuit current flows
through the protected feeder to the fault location. The IED at the weak
infeed end will start with this current and recognize the fault in the reverse
direction. It will therefore not send a release signal to the strong infeed
end. The permissive over reach transfer trip protection is stable.

During an internal fault near the strong source side the IED at the weak
infeed end will not pickup, as insufficient current flows from this side into
the feeder. The signal received by the weak infeed end is returned as an
echo and allows the tripping at the strong infeed.

Simultaneously with the echo, the circuit breaker at the weak infeed end
may be tripped by the IED.

Therefore by operating low voltage startup element and receiving carrier


signal for at least 5 msec, distance carrier signal will be sent and
prolonged for 200 msec to ensure the IED at the remote end (strong
source) trips quickly and reliably. In this case local weak feeder
generates trip command, too. In addition, in the case of carrier receiving
and then CB opening, signal sending will be prolonged for 200 msec to
correct and reliable operation of remote end.

1.3 Input and output signals

IP1 Trip PhA

IP2 Trip PhB


IP3 Trip PhC
IN Trip 3Ph
UP1 Relay Block AR
UP2
Carr Send(Dist)
UP3 Carr Fail(Dist)
Carr Recv(Dist)
Tele_Dist_Trip
Carr Fail(Dist) Weak End Infeed
BI_DTT Send BO_DTT Send
BI_DTT Recv BO_DTT Recv

Relay Startup
Relay Trip

116
Chapter 6 Teleprotection

Table 23 Analog input list

Signal Description

IP1 Signal for current input 1


IP2 Signal for current input 2
IP3 Signal for current input 3
IN External input of zero-sequence current
UP1 Signal for voltage input 1
UP2 Signal for voltage input 2
UP3 Signal for voltage input 3

Table 24 Binary input list

Signal Description

Carr Recv (Dist) Carrier signal received for Dist protection


Carr Fail (Dist) Carrier signal failed for Dist protection
BI_DTT Send Direct Tele trip send
BI_DTT Recv Direct Tele trip receive

Table 25 Binary output list

Signal Description

Relay Startup Relay Startup


Relay Trip Relay Trip
Trip PhA Trip phase A
Trip PhB Trip phase B
Trip PhC Trip phase C
Trip 3Ph Trip three phases
Relay Block AR Permanent trip
Carr Send(Dist) Carrier signal sent for Dist protection
Carr Fail(Dist) Carrier signal failed for Dist protection
Tele_Dist_Trip Tele_Dist trip
Weak End Infeed Weak End Infeed
BO_DTT Send Direct tele trip send
BO_DTT Recv Direct tele trip receive

1.4 Setting parameters


117
Chapter 6 Teleprotection

1.4.1 Setting list

Table 26 Tele-Dist protection function setting list

Abbr. Explanation Default Unit Min. Max.

Time delay for


T_Tele Reversal 40 ms 0 100
direction reversing

Table 27 Tele-Dist protection binary setting list

Abbr. Explanation Default Unit Min. Max.

Weak InFeed Weak InFeed Mode 0 0 1


Blocking Mode Blocking Mode 0 0 1
PUR Mode PUR Mode 0 0 1
POR Mode POR Mode 1 0 1
first zone distance
Func_Z1 protection Operating 1 0 1
mode
second zone distance
Func_Z2 protection Operating 1 0 1
mode

1.4.2 Setting explanation

1) Conditions for enabling weak-source function: If only one side of the


protected line is weak-source, the protection can be done selectively
when the IED in weak side operates in Week InFeed mode.

2) POR mode: If this bit is set to 1/on then the bits Blocking mode
and PUR mode must be set to 0/off. Under this mode, if zone2 module
needs to send permissive signal, close the contacts of sending signal,
Carr Send (Dist), to send permissive signal. If zone2 module needs to
stop sending permissive signal, open this contact to stop sending
permissive signal. At the same time, the binary setting Func_Z2 should
be enabled.

3) PUR mode: If this bit is set to 1/on, bits Blocking mode and POR
mode must be set to off. Under this mode, if zone2 module needs to

118
Chapter 6 Teleprotection

send permissive signal, close the contacts of sending signal, Carr


Send(Dist), to send permissive signal. If zone2 module needs to stop
sending permissive signal, open the contacts of sending signal to stop
sending permissive signal. At the same time, both binary settings of
Func_Z1 and Func_Z2 should be enabled.

1.5 Reports

Table 28 Event report list

Abbr. Meaning
Tele_DIST_Trip Distance protection tripping using tele-protection signal
Tele Evol Trip Tele evolvement trip
Carr Stop(Dist) Carrier signal stopped for Dist protection, only in blocking mode
Carr Stop(CBO) Carrier signal stopped for CB open, only in blocking mode
Carr Stop(Weak) Carrier signal stopped for weak-infeed end , only in blocking mode
Carr Send(Dist) Carrier signal sent for Dist protection
Carr Send(CBO) Carrier signal sent for Dist protection
Carr Send(Weak) Carrier signal sent for weak-infeed end

Table 29 Alarm report list

Abbr. Meaning
Carr Fail (Dist) Carrier fail in distance tele-protection
Tele Mode Alarm Tele Mode Alarm

Table 30 Operation report list

Abbr. Meaning
Func_TeleDist On Distance tele-protection function on
FuncTeleDist Off Distance tele-protection function off

1.6 Technical data

Table 31 Tele-protection technical data

Item Rang or Value Tolerance


Operating time 25ms typically in permission
mode for 21/21N, at 70%
setting

119
Chapter 6 Teleprotection

2 Teleprotection for directional earth


fault protection

2.1 Introduction

Teleprotection for directional earth fault is an important feature in the


transmission line protection. Similar to distance tele-protection, the
function employs carrier sending and receiving feature, power line carrier
(PLC) or dedicated fiber optic communication channels, to implement
different tele-protection scheme configuration.

2.2 Protection principle

To detect earth fault reliably and selectively, IED considers teleprotection


scheme as following:

Relay startup A
N
Relay reset D
A O |200 0| CARR (DEF)
Zero-Forward N Trip Send
direction
R
D
3I0>3I0_Tele EF A
POR Mode on
N
A |T_tele EF|
D Relay trip
N
D

A
CARR (DEF) N
Received D
Tele_EF Inrush unblock

Figure 46 Teleprotection for directional earth fault logic

It will come into operation if binary setting 3I0_Tele_FUNC is set to


1/on and POR mode has been selected.In the case of an internal fault,
the startup elements operate and DEF carrier signal will be sent if
measured earth fault current exceed setting 3I0_Tele EF, its direction
indicates forward fault and its delay time setting T0_tele EF expired. In
addition, if binary setting Tele_EF Inrush Block has been set to 1/on,
directional earth fault carrier sending can be blocked by inrush current
detection.

When an external fault occurs, fault direction in one end will be reverse.

120
Chapter 6 Teleprotection

Therefore, in this end, no tripping command will be generated by


directional earth fault carrier receiving.

In addition, carrier sending will prolong for 200 msec for reliable
operation of remote end. The prolongation of the send signal only comes
into effect when the protection has already issued a trip command. This
ensures that the permissive signal releases the opposite line end even if
the earth fault is very rapidly cleared by a different independent
protection.

2.2.1.1 Direction reversing for external fault

For detail please refer 1.2.4.1Direction reversing for external fault.

2.2.1.2 Weak infeed feeders

For detail please refer 1.2.4.2Weak infeed feeders

2.3 Input and output signals

IP1 Trip PhA

IP2 Trip PhB


IP3 Trip PhC

UP1 Trip 3Ph

UP2 Relay Block AR

UP3 Carr Send(DEF)


Carr Recv(DEF) Carr Fail(DEF)

BI_DTT Send Tele_DEF_Trip

BI_DTT Recv Weak End Infeed

Weak InFeed BO_DTT Send

Carr Fail(DEF) BO_DTT Recv

Relay Startup
Relay Trip

Table 32 Analog input list

Signal Description

IP1 Signal for current input 1

121
Chapter 6 Teleprotection

Signal Description

IP2 Signal for current input 2


IP3 Signal for current input 3
UP1 Signal for voltage input 1
UP2 Signal for voltage input 2
UP3 Signal for voltage input 3

Table 33 Binary input list

Signal Description

Carr Recv(DEF) Carrier signal received for DEF protection


Carr Fail(DEF) Carrier signal failed for DEF protection
BI_DTT Send Direct tele trip send
BI_DTT Recv Direct Tele trip receive
POR Mode POR Mode
Weak InFeed Weak InFeed Mode

Table 34 Binary output list

Signal Description

Relay Startup Relay Startup


Relay Trip Relay Trip
Trip PhA Trip phase A
Trip PhB Trip phase B
Trip PhC Trip phase C
Trip 3Ph Trip three phases
Relay Block AR Permanent trip
Carr Send(DEF) Carrier signal sent for DEF protection
Carr Fail(DEF) Carrier signal failed for DEF protection
Tele_DEF_Trip Tele_DEF trip
Weak End Infeed Weak End Infeed
BO_DTT Send Direct Tele trip send
BO_DTT Recv Direct Tele trip receive

2.4 Setting parameters

122
Chapter 6 Teleprotection

2.4.1 Setting lists

Table 35 Tele-EF protection function setting list

Min. Max. Default


Setting Unit (Ir:5A/ (Ir:5A/ setting Description
1A) 1A) (Ir:5A/1A)
T_Tele
ms 0 100 40 Time delay of power reserve
Reversal
zero sequence current threshold of
3I0_Tele
A 0.08Ir 20Ir 0.2Ir tele-protection based on earth fault
EF
protection
T0_Tele time delay of tele-protection based on
s 0.01 10 0.15
EF earth fault protection

Table 36Tele-EF protection binary setting list

Abbr. Explanation Default Unit Min. Max.

POR Mode POR Mode 1 0 1


Tele earth fault
Func_Tele EF 0 0 1
protection function
Tele earth fault
Tele_EF Inrush Block protection blocked by 0 0 1
inrush
Auto reclosure
Tele_EF Init AR initiated by tele earth 0 0 1
fault protection

Note: For tele-EF protection, the setting binary POR Mode must be
enabled, while the setting binary PUR Mode must be disabled.

2.5 Reports

Table 37 Event report list

Abbr. Meaning
Tele evolvement trip, for example, A phase to earth fault happened,
Tele Evol Trip and then B phase to earth fault followed, the latter is considered as
an evolvement trip

123
Chapter 6 Teleprotection

Abbr. Meaning
Carr Send(DEF) Send carrier signal in DEF
Tele_DEF_Trip Tele_DEF trip

Table 38 Alarm report list

Abbr. Meaning
Carr Fail(DEF) Carrier fail in TeleDEF
Tele Mode Alarm Tele Mode Alarm

Table 39 Operation report list

Abbr. Meaning
Func_Tele_DEF On TeleDEF function on
Func_TeleDEF Off TeleDEF function off

124
Chapter 6 Teleprotection

125
Chapter 7 Overcurrent protection

Chapter 7 Overcurrent protection

About this chapter

This chapter describes the protection principle, input and output


signals, parameter, IED report and technical data used for
overcurrent protection.

126
Chapter 7 Overcurrent protection

1 Overcurrent protection

1.1 Introduction

The directional/non-directional overcurrent protection function can be applied


as backup protection functions in various applications for transmission lines.
The directional overcurrent protection can be used based on both the
magnitude of the fault current and the direction of power flow to the fault
location. Main features of the overcurrent protection are as follows:

2 definite time stages and 1 inverse time stage

Supporting of all IEC and ANSI predefined time-inverse characteristic


curves (4 IEC and 7 ANSI) as well as an optional user defined characteristic

Settable directional element characteristic angle, to satisfy different


network conditions and applications

Each stage can be set individually as directional/non-directional

Each stage can be set individually for inrush restraint

Cross blocking function for inrush restraint

Settable maximum inrush current

VT secondary circuit supervision for directional protection. Once VT


failure happens, the directional stage can be set to be blocked automatically

1.2 Protection principle

1.2.1 Measured quantities

The phase currents are fed to the IED via the input current transformers. The
earth current 3I0 could also be connected to the starpoint of the current
transformer set directly as measured quantity.

1.2.2 Time characteristic

127
Chapter 7 Overcurrent protection

There are 2 definite time stages and 1 inverse time stage. All 12 kinds of the
time-inverse characteristics are available. It is also possible to create a user
defined characteristic. Each stage can operate in conjunction with the
integrated inrush restraint, directional determination feature. Furthermore,
each stage is independent from each other and can be combined as desired.

Each phase current is compared with the corresponding setting value with
delay time. If currents exceed the associated pickup setting value, after the
time delay elapse, the trip command is issued.

The pickup value for time-inverse stage can be set in setting value. The
measured phase currents compare with corresponding setting value. The
protection will issue a trip command with corresponding time delay if any
phase exceeds the setting value.

The time delay of time-inverse characteristic is calculated based on the type


of the characteristic, the magnitude of the current and a time multiplier. For
the time-inverse characteristic, both ANSI and IEC based standard curves are
available and any user-defined characteristic can be defined using the
following equation:



A _ OC Inv
T P _ OC Inv
B _ OC Inv K _ OC INV
i
I _ OC Inv

Equation 21

where:

A_OC Inv: Time factor for inverse time stage

B_OC Inv: Time delay for inverse time stage

P_OC Inv: index for inverse time stage

K_OC Inv: Time multiplier Inrush restraint feature

The IED may detect large magnetizing inrush currents during transformer
energizing. Inrush current comprises large second harmonic current which
does not appear in short circuit current. Therefore, inrush current may affect
the protection functions which will operate based on the fundamental
component of the measured current. Accordingly, inrush restraint logic is
provided to prevent overcurrent protection from maloperation.

128
Chapter 7 Overcurrent protection

The inrush restraint feature operates based on evaluation of the 2 nd harmonic


content which is present in measured current. The inrush condition is
recognized when the ratio of second harmonic current to fundamental
component exceeds the corresponding setting value for each phase. The
setting value is applicable for both definite time stage and inverse time stage.
The inrush restraint feature will be performed as soon as the ratio exceeds
the set threshold.

Furthermore, by recognition of the inrush current in one phase, it is possible


to set the protection in a way that not only the phase with the considerable
inrush current, but also the other phases are blocked for a certain time. This is
achieved by cross-blocking feature integrated in the IED.

Additionally, the inrush restraint feature has a maximum inrush current setting.
Once the measuring current exceeds the setting, the overcurrent protection
will not be blocked any longer.

1.2.3 Direciton determination feature

The direction detection is performed by determining the position of current


vector in directional characteristic. In other words, it is done by comparing
phase angle between the fault current and the reference voltage. Figure 47
illustrates the direction detection characteristic for phase A element.

Forward 90 IA

Bisector
Angle_Range
OC
Angle_OC
0
U BC_Ref

-IA

Figure 47 Overcurrent protection directional characteristic

where:

Angle_OC: The settable characteristic angle

Angle_Range OC: 85

129
Chapter 7 Overcurrent protection

Table 40 presents the assignment of the applied measuring quantities used in


direction determination for different fault types. In this way, healthy line to line
voltages are used as reference voltage for determination of fault current
direction in any phase.

Table 40 Assignment of the current and corresponding reference voltage for directional
element

Phase Current Voltage

A Ia U bc
B Ib U ca
C Ic U ab

For three-phase short-circuit fault, without any healthy phase, memory


voltage values are used to determine direction if the measured voltage values
are not sufficient. During direction detection, if VT fail happens (a short circuit
or broken wire in the voltage transformer's secondary circuit or voltage
transformer fuse), maloperation may occur by directional overcurrent
elements if there is not any monitoring on the measured voltage. In such
situation, directional (if selected) overcurrent protection will be blocked.

1.2.4 Logic diagram

The logic diagram for Phase-A has been shown in the below figure. The logic
is valid for other phased in similar way.

130
Chapter 7 Overcurrent protection

Ia>I_OC1
OC1 Direction Off

OC1 Direction On
AND
Phase A forward
AND
VT fail

OC1 Inrush Block Off

<Imax_2H_UnBlk OC1 Inrush Block On


AND
Ia2/Ia1>

T_OC1

Func_OC1
OC1 Inrush Block Off AND Trip

OC1 Inrush Block On


Cross blocking

Ia2/Ia1 >

Ib2/Ib1 > OR

Ic2/Ic1 > AND Cross blocking

T2h_Cross_Blk<

Figure 48 Logic diagram for overcurrent protection

1.3 Input and output signals

131
Chapter 7 Overcurrent protection

IP1 Trip PhA

IP2 Trip PhB


IP3 Trip PhC

UP1 Trip 3Ph

UP2 Relay Block AR


OC1_Trip
UP3
OC2_Trip

OC Inv Trip
Relay Startup
Relay Trip

Table 41 Analog input list

Signal Description

IP1 Current input for phase A


IP2 Current input for phase B
IP3 Current input for phase C
UP1 Signal for voltage input 1
UP2 Signal for voltage input 2
UP3 Signal for voltage input 3

Table 42 Binary output list

Signal Description

Relay Startup Relay Startup


Relay Trip Relay Trip
Trip PhA Trip phase A
Trip PhB Trip phase B
Trip PhC Trip phase C
Trip 3Ph Trip three phases
Relay Block AR Permanent trip
OC1_Trip 1st stage OC trip
nd
OC2_Trip 2 stage OC trip
OC Inv Trip Time-inverse overcurrent trip

1.4 Setting parameters

132
Chapter 7 Overcurrent protection

1.4.1 Setting list

Table 43 Overcurrent protection function setting list

Min. Max. Default setting


Setting Unit Description
(Ir:5A/1A) (Ir:5A/1A) (Ir:5A/1A)
current threshold of
I_OC1 A 0.08Ir 20Ir 2Ir
overcurrent stage 1
delay time of
T_OC1 s 0 60 0.1
overcurrent stage 1
current threshold of
I_OC2 A 0.08Ir 20Ir 1Ir
overcurrent stage 2
delay time of
T_OC2 s 0 60 0.3
overcurrent stage 2
No.of inverse time
Curve_OC
1 12 1 characteristic curve
Inv
of overcurrent
start current of
I_OC Inv A 0.08Ir 20Ir 1Ir inverse time
overcurrent
time multiplier of
customized inverse
K_OC Inv 0.05 999 1 time characteristic
curve for
overcurrent
time constant A of
customized inverse
A_OC Inv s 0 200 0.14 time characteristic
curve for
overcurrent
time constant B of
customized inverse
B_OC Inv s 0 60 0 time characteristic
curve for
overcurrent
index of customized
inverse time
P_OC Inv 0 10 0.02
characteristic curve
for overcurrent
the angle of
Degre bisector of
Angle_OC 0 90 60
e operation area of
overcurrent

133
Chapter 7 Overcurrent protection

Min. Max. Default setting


Setting Unit Description
(Ir:5A/1A) (Ir:5A/1A) (Ir:5A/1A)
directional element

the maximum
Imax_2H_Un
A 0.25 20Ir 5Ir current to release
Blk
harmornic block
ratio of 2rd
harmonic to
Ratio_I2/I1 0.07 0.5 0.2
fundamental
component
delay time of cross
T2h_Cross_B
s 0 60 1 block by 2rd
lk
harmormic

Table 44 Overcurrent protection binary setting list

Name Description

Func_OC1 Overcurrent stage 1 enabled or disabled


OC1 Direction Direction detection for overcurrent stage 1 enabled or disabled
OC1 Inrush Block Inrush restraint for overcurrent stage 1 enabled or disabled
Func_OC2 Overcurrent stage 2 enabled or disabled
OC2 Direction Direction of overcurrent stage 2 enabled or disabled
OC2 Inrush Block Inrush restraint for overcurrent stage 2 enabled or disabled
Func_OC Inv Time-Inverse stage for overcurrent enabled or disabled
OC Inv Direction Direction detection for inverse time stage enabled or disabled
OC Inv Inrush Block Inrush restraint for inverse time stage enabled or disabled

1.5 Reports

Table 45 Event report list

Information Description

OC1 Trip Overcurrent stage 1 trip


OC2 Trip Overcurrent stage 2 trip
OC Inv Trip Inverse time stage of overcurrent protection trip

1.6 Technical data

134
Chapter 7 Overcurrent protection

NOTE:
Ir: CT rated secondary current, 1A or 5A;

Table 46 Overcurrent protection technical data

Item Rang or Value Tolerance


Definite time characteristics
Current 0.08 Ir to 20.00 Ir 3% setting or 0.02Ir
1% setting or +40ms, at
Time delay 0.00 to 60.00s, step 0.01s
200% operating setting
Inverse time characteristics
Current 0.08 Ir to 20.00 Ir 3% setting or 0.02Ir
IEC standard Normal inverse; 5% setting + 40ms, at 2
Very inverse; <I/ISETTING < 20, in accordance
Extremely inverse; with IEC60255-151

Long inverse
ANSI Inverse; 5% setting + 40ms, at 2
Short inverse; <I/ISETTING < 20, in
Long inverse; accordance with ANSI/IEEE
C37.112,
Moderately inverse;
Very inverse;
Extremely inverse;
Definite inverse
user-defined characteristic 5% setting + 40ms, at 2
T= <I/ISETTING < 20, in accordance
with IEC60255-151
Time factor of inverse time, 0.005 to 200.0s, step 0.001s
A
Delay of inverse time, B 0.000 to 60.00s, step 0.01s
Index of inverse time, P 0.005 to 10.00, step 0.005
Set time Multiplier for step 0.05 to 999.0, step 0.01
n: k
Minimum operating time 20ms
Maximum operating time 100s
Reset mode instantaneous
Directional element
Operating area range 3, at phase to phase
Characteristic angle 0to 90, step 1 voltage >1V

135
Chapter 7 Overcurrent protection

Table 47 Inrush restraint function

Item Range or value Tolerance


Upper function limit 0.25 Ir to 20.00 Ir 3% setting value or
Max current for inrush 0.02Ir
restraint
nd
Ratio of 2 harmonic current 0.10 to 0.45, step 0.01
to fundamental component
current
Cross-block (IL1, IL2, IL3) 0.00s to 60.00 s, step 0.01s 1% setting or +40ms
(settable time)

136
Chapter 7 Overcurrent protection

137
Chapter 8 Earth fault protection

Chapter 8 Earth fault protection

About this chapter

This chapter describes the protection principle, input and output


signals, parameter, IED report and technical data used for earth
fault portection.

138
Chapter 8 Earth fault protection

1 Directional/Non-directional earth fault


portection

1.1 Introduction

In the grounded systems, extremely large fault resistances could cause


calculated impedance to be outside the fault detection characteristic of the
distance protection. Therefore, protection relay may not trip by distance
protection function and need to be supplemented by other protections. So,
the directional/non-directional earth fault protection function which can detect
reliably high resistance faults is required. The directional earth fault protection
allows the application of the protection IED also in systems where protection
coordination depends on both the magnitude of the fault current and the
direction of power flow to the fault location, for instance in case of parallel
lines. Generally directional/non-directional protection function features
following options:

2 definite time stages and 1 inverse stage (covers all IEC/ANSI


characteristics)

Individually selectable direction detection for each stage

Negative sequence direction detection (selectable) in the cases that 3U0


is less than 1V and 3U2>3U0

Individually selectable inrush blocking for each stage

Inrush blocking using 2nd harmonic measured phase current

Settable maximum inrush current

VT fail monitoring for directional earth fault protection

1.2 Protection principle

Three earth fault protection stages are provided, two definite time stages and
one inverse time stage. All stages can operate in conjunction with the

139
Chapter 8 Earth fault protection

integrated inrush restraint and directional functions.

Furthermore, the stages are independent from each other and can be
combined as desired. They can be enabled or disabled by dedicated binary
settings. These binary settings include Func_EF1, Func_EF2 and
Func_EF Inv. For example, by applying setting 1/on to Func_EF1,
corresponding stage of earth fault protection would be enabled.

Individual pickup value for each definite stage can be defined by settings
3I0_EF1 and 3I0_EF2. By applying the settings, the measured zero
sequence current is compared separately with the setting value for each
stage. If the corresponding current is exceeded, startup signal will be
reported.

1.2.1 Time delays characteristic

The timer is set to count up for a pre-defined time delay. The time delay can
be set for each definite stage individually through settings T_EF1 and
T_EF1. Accordingly, whenever the set time delays elapsed, a trip command
is issued.

For Time-inverse characteristic, the pickup value can be defined by setting


3I0_EF Inv. The measured zero sequence current is compared with
corresponding setting value. If it exceeds the setting, related signal will be
reported and the tripping time is calculated according to the pre-defined
characteristic. The tripping curve can be set as IEC or ANSI standard curves
or any user-defined characteristic by following tripping time equation.



A _ EF Inv
T P _ EF Inv
B _ EF Inv K _ EF INV
i
I _ EF Inv

Equation 22

where:

A_EF Inv: Time factor for inverse time stage

B_EF Inv: Time delay for inverse time stage

P_EF Inv: index for inverse time stage

140
Chapter 8 Earth fault protection

K_EF Inv: Time multiplier

By applying the desired setting values, the device calculates the tripping time
from the zero sequence current. Once the calculated time elapsed, report EF
Inv Trip will be issued.

1.2.2 Inrush restraint feature

The integrated earth fault protection may detect large magnetizing inrush
currents when a power transformer installed at downstream path is energized.
The inrush current may be several times of the nominal current, and may last
from several tens of milliseconds to several seconds. Inrush current
comprises second harmonic as well as a considerable fundamental
component.

It is possible to apply the inrush restraint feature separately to each definite


stage and inverse time-current stage of earth fault element by using binary
setting EF1 Inrush Block, EF2 Inrush Block and EF Inv Inrush Block. By
applying setting 1/on to the binary settings, no trip command will be issued,
if an inrush condition is detected.

Since the inrush current contains a relatively large second harmonic


component which is nearly absent during a fault current, the inrush restraint
operates based on the evaluation of the second harmonic content which is
present in the phase currents. Generally, inrush restraint for earth fault
protection is performed based on the second harmonic contents of three
phase currents.

The inrush condition is recognized if the ratio of second harmonic content in


each phase current to their fundamental component exceeds setting value
Ratio_I2/I1. The setting is applicable to the both definite stages of earth fault
protection element as well as the inverse time-current stage. As soon as the
measured ratio exceeds the set threshold, a blocking is applied to those
stages whose corresponding binary setting is considered to be block mode.
Furthermore, if the fundamental component of each phase current exceeds
the upper limit value Imax_2H_UnBlk, the inrush restraint will no longer be
effective, since a high-current fault is assumed in this case. Figure 49 shows
the logic of inrush restraint feature applied to earth fault protection. It is based
on phase currents and can be applied to any stage individually.

141
Chapter 8 Earth fault protection

Max(Ia1,Ib1,Ic1) <
Imax_2H_UnBlk

A
Max(Ia2/Ia1, Ib2/Ib1, N Inrush BLK 3I0
Ic2/Ic1)>Ratio_I2/I1 D

Figure 49 Inrush restraint blocking logic

1.2.3 Earth fault direction determination

The integrated directional function can be applied to each stage of earth fault
element via individual binary settings. These control words include EF1
Direction, EF2 Direction and EF Inv Direction. There are two possibilities
for direction determination of earth faults. The first is based on zero sequence
components and the second is based on negative sequence components.
The following subsections go on to demonstrate basic principle of the two
methods.

1.2.3.1 Zero sequence directional component

In this method, the direction determination is performed by comparing the


zero sequence quantities. In current path, the measured IN current is valid
when the neutral current is connected to the device. In the voltage path, the
calculated zero sequence voltage (3U0) is used as reference voltage. This
can be performed when 3U0 magnitude is larger than 1V.

In order to satisfy different network conditions and applications, the reference


voltage can be rotated by adjustable angle Angle_EF between 0 and 90 in
clockwise direction (negative sign). It should be noted that the settings affect
all the directional stages of earth fault element. In this way, the vector of
rotated reference voltage can be closely adjusted to the vector of fault current
-3I0 which lags the fault voltage 3U0 by the fault angle d. This would provide
the best possible result for the direction determination. The rotated reference
voltage defines the forward and reverse area. The forward area is the range
between -80and +80of the rotated reference voltage. If the vector of the
fault current -3I0 is in this area, the device detects forward direction.

Figure 50 shows an example of direction determination for a fault in phase A.


As can be seen from the figure, fault current 3I0 lags from fault voltage Va.
Accordingly, fault current -3I0 lags residual sequence voltage 3U0 by this
angle. The reference voltage 3U0 is rotated to be as close as possible to -3I0
current. Furthermore, the forward area is depicted in the figure.

142
Chapter 8 Earth fault protection

90
3I 0

0
3U 0_Ref
Angle_EF

Angle_Range
EF

Forward Bisector
-3 I 0

Figure 50 Characteristic of zero sequence directional element

where:

Angle_EF: The settable characteristic angle

Angle_Range EF: 80

1.2.3.2 Negative sequence directional component

This method is particularly suitable when the zero sequence voltage has a
small magnitude, for instance when a considerable zero sequence mutual
coupling exists between parallel lines or when there is an unfavorable zero
sequence impedance. In such cases it may be desirable to determine
direction of fault current by using negative sequence components. To do so, it
is required to set binary setting EF U2/I2 Dir to 1/On. By applying this
setting, the direction determination of earth fault current is performed by
default using the zero sequence components. However, when the magnitude
of zero sequence voltage falls below permissible threshold of 1V and
negative sequence voltage is larger that 2V, the direction determination turns
to use the negative sequence components. In this case, the direction
determination is performed by comparing the negative sequence system
quantities. To do so, three times of the calculated negative sequence current
3I2 (3I2=IA+a2IB+aIC) is compared with three times of the calculated
negative sequence voltage 3V2 (3U2=UA+a2UB+aUC) as reference voltage,
where a is equal to 120.

On the contrary, by applying setting 0/Off to the binary setting EF U2/I2 Dir,
the direction of earth fault current is only determined by using the zero

143
Chapter 8 Earth fault protection

sequence components. In this regard, if the zero sequence voltage has a


magnitude larger than 1V, proper determination of fault direction is warranted.
The fault current -3I2 lags from the voltage 3U2. To satisfy different
applications, the reference voltage can be rotated by adjustable angle
Angle_adjust_Neg between 50and 90in clockwise direction (negative
sign) to be as close as possible to the vector of fault current -3I2. This would
provide the best possible outcome for the direction determination. The rotated
reference voltage defines the forward and reverse area. The forward area is
the range between -80and +80of the rotated reference voltage. If the
vector of the fault current -3I2 is in this area, the device detects forward
direction. Below figure shows an example of direction determination for a fault
in phase A.

3I2 90

0
3 U 2_ Ref
Angle_Neg
Angle_Range
Neg

Forward
-3 I 2 Bisector

Figure 51 Characteristic of negative sequence directional element

where:

Angle_Neg: The settable characteristic angle

Angle_Range Neg: 80

During direction decision, a VT Fail condition may result in false or undesired


tripping by directional earth fault element. Therefore occurance of the VT Fail,
directional earth fault protection will be blocked.

1.2.4 Logic diagram

The tripping logics of directional/non-directional earth fault protection are

144
Chapter 8 Earth fault protection

shown in below figure. As shown, the tripping logic of the earth fault protection
will be affected individually by inrush and direction criteria. Whenever the zero
sequence current exceeds the related setting value and other mentioned
criteria is satisfied, corresponding timer will be started and tripping command
will be generated by expiring the time setting.

Forward directionby zero


sequence direction element

3U0<1V
A O Forward
Forward directionby N R
negative sequence direction D
element

EF U2/I2 Dir on

Figure 52 Logic for directiion determination

3I0 > 3I0_EF1


EF1 Inrush Block off
0
Inrush BLK 3I0
EF1 Inrush Block on

EF1 Direction off A Func_EF1 on


1 N T_EF1 EF1 Trip
Forward D
EF1 Direction on

Figure 53 Tripping logic of the first stage of definite earth fault protection

3I0 > 3I0_EF2


EF2 Inrush Block off
0
Inrush BLK 3I0
EF2 Inrush Block on

EF2 Direction off A Func_EF2 on


1 N T_EF2 EF2 Trip
Forward D
EF2 Direction on

145
Chapter 8 Earth fault protection

Figure 54 Tripping logic of the second stage of definite earth fault protection

3I0 > 3I0_INV


EF Inv Inrush Block off
0
Inrush BLK 3I0
EF Inv Inrush Block on

EF Inv Direction off Func_EF Inv on


A
1 N EF_INV Trip
Forward D
EF Inv Direction on

Figure 55 Tripping logic of the inverse stage of earth fault protection

The whole tripping logics for EF1 and EF2 are the same as Figure 56, if
binary setting of EF1 Init AR and EF2 Init AR are enabled respectively.

1.3 Input and output signals

IP1 Trip PhA

IP2 Trip PhB


IP3 Trip PhC

IN Trip 3Ph

UP1 Relay Block AR

UP2 EF1_Trip

UP3 EF2_Trip

EF Inv_Trip
Relay Startup
Relay Trip

Table 48 Analog input list

Signal Description

IP1 Phase-A current input


IP2 Phase-B current input
IP3 Phase-C current input
IN External input of zero-sequence current
UP1 Phase-A voltage input
UP2 Phase-B voltage input

146
Chapter 8 Earth fault protection

Signal Description

UP3 Phase-C voltage input

Table 49 Binary output list

Signal Description

Relay Startup Relay Startup


Relay Trip Relay Trip
Trip PhA Trip phase A
Trip PhB Trip phase B
Trip PhC Trip phase C
Trip 3Ph Trip three phases
Relay Block AR Permanent trip
EF1_Trip 1st stage EF Trip
EF2_Trip 2nd stage EF Trip
EF Inv_Trip Inverse time stage EF Trip

1.4 Setting parameters

1.4.1 Setting lists

Table 50 EF protection function setting list

Default
Min. Max.
setting
Setting Unit (Ir:5A/1A (Ir:5A/ Description
(Ir:5A/1
) 1A)
A)
zero sequence current
3I0_EF1 A 0.08Ir 20Ir 0.5Ir threshold of earth fault
protection stage 1
delay time of earth fault
T_EF1 s 0 60 0.1
protection stage 1
zero sequence current
3I0_EF2 A 0.08Ir 20Ir 0.2Ir threshold of earth fault
protection stage 2
delay time of earth fault
T_EF2 s 0 60 0.3
protection stage 2

147
Chapter 8 Earth fault protection

Default
Min. Max.
setting
Setting Unit (Ir:5A/1A (Ir:5A/ Description
(Ir:5A/1
) 1A)
A)
No. of inverse time
Curve_EF Inv 1 12 1 characteristic curve of earth
fault protection
start current of inverse time
3I0_EF Inv A 0.08Ir 20Ir 0.2Ir
earth fault protection
time multiplier of customized
inverse time characteristic
K_EF Inv 0.05 999 1
curve for earth fault
protection
time constant A of
customized inverse time
A_EF Inv s 0 200 0.14
characteristic curve for earth
fault protection
time constant B of
customized inverse time
B_EF Inv s 0 60 0
characteristic curve for earth
fault protection
index of customized inverse
P_EF Inv 0 10 0.02 time characteristic curve for
earht fault protection
the angle of bisector of
Angle_EF Degree 0 90 70 operation area of zero
sequnce directional element
the angle of bisector of
Angle_Neg Degree 50 90 70 operation area of negative
sequnce directional element

Table 51 EF protection binary setting list

Abbr. Explanation Default Unit Min. Max.

Operation for the first


Func_EF1 definite stage of the 1 0 1
earth fault protection
Directional mode for
the first definite stage
EF1 Direction 1 0 1
of the earth fault
protection
EF1 Inrush Block Inrush restraint mode 1 0 1

148
Chapter 8 Earth fault protection

Abbr. Explanation Default Unit Min. Max.

for the first definite


stage of the earth fault
protection
Operation for the
second definite stage
Func_EF2 1 0 1
of the earth fault
protection
Directional mode for
the first definite stage
EF2 Direction 1 0 1
of the earth fault
protection
Inrush restraint mode
for the second definite
EF2 Inrush Block 1 0 1
stage of the earth fault
protection
Operation for the
time-inverse stage of
Func_EF Inv 1 0 1
the earth fault
protection
Directional mode for
the time-inverse stage
EF Inv Direction 0 0 1
of the earth fault
protection
Inrush restraint mode
for the time-inverse
EF Inv Inrush Block 0 0 1
stage of the earth fault
protection
Negative-sequence
direction detection
EF U2/I2 Dir 0 0 1
element for earth fault
protection
Auto-reclosure
initiated by the first
EF1 Init AR 0 0 1
definite stage of the
earth fault protection
Auto-reclosure
initiated by the first
EF2 Init AR 0 0 1
definite stage of the
earth fault protection

149
Chapter 8 Earth fault protection

1.4.2 Setting calculation example

A B
C
127km 139km

21/21N

21/21N

PTR:400/0.1kV
CTR:2000/5

Figure 57 400kV Overhead transmission line protection relay setting

Here, a typical setting calculation of the inverse stage of the earth fault
protection is presented. The characteristic is selected as IEC Normal Inverse.
Additionally the function is set for operation in forward direction.

It is assumed that maximum transmission power is equal to: 250 MVA

Assuming a safety factor of 20% corresponds to Imax-Prim = 433 A

3I0inv prim = 0.3 Imax-Prim

So,

3I0_EF Inv =0.32 A

By comparing the IEC Normal Inverse characteristic and IED setting values
are considered as follows:

3I0_EF Inv 0.32A

Curve_EF Inv 1(IEC Normal Invers)

Inrush detection for Iverse stage active

Directional (forward) for Iverse stage Yes

3U2/3I2 direction in addition to 3U0/3I0 Yes

1.5 Reports

150
Chapter 8 Earth fault protection

Table 52 Event report list

Information Description

st
EF1 Trip 1 stage EF Trip
nd
EF2 Trip 2 stage EF Trip
EF Inv Trip Inverse time stage EF Trip

Table 53 Operation report list

Information Description

Func_EF On EF function on
Func_EF Off EF function off
Func_EF Inv On Inverse stage EF function on
Func_EF Inv Off Inverse stage EF function off

1.6 Technical data

NOTE:
Ir: CT rated secondary current, 1A or 5A;

Table 54 Earth fault protection (ANSI 50N, 51N, 67N)

Item Rang or value Tolerance


Definite time characteristic
Current 0.08 Ir to 20.00 Ir 3% setting or 0.02Ir
0.00 to 60.00s, step 1% setting or +40ms, at 200%
Time delay
0.01s operating setting
Inverse time characteristics
Current 0.08 Ir to 20.00 Ir 3% setting or 0.02Ir
IEC standard Normal inverse; IEC60255-151
Very inverse; 5% setting + 40ms, at 2
Extremely inverse; <I/ISETTING < 20

Long inverse
ANSI Inverse; ANSI/IEEE C37.112,
Short inverse; 5% setting + 40ms, at 2
Long inverse; <I/ISETTING < 20
Moderately inverse;

151
Chapter 8 Earth fault protection

Very inverse;
Extremely inverse;
Definite inverse
user-defined characteristic IEC60255-151
T= 5% setting + 40ms, at 2
<I/ISETTING < 20
Time factor of inverse time, A 0.005 to 200.0s, step
0.001s
Delay of inverse time, B 0.000 to 60.00s, step
0.01s
Index of inverse time, P 0.005 to 10.00, step
0.005
set time Multiplier for step n: k 0.05 to 999.0, step 0.01
Minimum operating time 20ms
Maximum operating time 100s
Reset mode instantaneous
Directional element
Operating area range of zero 3, at 3U01V
sequence directional element
Characteristic angle 0to 90, step 1
Operating area range of 3, at 3U22V
negative sequence directional
element
Characteristic angle 50to 90, step 1

152
Chapter 8 Earth fault protection

153
Chapter 9 Emergency/backup overcurrent
and earth fault protection

Chapter 9 Emergency/backup
overcurrent and earth fault
protection

About this chapter

This chapter describes the protection principle, input and output


signals, parameter, IED report and technical data included in
emergency/backup overcurrent and earth fault protection.

154
Chapter 9 Emergency/backup overcurrent
and earth fault protection

1 Emergency/backup overcurrent protection

1.1 Introduction

In the case of VT Fail condition, all distance zones and protection functions
related with voltage input are out of service. In this case, an emergency
overcurrent protection comes into operation.

Additionally, the protection can be set as backup non-directional overcurrent


protection according to the users requirement.

In case of emergency mode of operation, the function VT Fail supervision


function should be enabled.

The protection provides following features:

One definite time stage

One inverse time stage

all kinds of IEC and ANSI time-inverse characteristics curve as well as


optional user defined characteristic

Inrush restraint function can be set for each stage separately

Cross blocking of inrush detection

Settable maximum inrush current

1.2 Protection principle

1.2.1 Tripping time characteristic

The tripping time can be set as definite time delay or time-inverse


characteristic. All (11) kinds of time-inverse characteristics are available. It is
also possible to create a user-defined time characteristic. Each stage can
operate in conjunction with the integrated inrush restraint which operates
based on measured phase currents.Each phase current is compared with the
corresponding setting value and related delay time. If currents exceed the
associated pickup value, the trip command is issued after expiry of the set
time delay.

155
Chapter 9 Emergency/backup overcurrent
and earth fault protection
Time-inverse characteristic is set according to the following equation:



A _ EM / BU OC Inv
T P _ EM / BU OC Inv
B _ EM / BU OC Inv K _ EM / BU OC INV
i
I _ EM / BU OC Inv

where:

A_Em/BU OC Inv: Coefficient setting for emergency inverse time overcurrent

B_Em/BU OC Inv: Time delay setting for emergency inverse time overcurrent

P_Em/BU OC Inv: Index for inverse time overcurrent

K_Em/BU OC Inv: Multiplier setting for emergency inverse time overcurrent

By applying the desired setting values, the device calculates the tripping time
from the measured current. Once the calculated time elapsed, repoprt
Em/Bu OC Trip will be issued.

1.2.2 Inrush restraint feature

The protection IED may detect large magnetizing inrush currents during
transformer energizing. In addition to considerable unbalance fundamental
current, inrush current comprises large second harmonic current which does
not appear in short circuit current. Therefore, the inrush current may affect the
protection functions which operate based on the fundamental component of
the measured current. Accordingly, inrush restraint logic is provided to
prevent emergency/backup overcurrent protection from maloperation.

The inrush restraint feature operates based on evaluation of the 2 nd harmonic


content which is present in measured current. The inrush condition is
recognized if the ratio of second harmonic current to fundamental component
exceeds the corresponding setting value. The setting value is applicable for
both definite time stage and inverse time stage. The inrush restraint feature
will be performed as soon as the ratio exceeds the set threshold.

Furthermore, by recognition of the inrush current in one phase, it is possible


to set the protection in a way that not only the phase with the considerable
inrush current, but also the other phases of the protection are blocked for a
certain time. This is achieved by cross-blocking feature integrated in the IED.

The inrush restraint function has a maximum inrush current setting. Once the
measuring current exceeds the setting, the protection will not be blocked any
longer.

156
Chapter 9 Emergency/backup overcurrent
and earth fault protection
1.2.3 Logic diagram

Ia>I_Em/BU OC

Func_Em/BU OC
VT fail A
Func_BU OC on N
D

Em/BU OC Inrush Block Off

Ia<Imax_2H_UnBlk A Em/BU OC Inrush Block On


N
Ia2/Ia1>Ratio_I2/I1 D

T_Em/BU OC

O Trip
Em/BU OC Inrush Block Off
R

Em/BU OC Inrush Block On


Cross blocking

Max{Ia, Ib,
Ic}<Imax_2H_UnBlk A
T2h_Cross_Blk
N Cross blocking
D
Ia2/Ia1 >
O
Ib2/Ib1 > R
Ic2/Ic1 >

Figure 58 Emergency/backup protection function logic diagram

1.3 Input and output signals

157
Chapter 9 Emergency/backup overcurrent
and earth fault protection
IP1 Trip PhA

IP2 Trip PhB


IP3 Trip PhC
Trip 3Ph
UP1
Relay Block AR
UP2
Em/BU OC1_Trip
UP3
Em/BU OCInv_Trip

Relay Startup
Relay Trip

Table 55 Analog input list

Signal Description

IP1 Phase-A current input


IP2 Phase-B current input
IP3 Phase-C current input
UP1 Phase-A voltage input
UP2 Phase-B voltage input
UP3 Phase-C voltage input

Table 56 Binary output list

Signal Description

Relay Startup Relay Startup


Relay Trip Relay Trip
Trip PhA Trip phase A
Trip PhB Trip phase B
Trip PhC Trip phase C
Trip 3Ph Trip three phases
Relay Block AR Permanent trip
Em/BU OC1_Trip 1st stage emergency OC trip
Em/BU OCInv_Trip Time-inverse emergency OC trip

1.4 Setting parameters

1.4.1 Setting lists

158
Chapter 9 Emergency/backup overcurrent
and earth fault protection
Table 57 Funciton setting list for emergency/backup overcurrent protection

Max.
Min. Default
(Ir:5
Setting Unit (Ir:5A/ setting Description
A/1A
1A) (Ir:5A/1A)
)
current threshold of
I_Em/BU OC A 0.08Ir 20Ir 1Ir emergency/backup overcurrent
stage 1
delay time of emergency/backup
T_Em/BU OC s 0 60 0.3
overcurrent stage 1
No.of inverse time characteristic
Curve_Em/BU OC
1 12 1 curve of emergency/backup
Inv
overcurrent
start current of inverse time
I_Inv_Em/BU OC A 0.08Ir 20Ir 1Ir
emergency/backup overcurrent
time multiplier of customized
K_Em/BU OC Inv 0.05 999 1 inverse time characteristic curve
for emergency/backup overcurrent
time constant A of customized
A_Em/BU OC Inv s 0 200 0.14 inverse time characteristic curve
for emergency/backup overcurrent
time constant B of customized
B_Em/BU OC Inv s 0 60 0 inverse time characteristic curve
for emergency/backup overcurrent
index of customized inverse time
P_Em/BU OC Inv 0 10 0.02 characteristic curve for
emergency/backup overcurrent
the maximum current to release
Imax_2H_UnBlk A 0.25 20Ir 5Ir
harmornic block
ratio of 2rd harmonic to
Ratio_I2/I1 0.07 0.5 0.2
fundamental component
delay time of cross block by 2rd
T2h_Cross_Blk s 0 60 1
harmormic

Table 58 Binary setting list for emergency/backup overcurrent protection

Name Description

Func_BU OC Backup overcurrent protection enabled or disabled


Func_Em/BU OC Emergency overcurrent protection stage 1 enabled or disabled
Inrush restraint of emergency/backup overcurrent protection
Em/BU OC Inrush Block
stage 1 enabled or disabled

159
Chapter 9 Emergency/backup overcurrent
and earth fault protection

Name Description

Inverse time stage of emergency overcurrent protection enabled


Func_Em/BU OC Inv
or disabled
Em/BU OC Inv Inrush Inrush restraint of emergency/backup overcurrent protection for
Block inverse stage enabled or disabled

1.5 Reports

Table 59 Event report list

Information Description

Em/Bu OC Trip Emergency/backup overcurrent protection trip


Em/Bu OCInv Trip Emergency/backup overcurrent protection inverse time stage trip

1.6 Technical data

NOTE:
Ir: CT rated secondary current, 1A or 5A;

Table 60 T Emergency/backup overcurrent protection technical data

Item Rang or Value Tolerance


Definite time characteristics
Current 0.08 Ir to 20.00 Ir 3% setting or 0.02Ir
1% setting or +40ms, at
Time delay 0.00 to 60.00s, step 0.01s
200% operating setting
Inverse time characteristics
Current 0.08 Ir to 20.00 Ir 3% setting or 0.02Ir
IEC standard Normal inverse; 5% setting + 40ms, at 2
Very inverse; <I/ISETTING < 20, in accordance
Extremely inverse; with IEC60255-151

Long inverse
ANSI Inverse; 5% setting + 40ms, at 2
Short inverse; <I/ISETTING < 20, in
Long inverse; accordance with ANSI/IEEE
C37.112,
Moderately inverse;
Very inverse;

160
Chapter 9 Emergency/backup overcurrent
and earth fault protection
Extremely inverse;
Definite inverse
User-defined characteristic 5% setting + 40ms, at 2
T= <I/ISETTING < 20, in accordance
with IEC60255-151
Time factor of inverse time, 0.005 to 200.0s, step 0.001s
A
Delay of inverse time, B 0.000 to 60.00s, step 0.01s
Index of inverse time, P 0.005 to 10.00, step 0.005
Set time Multiplier for step 0.05 to 999.0, step 0.01
n: k
Minimum operating time 20ms
Maximum operating time 100s
Reset mode instantaneous

161
Chapter 9 Emergency/backup overcurrent
and earth fault protection

2 Emergency/backup earth fault protection

2.1 Introduction

In the case of VT Fail condition, all distance protection element and protection
functions relating with voltage input are out of operation. In this case an
emergency earth fault protection can come into operation.

Additionally, the protection can be set as backup non directional earth fault
protection according to the users requirement.

In case of emergency mode of operation, the function VT Fail supervision


should beenabled.

The protection provides following features:

One definite time stage

One inverse time stage

All kinds of IEC and ANSI inverse characteristics curve as well as


optional user defined characteristic

Inrush restraint can be selected individually for each stage

Settable maximum inrush current

CT secondary circuit supervision for earth fault protection. Once CT


failure happens, all stages will be blocked

Zero-sequence current is obtained from external input

2.2 Protection principle

2.2.1 Tripping time characteristic

The tripping time can be set as definite time delay or time-inverse


characteristic. All (11) kinds of time-inverse characteristics are available. It is
also possible to create a user-defined time character
ristic. Each stage can operate in conjunction with the integrated inrush
restraint which operates based on measured phase currents. The external
input earth current is compared with the corresponding setting value and
related delay time. If current exceed the associated pickup value, the trip
command is issued after expiry of the set time delay.

162
Chapter 9 Emergency/backup overcurrent
and earth fault protection
Time-inverse characteristic is set according to the following equation:



A _ EM / BU EF Inv
T P _ EM / BU EF Inv
B _ EM / BU EF Inv K _ EM / BU EF INV
i
I _ EM / BU EF Inv

where:

A_Em/BU EF Inv: Coefficient setting for emergency zero-sequence inverse


time

B_Em/BU OC Inv: Time delay setting for emergency zero-sequence inverse


time

P_Em/BU OC Inv: Index for emergency zero-sequence inverse time

K_Em/BU OC Inv: Multiplier setting for emergency zero-sequence inverse


time

By applying the desired setting values, the device calculates the tripping time
from the measured current. Once the calculated time elapsed, repoprt
Em/Bu EF Trip will be issued.

2.2.2 Inrush restraint feature

The IED may detect large magnetizing inrush currents during transformer
energizing. In addition to considerable unbalance fundamental current, inrush
current comprises large second harmonic current which does not appear in
short circuit current. Therefore, the inrush current may affect the protection
functions which operate based on the fundamental component of the
measured current. Accordingly, inrush restraint logic is provided to prevent
emergency/backup earth fault protection from maloperation.

The inrush restraint feature operates based on evaluation of the 2nd


harmonic content which is present in measured current. The inrush condition
is recognized when the ratio of second harmonic current to fundamental
component exceeds the corresponding setting value for each phase. The
setting value is applicable for both definite time stage and inverse time stage.
The inrush restraint feature will be performed as soon as the ratio exceeds
the set threshold.

The inrush restraint function has a maximum inrush current setting. Once the
measuring current exceeds the setting, the protection will not be blocked any
longer.

163
Chapter 9 Emergency/backup overcurrent
and earth fault protection
2.2.3 Logic diagram

3I0>3I0_Em/BU EF

Func_Em/BU EF on
VT fail A T_Em/BU EF
Func_BU EF on N Trip
D

Em/BU EF Inrush Block Off


<Imax_2H_UnBlk A
N
Em/BU EF Inrush Block On
Ratio_I2/I1> D

Figure 59 Emergency/backup earth fault protection logic diagram

2.3 Input and output signals

IP1 Trip PhA

IP2 Trip PhB


IP3 Trip PhC
IN Trip 3Ph

UP1 Relay Block AR


Em/Bu EF Trip
UP2

UP3 Em/Bu EFInv Trip

Relay Startup
Relay Trip

Table 61 Analog input list

Signal Description

IP1 Phase-A current input


IP2 Phase-B current input
IP3 Phase-C current input
IN External input of zero-sequence current
UP1 Phase-A voltage input
UP2 Phase-B voltage input
UP3 Phase-C voltage input

164
Chapter 9 Emergency/backup overcurrent
and earth fault protection
Table 62 Binary output list

Signal Description

Relay Startup Relay Startup


Relay Trip Relay Trip
Trip PhA Trip phase A
Trip PhB Trip phase B
Trip PhC Trip phase C
Trip 3Ph Trip three phases
Relay Block AR Permanent trip
Em/Bu EF Trip Emergency/Backup Earth Fault Trip
Emergency/Backup Earth Fault inverse time
Em/BU EFInv_Trip
Trip

2.4 Setting parameters

2.4.1 Setting list

Table 63 Emergency/backup earth fault protection function setting list

Min. Default
Un Max.
Setting (Ir:5A/1 setting Description
it (Ir:5A/1A)
A) (Ir:5A/1A)
zero sequence current
3I0_Em/BU EF A 0.08Ir 20Ir 0.2Ir threshold of earth fault
protection stage 1
delay time of earth fault
T_Em/BU EF s 0 60 0.3
protection stage 1
No. of inverse time
Curve_Em/BU characteristic curve of
1 12 1
EF Inv emergency/backup earth
fault protection
start current of inverse time
3I0_Inv_Em/BU
A 0.08Ir 20Ir 0.2Ir emergency/backup earth
EF
fault protection
time multiplier of customized
inverse time characteristic
K_Em/BU EF Inv 0.05 999 1
curve for emergency/backup
earth fault protection

165
Chapter 9 Emergency/backup overcurrent
and earth fault protection
Min. Default
Un Max.
Setting (Ir:5A/1 setting Description
it (Ir:5A/1A)
A) (Ir:5A/1A)
time constant A of
customized inverse time
A_Em/BU EF Inv s 0 200 0.14 characteristic curve for
emergency/backup earth
fault protection
time constant B of
customized inverse time
B_Em/BU EF Inv s 0 60 0 characteristic curve for
emergency/backup earth
fault protection
index of customized inverse
time characteristic curve for
P_Em/BU EF Inv 0 10 0.02
emergency/backup earht
fault protection

the maximum current to


Imax_2H_UnBlk A 0.25 20Ir 5Ir
release harmornic block

ratio of 2rd harmonic to


Ratio_I2/I1 0.07 0.5 0.2
fundamental component

Table 64 Emergency/backup earth fault protection binary setting list

Name Description

Func_BU EF Backup earth fault protection enabled or disabled


Func_Em/BU EF Emergency earth fault protection enabled or disabled
Inrush restraint of emergency earth fault protection enabled or
Em/BU EF Inrush Block
disabled
Inverse time stage of emergency earth fault protection enabled or
Func_Em/BU EF Inv
disabled
Em/BU EF Inv Inrush Inrush restraint of emergency earth fault protection inverse stage
Block enabled or disabled

2.5 IED report

166
Chapter 9 Emergency/backup overcurrent
and earth fault protection
Table 65 Event report list

Information Description

Em/Bu EF Trip Emergency/backup earth fault protection trip


Em/Bu EFInv Trip Emergency/backup earth fault protection inverse time stage trip

2.6 Technical data

NOTE:
Ir: CT rated secondary current, 1A or 5A;

Table 66 Technical data for emergency/backup earth fault protection

Item Rang or value Tolerance


Definite time characteristic
Current 0.08 Ir to 20.00 Ir 3% setting or 0.02Ir
0.00 to 60.00s, step 1% setting or +40ms, at 200%
Time delay
0.01s operating setting
Inverse time characteristics
Current 0.08 Ir to 20.00 Ir 3% setting or 0.02Ir
IEC standard Normal inverse; 5% setting + 40ms, at 2
Very inverse; <I/ISETTING < 20, in accordance
Extremely inverse; with IEC60255-151

Long inverse
ANSI Inverse; 5% setting + 40ms, at 2
Short inverse; <I/ISETTING < 20, in
Long inverse; accordance with ANSI/IEEE
C37.112,
Moderately inverse;
Very inverse;
Extremely inverse;
Definite inverse
User-defined characteristic 5% setting + 40ms, at 2
T= <I/ISETTING < 20, in accordance
with IEC60255-151
Time factor of inverse time, A 0.005 to 200.0s, step
0.001s
Delay of inverse time, B 0.000 to 60.00s, step
0.01s
Index of inverse time, P 0.005 to 10.00, step

167
Chapter 9 Emergency/backup overcurrent
and earth fault protection
0.005
Set time Multiplier for step n: k 0.05 to 999.0, step 0.01
Minimum operating time 20ms
Maximum operating time 100s
Reset mode instantaneous

168
Chapter 9 Emergency/backup overcurrent
and earth fault protection

169
Chapter 10 Switch-onto-fault
protection

Chapter 10 Switch-Onto-Fault
protection

About this chapter

This chapter describes the protection principle, input and output


signals, parameter, IED report and technical data included in
Switch-Onto-Fault protection function.

170
Chapter 10 Switch-onto-fault
protection

1 Switch-Onto-Fault protection

1.1 Introduction

The IED has a high speed switch-onto-fault protection function to clear


immediately faults on the feeders that are switched onto a high-current short
circuit. Its main application may be in the case that a feeder is energized
when the earth switch is closed.

1.2 Function principle

1.2.1 Function description

Switch-onto-fault protection can be enabled by binary setting SOTF FUNC.


If this is set to 1/on, switch-onto-fault protection will be active. Conversely,
setting SOTF FUNC to 0/ off will disable the function. The energization of
the feeder is determined by the circuit breaker state recognition function. The
prerequisite for switch-onto-fault operation is that circuit breaker has been
open for 10 seconds, or the binary input MC/AR Blockchanges from 1 to 0.
SOTF function will be active after rising edge of receiving signal MC/AR
block and if relay does not startup. The SOTF sequence will be inactive 1
second after falling edge of signal MC/AR block if no fault has been
occured in the system.

SOTF protection operates based on three elements: distance protection,


overcurrent protection and zero sequence (earth fault) protection.

Distance element of switch-onto-fault protection will trip instantaneously,


without any delay time, if calculated impedance lies in the protected zones
(zone 1, zone 2 or zone 3) and the maximum {Ia(b,c)}>I_SOTF_Dist. In
addition, switch-onto-fault protection is supplemented by overcurrent and
earth fault protections, and can generate trip command after settable delay
times (T_OC_SOTF and T_EF_SOTF). For T_EF_SOTF, since IED
needs to consider that three phases of CB are not closed at the same time, it
is recommended to set this value. (Besides, the program has already
considered 40ms time delay itself. ) Overcurrent elements works based on
maximum measured phase currents and will trip after related delay time if
maximum phase current exceeds setting I_SOTF. Similarly, earth fault
protection operates if measured zero sequence current exceeds setting value

171
Chapter 10 Switch-onto-fault
protection
of 3I0_SOTF.

Additionally, it can be selected that overcurrent and earth fault element of switch-onto-fault
protection to be blocked in the case of inrush current. If binary setting SOTF Inrush Block
set to 1/on, blocking will be applied to distance zone 2, zone 3, overcurrent and earth fault
element. Setting to 0/off will lead to ignoring of the inrush blocking for switch-onto-fault
function. Similarly, if the measured current value exceeds the setting Imax_2H_UnBlk, it
is assumed that a short circuit happened and inrush blocking will not be considered.
Figure 60 shows the tripping logic diagram of switch-onto-fault protection.

1.2.2 Logic diagram

Func_SOTF on

BIMC/AR Block1 to 0
O
R
BI PhA CB Open0 to 1

BI PhB CB Open0 to 1
A 10s
N
BI PhC CB Open0 to 1 D

Relay Startup
A
Trip
N
Relay startup D

Impedance within
zone1,2,3

Over current O
T_OC_SOTF
operation R A
Zero-sequence N
T_EF_SOTF
operation D
T_Relay Reset Relay reset
SOTF Inrush Block Off

SOTF Inrush Block On


Cross blocking

A
N
No fault D

Figure 60 SOTF protection logic

1.3 Input and output signals

172
Chapter 10 Switch-onto-fault
protection

IP1 Relay Block AR


IP2 SOTF Trip
IP3 Relay Startup
IN Relay Trip
UP1
UP2
UP3

PhA CB Open
PhB CB Open
PhC CB Open
MC/AR Block

Table 67 Analog input list

Signal Description

IP1 Signal for current input 1


IP2 Signal for current input 2
IP3 Signal for current input 3
IN External input of zero-sequence current
UP1 Signal for voltage input 1
UP2 Signal for voltage input 2
UP3 Signal for voltage input 3

Table 68 Binary input list

Signal Description

PhA CB Open PhaseA CB open


PhB CB Open PhaseB CB open
PhC CB Open PhaseC CB open
MC/AR Block AR block

Table 69 Binary output list

Signal Description

Relay Startup Relay Startup

173
Chapter 10 Switch-onto-fault
protection

Signal Description

Relay Trip Relay Trip


Relay Block AR Permanent trip
SOTF Trip SOTF Trip

1.4 Setting parameters

1.4.1 Setting lists

Table 70 SOTF protection function setting list

Default
Uni Min. Max.
Setting setting Description
t (Ir:5A/1A) (Ir:5A/1A)
(Ir:5A/1A)
phase current threshold of
I_SOTF A 0.08Ir 20Ir 2Ir overcurrent element of
switch onto fault protection
delay time of overcurrent
T_OC_SOT
s 0 60 0 element of switch onto fault
F
protection
zero sequnce current
3I0_SOTF A 0.08Ir 20Ir 0.5Ir threshold of switch onto fault
protection
delay time of zero sequce
T_EF_SOTF s 0 60 0.1 overcurrent of switch onto
fault protection

Table 71 SOTF protection binary setting list

Abbr. Explanation Default Unit Min. Max.

SOTF protection
Func_SOTF 1 0 1
operating mode
SOTF protection
SOTF Inrush Block 1 0 1
blocked by inrush

174
Chapter 10 Switch-onto-fault
protection
1.4.2 Setting calculation example

The data related to 400kV overhead line are used here to set overcurrent
and zero-sequence element of SOTF function.It is assumed that maximum
transmission power is equal to: 250 MVA

Assuming a safety factor of 20% corresponds to Imax-Prim =433 A

I>>> prim=2.0 Imax-Prim

So,

I>>> sec=2.17A

3I0>>> prim=0.3 Imax-Prim

So, 3I0>>> sec= 0.32A

High Speed SOTF-O/C is ON

I>>> Pickup 2.17A

3I0>>> Pickup 0.32A

Time for I>>> SOTF 0.00sec

Time for 3I0>>> SOTF 0.00sec

Inrush detection for SOTF current active

1.5 Reports

Table 72 Event report list

Information Description

Dist SOTF Ttrip Distance relay speed up trip after switching on to fault (SOTF)
EF SOTF Trip Earth Fault relay speed up after SOTF
OC SOTF Trip Overcurrent relay speed up after SOTF

175
Chapter 10 Switch-onto-fault
protection
Table 73 Operation report list

Information Description

Func_SOTF On SOTF function on


Func_SOTF Off SOTF function off

1.6 Technical data

NOTE:
Ir: CT rated secondary current, 1A or 5A;

Table 74 Switch-onto-fault protection technical data

Item Rang or Value Tolerance


Phase current 0.08 Ir to 20.00 Ir 3% setting or 0.02Ir
Zero-sequence current 0.08 Ir to 20.00 Ir 3% setting or 0.02Ir
Time delay of phase 0.00s to 60.00s, step 0.01s 1% setting or +40ms, at
overcurrent 200% operating setting
Time delay of zero sequence 0.00s to 60.00s, step 0.01s 1% setting or +40ms, at
current 200% operating setting

176
Chapter 10 Switch-onto-fault
protection

177
Chapter 11 Overload protection

Chapter 11 Overload protection

About this chapter

This chapter describes the protection principle, input and output


signals, parameter, IED report and technical data used for
overload protection function.

178
Chapter 11 Overload protection

1 Overload protection

1.1 Protection principle

1.1.1 Function description

In some applications, the load is flowing through the feeder can be so


important for operator of the system to consider corrective actions. Therefore,
the IED can supervise load flow in real time. If allof the phase currents are
greater than the dedicated setting, the protection will report an overload alarm
when the time setting T_OL Alarm has been elapsed.

1.1.2 Logic diagram

Ia>I_OL Alarm

O T_OL Alarm
Ib>I_OL Alarm
R
A
Ic>I_OL Alarm
Func_OL on N Trip
D

Figure 61 Logic diagram for overload protection

1.2 Input and output signals

IP1
IP2
IP3

Table 75 Analog input list

Signal Description

IP1 Signal for current input 1

179
Chapter 11 Overload protection

Signal Description

IP2 Signal for current input 2


IP3 Signal for current input 3

1.3 Setting parameters

1.3.1 Setting lists

Table 76 Function setting list for overload protection

Default
Min.
Uni Max. setting
Setting (Ir:5A/1A Description
t (Ir:5A/1A) (Ir:5A/1
)
A)
current threshold of overload
I_OL Alarm A 0.08Ir 20Ir 2Ir
alarm
T_OL
s 0.1 6000 20 delay time of overload alarm
Alarm

Table 77 Binary setting list for overload protection

Name Description

Func_OL Overload function enabled or disabled

1.4 Reports

Table 78 Alarm information list

Information Description

Overload Alarm Overload protection alarm

180
Chapter 11 Overload protection

181
Chapter 12 Overvoltage protection

Chapter 12 Overvoltage protection

About this chapter

This chapter describes the protection principle, input and output


signals, parameter, IED report and technical data used for
overvoltage protection.

182
Chapter 12 Overvoltage protection

1 Overvoltage protection

1.1 Introduction

Voltage protection has the function to protect electrical equipment against


overvoltage condition. Abnormally high voltages often occur e.g. in low
loaded, long distance transmission lines, in islanded systems when generator
voltage regulation fails, or after full load shutdown of a generator from the
system. Even if compensation reactors are used to avoid line overvoltage by
compensation of the line capacitance and thus reduction of the overvoltage,
the overvoltage will endanger the insulation if the reactors fail (e.g. fault
clearance). The line must be disconnected within very short time.

The protection provides the following features:

Two definite time stages

Each stage can be set to alarm or trip

Measuring voltage between phase-earth voltage and phase-phase


(selectable)

Settable dropout ratio

1.2 Protection principle

1.2.1 Phase to phase overvoltage protection

All the three phase voltages are measured continuously, and compared with
the corresponding setting value. If a phase voltage exceeds the set
thresholds, U_OV1 or U_OV2, after expiry of the time delays, T_OV1 or
T_OV2, the protection IED will issue alarm signal or trip command
according to the users requirement.

There are two stages included in overvoltage protection, each stage can be
set to alarm or trip separately in binary setting, and the time delay for each
stage can be individually set. Thus, the alarming or tripping can be
time-coordinated based on how severe the voltage increase, e.g. in case of

183
Chapter 12 Overvoltage protection

high overvoltage, the trip command will be issued with a short time delay,
whereas for the less severe overvoltage, trip or alarm signal can be issued
with a longer time delay.

Additionaly, the dropout ratio of the overvoltage protection can be set in


setting Dropout_OV. Therefore, the trip command of overvoltage is reset if
the measured voltage comes bellow the ratio value mentioned in this setting.

1.2.2 Phase to earth overvlotage protection

The phase to earth overvoltage protection operates just like the phase to
phase protection except that it detects phase to earth voltages.

1.2.3 Logic diagram

Ua>U_OV1

O OV PE on
Ub>U_OV1
R
Uc>U_OV1

OV Trip on
Trip
Uab>U_OV1
O
T_OV
Ubc>U_OV1 O R
OV PE off
R OV Trip off
Alarm
Uca>U_OV1

Figure 62 Logic diagram for overvoltage protection

1.3 Input and output signals

184
Chapter 12 Overvoltage protection

UP1 Trip PhA

UP2 Trip PhB


UP3 Trip PhC
Trip 3Ph
Relay Block AR
OV1 Alarm
OV2 Alarm
OV1_Trip
OV2_Trip
Relay Startup
Relay Trip

Table 79 Analog input list

Signal Description

UP1 Signal for voltage input 1


UP2 Signal for voltage input 2
UP3 Signal for voltage input 3

Table 80 Binary output list

Signal Description

Relay Startup Relay Startup


Relay Trip Relay Trip
Trip PhA Trip phase A
Trip PhB Trip phase B
Trip PhC Trip phase C
Trip 3Ph Trip three phases
Relay Block AR Permanent trip
OV1 Alarm 1st stage OV alarm
nd
OV2 Alarm 2 stage OV alarm
OV1_Trip 1st stage OV trip
OV2_Trip 2nd stage OV trip

1.4 Setting parameters

185
Chapter 12 Overvoltage protection

1.4.1 Setting lists

Table 81 Function setting list for overvoltage protection

Parameter Range Default Unit Description

Voltage setting for overvoltage protection


U_OV1 40~200 65 V
stage 1
Time setting for overvoltage protection
T_OV1 0~60 0.3 s
stage 1
Voltage setting for overvoltage protection
U_OV2 40~200 63 V
stage 2
Time setting for overvoltage protection
T_OV2 0~60 0.6 s
stage 2
Dropout_OV 0.9~0.99 0.95 Dropout ratio for overvoltage protection

Table 82 Binary setting list for overvoltage protection

Name Description

Func_OV1 First stage overvoltage protection operating mode


OV1 Trip First stage overvoltage protection trip/alarm mode
Func_OV2 Second stage overvoltage protection operating mode
OV2 Trip Second stage overvoltage protection trip/alarm mode
OV PE Overvoltage protection based on phase-to-earth voltage

1.5 Reports

Table 83 Event report list

Information Description

OV1 Trip Overvoltage stage 1 trip


OV2 Trip Overvoltage stage 2 trip

186
Chapter 12 Overvoltage protection

Table 84 Alarm report list

Information Description

OV1 Alarm Overvoltage stage 1 alarm


OV2 Alarm Overvoltage stage 2 alarm

1.6 Technical data

Table 85 Technical data for overvoltage protection

Item Rang or Value Tolerance


Voltage connection Phase-to-phase voltages or 3 % setting or 1 V
phase-to-earth voltages
Phase to earth voltage 40 to 100 V, step 1 V 3 % setting or 1 V
Phase to phase voltage 80 to 200 V, step 1 V 3 % setting or 1 V
Reset ratio 0.90 to 0.99, step 0.01 3 % setting
Time delay 0.00 to 60.00 s, step 0.01s 1 % setting or +50 ms, at
120% operating setting
Reset time <40ms

187
Chapter 13 Undervoltage protection

Chapter 13 Undervoltage protection

About this chapter

This chapter describes the protection principle, input and output


signals, parameter, IED report and technical data used for
undervoltage protection function.

188
Chapter 13 Undervoltage protection

1 Undervoltage protection

1.1 Introduction

Voltage protection has the function to protect electrical equipment against


undervoltage. The protection can detect voltage collapse on transmission
lines to prevent unwanted operation condition and stability problems.

The protection provides the following features:

Two definite time stages

Each stage can be set to alarm or trip

Measuring voltage between phase-earth voltage and phase-phase


(selectable)

Current criteria supervision

Circuit breaker aux. contact supervision

VT secondary circuit supervision, the undervoltage function will be


blocked when VT failure happens

Settable dropout ratio, both for single phase and three phases

1.2 Protection principle

1.2.1 Phase to phase underovltage protection

All the three phase voltages are measured continuously, and compared with
the corresponding setting value. If one phase voltage or three phase voltages
(by UV PE and UV Chk All Phase) falls below the set thresholds, U_UV1
or U_UV2, after expiry of the time delays, T_OV1 or T_OV2, the
protection IED will issue alarm signal or trip command according to the users
requirement.

There are two stages included in overvoltage protection; each stage can be
set to alarm or trip separately by binary settings, UV1 Trip and UV2 Trip.
Thus, the alarming or tripping can be time-coordinated based on how severe
the voltage collapse, e.g. in case of severe undervoltage happens, the trip

189
Chapter 13 Undervoltage protection

command will be issued with a short time delay, whereas for the less severe
undervoltage, trip or alarm signal can be issued with a longer time delay.

The undervoltage protection integrated can also be set for selection of the
measureing quantities. In this way, the user can select that the undervoltage
detection occurs when at least one phase sees voltage reduction or the
reduction of voltage should occur in all three phases. This feature can be
selected using binary setting UV Chk All Phase.

Additionaly, the dropout ratio of the undervoltage protection can be set in


setting Dropout_UV. Therefore, the trip command of overvoltage is reset if
the measured voltage comes bellow the ratio value mentioned in this setting.

1.2.2 Phase to earth undervoltage protection

The phase to earth undervoltage protection operates just like the phase to
phase protection except that the quantities considered are phase to earth
voltages.

1.2.3 Depending on the VT location

Depending on the configuration of the substations, the voltage transformers


are located on the busbar side or on the line side. This results in a different
behaviour of the undervoltage protection.

1.2.3.1 VT at busbar side

A
B
C
Protection
IED
A
B
C
N

Figure 63 VT located at busbar side

When a tripping command is issued and the circuit breaker is open, the
voltage remains on the source side while the line side voltage drops to zero.
In this case, undervoltage protection may remain pickup. Therefore, to

190
Chapter 13 Undervoltage protection

resolve the problem, additional current criterion is considered. With the


current criterion, undervoltage protection can be maintained only when the
undervoltage criterion satisfied and a minimum current are exceeded the
setting I_UV_Chk. The undervoltage protection would dropout as soon as
the current falls below the corresponding setting. If the voltage transformer is
installed on the busbar side and it is not desired to check the current flow, this
criterion can be disabled by binary setting UV Chk Current.

1.2.3.2 Circuit breaker auxiliary contact checking

The IED can operate based on circuit breaker auxiliary contact supervision
criterion, for more security. With this feature, the IED would issue a trip
command when the circuit breaker is closed. This criterion can be enabled or
disabled via binary setting UV Chk CB. If it is not desired to supervise the
circuit breaker position for undervoltage protection, the criterion can be
disabled by the binary setting.

1.2.4 Logic diagram

191
Chapter 13 Undervoltage protection

Ua<U_UV

UV Chk All Phase off


Ub<U_UV O
R

Uc<U_UV
O UV PE on

R
Ua<U_UV

A
Ub<U_UV N
UV Chk All Phase on
D
Uc<U_UV

O
R
Uab<U_UV

UV Chk All Phase on


Ubc<U_UV O
R

Uca<U_UV

O UV PE off

R
Uab<U_UV

A
Ubc<U_UV N
UV Chk All Phase off
D
Uca<U_UV

UV Chk CB off
BI_PhA CB Open O
O R UV Trip on
BI_PhB CB Open
R UV Chk CB on
Trip
BI_PhC CB Open
Func_UV
T_UV
UV Chk Current on
IA(IB,IC)>I_UV_ A
Chk O
N
R
UV Chk Current off
D Alarm
UV Trip off

VT Fail on
VT fail

BI_AR In Progress 1

Figure 64 Logic diagram for undervoltage protection

1.3 Input and output signals

192
Chapter 13 Undervoltage protection

IP1 Trip PhA


IP2 Trip PhB
IP3 Trip PhC

UP1 Trip 3Ph

UP2 Relay Block AR

UP3 UV1 Alarm

PhA CB Open UV2 Alarm

PhB CB Open UV1_Trip


PhC CB Open UV2_Trip
AR In Progress
Relay Startup
Relay Trip

Table 86 Analog input list

Signal Description

IP1 Phase-A current input


IP2 Phase-B current input
IP3 Phase-C current input
UP1 Phase-A voltage input
UP2 Phase-B voltage input
UP3 Phase-C voltage input

Table 87 Binary input list

Signal Description

PhA CB Open PhaseA CB open


PhB CB Open PhaseB CB open
PhC CB Open PhaseC CB open
AR In Progress AR In Progress

Table 88 Binary output list

Signal Description

Relay Startup Relay Startup


Relay Trip Relay Trip
Trip PhA Trip phase A

193
Chapter 13 Undervoltage protection

Signal Description

Trip PhB Trip phase B


Trip PhC Trip phase C
Trip 3Ph Trip three phases
Relay Block AR Permanent trip
UV1 Alarm 1st stage UV alarm
UV2 Alarm 2nd stage UV alarm
UV1_Trip 1st stage UV trip
UV2_Trip 2nd stage UV trip

1.4 Setting parameters

1.4.1 Setting lists

Table 89 Undervoltage protection function setting list

Min. Default
Uni Max.
Setting (Ir:5A/1A setting Description
t (Ir:5A/1A)
) (Ir:5A/1A)
voltage threshold of undervoltage
U_UV1 V 5 150 40
stage 1
T_UV1 s 0 60 0.3 delay time of undervoltage stage 1
voltage threshold of undervoltage
U_UV2 V 5 150 45
stage 2
T_UV2 s 0 60 0.6 delay time of undervoltage stage 2
Dropout_U
1.01 2 1.05 reset ratio of undervoltage
V
I_UV_Chk A 0.08Ir 2Ir 0.1Ir current threshold of undervoltage

Table 90 Undervoltage protection binary setting list

Name Description

Func_UV1 Undervoltage stage 1 enabled or disabled


UV1 Trip Undervotage stage 1 tripping enabled or disabled
Func_UV2 Undervoltage stage 2 enabled or disabled
UV2 Trip Undervotage stage 2 tripping enabled or disabled
UV PE Phase to phase measured for undervoltage protection

194
Chapter 13 Undervoltage protection

Name Description

UV Chk All Phase Three phase voltage checked for undervoltage protection
UV Chk Current Current checked for undervoltage protection
UV Chk CB CB Aux. contact checked for undervoltage protection

1.5 Reports

Table 91 Event report list

Information Description

UV1 Trip Undervoltage stage 1 trip


UV2 Trip Undervoltage stage 2 trip

Table 92 Alarm report list

Information Description

UV1 Alarm Undervoltage stage 1 alarm


UV2 Alarm Undervoltage stage 2 alarm

1.6 Technical data

Table 93 Technical data for undervoltage protection

Item Rang or Value Tolerance


Voltage connection Phase-to-phase voltages or 3 % setting or 1 V
phase-to-earth voltages
Phase to earth voltage 5 to 75 V , step 1 V 3 % setting or 1 V
Phase to phase voltage 10 to 150 V, step 1 V 3 % setting or 1 V
Reset ratio 1.01 to 2.00, step 0.01 3 % setting
Time delay 0.00 to 120.00 s, step 0.01 s 1 % setting or +50 ms, at
80% operating setting
Current criteria 0.08 to 2.00 Ir 3% setting or 0.02Ir

195
Chapter 13 Undervoltage protection

Reset time 50 ms

196
Chapter 13 Undervoltage protection

197
Chapter 14 Circuit breaker
failure protection

Chapter 14 Circuit breaker failure


protection

About this chapter

This chapter describes the protection principle, input and output


signals, parameter, IED report and technical data used for circuit
breaker failure protection function.

198
Chapter 14 Circuit breaker
failure protection

1 Circuit breaker failure protection

1.1 Introduction

The circuit breaker failure (CBF) protection function monitors proper tripping
of the relevant circuit breaker. Normally, the circuit breaker should be tripped
and therefore interrupt the fault current whenever a short circuit protection
function issues a trip command. Circuit breaker failure protection provides
rapid back-up fault clearance, in the event of circuit breaker malfunction in
respond to a trip command.

Line2 Line3 LineN

Bus

Trip
IFAULT

Figure 65 Simplified function diagram of circuit breaker failure protection with current flow
monitoring

The Main CBF protection is as following:

Two trip stages (local CB retripping and busbar trip)


Internal/external initiation
Single/three phase CBF initiation
CB Aux checking
Current criteria checking (including phase, zero and negative sequence
current)

199
Chapter 14 Circuit breaker
failure protection

1.2 Function Description

Circuit breaker failure protection can be enabled or disabled, via binary


setting Func_CBF. If the binary setting is set to 1/on, CBF protection would
be switched on. In this case, by operation of a protection function and
subsequent CBF initiation, a preset timer counts up. The CBF function issues
a local trip command (e.g. via a second trip coil) if the circuit breaker has not
been opened after expiry of the time setting T_CBF1. If the circuit breaker
doesnt respond to the repeated trip command until time setting T_CBF2,
the function issues a trip command to isolate the fault by tripping other
surrounding backup circuit breakers (e.g. the other CBs connected to the
same bus section with faulty CB).

Initiation of CBF protection can be carried out by both internal and external
protection functions. If CBF needs to be initiated by means of external
protection functions, specified binary inputs (BI) should be marshaled to the
equipment. 4 digital inputs are provided for externally initiation of the
integrated CBF function. The first one is 3-phase CBF initiation 3Ph Init CBF.
For phase segregated initiation other three binary inputs has been considered
as PhA Init CBF, PhB Init CBF and PhC Init CBF. These can be
applicable if the circuit breaker supports separated trip coil for each phase
and single phase auto-recloser function is active on the feeder. Additionally,
internal protection functions that can initiate the CBF protection integrated are
as following:

Distance protection
Teleprotection based on distance/DEF
Directional earth fault protection
Over current protection
SOTF protection
Emergency/Backup EF protection
Emergency/Backup overcurrent protection
Overvoltage protection (trip stages)
External initiation using binary input

There are two criteria for breaker failure detection: the first one is to check
whether the actual current flow effectively disappeared after a tripping
command had been issued. The second one is to evaluate the circuit breaker
auxiliary contact status. Since circuit breaker is supposed to be open when

200
Chapter 14 Circuit breaker
failure protection
current disappears from the circuit, the first criterion (current monitoring) is
the most reliable means for IED to be informed about proper operation of
circuit breaker if the CBF initiating function had been based on current
measurement. Therefore,, both current monitoring and CB aux.contact are
applied to detect circuit breaker failure condition. In this context, the
monitored current of each phase is compared with the pre-defined setting,
I_CBF. Furthermore, it is also possible to select current checking in case of
zero-sequence and negative-sequence currents via binary setting CBF Chk
3I0/3I2. If setting 1/On is applied at the binary setting, zero-sequence and

negative-sequence currents are calculated and compared

with user-defined settings. Corresponding settings include 3I0_CBF for


zero-sequence current and 3I2_CBF for negative-sequence current. The
logic for current criterion evaluation for CBF protection shows in Figure 66.

1.2.1 Current criterion evaluation

Ia > I_CBF
CBF Chk 3I0/3I2 Off
3I0 > 3I0_CBF
O
A CBF Curr. Crit. A
3I2 > 3I2_CBF R
O N CBF Chk 3I0/3I2 on
Ib > I_CBF R D

Ic > I_CBF

Ib > I_CBF
CBF Chk 3I0/3I2 Off
3I0 > 3I0_CBF
A O CBF Curr. Crit. B
3I2 > 3I2_CBF N R
O CBF Chk 3I0/3I2 on
Ic > I_CBF R D

Ia > I_CBF

Ic > I_CBF
CBF Chk 3I0/3I2 Off
3I0 > 3I0_CBF
A O CBF Curr. Crit. C
3I2 > 3I2_CBF N R
O CBF Chk 3I0/3I2 on
Ib > I_CBF R D

Ia > I_CBF O
R CBF Curr. Crit. 3P

201
Chapter 14 Circuit breaker
failure protection
Figure 66 Current criterion evaluation for CBF protection

1.2.2 Circuit breaker auxiliary contact evaluation

For protection functions where the tripping criterion is not dependent on current
measurement, current flow is not a suitable criterion for detection of circuit breaker
operation. In this case, the position of the circuit breaker auxiliary contact should be used
to determine if the circuit breaker properly operated. It is possible to evaluate the circuit
breaker operation from its auxiliary contact status. To do so, binary setting CBF Chk CB
Status should be set to 1/On to integrate circuit breaker auxiliary contacts into CBF
function. A precondition for evaluating circuit breaker auxiliary contact is that open status of
CB should be marshaled to digital inputs of PhA CB Open, PhB CB Open and PhC CB
Open. The logic for evaluation of CB auxiliary contact for CBF protection is shown in
Figure 67. In this logic, the positions of the circuit breaker poles are determined from CB
aux. contacts if IED doesnt detect current flowing in the diagram.

202
Chapter 14 Circuit breaker
failure protection
BI_PhA CB Open A
N CB A is closed

BI_PhA Init CBF A D


N
CBF Curr. Crit. A O D
R

BI_PhB CB Open A
N CB B is closed
BI_PhB Init CBF A D
N
CBF Curr. Crit. B O D
R

BI_PhC CB Open A
N CB C is closed
BI_PhC Init CBF D
A
N
CBF Curr. Crit. C
O D
R

BI_PhA CB Open
A
BI_PhB CB Open N
D
BI_PhC CB Open
A
N CB 1P is closed
D

3Ph Init CBF A


N
CBF Curr. Crit. 3P O D
R

Figure 67 Circuit breaker auxiliary contact evaluation

1.2.3 Logic diagram

203
Chapter 14 Circuit breaker
failure protection
BI_PhA Init CBF

BI_PhB Init CBF O T_alam Init CBF Err


BI_PhC Init CBF R

BI_3Ph Init CBF


A
N O
BI_PhA Init CBF PhA Init CBF
D R
Inter PhA Init CBF

A
N O PhB Init CBF
BI_PhB Init CBF
D R
Inter PhB Init CBF

A
N O
BI_PhC Init CBF PhC Init CBF
D R
Inter PhC Init CBF
A
N
D
A
N
D
A O
N R 3Ph Init CBF
A D
N
BI_3Ph Init CBF
D
Inter 3Ph Init CBF

Figure 68 Internal and external initiation

Note: In this figure, T_alarm is a time period already designed in the program. T_alarm
equals to max {15s, T_CBF1+1s, T_CBFs+1s, T_Dead Zone +1s}, when the
corresponding functions are enabled. After this period, the alarm event BI_Init CBF Err
will be issued.

204
Chapter 14 Circuit breaker
failure protection
CB A is closed
CBF Chk CB Status O
CBF Curr. Crit. A R
A
N CBF A Startup
PhA Init CBF D

CB B is closed O
CBF Chk CB Status
CBF Curr. Crit. B
R
A
N CBF B Startup
PhB Init CBF D

CB C is closed
CBF Chk CB Status
O
CBF Curr. Crit. C R
A
CBF C Startup
N
PhC Init CBF
D

CB 1P is closed O
CBF Chk CB Status
CBF Curr. Crit. 3P R
A
N CBF 3P Startup
3Ph Init CBF D

Figure 69 CBF protection startup logic

205
Chapter 14 Circuit breaker
failure protection
CBF A Startup T_CBF1
O
CBF1 Trip PhA
R

CBF B Startup T_CBF1 O


CBF1 Trip PhB
R
CBF C Startup T_CBF1
O
A CBF1 Trip PhC
R
N
D
A
N O
CBF1 Trip 3Ph
D R
A
N
D
CBF 3P Startup T_CBF1

Figure 70 First stage CBF tripping logic

CBF A Startup
O T_CBF 1P Trip 3P

R CBF 1P Trip 3P On

CBF B Startup O
O T_CBF 1P Trip 3P
CBF1 1P Trip 3P
R CBF 1P Trip 3P On
R

CBF C Startup
O T_CBF 1P Trip 3P

CBF1 Trip 3Ph R CBF 1P Trip 3P On

Figure 71 Three-phase local CB re-tripping from single phase CBF initiation

CBF A Startup T_CBF2

CBF B Startup T_CBF2


O
CBF2 Trip
R
CBF C Startup T_CBF2

CBF 3P Startup T_CBF2

206
Chapter 14 Circuit breaker
failure protection
Figure 72 Second stage CBF tripping logic

1.3 Input and output signals

IP1 Trip PhA


IP2 Trip PhB
IP3 Trip PhC
IN Trip 3Ph
PhA Init CBF Relay Block AR

PhB Init CBF CBF1_Trip

PhC Init CBF CBF 1P Trip 3P

3Ph Init CBF CBF2 Trip

PhA CB Open Relay Startup


PhB CB Open Relay Trip
PhC CB Open

Table 94 Analog input list

Signal Description

IP1 signal for current input 1


IP2 signal for current input 2
IP3 signal for current input 3
IN External input of zero-sequence current

Table 95 Binary input list

Signal Description

PhA Init CBF PhaseA initiate CBF


PhB Init CBF PhaseB initiate CBF
PhC Init CBF PhaseC initiate CBF
3Ph Init CBF Three phase initiate CBF
PhA CB Open PhaseA CB open
PhB CB Open PhaseB CB open
PhC CB Open PhaseC CB open

207
Chapter 14 Circuit breaker
failure protection
Table 96 Binary output list

Signal Description

Relay Startup Relay Startup


Relay Trip Relay Trip
Trip PhA Trip phase A
Trip PhB Trip phase B
Trip PhC Trip phase C
Trip 3Ph Trip three phases
Relay Block AR Permanent trip
CBF1 Trip 1st stage CBF operation
CBF 1P Trip 3P Three phase re-tripping for single phase CBF
CBF2 Trip 2nd stage CBF operation

1.4 Setting parameters

1.4.1 Setting lists

Table 97 CBF protection function setting list

Default
U Min.
Max. setting
Setting ni (Ir:5A Description
(Ir:5A/1A) (Ir:5A/1A
t /1A)
)
phase current threshold of circuit breaker
I_CBF A 0.08Ir 20Ir 1Ir
failure protection
zero sequence current threshold of
3I0_CBF A 0.08Ir 20Ir 0.2Ir
circuit breaker failure protection
negative sequence current threshold of
3I2_CBF A 0.08Ir 20Ir 0.2Ir
circuit breaker failure protection
T_CBF1 s 0 32 0 delay time of CBF stage 1
T_CBF2 s 0.1 32 0.2 delay time of CBF stage 2
T_CBF 1P delay time of three phase tripping of CBF
s 0.05 32 0.1
Trip 3P stage 1

Table 98 CBF protection binary setting list

Abbr. Explanation Default Unit Min. Max.

208
Chapter 14 Circuit breaker
failure protection

Abbr. Explanation Default Unit Min. Max.

CBF protection
Func_CBF 1 0 1
operating mode
Three pole tripping in
CBF 1P Trip 3P the case of single 0 0 1
pole failure
zero and negative
sequence current
CBF Chk 3I0/3I2 1 0 1
checking by CBF
protection
CB Auxiliary contact
CBF Chk CB Status checking for CBF 0 0 1
protection

1.5 Reports

Table 99 Event report list

Information Description

CBF StartUp CBF Startup


CBF1 Trip 1st stage CBF operation tripping
CBF2 Trip 2nd stage CBF operation tripping
CBF 1P Trip 3P Three phase tripping for single pole CBF

Table 100 Alarm report list

Information Description

BI_Init CBF Err CBF initiation BI error

Table 101 Operation report list

Information Description

Func_CBF On CBF function on


Func_CBF Off CBF function off

209
Chapter 14 Circuit breaker
failure protection

1.6 Technical data

NOTE:
Ir: CT rated secondary current, 1A or 5A;

Table 102 Breaker failure protection technical data

Item Rang or Value Tolerance


phase current 0.08 Ir to 20.00 Ir 3% setting or 0.02Ir
Negative sequence current
zero sequence current
Time delay of stage 1 0.00s to 32.00 s, step 0.01s 1% setting or +25 ms, at
Time delay of stage 2 0.00s to 32.00 s, step 0.01s 200% operating setting

Reset time of stage 1 < 20ms

210
Chapter 14 Circuit breaker
failure protection

211
Chapter 15 Dead zone protection

Chapter 15 Dead zone protection

About this chapter

This chapter describes the protection principle, input and output


signals, parameter, IED report and technical data used for dead
zone (short zone) protection function.

212
Chapter 15 Dead zone protection

1 Dead zone protection

1.1 Introduction

The IED provides this protection function to protect dead zone, the short area
between circuit breaker and CT in the case that CB is open. Therefore, by
occurrence of a fault in dead zone, the short circuit current is measured by
protection IED while CB auxiliary contacts indicate the CB is open.

1.2 Protection principle

In the case of feeders with bus side CTs, once a fault occurs in the dead zone,
the IED trips the relevant busbar zone CBs. Tripping concept is illustrated in
the below figure.

Trip
Bus

IFAULT

Line1 Line2 LineN

Legend:

Opened CB
Closed CB

Figure 73 Tripping logic for applying bus side CT

For feeders with line side CTs, when a fault occurs in the dead zone,
protection IED sends a transfer trip to remote end IED to isolate the fault.

213
Chapter 15 Dead zone protection

Inter trip
Bus

IFAULT

Line1 Line2 LineN

Trip
Relay

Legend:

Opened CB
Closed CB

Figure 74 Dead zone tripping concept for feeders with line side CTs

1.2.1 Function description

Internal/external initiation
Self-adaptive for bus side CT or line side CT. For bus side CTs, the dead
zone protection will select to trip breakers on other lines connected to the
same busbar. For line side CTs, the dead zone protection will select trip
opposite side breakers on the same line.

1.2.2 Logic diagram

214
Chapter 15 Dead zone protection

PhA Init CBF

PhB Init CBF


O
PhC Init CBF R

3Ph Init CBF

CBF Curr. Crit. A


O A
CBF Curr. Crit. B N T_Dead Zone Dead Zone Trip
R
D Func_Dead Zone On
CBF Curr. Crit. C

BI_PhA CB Open
A
BI_PhB CB Open N
D
BI_PhC CB Open

Figure 75 Dead zone protection logic

1.3 Input and output signals

IP1 Relay Block AR


IP2 DeadZone_Trip
IP3 Relay Startup
PhA Init CBF Relay Trip

PhB Init CBF


PhC Init CBF

3Ph Init CBF

PhA CB Open
PhB CB Open

PhC CB Open

Table 103 Analog input list

Signal Description

IP1 signal for current input 1


IP2 signal for current input 2
IP3 signal for current input 3

215
Chapter 15 Dead zone protection

Table 104 Binary input list

Signal Description

PhA Init CBF PhaseA initiate CBF


PhB Init CBF PhaseB initiate CBF
PhC Init CBF PhaseC initiate CBF
3Ph Init CBF Three phase initiate CBF
PhA CB Open PhaseA CB open
PhB CB Open PhaseB CB open
PhC CB Open PhaseC CB open

Table 105 Binary output list

Signal Description

Relay Startup Relay Startup


Relay Trip Relay Trip
DeadZone_Trip DeadZone Trip
Relay Block AR Permanent trip

1.4 Setting parameters

1.4.1 Setting lists

Table 106 Dead zone protection function setting list

Abbr. Explanation Default Unit Min. Max.

Time delay setting for


T_Dead Zone 1 s 0 32
dead zone protection

Table 107 Dead zone protection binary setting list

Abbr. Explanation Default Unit Min. Max.

Dead Zone protection


Func_Dead Zone 1 0 1
operating mode

216
Chapter 15 Dead zone protection

1.5 Reports

Table 108 Event report list

Information Description

Dead Zone Trip Dead zone trip

Table 109 Operation report list

Information Description

Func_DZ On DZ function on
Func_DZ Off DZ function off

1.6 Technical data

NOTE:
Ir: CT rated secondary current, 1A or 5A;

Item Rang or Value Tolerance


Current 0.08 Ir to 20.00 Ir 3% setting or 0.02Ir
Time delay 0.00s to 32.00s, step 0.01s 1% setting or +40 ms, at
200% operating setting

217
Chapter 16 STUB protection

Chapter 16 STUB protection

About this chapter

This chapter describes the protection principle, input and output


signals, parameter, IED report and technical data used for STUB
protection function.

218
Chapter 16 STUB protection

1 STUB protection

1.1 Introduction

Capacitor Voltage Transforemers (CVTs) are commonly installed at the line


side of transmission lines. Therefore, for the cases that transmission line is
taken out of service and the line disconnector is open, the distance protection
will not be able to operate and must be blocked.

The STUB protection protects the zone between the CTs and the open
disconnector. The STUB protection is enabled when the open position of the
disconnector is informed to the IED through connected binary input. The
function supports one definite stage with the logic shown inbelow figure.

1.2 Protection principle

1.2.1 Function description

Busbar A

CB1

CT1
Stub fault Feeder1

Disconnector1

CB3

CT3

Feeder2

Disconnector2
CT2

CB2

Busbar B

219
Chapter 16 STUB protection

Figure 76 STUB fault at circuit breaker arrangement

If IED detects short circuit current flowing while the line disconnector is open,
STUB fault is detected for the short circuit in the area between the current
transformers and the line disconnector. Here, the summation of CT1 and CT3
presents the short circuit current.

The STUB protection is an overcurrent protection which is only in service if


the status of the line disconnector indicates the open condition. The binary
input must therefore be informed via an auxiliary contact of the disconnector.
In the case of a closed line disconnector, the STUB protection is out of
service. The STUB protection stage provides one definite time overcurrent
stage with settable delay time. This protection function can be enabled or
disabled via the binary setting Func_STUB. Corresponding current setting
value can be inserted in I_STUB setting. The IED generate trip command
whenever the time setting T_STUB is elapsed.

1.2.2 Logic diagram

Ia>I_STUB

Ib>I_STUB O
R
Ic>I_STUB

Func_STUB A
T_STUB Permanent
N trip
D
BI_STUB Enable

Figure 77 Logic diagram for STUB protection

1.3 Input and output signals

IP1 Relay Block AR


IP2 STUB Trip
IP3 Relay Startup
STUB Enable Relay Trip

220
Chapter 16 STUB protection

Table 110 Analog input list

Signal Description

IP1 signal for current input 1


IP2 signal for current input 2
IP3 signal for current input 3

Table 111 Binary input list

Signal Description

STUB Enable STUB protection enabled

Table 112 Binary output list

Signal Description

Relay Startup Relay Startup


Relay Trip Relay Trip
STUB Trip STUB Trip
Relay Block AR Permanent trip

1.4 Setting parameters

1.4.1 Setting lists

Table 113 Setting value list for STUB protection

Min. Default
Max.
Setting Unit (Ir:5A/1 setting Description
(Ir:5A/1A)
A) (Ir:5A/1A)
current threshold of STUB
I_STUB A 0.08Ir 20Ir 1Ir
protection
T_STUB s 0 60 1 delay time of STUB protection

221
Chapter 16 STUB protection

Table 114 Binary setting list for STUB protection

Name Description

STUB Enable Enable or disable STUB protection


Func_STUB Stub protection operating mode

1.5 Reports

Table 115 Event report list

Information Description

STUB Trip STUB protection trip

1.6 Technical data

NOTE:
Ir: CT rated secondary current, 1A or 5A;

Table 116 Technical data for STUB protection

Item Rang or Value Tolerance


Current 0.08 Ir to 20.00 Ir 3% setting or 0.02Ir
Time delay 0.00s to 60.00s, step 0.01s 1% setting or +40 ms, at
200% operating setting

222
Chapter 16 STUB protection

223
Chapter 17 Poles discordance
protection

Chapter 17 Poles discordance


protection

About this chapter

This chapter describes the protection principle, input and output


signals, parameter, IED report and technical data for poles
discordance protection.

224
Chapter 17 Poles discordance
protection

1 Poles discordance protection

1.1 Introdcution

Under normal operating condition, all three poles of the circuit breaker must
be closed or open at the same time. The phase separated operating circuit
breakers can be in different positions (close-open) due to electrical or
mechanical failures. This can cause negative and zero sequence currents
which gives thermal stress on rotating machines and can cause unwanted
operation of zero sequence or negative sequence current functions.

Single pole opening of the circuit breaker is permitted only in the short period
related to single pole dead times, otherwise the breaker is tripped three pole
to resolve the problem. If the problem still remains, the remote end can be
intertripped via circuit breaker failure protection function to clear the
unsymmetrical load situation.

The pole discordance function operates based on information from auxiliary


contacts of the circuit breaker for the three phases with additional criteria from
unsymmetrical phase current.

1.2 Protection principle

1.2.1 Function description

The CB position signals are connected to IED via binary input in order to
monitor the CB status. Poles discordance condition is established when
binary setting Func_PD is set to 1/on and at least one pole is open and at
the same time not all three poles are closed. The auxiliary contacts of the
circuit breakers are checked with corresponding phase currents for
plausibility check. Error alarm CB Err Blk PD is reported after 5 sec
whenever CB auxiliary contacts indicate that one pole is open but at the same
time current is flowing through the pole.

Additionally the function can be informed via binary setting PD Chk 3I0/3I2 for
additionaly zero and negative sequence current as well as current criteria
involved in CBF protection. Pole discordance can be detected when current is
not flowing through all three poles. When current is flowing through all three

225
Chapter 17 Poles discordance
protection
poles, all three poles must be closed even if the breaker auxiliary contacts
indicate a different status.

1.2.2 Logic diagram

BI_PhA CB Open A
N
Ia > 0.06Ir
D

BI_PhB CB Open A O
N R
Ib > 0.06Ir
D

BI_PhC CB Open A A
N N
5s
CB Err Blk PD
Ic > 0.06Ir
D D
BI_PhA CB Open
A
BI_PhB CB Open N
D
BI_PhC CB Open

BI_PhA CB Open A
N
Ia < 0.06Ir
D

BI_PhB CB Open A
O A T_PD PD Trip
N
Ib < 0.06Ir R N Func_PD On
D
D
BI_PhC CB Open A
N
Ic< 0.06Ir
D

3I2 > 3I2_PD O


3I0 > 3I0_PD
R

PD Chk 3I0/3I2 on

PD Chk 3I0/3I2 off


BI_AR In Progress 1

Figure 78 Logic diagram for poles discordance protection

1.3 Input and output signals

226
Chapter 17 Poles discordance
protection
IP1 Trip 3Ph

IP2 Relay Block AR

IP3 PD_Trip

IN Relay Startup

PhA CB Open Relay Trip

PhB CB Open
PhC CB Open
AR In Progress

Table 117 Analog input list

Signal Description

IP1 Phase-A current input


IP2 Phase-B current input
IP3 Phase-C current input
IN External input of zero-sequence current

Table 118 Binary input list

Signal Description

PhA CB Open Phase A CB open


PhB CB Open Phase B CB open
PhC CB Open Phase C CB open
AR In Progress AR in progress, to block poles discordance
operation

Table 119 Binary output list

Signal Description

Relay Startup Relay Startup


Relay Trip Relay Trip
PD_Trip PD Trip
Relay Block AR Permanent trip
CB Err Blk PD Pole discordance blocked by CB error
PD Trip Fail Pole discordance trip fail

227
Chapter 17 Poles discordance
protection
1.4 Setting parameters

1.4.1 Setting lists

Table 120 Function setting list for poles discordance protection

Min.
Max. Default setting
Setting Unit (Ir:5A/1 Description
(Ir:5A/1A) (Ir:5A/1A)
A)
zero sequence current
3I0_PD A 0 20Ir 0.4Ir threshold of pole discordance
protection
negative sequence current
3I2_PD A 0 20Ir 0.4Ir threshold of pole discordance
protection
delay time of pole discordance
T_PD s 0 60 2
protection

Table 121 Binary setting list for poles discordance protection

Name Description

Func_PD Enable or disable poles discordance protection


PD Chk 3I0/3I2 Enable or disable 3I0/3I2 criteria

1.5 Reports

Table 122 Event report list

Information Description

PD Startup Poles discordance protection startup


PD Trip Poles discordance protection trip

228
Chapter 17 Poles discordance
protection
Table 123 Alarm report list

Information Description

CB Err Blk PD Circuit breaker error block poles discordance protection


PD Trip Fail Poles discordance protection trip fail

1.6 Technical data

NOTE:
Ir: CT rated secondary current, 1A or 5A;

Table 124 Technical data for poles discordance protection

Item Rang or Value Tolerance


Current 0.08 Ir to 20.00 Ir 3% setting or 0.02Ir
Time delay 0.00s to 60.00s, step 0.01s 1% setting or +40 ms, at
200% operating setting

229
Chapter 18 Synchro-check and
energizing check function

Chapter 18 Synchro-check and


energizing check function

About this chapter

This chapter describes the protection principle, input and output


signals, parameter, IED report and technical data used in
synchro-check and energizing check function.

230
Chapter 18 Synchro-check and
energizing check function

1 Synchro-check and energizing check


function

1.1 Introduction

The synchronism and voltage check function ensures that the stability of the
network is not endangered when switching a line onto a busbar. The voltage
of the feeder to be energized is compared to that of the busbar to check
conformances in terms of magnitude, phase angle and frequency within
certain tolerances.

The synchro-check function checks whether the voltages on both sides of the
circuit breaker are synchronize, or at least one side is dead to ensure closing
can be done safely.

When comparing the two voltages, the synchro check uses the voltages from
busbar and outgoing feeder. If the voltage transformers for the protective
functions are connected to the line side, the reference voltage has to be
connected to a busbar voltage.

If the voltage transformers for the protective functions are connected to the
busbar side, the reference voltage has to be connected to a line voltage.

Note:

The reference voltage (single phase voltage) must be phase to earth


voltage.

The voltage phase for synchro-ckeck and energizing check can be


identified automatically by protection IED and there is no need to be set
by user.

1.2 Function principle

Synchro-check function can operate in several modes of operation, including


full synchro-check mode, energizing mode (dead line or bus check) and
override (synchro-check bypass) mode.

1.2.1 Synchro-check mode


231
Chapter 18 Synchro-check and
energizing check function
The voltage difference, frequency difference and phase angle difference
values are measured in the IED and are available for the synchro-check
function for evaluation.

By synchronization request, the synchronization conditions will be checked


continuously. If the line voltages and busbar voltages are larger than the
value of Umin_Syn and meet the synchronization conditions, synchronized
reclosure can be performed.

At the end of the dead time, synchronization request will be initiated and the
synchronization conditions are continuously checked to be met for a certain
time during maximal extended time T_MaxSynExt. By satisfying
synch-check condition in this period, the monitor timer will stop and close
command will be issued for AR.

Before releasing a close command at synchronization conditions, all of the


following conditions should be satisfied:

All three phases voltage U(a,b,c) should be above the setting value
Umin_Syn.

The reference voltage should be above the setting value Umin_Syn.

The voltage difference should be within the permissible deviation U_Syn


Diff

The angle difference should be within the permissible deviation


Angle_Syn Diff

The frequency difference should be within the permissible deviation


Freq_Syn Diff

1.2.2 Energizing ckeck mode

In this mode of operation, the low voltage (dead) condition is checked


continuously whenever synchronization check is requested. If the line
voltages are less than Umax_Energ, reclosure can be performed. If the line
voltages and busbar voltages are all larger than Umin_Syn, the check mode
will automatically turn to full synchronization check mode.

In auto-recloser procedure, synchronization check request is triggered at the


end of the dead time. If the low voltage conditions are continuously met for a
certain numbers and during maximum extended time T_MaxSynExt, the

232
Chapter 18 Synchro-check and
energizing check function
monitor timer will stop and close command will be issued for AR.

Before releasing a close command in low voltage conditions, one of the


following conditions need to be checked according to requirement:

Energizing check for dead line and live bus for AR enabled or disabled,
when the control word AR_EnergChkDLLB is on

Energizing check for live line and live bus for AR enabled or disabled,
when the control word AR_EnergChkLLDB is on

Energizing check for dead line and dead bus for AR enabled or disabled,
when the control word AR_EnergChkDLDB is on

1.2.3 Override mode

In this mode, autoreclosure will be released without any check.

1.2.4 Logic diagram

233
Chapter 18 Synchro-check and
energizing check function
AR_Syn Check off

O
Ua(Ub,Uc) >Umin_Syn AR_Syn Check on R
A
Ux>Umin_Syn
N A Synchr-check or
Anglediff<Angle_Syn Diff D O N T_Syn Check energizing check
R D meet
Freqdiff<Freq_Syn Diff

Udiff<U_Syn Diff
Synchr-check or
AR_EnergChkDLLB off T_MaxSynExt energizing check
fail
Ux <Umax_Energ
AR_EnergChkDLLB O
A on
R
Ua(Ub,Uc) N
>Umin_Syn
VT_Line off D
AR_EnergChkLLDB
off

AR_EnergChkDLLB
on
O
Ux>Umin_Syn A R O
Ua(Ub,Uc) N R
<Umax_Energ
D
VT_Line off AR_EnergChkDLDB
off

AR_EnergChkDLDB
on
O
A R
Ux<Umax_Energ
N
Ua(Ub,Uc)
<Umax_Energ
D
AR_EnergChkDLLB
off

AR_EnergChkDLLB O
on
R
Ux >Umin_Syn
A
Ua(Ub,Uc) N
<Umax_Energ
VT_Line on D
AR_EnergChkLLDB
off

AR_EnergChkLLDB O
on
Ux<Umax_Energ A R
Ua(Ub,Uc) N
>Umin_Syn D
VT_Line on

Figure 79 Logic diagram for synchro-check functio

1.3 Input and output signals

234
Chapter 18 Synchro-check and
energizing check function
UP1
UP2
UP3
UPX

Table 125 Analog input list

Signal Description

UP1 Phase-A voltage input


UP2 Phase-B voltage input
UP3 Phase-C voltage input
UPX Reference voltage input

1.4 Setting parameters

1.4.1 Setting lists

Table 126 Synchro-check function setting list

Min. Max. Default


Setting Unit (Ir:5A (Ir:5A/1 setting Description
/1A) A) (Ir:5A/1A)
Angle_Syn angle difference threshold of
Degree 1 80 30
Diff synchronizing
voltage difference threshold of
U_Syn Diff V 1 40 10
synchronizing
Freq_Syn frequency difference threshold of
Hz 0.02 2 0.05
Diff synchronizing
T_Syn
s 0 60 0.05 delay time of synchronizing
Check
T_MaxSynE
s 0.05 60 10 duration of quit synchronizing
xt
Umin_Syn V 30 65 40 Minimum voltage of synchronizing
Maximum voltage of unenergizing
Umax_Energ V 10 50 30
checking

235
Chapter 18 Synchro-check and
energizing check function
Table 127 Synchro-check binary setting list

Name Description

AR_Override Override mode for AR enabled or disabled


AR_EnergChkDLLB Dead line live bus of energizing check for AR enabled or disabled
AR_EnergChkLLDB Live line dead bus of energizing check for AR enabled or disabled
AR_EnergChkDLDB Dead line dead bus of energizing check for AR enabled or disabled
AR_Syn check Synchronization check for AR enabled or disabled

1.4.2 Setting explanation

1) Angle_Syn DiffMaximum allowable phase difference between bus


voltage and line angle under synchronization check mode.

2) U_Syn DiffMaximum allowable phase difference between bus voltage


and line voltage under synchronization check mode.

3) Freq_Syn DiffMaximum allowable frequency difference between bus


voltage and line frequency under synchronization check mode.

4) T_Syn Check delay time of synchronizing.

5) T_MaxSynExt Duration of quit synchronizing.

6) Umin_Syn Minimum voltage of synchronizing.

7) Umax_Energ Maximum voltage of unenergizing checking.

8) Bits of AR_Override, AR_EnergChkDLLB, AR_EnergChkLLDB,


AR_EnergChkDLDB and AR_Syn check: All of these three modes are
autoreclosure check modes. If anyone of them is set to on, the others must
be set to off.

1.5 Reports

236
Chapter 18 Synchro-check and
energizing check function
Table 128 Event report list

Information Description

Syn Request Begin to synchronization check


AR_EnergChk OK Energizing check OK
Syn Failure Synchronization check timeout
Syn OK Synchronization check OK
Syn Vdiff fail Voltage difference for synchronization check fail
Syn Fdiff fail Frequency difference for synchronization check fail
Syn Angdiff fail Angle difference for synchronization check fail
EnergChk fail Energizing check fail

Table 129 Alarm report list

Information Description

SYN Voltage Err Voltage abnormity for synchronization check

1.6 Technical data

NOTE:
Ir: CT rated secondary current, 1A or 5A;

Table 130 Synchro-check and voltage check technical data

Item Rang or Value Tolerance


Operating mode Synchronization check:
Synch-check
Energizing check, and
synch-check if
energizing check failure
Override
Energizing check:
Dead V4 and dead V3Ph
Dead V4 and live V3Ph
Live V4 and dead V3Ph

Voltage threshold of dead line 10 to 50 V (phase to earth), 3 % setting or 1 V


or bus step 1 V

237
Chapter 18 Synchro-check and
energizing check function
Voltage threshold of live line 30 to 65 V (phase to earth), 3 % setting or 1 V
or bus step 1 V
V-measurement Voltage 1 to 40 V (phase-to-earth), 1V
difference steps 1 V
f-measurement (f2>f1; 0.02 to 2.00 Hz, step, 0.01 20 mHz
f2<f1) Hz,
-measurement (2>1; 1 to 80 , step, 1 3
2<1)
Minimum measuring time 0.05 to 60.00 s, step,0.01 s, 1.5 % setting value or +60
ms
Maximum synch-check 0.05 to 60.00 s, step,0.01 s, 1 % setting value or +50
extension time ms

238
Chapter 18 Synchro-check and
energizing check function

239
Chapter 19 Auto-reclosing function

Chapter 19 Auto-reclosing function

About this chapter

This chapter describes the protection principle, input and output


signals, parameter, IED report and technical data used in
Auto-reclosing function.

240
Chapter 19 Auto-reclosing function

1 Auto-reclosing

1.1 Introduction

For restoration of the normal service after a fault, an auto-reclosing attempt is


mostly made for overhead lines. Experiences show that about 85% of faults
are transient and can disappear when an auto-reclosing attempt is performed.
This means that the line can be connected again; the reconnection is
accomplished after a dead time via the automatic reclosing system. If the fault
still exists after auto-reclosing, for example, arc has not been cleared, the
protection will re-trip the circuit breaker (hereinafter is referred as CB).

Auto-reclosing is only permitted on overhead lines because a short circuit arc


can be extinguished only in overhead lines and not cable feeders. Main
features of the auto-reclosing function (hereinafter is referred as AR) are as
following:

4 shots auto-reclosing (selectable)

Individually settable dead time for three phase and single phase fault and
for each shot

Internal/external AR initiation

Single/three phase AR operation

CB ready supervision

CB Aux. interrogation

Cooperation with internal synch-check function for reclosing command

1.2 Function principle

The AR is able to cooperate with single-pole operated CB as well as


three-pole operated CB. The function provides up to 4 auto-reclosing shots
that can be determined by setting, Times_AR. Moreover, since the time
required for extinguishing short circuit arc is different for single or three phase
faults, the different dead time settings, T_1P ARn and T_3P ARn ( n
represents 1, 2, 3, or 4), AR have been provided to set single-pole tripping
dead time and three-pole tripping dead time of each shot separately.

1.2.1 Single-shot reclosing

241
Chapter 19 Auto-reclosing function

When an external trip command initiates AR function, the reclosing program


is being executed. Dead time will be started by falling edge of the external
initiation signal. When dead time interval T_1P AR1 or T_3P AR1 has
elapsed, monitoring time T_MaxSynExt is started. During this period,
whenever synchronization condition is continuously met for T_Syn Check, a
closing pulse signal is issued. At the same time, reclaim time T_Reclaim is
started. If a new fault occurs before the reclaim time elapses, AR function is
blocked and cause final tripping of CB. However, if no fault occurs in reclaim
time, AR is reset and therefore will be ready for future reclosing attempts.

The typical tripping-reclosing procedure of single shot reclosing scheme, is


illustrated in time sequence diagrams, Figure 80, and is described as
following:

1) After trip command issued, CB will be opened in a short time.

2) The auto-reclosing is initiated when the current is cleared.

3) After the auto-reclosing delay time, T_1P AR1 (or T_3P AR1), elapses,
the reclosing command is issued if all reclosing conditions (e.g. synchro-
-check for 3-pole tripping) are satisfied without any blocking reclosing
input.

4) The AR pulse lasts for T_Action.

5) At the moment that the closing signal is issued, reclaim timer


T_Reclaim is started. By the end of this period, T_Reclaim, if there is
not fault happening, auto-reclosing operation is successful and then the
report, AR Success, is issued.

6) From the end of reclaim time, auto-reclosing function is blocked for the
AR reset time T_AR Reset.

7) If another fault occurs after the time, T_AR Reset, elapses, the auto-
-reclosing is ready now, and then a new tripping-reclosing procedure is
started and performed in same way.

242
Chapter 19 Auto-reclosing function

Fault

Trip Command

CB Open PosItion

AR Initiate

T_3P AR1

Synchro-check or
voltage check OK

T_Action T_Action
Closing Command

T_Reclaim

T_Reset

Figure 80 Two transient three-phase faults, two tripping-reclosing procedures

1.2.2 Multi-shot reclosing

The first reclosing shot is, in principle, the same as the single-shot
auto-reclosing. If the first reclosing is unsuccessful, it doesnt result in a final
trip, if multi-shot reclosing is set to be performed. In this case, if a fault occurs
during reclaim time of the first reclosing shot, it would result in the start of the
next reclose shot with dead time T_1pAR1, T_1p AR2, T_1p AR3, T_1p
AR4, T_3P AR2, T_3P AR3 or T_3P AR4. This procedure can be
repeated until the whole reclosing shots which are set inside the device is
performed. Different dead times can be set to various shots of AR function.
This can be performed through settings T_1pAR1, T_1p AR2, T_1p AR3,
T_1p AR4, T_3p AR1, T_3p AR2, T_3p AR3, T_3p AR4. However, if
none of reclosing shots is successful, i.e. the fault doesnt disappear after the
last programmed shot, a final trip is issued, and reclosing attempts are
announced to be unsuccessful.

The typical tripping-reclosing procedure of two shots reclosing scheme, is


illustrated in time sequence diagrams, Figure 81, and is described as
following:

1) After trip command issued, CB will be opened in a short time.

2) The auto-reclosing is initiated when the current is cleared.

243
Chapter 19 Auto-reclosing function

3) After the auto-reclosing delay time, T_1P AR1 (or T_3P AR1), elapses,
the reclosing command is issued if all reclosing conditions (e.g. synchro-
-check for 3-pole tripping) are satisfied without any blocking reclosing
input.

4) The AR pulse lasts for T_Action.

5) At the moment that the closing signal is issued, reclaim timer


T_Reclaim is started.

6) If the circuit breaker is closed on a fault during the period between the
dropout of closing command and the end of T_Reclaim, second tripping-
-reclosing procedure for second shot is started and performed like the
first tripping-reclosing procedure.

7) In this way, following shots will be performed in sequence if applied.

8) If none of the reclosing is successful, in other words, the fault is still


remained after the last shot reclosing, the final trip takes place, and the
result is AR Fail and AR should be blocked for AR reset time.

9) If one of the preset reclosing shots is successful, meaning that, by the


end of this period, T_Reclaim, there is not fault happening again, the
report, AR Success, is issued.

10) From the end of reclaim time, auto-reclosing function is blocked for the
AR reset time T_AR Reset.

11) If another fault occurs after the time, T_AR Reset, elapses, the auto-
-reclosing is ready now, and then a new multi shots tripping-reclosing
procedure is started and performed in same way.

244
Chapter 19 Auto-reclosing function

Fault

Trip Command

CB Open PosItion

AR Initiate

T_3P AR1

Synchro-check or
voltage check OK

T_Action T_Action
Closing Command

T_Reclaim

T_Reset

Figure 81 A permanent three-phase fault, two reclosing shots and final tripping

1.2.3 Auto-reclosing operation mode

For the IED, whether single-pole tripping operation or three-pole tripping


operation and whether AR is active or not is determined by following binary
settings and related binary inputs.

The relevant binary settings are described as following,

AR_1p mode

In this mode of operation, auto-reclosing function will be initiated by


single phase tripping condition as well as using the external single pole
binary input initiation. If the three-phase AR initiation binary input, 3Ph
Init AR, is active, the closing function will be blocked.

AR_3p mode

In this mode of operation, auto-reclosing function only operates for


three pole closing.

AR_1p(3p) mode

In this mode of operation, auto-reclosing function operates for both


single pole tripping as well as three pole tripping.

245
Chapter 19 Auto-reclosing function

AR_Disable

By setting this binary setting to 1, auto-reclosing function will be off or


out of service.

Note: If any illegal setting has been done, AR FUNC Alarm is


reported.

AR Init by 3p

By setting this binary setting to 1, auto-reclosing function can be


initiated by three phase faults as well as single phase faults. Otherwise,
auto-reclosing can be done only for single phase faults according to the
mode of auto-reclosing operation define previously.

AR Init by 2p

By setting this binary setting to 1, auto-reclosing function can be


initiated by two phase fault.

Relay Trip 3pole

When AR is disabled, by setting this binary setting to 0, IED performs


single- pole tripping at single phase fault and perform three-pole
tripping at multi-phase fault. Setting this binary setting to 1 will result in
three-pole tripping at any faults.

AR Final Trip

By setting this binary setting to 1, auto-reclosing function generates a


three pole trip command for an unsuccessful single pole reclosing.

In the AR_1P mode, after a single pole tripping, if auto-reclosing


function is blocked suddenly during the dead time of a 1-pole reclosing
cycle, the circuit breaker will be kept in poles discordance state. To
avoiding this state, by binary setting AR Final Trip at 1, the IED will
issue a 3-pole trip command to open the rest of circuit breaker poles.
This binary setting is always used in the situation without pole
discordance protection applied.

1.2.4 Auto-reclosing initiation

The auto-reclosing function can be initiated by the internal functions listed


below:

Differential protection

Distance Z1

246
Chapter 19 Auto-reclosing function

Teleprotection based on distance tripping

Directional earth fault protection-stage 1 (selectable by binary setting


DEF1 Initiate AR)

Directional earth fault protection-stage 2 (selectable by binary setting


DEF2 Initiate AR)

Teleprotection directional earth fault tripping (selectable by binary setting


Pilot_DEF Init AR)

Phase selective AR external initiation; AR will be initiated by falling edge


of the receiving trip signals (1 to 0)

AR can be initiated by external functions via four binary inputs:

PhA Init AR

External phase A tripping output initiates AR

PhB Init AR

External phase B tripping output initiates AR

PhC Init AR

External phase C tripping output initiates AR

3Ph Init AR

External three-phase tripping output initiates AR

1.2.5 Cooperating with external protection IED

The AR can cooperate with external protection IED. The AR can be initiated
or blocked by external protection IED via dedicated binary inputs.

Figure 82 shows the typical connection between AR binary inputs and


external protection IED binary outputs.

247
Chapter 19 Auto-reclosing function

BO-Trip PhA BI-PhA Init AR


BO-Trip PhB BI-PhB Init AR
Protection Protection
IED BO-Trip PhC BI-PhC Init AR
IED with AR
BO-Trip 3Ph BI-3Ph Init AR
BO Relay Block AR BI-MC/AR Block

On Off BI-AR OFF

Figure 82 Typical connection between two protection IEDs with/without AR

1.2.6 Auto-reclosing logic

Some important points regarded to auto-reclosing logic are described as


following:

In the case of blocking of auto-reclosing via MC/AR block, blocking will


be started by rising edge of MC/AR block and will be extended by
T_AR_Reset time after falling edge of this binary input.

In the case of three phase reclosing with sychro-check requesting, dead


time can last for T_3P AR + T_MaxSynExt at most, from the
auto-reclosing initiation input end. In this condition, IED starts to check
synchronization conditions at the end of T_3P AR. Before the end of
period, T_MaxSynExt, if the synchronization conditions are
continuously met for the time, T_Syn Check at least, the close
command will be issued. After the end of period, T_MaxSynExt, if
synchronization conditions are still not continuously met, the report, AR
Failure, will be issued and the auto-reclosing function will be blocked for
time, T_AR Reset. The logic is illustrated in flowing time sequence
diagram

248
Chapter 19 Auto-reclosing function

Fault

Trip Command

CB Open PosItion

AR Initiate

T_3P AR1
t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6

Synchro-check or
voltage check OK

T_Syn Check

T_MaxSynExt

T_Action
Closing Command

T_Reclaim

T_Reset

Note:
T_Syn Check > t1, t2, t4, t5, t6;
T_Syn Check t3

Figure 83 A permanent three-phase fault, successful synchronizing for first


shot, fail synchronizing for second shot

Close command pulse lasts for T_Action at most. During this time, it
does not check synchronization conditions any longer. Before the end of
close command pulse, if any function tripping happen, the close
command is terminated.

249
Chapter 19 Auto-reclosing function

Fault

Trip Command

CB Open Position

AR for CB: AR Initiate

AR for CB: T_3P AR1

AR for CB: Synchro-check or


voltage check OK
T_Action

AR for CB: Closing command

AR for CB: T_Reclaim

AR for CB: T_Reset

Figure 84 A permanent three-phase fault, single shot, unsuccessful reclosing

To prevent automatic reclosing during feeder dead status (CB Open), for
example, in the IED testing, AR is initiated at first shot only when the CB
has been closed for more than setting time, T_AR Reset.

1.2.7 AR blocked conditions

If binary input AR Off is present, auto-reclosing function will be out of


service

Whenever the binary input MC/AR Block is received, auto-reclosing


function will be blocked for setting T_AR Reset.

Whenever circuit breaker abnormal condition is detected, auto-reclosing


function will be blocked.

In order to avoid auto-reclosing in the case of CB faulty, for example, CB


spring charge faulty, a binary input, CB Faulty, is considered to receive CB
ready status. Therefore, after synchronization check condition meets, the
input CB Faultywill be checked. If it doesnt disappear before time period

250
Chapter 19 Auto-reclosing function

T_CB Faulty finishing, auto-reclosing will be blocked for T_AR Reset.

1.2.8 Logic diagram

BI_PhA Init AR 1-0


AND
A Phase no current

BI_PhB Init AR 1-0


AND OR Single phase Startup AR
AND
B Phase no current

BI_PhC Init AR 1-0


AND
C Phase no current

BI_PhA Init AR 1-0

BI_PhB Init AR 1-0 AND

3 Phase no current

BI_PhB Init AR 1-0

BI_PhC Init AR 1-0 AND

3 Phase no current
OR 3 phase Startup AR

BI_PhC Init AR 1-0

BI_PhA Init AR 1-0 AND

3 Phase no current

BI_3Ph Init AR 1-0


AND
3 Phase no current

Figure 85 Logic diagram 1 for auto-reclosing startup

Besides, auto-reclosing startup could also be triggered by circuit breaker


opening as following figure:

251
Chapter 19 Auto-reclosing function

BI_PhA CB Open 0-1

AND
1P CBOpen Init AR on

BI_PhB CB Open 0-1

AND Single phase Startup AR


AND OR
1P CBOpen Init AR on

BI_PhC CB Open 0-1

AND
1P CBOpen Init AR on

BI_PhA CB Open 0-1

BI_PhB CB Open 0-1 AND

3P CBOpen Init AR on

BI_PhB CB Open 0-1

BI_PhC CB Open 0-1 OR 3 phase Startup AR


AND

3P CBOpen Init AR on

BI_PhC CB Open 0-1

BI_PhA CB Open 0-1


AND

3P CBOpen Init AR on

Figure 86 Logic diagram 2 for auto-reclosing startup

AR_Chk3PVol =0

1)
AR_Chk3PVol =1 t 0
OR

AND
Ua(Ub,Uc) >Umin_Syn
AND Check 3Ph Voltage OK

2) 3)
t 0 t 0
Note:
1) t = T_Syn Check
2) t = T_3P AR Check 3 Ph failure
3) t = T_MaxSynExt

Figure 87 Logic diagram of checking 3 phase voltage

252
Chapter 19 Auto-reclosing function

Check 3Ph Voltage OK

AR_1p mode =1
AND
AR_1p(3p) mode =1 OR 1)
t 0
AND

Single phase initiate AR

OR
AR_3p mode = 1

AR_1p(3p) mode =1 OR
AND

3 phase initiate AR 2)
t 0
AND
NO check

Energizing check OK OR
3)
t 0
Synchro-check OK
AND AR Closing

BI_MC/AR block: 0-1

Backup protection tripping

OR
Alarm: Relay fault

BI_AR off: 0-1

OR
AR_Disable =1

4)
BI_CB Faulty t 0

AR Fail

Relay Trip 3 pole =1 AND

AR_3p mode =1

Ph A Tripping: 0-1
OR AR Lockout

Ph B Tripping: 0-1 AND

Ph B Tripping: 0-1
OR
3 Ph Tripping: 0-1

AND
Relay trip 3 Ph = 1

AR_1p mode = 1

Note:
1) t = T_1P AR
2) t = T_3P AR
3) t = T_MaxSynExt
4) t = T_CB Faulty

Figure 88 Logic diagram of auto-reclosing

253
Chapter 19 Auto-reclosing function

1.3 Input and output signals

IP1 AR Close
IP2 AR Lockout
IP3 AR Not Ready
UP1 AR Final Trip
UP2 AR In Progress
UP3 AR Successful
UP4
PhA Init AR

PhB Init AR
PhC Init AR
3Ph Init AR

MC/AR Block
AR off
CB Faulty
PhA CB Open
PhB CB Open
PhC CB Open
3Ph CB Open
V1P MCB Fail

Table 131 Analog input list

Signal Description

IP1 signal for current input 1


IP2 signal for current input 2
IP3 signal for current input 3
UP1 signal for voltage input 1
UP2 signal for voltage input 2
UP3 signal for voltage input 3
UP4 signal for voltage input 4

Table 132 Binary input list

Signal Description

AR Off AR function off


MC/AR Block AR block
PhA Init AR PhaseA initiate AR
PhB Init AR PhaseB initiate AR

254
Chapter 19 Auto-reclosing function

Signal Description

PhC Init AR PhaseC initiate AR


3Ph Init AR Three phase initiate AR
In order to avoid Auto-reclosing in the case of
CB Faulty CB faulty, for example CB spring charge
faulty
PhA CB Open Phase A CB Open
PhB CB Open Phase B CB Open
PhC CB Open Phase C CB Open
V1P MCB Fail VT broken of UX in synchrocheck

Table 133 Binary output list

Signal Description

Relay Block AR Permanent trip


AR Close AR Close
AR Lockout AR Lockout
AR Not Ready AR Not Ready
AR Final Trip AR Final Trip
AR In Progress AR In Progress
AR Successful AR Successful
AR Fail AR Fail

Note:

AR lockout: If this contact is output, IED will only trip three poles.

AR Final TripIf single AR has startup but AR cant be enabled for any
reason, this contact will be output for three pole tripping, if the setting AR
Final Trip has been enabled.

1.4 Setting parameters

1.4.1 Setting lists

255
Chapter 19 Auto-reclosing function

Table 134 Auto reclosure function setting list

Min. Max. Default


Uni
Setting (Ir:5A/ (Ir:5A/1 setting Description
t
1A) A) (Ir:5A/1A)
delay time of shot 1 of single pole
T_1P AR1 s 0.05 10 0.6
reclosing
delay time of shot 2 of single pole
T_1P AR2 s 0.05 10 0.7
reclosing
delay time of shot 3 of single pole
T_1P AR3 s 0.05 10 0.8
reclosing
delay time of shot 4 of single pole
T_1P AR4 s 0.05 10 0.9
reclosing
delay time of shot 1 of three pole
T_3P AR1 s 0.05 60 1.1
reclosing
delay time of shot 2 of three pole
T_3P AR2 s 0.05 60 1.2
reclosing
delay time of shot 3 of three pole
T_3P AR3 s 0.05 60 1.3
reclosing
delay time of shot 4 of three pole
T_3P AR4 s 0.05 60 1.4
reclosing
duration of the circuit breaker
T_Action ms 80 500 80 closing
pulse
T_Reclaim s 0.05 60 3 Reclaim time
T_CB Faulty s 0.5 60 1 duration of CB ready
Times_AR 1 4 1 quanty of shots
T_Syn
s 0 60 0.05 delay time of synchronizing
Check
T_MaxSynE
s 0.05 60 10 duration of quit synchronizing
xt
T_AR Reset s 0.5 60 3 duration of CB reclosing prepartion

Table 135 Auto reclosure binary setting list

Abbr. Explanation Default Unit Min. Max.

AR Initiated by
AR Init By 2p 0 0 1
phase-to-phase fault
AR Initiated by three
AR Init By 3p 1 0 1
phase fault
Relay Trip 3pole Three phase tripping 0 0 1
Tele_EF Init AR Auto reclosure 0 0 1

256
Chapter 19 Auto-reclosing function

Abbr. Explanation Default Unit Min. Max.

initiated by tele earth


fault protection
Auto-reclosing
initiated by first stage
EF1 Init AR 0 0 1
zero-sequence current
protection
Auto-reclosing
initiated by second
EF2 Init AR 0 0 1
stage zero-sequence
current protection
single phase mode for
AR_1p mode Auto-reclosing 1 0 1
function
three phase mode for
AR_3p mode On Auto-reclosing 0 0 1
function
one and three phase
mode for
AR_1p(3p) mode 0 0 1
Auto-reclosing
function
Auto-reclosing
AR_Disable 0 0 1
function disabled
Override mode for AR
AR_Override 1 0 1
enabled or disabled
Synchronization check
AR_Syn check for AR enabled or 0 0 1
disabled
three phase voltage
AR_Chk3PVol check for single phase 0 0 1
AR
AR Final Trip Final trip by AR 0 0 1
AR initiated by single
1P CBOpen Init AR 0 0 1
phase CB open
AR initiated by three
3P CBOpen Init AR 0 0 1
phase CB open

1.5 Reports

257
Chapter 19 Auto-reclosing function

Table 136 Event report list

Information Description
1st Reclose First reclose
2nd Reclose Second reclose
3rd Reclose Third reclose
4th Reclose Fourth reclose
1Ph Trip Init AR Autoreclose by one phase trip
1Ph CBO Init AR Autoreclose by one phase circuit breaker opening
1Ph CBO Blk AR Autoreclose blocked by one phase circuit breaker opening
3Ph Trip Init AR Autoreclose initiated by three phase trip
3Ph CBO Init AR Autoreclose initiated by three phase breaker opening
3Ph CBO Blk AR Autoreclose blocked by three phase trip
AR Block Autoreclose blocked
BI MC/AR BLOCK Autoreclose BI blocked
AR Success Autoreclose success
AR Final Trip Final trip for autoreclose
AR in progress Autoreclose is in progress
AR Failure Autoreclosure failed

Table 137 Alarm report list

Information Description

AR Mode Alarm Autoreclosure mode alarm

Table 138 Operation report list

Information Description

Func_AR On AR function on
Func_AR Off AR function off
BI_AR Off AR off BI

1.6 Technical data

NOTE:
Ir: CT rated secondary current, 1A or 5A;

258
Chapter 19 Auto-reclosing function

Item Rang or Value Tolerance


Number of reclosing shots Up to 4
Shot 1 to 4 is individually
selectable
AR initiating functions Internal protection functions
External binary input
Dead time, separated setting 0.05 s to 60.00 s, step 0.01 s 1 % setting value or +50
for shots 1 to 4 ms
Reclaim time 0.50 s to 60.00s, step 0.01 s
Blocking duration time (AR 0.05 s to 60.00s, step 0.01 s
reset time)
Circuit breaker ready 0.50 s to 60.00 s, step 0.01 s
supervision time
Dead time extension for 0.05 s to 60.00 s, step 0.01 s
synch-check (Max. SYNT
EXT)

259
Chapter 20 Secondary system
supervision

Chapter 20 Secondary system


supervision

About this chapter

This chapter describes the protection principle, input and output


signals, parameter, IED report and technical data used in
secondary system supervision function.

260
Chapter 20 Secondary system
supervision

1 Current circuit supervision

1.1 Introduction

Open or short circuited current transformer cores can cause unwanted


operation of many protection functions such as earth fault protection and
negative sequence current functions.

It must be remembered that a blocking of protection functions at CT open


causes extremely high voltages that can stress the secondary circuit.

To prevent IED from wrong tripping, interruptions in the secondary circuits of


current transformers is detected and reported by the device. When the
measured zero-sequence current is always larger than the setting value of
3I0_CT Fail for 12 sec, CT Fail is reported and zero-sequence current
protection will be blocked.

1.2 Function diagram

IN CT Fail

1.3 Input and output signals

Table 139 Analog input list

Signal Description

IN External input of zero-sequence current

Table 140 Binary output list

Signal Description

261
Chapter 20 Secondary system
supervision

Signal Description

CT Fail CT Fail

1.4 Setting parameters

1.4.1 Setting lists

Table 141 Fuse failure supervision function setting list

Max.
Default
Min. (Ir:5
Setting Unit setting Description
(Ir:5A/1A) A/1A
(Ir:5A/1A)
)
zero sequence current threshold
3I0_CT Fail A 0.08Ir 2Ir 0.2Ir
of CT failure detection

Table 142 Fuse failure supervision binary setting list

Abbr. Explanation Default Unit Min. Max.

CT Fail Check CT mode 1 0 1

1.4.2 Setting explanation

1.5 Reports

Table 143 Alarm report list

Information Description

CT Fail CT fail

262
Chapter 20 Secondary system
supervision

2 Fuse failure supervision

2.1 Introduction

In the event of a measured voltage failure due to a broken conductor or a


short circuit fault in the secondary circuit of voltage transformer, those
protection functions which are based on under-voltage criteria may
mistakenly see a voltage of zero. VT failure supervision function is provided to
inform those functions about a voltage failure. VT supervision can be used to
monitor the voltage transformer circuit, single-phase VT failures, two-phase or
three-phase VT failures. Its main features are as follows:

Symmetrical/Asymmetrical VT fail detection

3-phase AC voltage MCB monitoring

Applicable in solid, compensated or isolated networks

2.2 Function principle

VT failure supervision function can be enabled or disabled via binary setting


VT Fail. By applying setting 1/on to this binary setting, VT failure
supervision function would monitor the voltage transformer circuit. As
mentioned, the function is able to detect single-phase broken, two-phase
broken or three-phase broken faults in secondary circuit of voltage
transformer, if a three-phase connection is applied.

There are three main criteria for VT failure detection; the first is dedicated to
detect three-phase broken faults. The second and third ones are to detect
single or two-phase broken faults in solid earthed and isolated/resistance
earthed systems, respectively. A precondition to meet these three criteria is
that IED should not startup and the calculated zero sequence and negative
sequence currents should be less than setting of 3I02_ VT Fail. The criteria
are as follows:

2.2.1 Three phases (symmetrical) VT Fail

The calculated zero sequence voltage 3U0 as well as maximum of three


phase-to-earth voltages is less than the setting of Upe_VT Fail and at the

263
Chapter 20 Secondary system
supervision
same time, maximum of three phase currents is higher than setting of I_ VT
Fail. This condition may correspond to three phase broken fault in secondary
circuit of the voltage transformer if no startup element has been activated.

2.2.2 Single/two phases (asymmetrical) VT Fail

1. The calculated zero sequence voltage 3U0 is more than the setting of
Upe_VT Fail. This condition may correspond to single or two-phase broken
fault in secondary circuit of the voltage transformer, if the system starpoint is
solidly earthed and no startup element has been activated.

2. The calculated zero sequence voltage 3U0 is more than the setting of
Upe_VT Fail, and at the same time, the difference between the maximum
and minimum phase-to-phase voltages is more than the setting of Upp_VT
Fail. This condition may correspond to single or two-phase broken fault in
secondary circuit of the voltage transformer, if the system starpoint is isolated
or resistance earthed and no startup element has been activated.

In addition to the mentioned conditions, IED has the capability to be informed


about the VT MCB failure through its digital inputs V3P MCB Fail. In this
context, VT fail is detected, if the corresponding binary input is active.

2.2.3 Logic diagram

If VT failure supervision detects a failure in voltage transformer secondary


circuit, either by means of the above mentioned criteria or reception of a VT
MCB fail indication, all the protection functions, which are based on direction
component or low voltage criteria, will be blocked. Furthermore, Alarm report
VT fail is issued after 10s delay time. The blocking condition would be
removed if one of the following conditions is met within the 10 sec delay time
(previous to Alarm VT fail).

1. Without IED startup, minimum phase voltage becomes more than setting of
Upe_VT Normal for 500ms.

2. Without IED startup, minimum phase voltage becomes more than setting of
Upe_VT Normal and at the same time, the calculated zero sequence and
negative sequence current of corresponding side becomes more than the
setting of 3I02_ VT Fail.

Subsequent to VT fail alarm, the blocking condition of respective protection


functions would be removed if without IED startup, the minimum phase
voltage becomes more than the setting of Upe_VT Normal for a duration

264
Chapter 20 Secondary system
supervision
more than 10 sec.

Figure 89 shows logic diagram of VT failure supervision as it is implemented.

Max(Ia,Ib,Ic)>I_VT Fail

A
max{Ua,Ub,Uc}<
Upe_VT Fail N
D
3U0 < (Upe_VT Fail-1)

3U0 >=(Upe_VT Fail-1)


Solid earthed on

Solid earthed off

O
Max{Uab,Ubc,Uca}- A
Min{Uab,Ubc,Uca}> R
Upp_VT Fail
N
D A
N O
D R
Relay Start up
BI_V3P MCB A
Fail 0-1 VT Fail Alarm
N 10S
block report
VT Fail on
D

VT Fail block

min{Ua,Ub,Uc}> A A
Upe_VT Normal N N 500ms
D D
A
3I0>3I02_VT Fail or N O VT Fail
3I2>3I02_VT Fail R unblock
D

A A
N 10S
N
D D

Figure 89 VT fail blocking/unblocking logic

2.3 Input and output signals

265
Chapter 20 Secondary system
supervision
IP1 VT Fail
IP2
IP3
IN
IU1
IU2
IU3
V3P MCB Fail

Table 144 Analog input list

Signal Description

IP1 signal for current input 1


IP2 signal for current input 2
IP3 signal for current input 3
IN External input of zero-sequence current
UP1 signal for voltage input 1
UP2 signal for voltage input 2
UP3 signal for voltage input 3

Table 145 Binary input list

Signal Description

V3P MCB Fail Three phase VT fail

Table 146 Binary output list

Signal Description

VT Fail VT Fail

2.4 Setting parameters

2.4.1 Setting list

266
Chapter 20 Secondary system
supervision
Table 147 Fuse failure supervision function setting list

Default
Min.
Max. setting
Setting Unit (Ir:5A/1 Description
(Ir:5A/1A) (Ir:5A/1A
A)
)
current threshold of PT failure
I_VT Fail A 0.08Ir 0.2Ir 0.1Ir
detection
Negative sequence/zero
sequence current threshold of
3I02_VT Fail A 0.08Ir 0.2Ir 0.1Ir
release blocking due to VT
failure
voltage (phase to earth)
Upe_VT Fail V 7 20 8
threshold of PT failure detection
voltage (phase to phase)
Upp_VT Fail V 10 30 16
threshold of PT failure detection
Upe_VT restore voltage threshold of PT
V 40 65 40
Normal failure detection

Table 148 Fuse failure supervision function setting list

Abbr. Explanation Default Unit Min. Max.

VT Fail Check VT 1 0 1
The system is solid
Solid Earthed 1 0 1
earthed system

2.5 Technical data

NOTE:
Ir: CT rated secondary current, 1A or 5A;

Table 149 VT secondary circuit supervision technical data

Item Range or value Tolerances


Minimum current 0.08Ir to 0.20Ir, step 0.01A 3% setting or 0.02Ir
Minimum zero or negative 0.08Ir to 0.20Ir, step 0.01A 5% setting or 0.02Ir
sequence current
Maximum phase to earth 7.0V to 20.0V, step 0.01V 3% setting or 1 V
voltage
Maximum phase to phase 10.0V to 30.0V, step 0.01V 3% setting or 1 V

267
Chapter 20 Secondary system
supervision
voltage
Normal phase to earth 40.0V to 65.0V, step 0.01V 3% setting or 1 V
voltage

268
Chapter 20 Secondary system
supervision

269
Chapter 21 Mornitoring

Chapter 21 Monitoring

About this chapter

This chapter describes the protection principle, input and output


signals, parameter, IED report and technical data used in
monitoring function.

270
Chapter 21 Monitoring

1 Check Phase-sequence for voltage and


current

1.1 Introduction

In normal condition of power system, whether AC circuits of three phases are


connected in right sequence or not can be distinguished by phasor
comparison of three phases current and voltage. If they are in abnormal
sequence, 3Ph SEQ Err will be reported.

2 Check 3I0 polarity

2.1 Introduction

By comparing value and phasor of calculated 3I0 (IA+IB+IC) with that of 3I0
external connected, whether the polarity of external 3I0 is connected in
reverse or not can be differentiated. If it is in reverse, 3I0 Reverse will be
reported.

3 Check the third harmonic of voltage

3.1 Introduction

If the third harmonic voltage exceeds 4V, Harmonic Alarm will be reported
with 10s delay time, but the protection is not blocked.

4 Check auxiliary contact of circuit


breaker

4.1 Introduction

If auxiliary contact of CB indicates that circuit breaker pole is open but at the

271
Chapter 21 Mornitoring
same time and current is flowing trough corresponding phase, CB Open A (B
or C) Err is reported after 2sec delay time..

5 Broken conductor

5.1 Introduction

The system supervises load flow in real time. If negative current is greater than
the setting of 3I2_Broken Conduct, after T_Broken Conduct, BRKN COND
Alarm is reported. The following logic shows the logic diagram of thebroken
conductor.

5.1.1 Logic diagram

BI_PhA CB Open

BI_PhA CB Open O
R

BI_PhA CB Open

A
3I2>3I2_Broken N
Conduct D
A Broken
T_Broken
N Conduct
Conduct
D Broken Conduct Alarm
Trip Off
Func_Broken Conduct on
A Broken
T_Broken
N Conduct Conduct
D Broken Conduct Trip
Trip On

Figure 90 Broken conductor logic

5.2 Input and output signals

272
Chapter 21 Monitoring
IP1 BRKN COND Trip
IP2 BRKN COND Alarm

IP3
PhA CB Open
PhB CB Open
PhC CB Open

Table 150 Analog input list

Signal Description

IP1 signal for current input 1


IP2 signal for current input 2
IP3 signal for current input 3

Table 151 Binary input list

Signal Description

PhA CB Open Phase A CB Open


PhB CB Open Phase B CB Open
PhC CB Open Phase C CB Open

Table 152 Binary output list

Signal Description

BRKN COND Trip BRKN COND trip


BRKN COND Alarm BRKN COND alarm

5.3 Setting parameters

5.3.1 Setting list

273
Chapter 21 Mornitoring
Table 153 Broken conductor supervision function setting list

Default
Min. Max.
Uni setting
Setting (Ir:5A/1 (Ir:5A/ Description
t (Ir:5A/1
A) 1A)
A)
nagative sequence current
3I2_Broken
A 0.08Ir 2Ir 2Ir threshold of conduct broken
Conduct
detection
T_Broken time delay of conduct broken
s 0 250 10
Conduct detection

Table 154 Broken conductor supervision binary setting list

Abbr. Explanation Default Unit Min. Max.

Broken Conduct
Func_Broken Conduct 1 0 1
function
Broken Conduct Trip
Broken Conduct Trip 0 0 1
function

5.4 Reports

Table 155 Event report list

Information Description

BRKN COND Trip Broken conductor protection trip

Table 156 Alarm report list

Information Description

BRKN COND Alarm Broken conductor alarm

274
Chapter 21 Monitoring

6 Fault locator

6.1 Introduction

Fault location is a process aimed at locating the occurred fault with the
highest possibly accuracy. A fault locator is mainly the supplementary
protection equipment, which apply the fault location algorithms for estimating
the distance to fault.

IED reports fault location after protection tripping. Fault location is calculated
according fundamental frequency component of the measured voltages and
currents corresponding to the faulty phases. Making use of the fundamental
frequency voltages and currents at the line terminal, together with the line
paramenters appears as the most popular way for detrmining the fault
location.

Additionally, there are some conditions that affect the calculated impedance so
that it is not exactly corresponding to distance of the fault. For example, zero
sequence coupling compensation on parallel transmission lines affects the
fault location calculated by protection relays.Therefore, for parallel
transmission lines, IED need to consider mutual inductance, so it should be
informed about the zero sequence current of the other line, IN(mutual) via
analogue module of the equipment (Figure 91).

L1
L2
L3

52 52
CSC-101

IA

IB

IC

IN

IN (M)

Figure 91 Parallel line compensation for fault location

Following equation can be used to determine fault location considering parallel


line and zero sequence compensation.

275
Chapter 21 Mornitoring
U A(B,C)
Z=
IA(B,C) +K N 3I0+jK m IN M

Equation 23

where

Z0-Z1
KN =
3Z1

X0M
KM =
X1

Other condition that affect on calculated distance is remote end infeed (Figure
92), which can be suitably compensated in order that fault location can be
calculated as accurate as possible. For this purpose, imaginary part of Z L1, XL1,
is calculated from the following equation. This is done by separating the real
and imaginary parts of the following equation.

U A I m ZL1 +I k R g I
Zm1 = = =ZL1 + K R g ei
Im Im Im

Equation 24

jX

M N Ik
R e j
L1 L2 XL1
ZL1
Im g
XM1
Im Ik Rg In
ZM1

Figure 92 Remote end infeed compensation in fault location calculation

276
Chapter 21 Monitoring

277
Chapter 22 Station communication

Chapter 22 Station communication

About this chapter

This chapter describes the communication possibilities in a


substation automation system.

278
Chapter 22 Station communication

1 Overview
Each IED is provided with a communication interface, enabling it to connect to
one or many substation level systems or equipment.

The following communication protocols are available:

IEC 61850-8-1 communication protocol

60870-5-103 communication protocol

The IED is able to connect to one or more substation level systems or


equipments simultaneously, through the communication ports and supported
protocols.

2 Protocol

2.1 IEC61850-8 communication protocol

IEC 61850-8-1 allows two or more intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) from
one or several vendors to exchange information and to use it in the
performance of their functions and for correct co-operation.

GOOSE (Generic Object Oriented Substation Event), which is a part of IEC


61850-8-1 standard, allows the IEDs to communicate state and control
information amongst themselves, using a publish-subscribe mechanism. That
is, upon detecting an event, the IED(s) use a multi-cast transmission to notify
those devices that have registered to receive the data. An IED can, by
publishing a GOOSE message, report its status. It can also request a control
action to be directed at any device in the network.

2.2 IEC60870-5-103 communication protocol

The IEC 60870-5-103 communication protocol is mainly used when a


protection IED communicates with a third party control or monitoring system.
This system must have software that can interpret the IEC 60870-5-103
communication messages.

The IEC 60870-5-103 is an unbalanced (master-slave) protocol for coded-bit

279
Chapter 22 Station communication
serial communication exchanging information with a control system. In IEC
terminology a primary station is a master and a secondary station is a slave.
The communication is based on a point-to-point principle. The master must
have software that can interpret the IEC 60870-5-103 communication
messages. For detailed information about IEC 60870-5-103, refer to the
IEC60870 standard part 5: Transmission protocols, and to the section 103:
Companion standard for the informative interface of protection equipment.

3 Communication port

3.1 Front communication port

There is a serial RS232 port on the front plate of all IEDs. Through this port,
the IED can be connected to the personal computer for setting, testing, and
configuration using the dedicated Sifang software tool.

3.2 RS485 communication ports

Up to 2 isolated electrical RS485 communication ports are provided to


connect with substation automation system. These two ports can work in
parallel for IEC60870-5-103.

3.3 Ethernet communication ports

Up to 3 electrical or optical Ethernet communication ports are provided to


connect with substation automation system. These two out of three ports can
work in parallel for protocol, IEC61850 or IEC60870-5-103.

4 Typical communication scheme

4.1 Typical substation communication scheme

280
Chapter 22 Station communication
Server or Server or
Work Station 1 Work Station 2

Switch
Work Station 3 Work Station 4

Net 1: IEC61850/IEC103,Ethernet Port A

Switch Net 2: IEC61850/IEC103,Ethernet Port B Switch


Switch
Switch

Gateway Switch Gateway


or or
converter converter

Net 4: IEC103, RS485 Port B


Net 3: IEC103, RS485 Port A

Figure 93 Connection example for multi-networks of station automation system

4.2 Typical time synchronizing scheme

All IEDs feature a permanently integrated electrical time synchronization port.


It can be used to feed timing telegrams in IRIG-B or pulse format into the
IEDs via time synchronization receivers. The IED can adapt the second or
minute pulse in the pulse mode automatically.

Meanwhile, SNTP network time synchronization can be applied.

Below figure illustrates the optional time synchronization modes.

SNTP IRIG-B Pulse

Ethernet port IRIG-B port Binary input

Figure 94 Time synchronizing modes

281
Chapter 22 Station communication

5 Technical data

5.1 Front communication port

Item Data
Number 1
Connection Isolated, RS232; front panel,
9-pin subminiature connector, for software
tools
Communication speed 9600 baud
Max. length of communication cable 15 m

5.2 RS485 communication port

Item Data
Number 0 to 2
Connection 2-wire connector
Rear port in communication module
Max. length of communication cable 1.0 km
Test voltage 500 V AC against earth
For IEC 60870-5-103 protocol
Communication speed Factory setting 9600 baud,
Min. 1200 baud, Max. 19200 baud

5.3 Ethernet communication port

Item Data
Electrical communication port
Number 0 to 3
Connection RJ45 connector
Rear port in communication module
Max. length of communication cable 100m
For IEC 61850 protocol
Communication speed 100 Mbit/s
For IEC 60870-5-103 protocol
Communication speed 100 Mbit/s

282
Chapter 22 Station communication
Optical communication port ( optional )
Number 0 to 2
Connection SC connector
Rear port in communication module
Optical cable type Multi-mode
Max. length of communication cable 2.0km
IEC 61850 protocol
Communication speed 100 Mbit/s
IEC 60870-5-103 protocol
Communication speed 100 Mbit/s

5.4 Time synchronization

Item Data
Mode Pulse mode
IRIG-B signal format IRIG-B000
Connection 2-wire connector
Rear port in communication module
Voltage levels differential input

283
Chapter 23 Remote communication

Chapter 23 Remote communication

About this chapter

This chapter describes the remote communication possibilities


applied by protection functions.

284
Chapter 23 Remote communication

1 Binary signal transfer


The binary signals can be exchanged through remote communication
channels between the two IEDs on the two end of the transmission line or
cable respectively. This functionality is mainly used for the line Tele-protection
communication schemes, e.g., POTT or PUTT schemes, blocking scheme
and inter trip and so on.

2 Remote communication channel

2.1 Introduction

The IEDs are able to communicate with each other in two types:

Directly fiber-optical cable connection mode at distances up to 100 km

Through the communication converter with G.703 or G.703E1 interface


through the public digital communication network

Because there are up to two selectable fiber-optical remote communication


ports, the IED can work in the redundant communication channel mode, with
advantage of no time-delay channel switch in case of the primary channel
broken

Overhead Line or Cable

Single-mode FO
Length: <60kM or
60~100kM

Channel A

IED IED

285
Chapter 23 Remote communication

Figure 95 Single channel, communication through dedicated fiber optical cable

Overhead Line or Cable

Single-mode FO
Length: <60kM or
60~100kM

Channel A

Channel B
IED IED

Figure 96 Double channels, communication through dedicated fiber optical cable

The link between the IED and a multiplexed communication network is made by dedicated
communication converters (CSC186). They have a fiber-optic interface with 1310 nm and 2
FC connectors to the protection IED. The converter can be set to support an electrical
G703-64 kbit/s or G703-E1 2Mbit/s interface, according the requirement of the multiplexed
communication
network.

Overhead Line or Cable

G703.5(E1: 2048kbit/s)
G703.1(64kbit/s)

o Digital e
communication
e network o
Communication Communication
IED converter converter IED

286
Chapter 23 Remote communication

Figure 97 Single Channel, communication through digital communication network

Overhead Line or Cable

G703.5(E1: 2048kbit/s)
G703.1(64kbit/s)
Channel A

Digital
o communication e
network o
e
o e
Digital
e communication o
network Communication
IED Communication IED
converter converter
Channel B

Figure 98 Double channels, communication through digital communication network

Overhead Line or Cable

Single-mode FO
Length: <60kM or
60~100kM
Channel A

o e
Digital
communication
e network o
IED IED
Channel B

G703.5(E1: 2048kbit/s)
G703.1(64kbit/s)

Figure 99 Double channels, one channel through digital communication network, one
channel through dedicated fiber optical cables

3 Technical data

3.1 Fiber optic communication ports

287
Chapter 23 Remote communication

Item Data
Number 1 to 2
Fiber optic cable type Single-mode
Optic wavelength 1310nm, when the transmission distance
<60km;
1550nm, when the transmission
distance >60km
Optic received sensitivity -38dBm
Emitter electric level >-8dBm; (the transmission distance <40km)
>-4dBm; (the transmission distance 40
60km)
>-3dBm; (the transmission distance >60km)
Fiber optic connector type FC, when the transmission distance <60km)
SC, when the transmission distance >60km
Data transmission rate 64 kbit/s, G703;
2,048 kbit/s, G703-E1
Max. transmission distance 100kM

288
Chapter 23 Remote communication

289
Chapter 24 Hardware

Chapter 24 Hardware

About this chapter

This chapter describes the IED hardware.

290
Chapter 24 Hardware

1 Introduction

1.1 IED structure

The enclosure for equipment is 19 inches in width and 4U in height according


to IEC 60297-3.

The equipment is flush mounting with panel cutout and cabinet.

Connection terminals to other system on the rear.

The front panel of equipment is aluminium alloy by founding in integer


and overturn downwards. LCD, LED and setting keys are mounted on the
panel. There is a serial interface on the panel suitable for connecting to PC.

Draw-out modules for serviceability are fixed by lock component.

The modules can be combined through the bus on the rear board. Both
the equipment and the other system can be combined through the rear
interfaces.

1.2 IED appearance

Figure 100 Protection IED front view

291
Chapter 24 Hardware

1.3 IED module arrangement

X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 X10
AIM CPU1 CPU2 COM BIM BOM1 BOM2 BOM3 BOM4 PSM
Analogue Input module

Binary output module 1

Binary output module 2

Binary output module 3

Binary output module 4

Power supply module


Spare slot for binary
Binary input module
Communication

output module
CPU module 1

CPU module 2

module

Figure 101 Module arrangement front view, when open the front panel

1.4 The rear view of the protection IED

Test port For BIM and BOM Ethernet ports Fiber Optical
ports

X10 X9 X8 X7 X6 X5 X4 X3 X2 X1
PSM COM AIM

Figure 102 Rear view of the protection IED

292
Chapter 24 Hardware

2 Local human-machine interface


Setting operation and interrogation of numerical protection systems can be
carried out via the integrated membrane keyboard and display panel located
on the front plate. All the necessary operating parameters can be entered and
all the information can be read out from here, e.g. display, main menu,
debugging menu. Operation is, additionally, possible via interface socket by
means of a personal computer or similar.

2.1 Human machine interface

Front panel adopts little arc streamline and beelines sculpt, and function keys
for MMI are reasonably distributed in faceplate. Panel layout is shown as
Figure 103.

1
5
4

6 7
3 8

Figure 103 Front panel layout with 8 LEDs

293
Chapter 24 Hardware

1
5
4

6 7
3 8

Figure 104 Front panel layout with 20 LEDs

1. Liquid crystal display (LCD)

2. LEDs

3. Shortcut function keys

4. Arrow keys

5. Reset key

6. Quit key

7. Set key

8. RS232 communication port

2.2 LCD

The member of keyboard and display panel is externally arranged similar to a


pocked calculator.

2.3 Keypad

The keypad is used to monitor and operate the IED. The keypad has the
same look and feel in all IEDs in the CSC series. LCD screens and other
details may differ but the way the keys function is identical. The keys used to

294
Chapter 24 Hardware

operate the IED are described below.

Table 157 function of keys of the keypad

Key function
SET SET key:
Enters main menu or sub-menu, and confirms the setting changes
QUIT QUIT key:
Navigates backward the upper menu.
Cancels current operation and navigates backward the upper
menu.
Returns normal rolling display mode
Locks and unlocks current display in the normal scrolling display
mode; (the locked display mode is indicated by a key type icon
on the upright corner of LCD.)
Right arrow key:
Moves right in menu.
Left arrow key:
Moves left in menu.
Up arrow key:
Moves up in menu
Page up between screens
Increases value of setting.
Down arrow key
Moves down in menu
Page down between screens
Decreases the value of setting.
RESET key:
Reset LEDs
Return to normal scrolling display mode directly
RESET

2.4 Shortcut keys and functional keys

The shortcut keys and functional keys are below the LCD on the front panel. These
keys are designated to execute the frequent menu operations for users convenience.
The keys used to operate the IED are described below.

Table 158 function of Shortcut keys and functional keys

Key function
F1 Reserved
F2 Reserved

295
Chapter 24 Hardware

F3 Reserved
F4 Reserved
+ Plus key:
Switch next setting group forward as active setting group meaning

the number of setting group plus one.


_ Minus key
Switch next setting group backward as active setting group ,

meaning the number of setting group subtracted one.

2.5 LED

The definitions of the LEDs are fixed and described below for 8 LEDs.

Table 159 Definition of 8 LEDs

No LED Color Description

Steady lighting: Operation normally


1 Run Green
Flashing: IED startup

Steady lighting: Alarm II, meaning abnormal situation,


only the faulty function is out of service. Power supply
for tripping output is not blocked.
8 Alarm Red
Flashing: Alarm I, meaning severe internal fault, all
protections are out of service. And power supply for
tripping outputs is blocked as well.

The definitions of the LEDs are fixed and described below for 20 LEDs.

Table 160 Definition of 20 LEDs

No LED Color Description

Steady lighting: Operation normally


1 Run Green
Flashing: IED startup

Steady lighting: Alarm II, meaning abnormal situation,


only the faulty function is out of service. Power supply
11 Alarm Red for tripping output is not blocked.

Flashing: Alarm I, meaning severe internal fault, all

296
Chapter 24 Hardware

No LED Color Description

protections are out of service. And power supply for


tripping outputs is blocked as well.

The other LEDs which are not described above can be configured.

2.6 Front communication port

There is a serial RS232 port on the front plate of all the IEDs. Through this
port, the IED can be connected to the personal computer for setting, testing,
and configuration using the dedicated Sifang software tool.

297
Chapter 24 Hardware

3 Analog input module

3.1 Introduction

The analogue input module is used to galvanically separate and transform the
secondary currents and voltages generated by the measuring transformers.

There are two types of current transformer: Rated current 5A with linearity
range 50mA150A and rated current 1A with linearity range 100mA30A
(please indicate clearly when order the product).

3.2 Terminals of Analogue Input Module (AIM)

b a

b01 a01
b02 a02
b03 a03
b04 a04
b05 a05
b06 a06
b07 a07

b08 a08
b09 a09

b10 a10

b11 a11
b12 a12

Figure 105 Terminals arrangement of AIM E

Table 161 Description of terminals of AIM E

Terminal Analogue Remark

298
Chapter 24 Hardware

Input

a01 IA Star point

b01 IA

a02 IB Star point

b02 IB

a03 IC Star point

b03 IC

a04 IN

b04 IN Star point

a05 INM

b05 INM Star point

a06 Null

b06 Null

a07 Null

b07 Null

a08 Null

b08 Null

a09 Null

b09 Null

a10 U4 Star point

b10 U4

a11 UB Star point

b11 UC Star point

a12 UA Star point

b12 UN

3.3 Technical data

3.3.1 Internal current transformer

Item Standard Data


Rated current Ir IEC 60255-1 1 or 5 A
Nominal current range 0.05 Ir to 30 Ir
Nominal current range of 0.005 to 1 A

299
Chapter 24 Hardware

sensitive CT
Power consumption (per 0.1 VA at Ir = 1 A;
phase) 0.5 VA at Ir = 5 A
0.5 VA for sensitive CT
Thermal overload capability IEC 60255-1 100 Ir for 1 s
IEC 60255-27 4 Ir continuous
Thermal overload capability for IEC 60255-27 100 A for 1 s
sensitive CT DL/T 478-2001 3 A continuous

3.3.2 Internal voltage transformer

Item Standard Data


Rated voltage Vr (ph-ph) IEC 60255-1 100 V /110 V
Nominal range (ph-e) 0.4 V to 120 V
Power consumption at Vr = 110 IEC 60255-27 0.1 VA per phase
V DL/T 478-2001
Thermal overload capability IEC 60255-27 2 Vr, for 10s
(phase-neutral voltage) DL/T 478-2001 1.5 Vr, continuous

300
Chapter 24 Hardware

4 CPU module

4.1 Introduction

The CPU module handles all protection functions and logic. There are two
CPU modules in the IED, CPU1 and CPU2, with the same software and
hardware. They work in parallel and interlock each other to prevent
maloperation due to the internal faults of one CPU modules.

Moreover, the redundant A/D sampling channels are equipped. By comparing


the data from redundant sampling channels, any sampling data errors and the
channel hardware faults can be detected immediately and the proper alarm
and blocking is initiated in time.

4.2 Communication ports of CPU module (CPU)

RX
Ch A
TX

RX
Ch B
TX

301
Chapter 24 Hardware

Figure 106 Communication ports arrangement of CPU module

Table 162 Definition of communication ports of CPU module

Ports Definition

Ch A RX Remote communication channel


A optical fiber data receiving port

Ch A TX Remote communication channel


A optical fiber data transmitting
port

Ch B RX Remote communication channel


B optical fiber data receiving port

Ch B TX Remote communication channel


B optical fiber data transmitting
port

Note: These ports are optional

302
Chapter 24 Hardware

5 Communication module

5.1 Introduction

The communication module performs communication between the internal


protection system and external equipments such as HMI, engineering
workstation, substation automation system, RTU, etc., to transmit remote
metering, remote signaling, SOE, event reports and record data.

Up to 3 channels isolated electrical or optical Ethernet ports and up to 2


channels RS485 serial communication ports can be provided in
communication module to meet the communication demands of different
substation automation system and RTU at the same time.

The time synchronization port is equipped, which can work in pulse mode or
IRIG-B mode. SNTP mode can be applied through communication port.

In addition, a series printer port is also reserved.

5.2 Substaion communication port

5.2.1 RS232 communication ports

There is a serial RS232 port on the front plate of all the IEDs. Through this
port, the IED can be connected to the personal computer for setting, testing,
and configuration using the dedicated Sifang software tool.

5.2.2 RS485 communication ports

Up to 2 isolated electrical RS485 communication ports are provided to


connect with substation automation system. These two ports can work in
parallel for IEC60870-5-103.

5.2.3 Ethernet communication ports

Up to 3 electrical or optical Ethernet communication ports are provided to


connect with substation automation system. Two out of these three ports can

303
Chapter 24 Hardware

work in parallel for protocol, IEC61850 or IEC60870-5-103.

5.2.4 Time synchronization port

All IEDs feature a permanently integrated electrical time synchronization port.


It can be used to feed timing telegrams in IRIG-B or pulse format into the
IEDs via time synchronization receivers. The IED can adapt the second or
minute pulse in the pulse mode automatically.

Meanwhile, SNTP network time synchronization can also be applied.

5.3 Terminals of Communication Module

01
02 Ethernet port A
03
04
05
06
07 Ethernet port B

08
09
10
11
Ethernet port C
12
13
14
15
16

Figure 107 Terminals arrangement of COM

Table 163 Definition of terminals of COM

Terminal Definition

01 Null

02 Null

03 Null

04 Null

304
Chapter 24 Hardware

05 Optional RS485 port - 2B

06 Optional RS485 port - 2A

07 Optional RS485 port - 1B

08 Optional RS485 port - 1A

09 Time synchronization

10 Time synchronization GND

11 Null

12 Null

13 Null

14 Null

15 Null

16 Null

Ethernet Optional optical fiber or RJ45


Port A port for station automation
system

Ethernet Optional optical fiber or RJ45


Port B port for station automation
system

Ethernet Optional optical fiber or RJ45


Port C port for station automation
system

5.4 Operating reports

Information Description

DI Comm Fail DI communication error


DO Comm Fail DO communication error

5.5 Technical data

5.5.1 Front communication port

Item Data
Number 1

305
Chapter 24 Hardware

Connection Isolated, RS232; front panel,


9-pin subminiature connector, for software
tools
Communication speed 9600 baud
Max. length of communication cable 15 m

5.5.2 RS485 communication port

Item Data
Number 0 to 2
Connection 2-wire connector
Rear port in communication module
Max. length of communication cable 1.0 km
Test voltage 500 V AC against earth
For IEC 60870-5-103 protocol
Communication speed Factory setting 9600 baud,
Min. 1200 baud, Max. 19200 baud

5.5.3 Ethernet communication port

Item Data
Electrical communication port
Number 0 to 3
Connection RJ45 connector
Rear port in communication module
Max. length of communication cable 100m
For IEC 61850 protocol
Communication speed 100 Mbit/s
For IEC 60870-5-103 protocol
Communication speed 100 Mbit/s
Optical communication port ( optional )
Number 0 to 2
Connection SC connector
Rear port in communication module
Optical cable type Multi-mode
Max. length of communication cable 2.0km
IEC 61850 protocol

306
Chapter 24 Hardware

Communication speed 100 Mbit/s


IEC 60870-5-103 protocol
Communication speed 100 Mbit/s

5.5.4 Time synchronization

Item Data
Mode Pulse mode
IRIG-B signal format IRIG-B000
Connection 2-wire connector
Rear port in communication module
Voltage levels differential input

307
Chapter 24 Hardware

6 Binary input module

6.1 Introduction

The binary input module is used to connect the input signals and alarm
signals such as the auxiliary contacts of the circuit breaker (CB), etc.

The negative terminal of power supply for BI module, 220V or 110V, should
be connected to the terminal.

6.2 Terminals of Binary Input Module (BIM)

c a
c02 a02

c04 a04
c06 a06
c08 a08
c10 a10
c12 a12
c14 a14

c16 a16
c18 a18
c20 a20
c22 a22
c24 a24
c26 a26
c28 a28
c30 a30
c32 DC - DC - a32

Figure 108: Terminals arrangement of BIM A

308
Chapter 24 Hardware

Table 164 Definition of terminals of BIM A

Terminal Definition Remark

a02 BI1 BI group 1

c02 BI2 BI group 2

a04 BI3 BI group 1

c04 BI4 BI group 2

a06 BI5 BI group 1

c06 BI6 BI group 2

a08 BI7 BI group 1

c08 BI8 BI group 2

a10 BI9 BI group 1

c10 BI10 BI group 2

a12 BI11 BI group 1

c12 BI12 BI group 2

a14 BI13 BI group 1

c14 BI14 BI group 2

a16 BI15 BI group 1

c16 BI16 BI group 2

a18 BI17 BI group 1

c18 BI18 BI group 2

a20 BI19 BI group 1

c20 BI20 BI group 2

a22 BI21 BI group 1

c22 BI22 BI group 2

a24 BI23 BI group 1

c24 BI24 BI group 2

a26 BI25 BI group 1

c26 BI26 BI group 2

a28 BI27 BI group 1

c28 BI28 BI group 2

a30 BI29 BI group 1

c30 BI30 BI group 2

a32 DC - Input Common terminal of BI group 1

c32 DC - Input Common terminal of BI group 2

309
Chapter 24 Hardware

6.3 Technical data

Item Standard Data


Input voltage range IEC60255-1 110/125 V
220/250 V
Threshold1: guarantee IEC60255-1 154V, for 220/250V
operation 77V, for 110V/125V
Threshold2: uncertain IEC60255-1 132V, for 220/250V ;
operation 66V, for 110V/125V
Response time/reset time IEC60255-1 Software provides de-bounce
time
Power consumption, IEC60255-1 Max. 0.5 W/input, 110V
energized Max. 1 W/input, 220V

310
Chapter 24 Hardware

7 Binary output module

7.1 Introduction

The binary output modules mainly provide tripping output contacts, initiating
output contacts and signaling output contacts. All the tripping output relays
have contacts with a high switching capacity and are blocked by protection
startup elements.

Each output relay can be configured to satisfy the demands of users.

7.2 Terminals of Binary Output Module (BOM)

7.2.1 Binary Output Module A

The module provides 16 output relays for tripping or initiating, with total 16
contacts.

311
Chapter 24 Hardware

R R R R R R R R
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15

c a
c02 a02

c04 a04

c06 a06

c08 a08

c10 a10

c12 a12

c14 a14

c16 a16

c18 a18

c20 a20

c22 a22

c24 a24

c26 a26

c28 a28

c30 a30

c32 a32

R R R R R R R R
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Figure 109 Terminals arrangement of BOM A

312
Chapter 24 Hardware

Table 165 Definition of terminals of BOM A

Terminal Definition Related relay

a02 Trip contact 1-0 Output relay 1

c02 Trip contact 1-1 Output relay 1

a04 Trip contact 2-0 Output relay 2

c04 Trip contact 2-1 Output relay 2

a06 Trip contact 3-0 Output relay 3

c06 Trip contact 3-1 Output relay 3

a08 Trip contact 4-0 Output relay 4

c08 Trip contact 4-1 Output relay 4

a10 Trip contact 5-0 Output relay 5

c10 Trip contact 5-1 Output relay 5

a12 Trip contact 6-0 Output relay 6

c12 Trip contact 6-1 Output relay 6

a14 Trip contact 7-0 Output relay 7

c14 Trip contact 7-1 Output relay 7

a16 Trip contact 8-0 Output relay 8

c16 Trip contact 8-1 Output relay 8

a18 Trip contact 9-0 Output relay 9

c18 Trip contact 9-1 Output relay 9

a20 Trip contact 10-0 Output relay 10

c20 Trip contact 10-1 Output relay 10

a22 Trip contact 11-0 Output relay 11

c22 Trip contact 11-1 Output relay 11

a24 Trip contact 12-0 Output relay 12

c24 Trip contact 12-1 Output relay 12

a26 Trip contact 13-0 Output relay 13

c26 Trip contact 13-1 Output relay 13

a28 Trip contact 14-0 Output relay 14

c28 Trip contact 14-1 Output relay 14

a30 Trip contact 15-0 Output relay 15

c30 Trip contact 15-1 Output relay 15

a32 Trip contact 16-0 Output relay 16

c32 Trip contact 16-1 Output relay 16

313
Chapter 24 Hardware

7.2.2 Binary Output Module C

The module provides 16 output relays for signal, with total 19 contacts.

R R R R R R R
4 5 1 2 3 6 7

c a
c02 a02

c04 a04

c06 a06

c08 a08

c10 a10

c12 a12

c14 a14

c16 a16

c18 a18

c20 a20

c22 a22

c24 a24

c26 a26

c28 a28

c30 a30

c32 a32

R R R R R R R R R
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Figure 110 Terminals arrangement of BOM C

Table 166 Definition of terminals of BOM C

Terminal Definition Related relay

a02 Signal 1-0, Common terminal of signal contact group 1

c02 Signal 2-0, Common terminal of signal contact group 2

314
Chapter 24 Hardware

a04 Signal contact 1-1 Output relay 1

c04 Signal contact 2-1 Output relay 1

a06 Signal contact 1-2 Output relay 2

c06 Signal contact 2-2 Output relay 2

a08 Signal contact 1-3 Output relay 3

c08 Signal contact 2-3 Output relay 3

a10 Signal 3-0, Common terminal of signal contact group 3

c10 Signal 4-0, Common terminal of signal contact group 4

a12 Signal contact 3-1 Output relay 4

c12 Signal contact 4-1 Output relay 7

a14 Signal contact 3-2 Output relay 5

c14 Signal contact 4-2 Output relay 6

a16 Signal contact 5-0 Output relay 8

c16 Signal contact 5-1 Output relay 8

a18 Signal contact 6-0 Output relay 9

c18 Signal contact 6-1 Output relay 9

a20 Signal contact 7-0 Output relay 10

c20 Signal contact 7-1 Output relay 10

a22 Signal contact 8-0 Output relay 11

c22 Signal contact 8-1 Output relay 11

a24 Signal contact 9-0 Output relay 12

c24 Signal contact 9-1 Output relay 12

a26 Signal contact 10-0 Output relay 13

c26 Signal contact 10-1 Output relay 13

a28 Signal contact 11-0 Output relay 14

c28 Signal contact 11-1 Output relay 14

a30 Signal contact 12-0 Output relay 15

c30 Signal contact 12-1 Output relay 15

a32 Signal contact 13-0 Output relay 16

c32 Signal contact 13-1 Output relay 16

7.3 Technical data

Item Standard Data


Max. system voltage IEC60255-1 250V /~

315
Chapter 24 Hardware

Current carrying capacity IEC60255-1 5 A continuous,


30A200ms ON, 15s OFF
Making capacity IEC60255-1 1100 W( ) at inductive load
with L/R>40 ms
1000 VA(AC)
Breaking capacity IEC60255-1 220V , 0.15A, at L/R40 ms
110V , 0.30A, at L/R40 ms
Mechanical endurance, IEC60255-1 50,000,000 cycles (3 Hz
Unloaded switching frequency)
Mechanical endurance, making IEC60255-1 1000 cycles

Mechanical endurance, IEC60255-1 1000 cycles


breaking
Specification state verification IEC60255-1 UL/CSATV
IEC60255-23
IEC61810-1
Contact circuit resistance IEC60255-1 30m
measurement IEC60255-23
IEC61810-1
Open Contact insulation test IEC60255-1 AC1000V 1min
(AC Dielectric strength) IEC60255-27
Maximum temperature of parts IEC60255-1 55
and materials

316
Chapter 24 Hardware

8 Power supply module

8.1 Introduction

The power supply module is used to provide the correct internal voltages and
full isolation between the terminal and the battery system. Its power input is
DC 220V or 110V (according to the order code), and its outputs are five
groups of power supply.

(1) 24V two groups provided: Power for inputs of the corresponding
binary inputs of the CPU module

(2) 12V: Power for A/D

(3) + 5V: Power for all micro-chips

8.2 Terminals of Power Supply Module (PSM)

c a
c02 DC 24V + a02
OUTPUTS
c04 a04
c06 a06

c08 a08
DC 24V -
c10 OUTPUTS
a10
c12 a12
c14 a14

c16 a16
c18 a18

c20 AUX.DC + a20


INPUT
c22 a22

c24 a24
c26 AUX. DC - a26
INPUT
c28 a28
c30 a30

c32 a32

317
Chapter 24 Hardware

Figure 111 Terminals arrangement of PSM

Table 167 Definition of terminals of PSM

Terminal Definition

a02 AUX.DC 24V+ output 1

c02 AUX.DC 24V+ output 2

a04 AUX.DC 24V+ output 3

c04 AUX.DC 24V+ output 4

a06 Isolated terminal, not wired

c06 Isolated terminal, not wired

a08 AUX.DC 24V- output 1

c08 AUX.DC 24V- output 2

a10 AUX.DC 24V- output 3

c10 AUX.DC 24V- output 4

a12 AUX.DC 24V- output 5

c12 AUX.DC 24V- output 6

a14 Alarm contact A1, for AUX.DC power input failure

c14 Alarm contact A0, for AUX.DC power input failure

a16 Alarm contact B1, for AUX.DC power input failure

c16 Alarm contact B0, for AUX.DC power input failure

a18 Isolated terminal, not wired

c18 Isolated terminal, not wired

a20 AUX. power input 1, DC +

c20 AUX. power input 2, DC +

a22 AUX. power input 3, DC +

c22 AUX. power input 4, DC +

a24 Isolated terminal, not wired

c24 Isolated terminal, not wired

a26 AUX. power input 1, DC -

c26 AUX. power input 2, DC -

a28 AUX. power input 3, DC -

c28 AUX. power input 4, DC -

a30 Isolated terminal, not wired

c30 Isolated terminal, not wired

a32 Terminal for earthing

318
Chapter 24 Hardware

c32 Terminal for earthing

8.3 Technical data

Item Standard Data


Rated auxiliary voltage Uaux IEC60255-1 110 to 250V
Permissible tolerance IEC60255-1 %20 Uaux
Power consumption at IEC60255-1 50 W per power supply
quiescent state module
Power consumption at IEC60255-1 60 W per power supply
maximum load module
Inrush Current IEC60255-1 T 10 ms/I 25 A per power
supply module,

319
Chapter 24 Hardware

9 Techinical data

9.1 Basic data

9.1.1 Frequency

Item Standard Data


Rated system frequency IEC 60255-1 50 Hz or 60Hz

9.1.2 Internal current transformer

Item Standard Data


Rated current Ir IEC 60255-1 1 or 5 A
Nominal current range 0.05 Ir to 30 Ir
Nominal current range of 0.005 to 1 A
sensitive CT
Power consumption (per 0.1 VA at Ir = 1 A;
phase) 0.5 VA at Ir = 5 A
0.5 VA for sensitive CT
Thermal overload capability IEC 60255-1 100 Ir for 1 s
IEC 60255-27 4 Ir continuous
Thermal overload capability for IEC 60255-27 100 A for 1 s
sensitive CT DL/T 478-2001 3 A continuous

9.1.3 Internal voltage transformer

Item Standard Data


Rated voltage Vr (ph-ph) IEC 60255-1 100 V /110 V
Nominal range (ph-e) 0.4 V to 120 V
Power consumption at Vr = 110 IEC 60255-27 0.1 VA per phase
V DL/T 478-2001
Thermal overload capability IEC 60255-27 2 Vr, for 10s
(phase-neutral voltage) DL/T 478-2001 1.5 Vr, continuous

320
Chapter 24 Hardware

9.1.4 Auxiliary voltage

Item Standard Data


Rated auxiliary voltage Uaux IEC60255-1 110 to 250V
Permissible tolerance IEC60255-1 %20 Uaux
Power consumption at IEC60255-1 50 W per power supply
quiescent state module
Power consumption at IEC60255-1 60 W per power supply
maximum load module
Inrush Current IEC60255-1 T 10 ms/I 25 A per power
supply module,

9.1.5 Binary inputs

Item Standard Data


Input voltage range IEC60255-1 110/125 V
220/250 V
Threshold1: guarantee IEC60255-1 154V, for 220/250V
operation 77V, for 110V/125V
Threshold2: uncertain IEC60255-1 132V, for 220/250V ;
operation 66V, for 110V/125V
Response time/reset time IEC60255-1 Software provides de-bounce
time
Power consumption, IEC60255-1 Max. 0.5 W/input, 110V
energized Max. 1 W/input, 220V

9.1.6 Binary outputs

Item Standard Data


Max. system voltage IEC60255-1 250V /~
Current carrying capacity IEC60255-1 5 A continuous,
30A200ms ON, 15s OFF
Making capacity IEC60255-1 1100 W( ) at inductive load
with L/R>40 ms
1000 VA(AC)
Breaking capacity IEC60255-1 220V , 0.15A, at L/R40 ms
110V , 0.30A, at L/R40 ms

321
Chapter 24 Hardware

Mechanical endurance, IEC60255-1 50,000,000 cycles (3 Hz


Unloaded switching frequency)
Mechanical endurance, making IEC60255-1 1000 cycles

Mechanical endurance, IEC60255-1 1000 cycles


breaking
Specification state verification IEC60255-1 UL/CSATV
IEC60255-23
IEC61810-1
Contact circuit resistance IEC60255-1 30m
measurement IEC60255-23
IEC61810-1
Open Contact insulation test IEC60255-1 AC1000V 1min
(AC Dielectric strength) IEC60255-27
Maximum temperature of parts IEC60255-1 55
and materials

9.2 Type tests

9.2.1 Product safety-related tests

Item Standard Data


Over voltage category IEC60255-27 Category III
Pollution degree IEC60255-27 Degree 2
Insulation IEC60255-27 Basic insulation
Degree of protection (IP) IEC60255-27 Front plate: IP40
IEC 60529 Rear, side, top and bottom: IP
30
Power frequency high voltage IEC 60255-5 2KV, 50Hz
withstand test EN 60255-5 2.8kV
ANSI C37.90 between the following circuits:
GB/T 15145-2001 auxiliary power supply
DL/T 478-2001 CT / VT inputs
binary inputs
binary outputs
case earth
500V, 50Hz
between the following circuits:

322
Chapter 24 Hardware

Item Standard Data


Communication ports to
case earth
time synchronization
terminals to case earth
Impulse voltage test IEC60255-5 5kV (1.2/50s, 0.5J)
IEC 60255-27 If Ui63V
EN 60255-5 1kV if Ui<63V
ANSI C37.90 Tested between the following
GB/T 15145-2001 circuits:
DL/T 478-2001 auxiliary power supply
CT / VT inputs
binary inputs
binary outputs
case earth
Note: Ui: Rated voltage
Insulation resistance IEC60255-5 100 M at 500 V
IEC 60255-27
EN 60255-5
ANSI C37.90
GB/T 15145-2001
DL/T 478-2001
Protective bonding resistance IEC60255-27 0.1
Fire withstand/flammability IEC60255-27 Class V2

9.2.2 Electromagnetic immunity tests

Item Standard Data


1 MHz burst immunity test IEC60255-22-1 Class III
IEC60255-26 2.5 kV CM ; 1 kV DM
IEC61000-4-18 Tested on the following circuits:
EN 60255-22-1 auxiliary power supply
ANSI/IEEE C37.90.1 CT / VT inputs
binary inputs
binary outputs
1 kV CM ; 0 kV DM
Tested on the following circuits:
communication ports
Electrostatic discharge IEC 60255-22-2 Level 4

323
Chapter 24 Hardware

IEC 61000-4-2 8 kV contact discharge;


EN 60255-22-2 15 kV air gap discharge;
both polarities; 150 pF; Ri = 330

Radiated electromagnetic field IEC 60255-22-3 Frequency sweep:
disturbance test EN 60255-22-3 80 MHz 1 GHz; 1.4 GHz 2.7 GHz
spot frequencies:
80 MHz; 160 MHz; 380 MHz;
450 MHz; 900 MHz; 1850 MHz;
2150 MHz
10 V/m
AM, 80%, 1 kHz
Radiated electromagnetic field IEC 60255-22-3 Pulse-modulated
disturbance test EN 60255-22-3 10 V/m, 900 MHz; repetition rate
200 Hz, on duration 50 %
Electric fast transient/burst IEC 60255-22-4, Class A, 4KV
immunity test IEC 61000-4-4 Tested on the following circuits:
EN 60255-22-4 auxiliary power supply
ANSI/IEEE C37.90.1 CT / VT inputs
binary inputs
binary outputs
Class A, 1KV
Tested on the following circuits:
communication ports
Surge immunity test IEC 60255-22-5 4.0kV L-E
IEC 61000-4-5 2.0kV L-L
Tested on the following circuits:
auxiliary power supply
CT / VT inputs
binary inputs
binary outputs
500V L-E
Tested on the following circuits:
communication ports
Conduct immunity test IEC 60255-22-6 Frequency sweep: 150 kHz 80
IEC 61000-4-6 MHz
spot frequencies: 27 MHz and
68 MHz
10 V
AM, 80%, 1 kHz

324
Chapter 24 Hardware

Power frequency immunity test IEC60255-22-7 Class A


300 V CM
150 V DM
Power frequency magnetic field IEC 61000-4-8 Level 4
test 30 A/m cont. / 300 A/m 1 s to 3 s
100 kHz burst immunity test IEC61000-4-18 2.5 kV CM ; 1 kV DM
Tested on the following circuits:
auxiliary power supply
CT / VT inputs
binary inputs
binary outputs
1 kV CM ; 0 kV DM
Tested on the following circuits:
communication ports

9.2.3 DC voltage interruption test

Item Standard Data


DC voltage dips IEC 60255-11 100% reduction 20 ms
60% reduction 200 ms
30% reduction 500 ms
DC voltage interruptions IEC 60255-11 100% reduction 5 s
DC voltage ripple IEC 60255-11 15%, twice rated frequency
DC voltage gradual shutdown IEC 60255-11 60 s shut down ramp
/start-up 5 min power off
60 s start-up ramp
DC voltage reverse polarity IEC 60255-11 1 min

9.2.4 Electromagnetic emission test

Item Standard Data


Radiated emission IEC60255-25 30MHz to 1GHz ( IT device may
EN60255-25 up to 5 GHz)
CISPR22
Conducted emission IEC60255-25 0.15MHz to 30MHz
EN60255-25
CISPR22

325
Chapter 24 Hardware

9.2.5 Mechanical tests

Item Standard Data


Sinusoidal Vibration response IEC60255-21-1 Class 1
test EN 60255-21-1 10 Hz to 60 Hz: 0.075 mm
60 Hz to 150 Hz: 1 g
1 sweep cycle in each axis
Relay energized
Sinusoidal Vibration IEC60255-21-1 Class 1
endurance test EN 60255-21-1 10 Hz to 150 Hz: 1 g
20 sweep cycle in each axis
Relay non-energized
Shock response test IEC60255-21-2 Class 1
EN 60255-21-2 5 g, 11 ms duration
3 shocks in both directions of 3
axes
Relay energized
Shock withstand test IEC60255-21-2 Class 1
EN 60255-21-2 15 g, 11 ms duration
3 shocks in both directions of 3
axes
Relay non-energized
Bump test IEC60255-21-2 Class 1
10 g, 16 ms duration
1000 shocks in both directions of
3 axes
Relay non-energized
Seismic test IEC60255-21-3 Class 1
X-axis 1 Hz to 8/9 Hz: 7.5 mm
X-axis 8/9 Hz to 35 Hz :2 g
Y-axis 1 Hz to 8/9 Hz: 3.75 mm
Y-axis 8/9 Hz to 35 Hz :1 g
1 sweep cycle in each axis,
Relay energized

9.2.6 Climatic tests

Item Standard Data

326
Chapter 24 Hardware

Cold test - Operation IEC60255-27 -10C, 16 hours, rated load


IEC60068-2-1
Cold test Storage IEC60255-27 -25C, 16 hours
IEC60068-2-1
Dry heat test Operation [IEC60255-27 +55C, 16 hours, rated load
IEC60068-2-2
Dry heat test Storage IEC60255-27 +70C, 16 hours
IEC60068-2-2
Change of temperature IEC60255-27 Test Nb, figure 2, 5 cycles
IEC60068-2-14 -10C / +55C
Damp heat static test IEC60255-27 +40C, 93% r.h. 10 days, rated
IEC60068-2-78 load
Damp heat cyclic test IEC60255-27 +55C, 93% r.h. 6 cycles, rated
IEC60068-2-30 load

9.2.7 CE Certificate

Item Data
EN 61000-6-2 and EN61000-6-4 (EMC
EMC Directive
Council Directive 2004/108/EC)
EN 60255-27 (Low-voltage directive 2006/95
Low voltage directive
EC).

9.3 IED design

Item Data
Case size 4U19inch
Weight 10kg

327
Chapter 25 Appendix

Chapter 25 Appendix

About this chapter

This chapter describes the appendix.

328
Chapter 25 Appendix

1 General setting list

1.1 Function setting list

Min. Max. Default


No Setting Unit (Ir:5A/1 (Ir:5A/1 setting Description
A) A) (Ir:5A/1A)
Sudden-change
1 I_abrupt A 0.08Ir 20Ir 0.2Ir current threshold of
startup element
T_Relay
2 s 0.5 10 1 The reset time of relay
Reset
Rated primary voltage
3 U_Primary kV 30 800 230
(phase to phase)
Rated secondary
U_Seconda
4 V 100 120 100 voltage (phase to
ry
phase)
5 CT_Primary kA 0.05 5 3 Rated primary current
CT_Second Rated secondary
6 A 1 5 1
ary current
current threshold of PT
7 I_VT Fail A 0.08Ir 0.2Ir 0.1Ir
failure detection
Negative
sequence/zero
3I02_VT sequence current
8 A 0.08Ir 0.2Ir 0.1Ir
Fail threshold of release
blocking due to VT
failure
voltage (phase to
Upe_VT
9 V 7 20 8 earth) threshold of PT
Fail
failure detection
voltage (phase to
Upp_VT
10 V 10 30 16 phase) threshold of PT
Fail
failure detection
restore voltage
Upe_VT
11 V 40 65 40 threshold of PT failure
Normal
detection
zero sequence current
12 3I0_CT Fail A 0.08Ir 2Ir 0.2Ir threshold of CT failure
detection

329
Chapter 25 Appendix

nagative sequence
3I2_Broken current threshold of
13 A 0.08Ir 2Ir 2Ir
Conduct conduct broken
detection
T_Broken time delay of conduct
14 s 0 250 10
Conduct broken detection
compensation factor of
15 Kx -0.33 8 1 zero sequence
reactance
compensation factor of
16 Kr -0.33 8 1 zero sequence
resistance
compensation factor of
zero sequence mutual
17 Km -0.33 8 0
inductance of parallel
line
positive reactance of
18 X_Line Ohm 0.01 600 10
the whole line
positive resistance of
19 R_Line Ohm 0.01 600 2
the whole line
20 Line length km 0.1 999 100 Length of line
T_Tele Time delay of power
21 ms 0 100 40
Reversal reserve
zero sequence current
threshold of
3I0_Tele
22 A 0.08Ir 20Ir 0.2Ir tele-protection based
EF
on earth fault
protection
time delay of
tele-protection based
23 T0_Tele EF s 0.01 10 0.15
on earth fault
protection
current threshold of
24 I_PSB A 0.5 20Ir 2Ir power system
unstability detection
resistance reach of
0.01/0. 120/60 zone 1 of phase to
25 R1_PE Ohm 1/5
05 0 earth distance
protection
reactance reach of
0.01/0. 120/60 zone 1 of phase to
26 X1_PE Ohm 1/5
05 0 earth distance
protection

330
Chapter 25 Appendix

resistance reach of
0.01/0. 120/60 zone 2 of phase to
27 R2_PE Ohm 1.6/8
05 0 earth distance
protection
reactance reach of
0.01/0. 120/60 zone 2 of phase to
28 X2_PE Ohm 1.6/8
05 0 earth distance
protection
resistance reach of
0.01/0. 120/60 zone 3 of phase to
29 R3_PE Ohm 2.4/12
05 0 earth distance
protection
reactance reach of
0.01/0. 120/60 zone 3 of phase to
30 X3_PE Ohm 2.4/12
05 0 earth distance
protection
resistance reach of
0.01/0. 120/60 zone 4 of phase to
31 R4_PE Ohm 3/15
05 0 earth distance
protection
reactance reach of
0.01/0. 120/60 zone 4 of phase to
32 X4_PE Ohm 3/15
05 0 earth distance
protection
resistance reach of
0.01/0. 120/60 zone 5 of phase to
33 R5_PE Ohm 3.6/18
05 0 earth distance
protection
reactance reach of
0.01/0. 120/60 zone 5 of phase to
34 X5_PE Ohm 3.6/18
05 0 earth distance
protection
resistance reach of
0.01/0. 120/60 extended zone 1 of
35 R1Ext_PE Ohm 1.6/8
05 0 phase to earth
distance protection
reactance reach of
0.01/0. 120/60 extended zone 1 of
36 X1Ext_PE Ohm 1.6/8
05 0 phase to earth
distance protection
delay time of zone 1 of
37 T1_PE s 0 60 0 phase to earth
distance protection

331
Chapter 25 Appendix

delay time of zone 2 of


38 T2_PE s 0 60 0.3 phase to earth
distance protection
delay time of zone 3 of
39 T3_PE s 0 60 0.6 phase to earth
distance protection
delay time of zone 4 of
40 T4_PE s 0 60 0.9 phase to earth
distance protection
delay time of zone 5 of
41 T5_PE s 0 60 1.2 phase to earth
distance protection
delay time of extended
zone 1 of phase to
42 T1_Ext_PE s 0 60 0.05
earth distance
protection
resistance reach of
0.01/0. 120/60 zone 1 of phase to
43 R1_PP Ohm 1/5
05 0 phase distance
protection
reactance reach of
0.01/0. 120/60 zone 1 of phase to
44 X1_PP Ohm 1/5
05 0 phase distance
protection
resistance reach of
0.01/0. 120/60 zone 2 of phase to
45 R2_PP Ohm 1.6/8
05 0 phase distance
protection
reactance reach of
0.01/0. 120/60 zone 2 of phase to
46 X2_PP Ohm 1.6/8
05 0 phase distance
protection
resistance reach of
0.01/0. 120/60 zone 3 of phase to
47 R3_PP Ohm 2.4/12
05 0 phase distance
protection
reactance reach of
0.01/0. 120/60 zone 3 of phase to
48 X3_PP Ohm 2.4/12
05 0 phase distance
protection
resistance reach of
0.01/0. 120/60 zone 4 of phase to
49 R4_PP Ohm 3/15
05 0 phase distance
protection

332
Chapter 25 Appendix

reactance reach of
0.01/0. 120/60 zone 4 of phase to
50 X4_PP Ohm 3/15
05 0 phase distance
protection
resistance reach of
0.01/0. 120/60 zone 5 of phase to
51 R5_PP Ohm 3.6/18
05 0 phase distance
protection
reactance reach of
0.01/0. 120/60 zone 5 of phase to
52 X5_PP Ohm 3.6/18
05 0 phase distance
protection
resistance reach of
0.01/0. 120/60 extended zone 1 of
53 R1Ext_PP Ohm 1.6/8
05 0 phase to phase
distance protection
reactance reach of
0.01/0. 120/60 extended zone 1 of
54 X1Ext_PP Ohm 1.6/8
05 0 phase to phase
distance protection
delay time of zone 1 of
55 T1_PP s 0 60 0 phase to phase
distance protection
delay time of zone 2 of
56 T2_PP s 0 60 0.3 phase to phase
distance protection
delay time of zone 3 of
57 T3_PP s 0 60 0.6 phase to phase
distance protection
delay time of zone 4 of
58 T4_PP s 0 60 0.9 phase to phase
distance protection
delay time of zone 5 of
59 T5_PP s 0 60 1.2 phase to phase
distance protection
delay time of extended
zone 1 of phase to
60 T1_Ext_PP s 0 60 0.05
phase distance
protection
current threshold of
I_SOTF_Di manual switch onto
61 A 0.08Ir 2Ir 0.2Ir
st faulty line for
distance+G252

333
Chapter 25 Appendix

zero sequence current


3I0_Dist_P threshold of phase to
62 A 0.1Ir 2Ir 0.1Ir
E earth distance
protection
zero sequence voltage
3U0_Dist_ threshold of phase to
63 V 0.5 60 1
PE earth distance
protection
high current threshold
64 I_Diff High A 0.1Ir 20Ir 0.4Ir of differential
protection
low current threshold
65 I_Diff Low A 0.1Ir 20Ir 0.4Ir of differential
protection
current threshold of
I_Diff TA
66 A 0.1Ir 20Ir 2Ir differential protection
Fail
at CT failure
zero sequence current
I_Diff threshold of zero
67 A 0.1Ir 20Ir 0.2Ir
ZeroSeq sequence differential
protection
delay time of zero
T_Diff
68 s 0.1 60 0.1 sequence differential
ZeroSeq
protection
69 T_DTT s 0 10 0.1 delay time of DTT
convert factor of CT
70 CT Factor 0.2 1 1
ratio
positive sequence
71 XC1 Ohm 40 9000 9000 capacitive reactance
of line
zero sequence
72 XC0 Ohm 40 9000 9000 capacitive reactance
of line
positive sequence
73 X1_Reactor Ohm 90 9000 9000 reactance of shunt
reactor
zero sequence
74 X0_Reactor Ohm 90 9000 9000 reactance of shunt
reactor
Local identified code of local
75 0 65535 0
Address end of line
Opposite identified code of
76 0 65535 0
Address opposite end of line
77 I_OC1 A 0.08Ir 20Ir 2Ir current threshold of

334
Chapter 25 Appendix

overcurrent stage 1
delay time of
78 T_OC1 s 0 60 0.1
overcurrent stage 1
current threshold of
79 I_OC2 A 0.08Ir 20Ir 1Ir
overcurrent stage 2
delay time of
80 T_OC2 s 0 60 0.3
overcurrent stage 2
No.of inverse time
Curve_OC
81 1 12 1 characteristic curve of
Inv
overcurrent
start current of inverse
82 I_OC Inv A 0.08Ir 20Ir 1Ir
time overcurrent
time multiplier of
customized inverse
83 K_OC Inv 0.05 999 1
time characteristic
curve for overcurrent
time constant A of
customized inverse
84 A_OC Inv s 0 200 0.14
time characteristic
curve for overcurrent
time constant B of
customized inverse
85 B_OC Inv s 0 60 0
time characteristic
curve for overcurrent
index of customized
inverse time
86 P_OC Inv 0 10 0.02
characteristic curve for
overcurrent
the angle of bisector of
Degre operation area of
87 Angle_OC 0 90 60
e overcurrent directional
element
the maximum current
Imax_2H_U
88 A 0.25 20Ir 5Ir to release harmornic
nBlk
block
ratio of 2rd harmonic
89 Ratio_I2/I1 0.07 0.5 0.2 to fundamental
component
delay time of cross
T2h_Cross
90 s 0 60 1 block by 2rd
_Blk
harmormic
zero sequence current
91 3I0_EF1 A 0.08Ir 20Ir 0.5Ir threshold of earth fault
protection stage 1

335
Chapter 25 Appendix

delay time of earth


92 T_EF1 s 0 60 0.1
fault protection stage 1
zero sequence current
93 3I0_EF2 A 0.08Ir 20Ir 0.2Ir threshold of earth fault
protection stage 2
delay time of earth
94 T_EF2 s 0 60 0.3
fault protection stage 2
No. of inverse time
Curve_EF
95 1 12 1 characteristic curve of
Inv
earth fault protection
start current of inverse
96 3I0_EF Inv A 0.08Ir 20Ir 0.2Ir time earth fault
protection
time multiplier of
customized inverse
97 K_EF Inv 0.05 999 1 time characteristic
curve for earth fault
protection
time constant A of
customized inverse
98 A_EF Inv s 0 200 0.14 time characteristic
curve for earth fault
protection
time constant B of
customized inverse
99 B_EF Inv s 0 60 0 time characteristic
curve for earth fault
protection
index of customized
inverse time
100 P_EF Inv 0 10 0.02
characteristic curve for
earht fault protection
the angle of bisector of
Degre operation area of zero
101 Angle_EF 0 90 70
e sequnce directional
element
the angle of bisector of
Degre operation area of
102 Angle_Neg 50 90 70
e negative sequnce
directional element
current threshold of
I_Em/BU
103 A 0.08Ir 20Ir 1Ir emergency/backup
OC
overcurrent stage 1

336
Chapter 25 Appendix

delay time of
T_Em/BU
104 s 0 60 0.3 emergency/backup
OC
overcurrent stage 1
No.of inverse time
Curve_Em/ characteristic curve of
105 1 12 1
BU OC Inv emergency/backup
overcurrent
start current of inverse
I_Inv_Em/B time
106 A 0.08Ir 20Ir 1Ir
U OC emergency/backup
overcurrent
time multiplier of
customized inverse
K_Em/BU time characteristic
107 0.05 999 1
OC Inv curve for
emergency/backup
overcurrent
time constant A of
customized inverse
A_Em/BU time characteristic
108 s 0 200 0.14
OC Inv curve for
emergency/backup
overcurrent
time constant B of
customized inverse
B_Em/BU time characteristic
109 s 0 60 0
OC Inv curve for
emergency/backup
overcurrent
index of customized
inverse time
P_Em/BU
110 0 10 0.02 characteristic curve for
OC Inv
emergency/backup
overcurrent
zero sequence current
3I0_Em/BU
111 A 0.08Ir 20Ir 0.2Ir threshold of earth fault
EF
protection stage 1
T_Em/BU delay time of earth
112 s 0 60 0.3
EF fault protection stage 1
No. of inverse time
Curve_Em/ characteristic curve of
113 1 12 1
BU EF Inv emergency/backup
earth fault protection

337
Chapter 25 Appendix

start current of inverse


3I0_Inv_E time
114 A 0.08Ir 20Ir 0.2Ir
m/BU EF emergency/backup
earth fault protection
time multiplier of
customized inverse
K_Em/BU time characteristic
115 0.05 999 1
EF Inv curve for
emergency/backup
earth fault protection
time constant A of
customized inverse
A_Em/BU time characteristic
116 s 0 200 0.14
EF Inv curve for
emergency/backup
earth fault protection
time constant B of
customized inverse
B_Em/BU time characteristic
117 s 0 60 0
EF Inv curve for
emergency/backup
earth fault protection
index of customized
inverse time
P_Em/BU
118 0 10 0.02 characteristic curve for
EF Inv
emergency/backup
earht fault protection
current threshold of
119 I_STUB A 0.08Ir 20Ir 1Ir
STUB protection
delay time of STUB
120 T_STUB s 0 60 1
protection
phase current
threshold of
121 I_SOTF A 0.08Ir 20Ir 2Ir overcurrent element of
switch onto fault
protection
delay time of
T_OC_SOT overcurrent element of
122 s 0 60 0
F switch onto fault
protection
zero sequnce current
123 3I0_SOTF A 0.08Ir 20Ir 0.5Ir threshold of switch
onto fault protection

338
Chapter 25 Appendix

delay time of zero


T_EF_SOT sequce overcurrent of
124 s 0 60 0.1
F switch onto fault
protection
current threshold of
125 I_OL Alarm A 0.08Ir 20Ir 2Ir
overload alarm
T_OL delay time of overload
126 s 0.1 6000 20
Alarm alarm
voltage threshold of
127 U_OV1 V 40 200 65
overvoltage stage 1
delay time of
128 T_OV1 s 0 60 0.3
overvoltage stage 1
voltage threshold of
129 U_OV2 V 40 200 63
overvoltage stage 2
delay time of
130 T_OV2 s 0 60 0.6
overvoltage stage 2
Dropout_O reset ratio of
131 0.9 0.99 0.95
V overvoltage
voltage threshold of
132 U_UV1 V 5 150 40
undervoltage stage 1
delay time of
133 T_UV1 s 0 60 0.3
undervoltage stage 1
voltage threshold of
134 U_UV2 V 5 150 45
undervoltage stage 2
delay time of
135 T_UV2 s 0 60 0.6
undervoltage stage 2
Dropout_U reset ratio of
136 1.01 2 1.05
V undervoltage
current threshold of
137 I_UV_Chk A 0.08Ir 2Ir 0.1Ir
undervoltage
phase current
threshold of circuit
138 I_CBF A 0.08Ir 20Ir 1Ir
breaker failure
protection
zero sequence current
threshold of circuit
139 3I0_CBF A 0.08Ir 20Ir 0.2Ir
breaker failure
protection
negative sequence
current threshold of
140 3I2_CBF A 0.08Ir 20Ir 0.2Ir
circuit breaker failure
protection
delay time of CBF
141 T_CBF1 s 0 32 0
stage 1

339
Chapter 25 Appendix

delay time of CBF


142 T_CBF2 s 0.1 32 0.2
stage 2
delay time of three
T_CBF 1P
143 s 0.05 32 0.1 phase tripping of CBF
Trip 3P
stage 1
zero sequence current
144 3I0_PD A 0 20Ir 0.4Ir threshold of pole
discordance protection
negative sequence
current threshold of
145 3I2_PD A 0 20Ir 0.4Ir
pole discordance
protection
delay time of pole
146 T_PD s 0 60 2
discordance protection
T_Dead delay time of dead
147 s 0 32 1
Zone zone protection
delay time of shot 1 of
148 T_1P AR1 s 0.05 10 0.6
single pole reclosing
delay time of shot 2 of
149 T_1P AR2 s 0.05 10 0.7
single pole reclosing
delay time of shot 3 of
150 T_1P AR3 s 0.05 10 0.8
single pole reclosing
delay time of shot 4 of
151 T_1P AR4 s 0.05 10 0.9
single pole reclosing
delay time of shot 1 of
152 T_3P AR1 s 0.05 60 1.1
three pole reclosing
delay time of shot 2 of
153 T_3P AR2 s 0.05 60 1.2
three pole reclosing
delay time of shot 3 of
154 T_3P AR3 s 0.05 60 1.3
three pole reclosing
delay time of shot 4 of
155 T_3P AR4 s 0.05 60 1.4
three pole reclosing
angle difference
Angle_Syn Degre
156 1 80 30 threshold of
Diff e
synchronizing
voltage difference
157 U_Syn Diff V 1 40 10 threshold of
synchronizing
frequency difference
Freq_Syn
158 Hz 0.02 2 0.05 threshold of
Diff
synchronizing
duration of the circuit
159 T_Action ms 80 500 80 breaker closing
pulse

340
Chapter 25 Appendix

160 T_Reclaim s 0.05 60 3 Reclaim time


T_CB
161 s 0.5 60 1 duration of CB ready
Faulty
162 Times_AR 1 4 1 available shot number
T_Syn delay time of
163 s 0 60 0.05
Check synchronizing
T_MaxSyn duration of quit
164 s 0.05 60 10
Ext synchronizing
T_AR duration of CB
165 s 0.5 60 3
Reset reclosing prepartion
Minimum voltage of
166 Umin_Syn V 30 65 40
synchronizing
Umax_Ener Maximum voltage of
167 V 10 50 30
g unenergizing checking

1.2 Binary setting list

No Default
Setting Min. Max. Description
setting
1 1: VT on line side; 0: VT on bus
VT_Line 0 1 0
side
2 binary input switch active setting
BI SetGrp Switch 0 1 0
group enable(1)/disable(0)
3 Relay Test Mode 0 1 0 Test mode enable(1)/disable(0)
4 Blk Remote block remote control
0 1 0
Access enable(1)/disable(0)
5 phase to phase fault initiate auto
AR Init By 2p 0 1 0
recloser enable(1)/disable(0)
6 three phase fault initiate auto
AR Init By 3p 0 1 1
recloser enable(1)/disable(0)
7 three pole tripping mode
Relay Trip 3pole 0 1 0
enable(1)/disable(0)
8 VT failure detection
VT Fail 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(0)
9 Solid Earthed 0 1 1 solid earthed system(1)
10 CT failure detection
CT Fail 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(0)
11 Func_Broken conduct broken detection
0 1 1
Conduct enable(1)/disable(0)
12 Broken Conduct conduct broken tripping (1)/alarm
0 1 0
Trip (0)
13 weak infeed function
Weak InFeed 0 1 0
enable(1)/disable(0)

341
Chapter 25 Appendix

No Default
Setting Min. Max. Description
setting
14 blocking scheme of
Blocking Mode 0 1 0 tele-protection
enable(1)/disable(0)
15 PUTT scheme of tele-protection
PUR Mode 0 1 0
enable(1)/disable(0)
16 POTT scheme of tele-protection
POR Mode 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(0)
17 tele-protection based on earth
Func_Tele EF 0 1 0 fault protection
enable(1)/disable(0)
18 Inrush block tele-protection based
Tele_EF Inrush on earth fault protection tele
0 1 0
Block protection based on earth fault
protection enable(1)/disable(0)
19 tele-protection based on earth
Tele_EF Init AR 0 1 0 fault protection initiate recloaser
enable(1)/disable(0)
20 distance zone 1
Func_Z1 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(0)
21 distance zone 2
Func_Z2 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(0)
22 distance zone 3
Func_Z3 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(0)
23 distance zone 4
Func_Z4 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(0)
24 distance zone 4 reserve direction
Reverse_Z4 0 1 0
(1)/forward direction(0)
25 distance zone 5
Func_Z5 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(0)
26 distance zone 5 reserve direction
Reverse_Z5 0 1 0
(1)/forward direction(0)
27 distance extended zone 1
Func_Z1Ext 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(0)
28 power swing element block
Z1_PS Blocking 0 1 1 distance zone 1
enable(1)/disable(0)
29 power swing element block
Z2_PS Blocking 0 1 1 distance zone 2
enable(1)/disable(0)
30 power swing element block
Z3_PS Blocking 0 1 1 distance zone 3
enable(1)/disable(0)

342
Chapter 25 Appendix

No Default
Setting Min. Max. Description
setting
31 power swing element block
Z4_PS Blocking 0 1 1 distance zone 4
enable(1)/disable(0)
32 power swing element block
Z5_PS Blocking 0 1 1 distance zone 5
enable(1)/disable(0)
33 power swing element block
Z1Ext_PS
0 1 1 extended distance zone 1
Blocking
enable(1)/disable(0)
34 distance zone 2 instantaneous
Z2 Speedup 0 1 0 tripping at reclosing onto fault
enable(1)/disable(0)
35 distance zone 3 instantaneous
Z3 Speedup 0 1 0 tripping at reclosing onto fault
enable(1)/disable(0)
36 Inrush block the zone 2 or/and 3
Z23 Speedup instantaneous tripping at
0 1 0
Inrush Block recolsing onto fault
enable(1)/disable(0)
37 (0)The direction element is active;
The small rectangular near zero
point is reactive; (1)The direction
Imp.Oper.Zone 0 1 1
element is reactive; The small
rectangular near zero point is
active
38 (0)The direction element is
Test Pos.Imp 0 1 1 active ; (1)The direction element
is reactive
39 overcurrent stage 1
Func_OC1 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(0)
40 overcurrent stage 1 with direction
OC1 Direction 0 1 1
element enable(1)/disable(0)
41 overcurrent stage 1 blcoked by
OC1 Inrush Block 0 1 1
inrush enable(1)/disable(0)
42 overcurrent stage 2
Func_OC2 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(0)
43 overcurrent stage 2 with direction
OC2 Direction 0 1 1
element enable(1)/disable(0)
44 overcurrent stage 2 blcoked by
OC2 Inrush Block 0 1 1
inrush enable(1)/disable(0)
45 inverse time overcurrent
Func_OC Inv 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(0)

343
Chapter 25 Appendix

No Default
Setting Min. Max. Description
setting
46 inverse time overcurrent with
OC Inv Direction 0 1 0 direction element
enable(1)/disable(0)
47 OC Inv Inrush inverse time overcurrent blocked
0 1 0
Block by inrush enable(1)/disable(0)
48 earth fault protection stage 1
Func_EF1 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(0)
49 earth fault protection stage 1 with
EF1 Direction 0 1 1 direction element
enable(1)/disable(0)
50 earth fault protection stage 1
EF1 Inrush Block 0 1 1 bloced by inrush
enable(1)/disable(0)
51 earth fault protection stage 2
Func_EF2 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(0)
52 earth fault protection stage 2 with
EF2 Direction 0 1 1 direction element
enable(1)/disable(0)
53 earth fault protection stage 2
EF2 Inrush Block 0 1 1 bloced by inrush
enable(1)/disable(0)
54 inverse time earth fault protection
Func_EF Inv 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(0)
55 inverse time earth fault protection
EF Inv Direction 0 1 0 with direction element
enable(1)/disable(0)
56 inverse time earth fault protection
EF Inv Inrush
0 1 0 blocked by inrush
Block
enable(1)/disable(0)
57 negative sequence direction
EF U2/I2 Dir 0 1 0 element for eath fault protection
enable(1)/disable(0)
58 earth fault protection stage 1
EF1 Init AR 0 1 0 initiate recloser
enable(1)/disable(0)
59 earth fault protection stage 2
EF2 Init AR 0 1 0 initiate recloser
enable(1)/disable(0)
60 1:backup overcurrent enable; 0:
Func_BU OC 0 1 0
emergency overcurrent enable
61 emergency overcurrent
Func_Em/BU OC 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(0)

344
Chapter 25 Appendix

No Default
Setting Min. Max. Description
setting
62 Em/BU OC Inrush emergency overcurrent blocked
0 1 0
Block by inrush enable(1)/disable(0)
63 Func_Em/BU OC emergency inverse time
0 1 1
Inv overcurrent enable(1)/disable(0)
64 emergency inverse time
Em/BU OC Inv
0 1 0 overcurrent blocked by inrush
Inrush Block
enable(1)/disable(0)
65 1:backup earth fault protection
Func_BU EF 0 enable;0:emergency earth fault
protection enable
66 emergency earth fault protection
Func_Em/BU EF 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(0)
67 emergency earth fault protection
Em/BU EF Inrush
0 1 0 blocked by inrush
Block
enable(1)/disable(0)
68 emergency inverse time earth
Func_Em/BU EF
0 1 1 fault protection
Inv
enable(1)/disable(0)
69 emergency inverse time earth
Em/BU EF Inv
0 1 0 fault protection blocked by inrush
Inrush Block
enable(1)/disable(0)
70 STUB protection
Func_STUB 0 1 0
enable(1)/disable(0)
71 SOTF protection
Func_SOTF 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(0)
72 SOTF protection blocked by
SOTF Inrush Block 0 1 1
inrush enable(1)/disable(0)
73 Func_OL 0 1 1 overload enable(1)/disable(0)
74 overvoltage stage 1
Func_OV1 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(0)
75 overvoltage stage 1 tripping
OV1 Trip 0 1 0
(1)/alarm(0)
76 overvoltage stage 2
Func_OV2 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(0)
77 overvoltage stage 2 tripping
OV2 Trip 0 1 0
(1)/alarm(0)
78 1: phase to earth voltage applied
OV PE 0 1 1 by overvoltage;0: phase to phase
voltage applied by overvoltage
79 undervoltage stage 1
Func_UV1 0 1 0
enable(1)/disable(0)
80 UV1 Trip 0 1 0 undervoltage stage 1

345
Chapter 25 Appendix

No Default
Setting Min. Max. Description
setting
tripping(1)/alarm(0)
81 undervoltage stage 2
Func_UV2 0 1 0
enable(1)/disable(0)
82 undervoltage stage 2
UV2 Trip 0 1 0
tripping(1)/alarm(0)
83 1: phase to earth voltage applied
by undervoltage;0: phase to
UV PE 0 1 1
phase voltage applied by
undervoltage
84 all three phase voltage must be
UV Chk All Phase 0 1 0 less than threshold
enable(1)/disable(0)
85 current threshold for undervoltage
UV Chk Current 0 1 0
enable(1)/disable(0)
86 criterion of state of circuit breaker
UV Chk CB 0 1 0 for undervoltage
enable(1)/disable(1)
87 circuit breaker failure protection
Func_CBF 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(1)
88 delay time three-pole tripping
CBF 1P Trip 3P 0 1 0 when one pole of circuit breaker
failure enable(1)/disable(0)
89 negative sequence current
criterion and zero sequence
CBF Chk 3I0/3I2 0 1 1 current criterion for circuit breaker
failure protection
enable(1)/disable(0)
90 criterion of state of circuit breaker
CBF Chk CB
0 1 0 for circuit breaker failure
Status
protection enable(1)/disable(0)
91 pole discordance protection
Func_PD 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(0)
92 negative sequence current
criterion and zero sequence
PD Chk 3I0/3I2 0 1 0 current criterion for pole
discordance protection
enable(1)/disable(0)
93 dead zone protection
Func_Dead Zone 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(0)
94 single pole reclosing mode
AR_1p mode 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(0)
95 AR_3p mode 0 1 0 three pole reclosing mode

346
Chapter 25 Appendix

No Default
Setting Min. Max. Description
setting
enable(1)/disable(1)
96 complicate reclosing mode
AR_1p(3p) mode 0 1 0
enable(1)/disable(0)
97 AR_Disable 0 1 0 recloser disable
98 overriding synchronization
AR_Override 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(0)
99 AR_EnergChkDLL check dead line and live bus
0 1 0
B enable(1)/disable(0)
100 AR_EnergChkLLD check live line and dead bus
0 1 0
B enable(1)/disable(0)
101 AR_EnergChkDLD check dead line and dead bus
0 1 0
B enable(1)/disable(0)
102 check synchronization
AR_Syn check 0 1 0
enable(1)/disable(0)
103 1:three phase must be energized
AR_Chk3PVol 0 1 0 before single pole reclosing;0:
recloasing without any condition
104 three pole tripping when recoser
is blocked after recloser was
AR Final Trip 0 1 0
initiated due to single pole tripping
enable(1)/disable(0)
105 recloser can be initiated by single
1P CBOpen Init
0 1 0 pole tripping due to mechanical
AR
cause enable(1)/disable(0)
106 recloser can be initiated by three
3P CBOpen Init
0 1 0 pole tripping due to mechanical
AR
cause enable(1)/disable(0)
107 differential protection
Func_Diff Curr 0 1 1
enable(1)/disable(0)
108 Func_Diff Curr sudden change differential
0 1 1
Abrupt protection enable(1)/disable(0)
109 double channels(1)/single
Dual_Channel 0 1 1
channel(0)
110
Master Mode 0 1 1 master mode (1)/ slaver mode (0)

111 Comp Capacitor capacitive current compensation


0 1 0
Cur enable(1)/disable(0)
112 CT failure block differential
Block Diff CT_Fail 0 1 1
protection enable(1)/disable(0)
113 Block 3Ph Diff block three phases(1)/block
0 1 0
CT_Fail broken phase(0)

347
Chapter 25 Appendix

No Default
Setting Min. Max. Description
setting
114 AR initiated by zero sequence
Diff_Zero Init AR 0 1 1
differential protection
115 Channel A apply external clock
Chan_A Ext_Clock 0 1 0
enable(1)/disable(0)
116 Channel A at 64Kb/s
Chan_A 64k Rate 0 1 0
enable(1)/disable(0)
117 Channel B apply external clock
Chan_B Ext_Clock 0 1 0
enable(1)/disable(0)
118 Channel B at 64Kb/s
Chan_B 64k Rate 0 1 0
enable(1)/disable(0)
119 channel loop test mode
Loop Test 0 1 0
enable(1)/disable(0)
120 DTT under startup element
DTT By Startup 0 1 1
control
121 DTT under Zone 2 distance
DTT By Z2 0 1
element control
122 DTT under Zone 3 distance
DTT By Z3 0 1
element control

Note: The two settings, Imp.Oper.Zone and Test Pos.Imp, should set as
1 only for testing. They must be set as 0 in service.

348
Chapter 25 Appendix

2 General report list


Table 168 event report list

No. Abbr. Meaning


(LCD Display)
1. Relay Startup Protection startup
2. Dist Startup Impedance element startup
3. 3I0 Startup Zero-current startup
4. I_PS Startup current startup for Power swing
5. BI Change Binary input change
6. Zone1 Trip Zone I distance trip
7. Zone2 Trip Zone II distance trip
8. Zone3 Trip Zone III distance trip
9. Zone4 Trip Zone distance trip
10. Zone5 Trip Zone distance trip
11. Zone1Ext Trip Zone 1 Extended distance trip
12. Dist SOTF Ttrip distance relay speed up trip after switching on to fault(SOTF)
13. PSB Dist OPTD PSB Distance operated
14. Z2 Speedup Trip Z2 Speedup Trip
15. Z3 Speedup Trip Z3 Speedup Trip
16. Trip Blk AR(3T) Permanent trip for 3-ph tripping failure
17. Relay Trip 3P Trip 3 poles
18. 3P Trip(1T_Fail) three phase trip for 1-ph tripping failure
19. Dist Evol Trip Distance zone 1 evolvement trip
20. Fault Location Fault location
21. Impedance_FL Impedance of fault location
22. Tele_DIST_Trip Tele_DIST trip
23. Tele Evol Trip Tele evolvement trip
24. Carr Stop(Dist) Carrier signal stopped for Dist protection
25. Carr Stop(CBO) Carrier signal stopped for CB open
26. Carr Stop(Weak) Carrier signal stopped for weak-infeed end
27. Carr Send(Dist) Carrier signal sent for Dist protection
28. Carr Send(CBO) Carrier signal sent for Dist protection
29. Carr Send(Weak) Carrier signal sent for weak-infeed end
30. Direct Trip Send Direct Trip Send
31. Direct Trip Recv Direct Trip Receive

349
Chapter 25 Appendix

32. Carr Send(DEF) Send carrier signal in DEF


33. Tele_DEF_Trip Tele_DEF trip
34. Curr Diff Trip Current differential protection trip
35. Zero Diff Trip Zero-sequence current differential protection trip
36. Curr Diff Evol Current differential evolvement trip
37. DTT DTT
38. Tele_Trans1 OPTD Tele transmission 1 operated
39. Tele_Trans2 OPTD Tele transmission 2 operated
40. Tele_Trans1 Drop Tele transmission 1 dropout
41. Tele_Trans2 Drop Tele transmission 2 dropout
42. WeakInfeed Init WeakInfeed initiated
43. OppositeEnd Init Opposite end initiated
44. 3Ph Diff_Curr Current for three phase differential current
45. 3PH Res_Curr Current for three phase restraining current
46. BI_DTT DTT binary input
47. BI_Tele_Trans1 Tele transmission 1 binary input
48. BI_Tele_Trans2 Tele transmission 2 binary input
49. OppositeEnd Trip Opposite end Trip
50. Sample No_Syn sample without synchronization
51. Sample Syn OK sample is synchronized successfully
52. Channel A Data Data from channel A
53. Channel B Data Data from channel B
54. Curr Diff SOTF SOTF on current differential fault
55. EF1 Trip 1st stage EF Trip
56. EF2 Trip 2nd stage EF Trip
57. EF Inv Trip Inverse time stage EF Trip
58. EF SOTF Trip Earth Fault relay speed up after SOTF
59. Em/Bu EF Trip Emergency/Backup Earth Fault Trip
60. Em/Bu EFInv Trip Emergency/Backup Earth Fault inverse time Trip
61. OC Startup Overcurrent Startup
62. OC1 Trip 1st stage Overcurrent startup
63. OC2 Trip 2nd stage Overcurrent startup
64. OC Inv Trip inverse time stage overcurrent Startup
65. OC SOTF Trip Overcurrent relay speed up after SOTF
66. Em/Bu OC Trip Emergency/Backup overcurrent trip
67. Em/Bu OCInv Trip Inverse time stage emergency/Backup overcurrent trip
68. Inrush Blk Inrush blocking
69. STUB Trip STUB trip
70. OV1 Trip 1st stage overvoltageStartup

350
Chapter 25 Appendix

71. OV2 Trip 2nd stage overvoltageStartup


72. UV1 Trip 1st stage undervoltageStartup
73. UV2 Trip 2nd stage undervoltageStartup
74. CBF StartUp CBF Startup
75. CBF1 Trip 1st stage CBF operation
76. CBF2 Trip 2nd stage CBF operation
77. CBF 1P Trip 3P three phase trip for single phase CBF
78. PD Startup Phasor disturbance startup
79. PD Trip Phasor disturbance trip
80. Dead Zone Init Dead zone initiate
81. Dead Zone Trip Dead zone trip
82. BRKN COND Trip Broken conductor protection trip
83. 1st Reclose First reclose
84. 2nd Reclose Second reclose
85. 3rd Reclose Third reclose
86. 4th Reclose Fourth reclose
87. 1Ph Trip Init AR Autoreclose by one phase trip
88. 1Ph CBO Init AR Autoreclose by one phase breaker opening
89. 1Ph CBO Blk AR Autoreclose blocked by one phase breaker opening
90. 3Ph Trip Init AR Autoreclose initiated by three phase trip
91. 3Ph CBO Init AR Autoreclose initiated by three phase breaker opening
92. 3Ph CBO Blk AR Autoreclose blocked by three phase trip
93. Syn Phase Change Synchronizing phase fail
94. AR Block Autoreclose blocked
95. BI MC/AR BLOCK Autoreclose BI blocked
96. Syn Request Synchronizing began
97. AR_EnergChk OK Energing Check ok
98. Syn Failure Synchronizing check failure
99. Syn OK Synchronizing check ok
100. Syn Vdiff fail Voltage difference synchronizing check failed
101. Syn Fdiff fail Frequency difference synchronizing check failed
102. Syn Angdiff fail Angle difference synchronizing check failed
103. EnergChk fail Energizing check failed
104. AR Success Autoreclose success
105. AR Final Trip Final trip for autoreclose
106. AR in progress Autoreclose is in progress
107. AR Failure Autoreclosure failed
108. Relay Reset Relay reset
109. BI SetGroup Mode BI SetGroup Mode

351
Chapter 25 Appendix

Table 169 alarming report list

Abbr.
No Meaning
(LCD Display)

1 3I0 Imbalance 3I0 imbalance


2 3I0 Reverse 3I0 reverse
3 3Ph Seq Err Three phase sequence error
4 AI Channel Err AI channel error
5 AR Mode Alarm Autoreclosure mode alarm
6 Battery Off Battery Off
7 BI_DTT Alarm DTT binary input alarm
8 BI_Init CBF Err CBF initiation BI error
9 BI_V1P_MCB Err V1P_MCB BI alarm
10 BI_V1P_MCB Err V1P_MCB BI alarm
11 BRKN COND Alarm Broken conductor alarm
12 Carr Fail(DEF) Carrier fail in TeleDEF
13 Carr Fail(Dist) Carrier fail in TeleDist
14 CB Err Blk PD Pole discordance blocked by CB error
15 Chan_A Addr Err Channel A address error
16 Chan_A Comm Err Channel A communication error
17 Chan_A Loop Err Channel A loop error
18 Chan_A Samp Err No sampling data for channel A
19 Chan_B Addr Err Channel B address error
20 Chan_B Comm Err Channel B communication error
21 Chan_B Loop Err Channel B loop error
22 Chan_B Samp Err No sampling data for channel B
23 Chan_Loop Enable Channel loop enabled
24 ChanA_B Across Channel A and B across
25 CT Fail CT fail
26 DI Breakdown DI breakdown
27 DI Check Err DI check error
28 DI Comm Fail DI communication error
29 DI Config Err DI configuration error
30 DI EEPROM Err DI EEPROM error
31 DI Input Err DI input error
32 Diff_Curr Alarm Differential current exists for long period
33 DO Breakdown Binary output (BO) breakdown
34 DO Comm Fail DO communication error
35 DO Config Err DO configuration error

352
Chapter 25 Appendix

Abbr.
No Meaning
(LCD Display)

36 DO EEPROM Err DO EEPROM error


37 DO No Response Binary output (BO) no response
38 DoubleChan Test Double channel test
39 EquipPara Err Equipment parameter error
40 FLASH Check Err FLASH check error
41 Func_CurDiff Err Current differential error
42 Func_Dist Blk Distance function blocked by VT fail
43 Func_UV Blk Undervoltage function blocked by VT fail
44 Local CT Fail Local CT fail
45 Meas Freq Alarm Measurement Frequency Alarm
46 NO/NC Discord NO/NC discordance
47 Opposite CommErr Opposite side communication error
48 Opposite CT Fail Opposite CT fail
49 OV/UV Trip Fail Overvoltage / Undervoltage Trip Fail
50 OV1 Alarm 1st stage overvoltage alarm
51 OV2 Alarm 2nd stage overvoltage alarm
52 Overload Overload alarm
53 PD Trip Fail Pole discordance trip fail
54 PhA CB Open Err PhaseA CB position DI error
55 PhB CB Open Err PhaseB CB position DI error
56 PhC CB Open Err PhaseC CB position DI error
57 ROM Verify Err CRC verification for ROM error
58 Sample Err AI sampling data error
59 Set Group Err Pointer of setting group error
60 Setting Err Setting value error
61 Soft Version Err Soft Version error
62 SRAM Check Err SRAM check error
63 SYN Voltage Err Voltage error for synchronizing check
64 Sys Config Err System Configuration Error
65 Tele Mode Alarm Tele Mode Alarm
66 TeleSyn Mode Err Synchronizing mode error
67 Test DO Un_reset Test DO unreset
68 Trip Fail Trip fail
69 U_3rd_Harm Alarm 3rd harmonic wave too large
st
70 UV1 Alarm 1 stage undervoltage alarm
nd
71 UV2 Alarm 2 stage undervoltage alarm

353
Chapter 25 Appendix

Abbr.
No Meaning
(LCD Display)

72 V1P_MCB VT Fail V1P_MCB alarm


73 V3P_MCB VT Fail V3P_MCB alarm
74 VT Fail VT Fail

Table 170 operation report list

Abbr.
No. (LCD Display) Meaning

1. SwSetGroup OK Successful to switch setting group


2. Write Set OK Successful to write setting values
3. WriteEquipParaOK Successful to write equipment parameter
4. WriteConfig OK Successful to write configuration
5. AdjScale OK Successful to adjust scale of AI
6. ClrConfig OK Successful to clear configuration
7. Cpu Reset CPU reset
8. Reset Config Reset configuration
9. Test BO OK Test BO OK
10. VT Recovery VT recovery
11. AdjDrift OK Successful to adjust zero drift of AI
12. Clear All Rpt OK Clear all report OK
13. MeasFreqOK Measurement frequency OK
14. Func_DiffCurr On Differential current protection on
15. FuncDiffCurr Off Differential current protection off
16. Chan_A Tele_Loop Channel A loop on
17. Chan_A Loop Off Channel A loop off
18. Chan_B Tele_Loop Channel B loop on
19. Chan_B Loop Off Channel B loop off
20. Chan_A Comm OK Channel A communication resumed
21. Chan_B Comm OK Channel B communication resumed
22. OppositeEnd On Opposite end on
23. OppositeEnd Off Opposite end off
24. Test mode On Test mode On
25. Test mode Off Test mode Off
26. Func_VT Fail On VT fail function on
27. Func_VT Fail Off VT fail function off
28. Func_Dist On Distance function on

354
Chapter 25 Appendix

Abbr.
No. Meaning
(LCD Display)

29. Func_Dist Off Distance function off


30. Func_PSB On PSB function on
31. Func_PSB Off PSB function off
32. Func_TeleDist On TeleDist function on
33. FuncTeleDist Off TeleDist function off
34. Func_Tele_DEF On TeleDEF function on
35. Func_TeleDEF Off TeleDEF function off
36. Func_EF On EF function on
37. Func_EF Off EF function off
38. Func_EF Inv On Inverse stage EF function on
39. Func_EF Inv Off Inverse stage EF function off
40. Func_OC On OC function on
41. Func_OC Off OC function off
42. Func_OC Inv On Inverse stage OC function on
43. Func_OC Inv Off Inverse stage OC function off
44. Func_BU_OC On BU OC function on
45. Func_BU_OC Off BU OC function off
46. Func_BU_EF On BU EF function on
47. Func_BU_EF Off BU EF function off
48. Func_STUB On STUB function on
49. Func_STUB Off STUB function off
50. Func_SOTF On SOTF function on
51. Func_SOTF Off SOTF function off
52. Func_OV On OV function on
53. Func_OV Off OV function off
54. Func_UV On UV function on
55. Func_UV Off UV function off
56. Func_AR On AR function on
57. Func_AR Off AR function off
58. AR Syn On Syncronizing function on
59. AR Syn Off Syncronizing function off
60. AR EnergChk On Engergizing check function on
61. AR EnergChk Off Engergizing check function off
62. AR Override On Override function on
63. AR Override Off Override function off
64. BI_AR Off AR off BI

355
Chapter 25 Appendix

Abbr.
No. Meaning
(LCD Display)

65. Func_CBF On CBF function on


66. Func_CBF Off CBF function off
67. Func_PD On PD function on
68. Func_PD Off PD function off
69. Func_DZ On DZ function on
70. Func_DZ Off DZ function off

356
Chapter 25 Appendix

3 Typical connection
A. For one breaker of single or double busbar arrangement
A
B
C

Protection IED
a01
b01 IA
a02
b02 IB
* * * a03
b03 IC
a04
b04 IN

a10
UA
a09
UB
b09
UC
b10
UN

a07
b07 U4

Figure 112 Typical connection diagram for one breaker of single or double busbar
arrangement

357
Chapter 25 Appendix

B. For one and half breaker arrangement


A
B
C

* * *

Protection IED
* * * a01
b01 IA
a02
b02 IB
a03
b03 IC
a04
b04 IN

a10
UA
a09
UB
b09
UC
b10
UN

a07
b07 U4

A
B
C

Figure 113 Typical connection diagram for one and half breaker arrangement

358
Chapter 25 Appendix

C. For parallel lines


A
B
C

Protection IED
a01
b01 IA
a02
b02 IB
* * * a03 * * *
b03 IC
a04
b04 IN

a10
UA
a09
UB
b09
UC
b10
UN

a07
b07 U4

a05
b05 INM

Figure 114 Typical connection diagram for parallel lines

359
Chapter 25 Appendix

4 Time inverse characteristic


4.1 11 kinds of IEC and ANSI inverse time
characteristic curves
In the setting, if the curve number is set for inverse time characteristic, which
is corresponding to the characteristic curve in the following tabel. Both IEC
and ANSI based standard curves are available.

Table 171 11 kinds of IEC and ANSI inverse time characteristic

Curves No. IDMTL Curves Parameter A Parameter P Parameter B

1 IEC INV. 0.14 0.02 0

2 IEC VERY INV. 13.5 1.0 0

3 IEC EXTERMELY INV. 80.0 2.0 0

4 IEC LONG INV. 120.0 1.0 0

5 ANSI INV. 8.9341 2.0938 0.17966

6 ANSI SHORT INV. 0.2663 1.2969 0.03393

7 ANSI LONG INV. 5.6143 1 2.18592

8 ANSI MODERATELY
0.0103 0.02 0.0228
INV.

9 ANSI VERY INV. 3.922 2.0 0.0982

10 ANSI EXTERMELY INV. 5.64 2.0 0.02434

11 ANSI DEFINITE INV. 0.4797 1.5625 0.21359

4.2 User defined characteristic


For the inverse time characteristic, also can be set as user defined
characteristic if the setting is set to 12.

360
Chapter 25 Appendix

Equation 25

where:

A: Time factor for inverse time stage

B: Delay time for inverse time stage

P: index for inverse time stage

K: Set time multiplier for step n

361
Chapter 25 Appendix

5 CT requirement

5.1 Overview

In practice, the conventional magnetic- core current transformer (hereinafter


as referred CT) is not able to transform the current signal accurately in whole
fault period of all possible faults because of manufactured cost and
installation space limited. CT Saturation will cause distortion of the current
signal and can result in a failure to operate or cause unwanted operations of
some functions. Although more and more protection IEDs have been
designed to permit CT saturation with maintained correct operation, the
performance of protection IED is still depended on the correct selection of CT.

5.2 Current transformer classification

The conventional CTs are usually manufactured in accordance with the


standard, IEC 60044, ANSI / IEEE C57.13, ANSI / IEEE C37.110 or other
comparable standards, which CTs are specified in different protection class.

Currently, the CT for protection are classified according to functional


performance as follows:

Class P CT

Accuracy limit defined by composite error with steady symmetric primary


current. No limit for remanent flux.

Class PR CT

CT with limited remanence factor for which, in some cased, a value of the
secondary loop time constant and/or a limiting value of the winding
resistance may also be specified.

Class PX CT

Low leakage reactance for which knowledge of the transformer


secondary excitation characteristic, secondary winding resistance,
secondary burden resistance and turns ratio is sufficient to assess its
performance in relation to the protective relay system with which it is to
be used.

Class TPS CT

Low leakage flux current transient transformer for which performance is

362
Chapter 25 Appendix

defined by the secondary excitation characteristics and turns ratio error


limits. No limit for remanent flux

Class TPX CT

Accuracy limit defined by peak instantaneous error during specified


transient duty cycle. No limit for remanent flux.

Class TPY CT

Accuracy limit defined by peak instantaneous error during specified


transient duty cycle. Remanent flux not to exceed 10% of the saturation
flux..

Class TPZ CT

Accuracy limit defined by peak instantaneous alternating current


component error during single energization with maximum d.c. offset at
specified secondary loop time constant. No requirements for d.c.
component error limit. Remanent flux to be practically negligible.

TPE class CT (TPE represents transient protection and electronic type


CT)

5.3 Abbreviations (according to IEC 60044-1, -6, as


defined)
Abbrev. Description
Esl Rated secondary limiting e.m.f
Eal Rated equivalent limiting secondary e.m.f
Ek Rated knee point e.m.f
Uk Knee point voltage (r.m.s.)
Kalf Accuracy limit factor
Kssc Rated symmetrical short-circuit current factor
Kssc Effective symmetrical short-circuit current factor
Kssc based on different Ipcf
Kpcf Protective checking factor
Ks Specified transient factor
Kx Dimensioning factor
Ktd Transient dimensioning factor
Ipn Rated primary current
Isn Rated secondary current
Ipsc Rated primary short-circuit current
Ipcf protective checking current
Isscmax Maximum symmetrical short-circuit current
Rct Secondary winding d.c. resistance at 75 C /
167 F (or other specified temperature)

363
Chapter 25 Appendix

Rb Rated resistive burden


Rb = Rlead + Rrelay = actual connected resistive
burden
Rs Total resistance of the secondary circuit,
inclusive of the secondary winding resistance
corrected to 75, unless otherwise specified,
and inclusive of all external burden connected.
Rlead Wire loop resistance
Zbn Rated relay burden
Zb Actual relay burden
Tp Specified primary time constant
Ts Secondary loop time constant

5.4 General current transformer requirements

5.4.1 Protective checking current

The current error of CT should be within the accuracy limit required at


specified fault current.

To verify the CT accuracy performance, Ipcf, primary protective checking


current, should be chosed properly and carefully.

For different protections, Ipcf is the selected fault current in proper fault
position of the corresponding fault, which will flow through the verified CT.

To guarantee the reliability of protection relay, Ipcf should be the maximum


fault current at internal fault. E.g. maximum primary three phase short-circuit
fault current or single phase earth fault current depended on system
sequence impedance, in different positions.

Moreover, to guarantee the security of protection relay, Ipcf should be the


maximum fault current at external fault.

Last but not least, Ipcf calculation should be based on the future possible
system power capacity

Kpcf, protective checking factor, is always used to verified the CT


performance

To reduce the influence of transient state, Kalf, Accuracy limit factor of CT,
should be larger than the following requirement

364
Chapter 25 Appendix

Ks, Specified transient factor, should be decided based on actual operation


state and operation experiences by user.

5.4.2 CT class

The selected CT should guarantee that the error is within the required
accuracy limit at steady symmetric short circuit current. The influence of short
circuit current DC component and remanence should be considered, based
on extent of system transient influence, protection function characteristic,
consequence of transient saturation and actual operating experience. To fulfill
the requirement on a specified time to saturation, the rated equivalent
secondary e.m.f of CTs must higher than the required maximum equivalent
secondary e.m.f that is calculated based on actual application.

For the CTs applied to transmission line protection, transformer differential


protection with 330kV voltage level and above, and 300MW and above
generator-transformer set differential protection, the power system time
constant is so large that the CT is easy to saturate severely due to system
transient state. To prevent the CT from saturation at actual duty cycle, TP
class CT is preferred.

For TPS class CT, Eal (rated equivalent secondary limiting e.m.f) is generally
determined as follows:

Where

Ks: Specified transient factor

Kssc: Rated symmetrical short-circuit current factor

For TPX, TPY and TPZ class CT, Eal (rated equivalent secondary limiting
e.m.f) is generally determined as follows:

Where

365
Chapter 25 Appendix

Ktd: Rated transient dimensioning factor

Considering at short circuit current with 100% offset

For C-t-O duty cycle,

t: duration of one duty cycle;

For C-t-O-tfr-C-t-O duty cycle,

t: duration of first duty cycle;

t: duration of second duty cycle;

tfr: duration between two duty cycle;

For the CTs applied to 110 - 220kV voltage level transmission line protection,
110 - 220kV voltage level transformer differential protection, 100-200MW
generator-transformer set differential protection, and large capacity motor
differential protection, the influence of system transient state to CT is so less
that the CT selection is based on system steady fault state mainly, and leave
proper margin to tolerate the negative effect of possible transient state.
Therefore, P, PR, PX class CT can be always applied.

For P class and PR class CT, Esl (the rated secondary limited e.m.f) is
generally determined as follows:

Kalf: Accuracy limit factor

For PX class CT, Ek (rated knee point e.m.f) is generally determined as


follows:

Kx: Demensioning factor

For the CTs applied to protection for110kV voltage level and below system,
the CT should be selected based on system steady fault state condition. P
class CT is always applied.

366
Chapter 25 Appendix

5.4.3 Accuracy class

The CT accuracy class should guarantee that the protection relay applied is
able to operate correctly even at a very sensitive setting, e.g. for a sensitive
residual overcurrent protection. Generally, the current transformer should
have an accuracy class, which have an current error at rated primary current,
that is less than 1% (e.g. class 5P).

If current transformers with less accuracy are used it is advisable to check the
actual unwanted residual current during the commissioning.

5.4.4 Ratio of CT

The current transformer ratio is mainly selected based on power system data
like e.g. maximum load. However, it should be verified that the current to the
protection is higher than the minimum operating value for all faults that are to
be detected with the selected CT ratio. The minimum operating current is
different for different functions and settable normally. So each function should
be checked separately.

5.4.5 Rated secondary current

There are 2 standard rated secondary currents, 1A or 5A. Generally, 1 A


should be preferred, particularly in HV and EHV stations, to reduce the
burden of the CT secondary circuit. Because 5A rated CTs, i.e. I2R is 25x
compared to only 1x for a 1A CT. However, in some cases to reduce the CT
secondary circuit open voltage, 5A can be applied.

5.4.6 Secondary burden

Too high flux will result in CT saturation. The secondary e.m.f is directly
proportional to linked flux. To feed rated secondary current, CT need to
generate enough secondary e.m.f to feed the secondary burden.
Consequently, Higher secondary burden, need Higher secondary e.m.f, and
then closer to saturation. So the actual secondary burden Rb must be less
than the rated secondary burden Rb of applied CT, presented

Rb > Rb

The CT actual secondary burden Rb consists of wiring loop resistance Rlead


and the actual relay burdens Zb in whole secondary circuit, which is
calculated by following equation

367
Chapter 25 Appendix

Rb = Rlead + Zb
The rated relay burden, Zbn, is calculated as below:

Where
Sr: the burden of IED current input channel per phase, in VA;

For earth faults, the loop includes both phase and neutral wire, normally twice
the resistance of the single secondary wire. For three-phase faults the neutral
current is zero and it is just necessary to consider the resistance up to the
point where the phase wires are connected to the common neutral wire. The
most common practice is to use four wires secondary cables so it normally is
sufficient to consider just a single secondary wire for the three-phase case.

In isolated or high impedance earthed systems the phase-to-earth fault is not


the considered dimensioning case and therefore the resistance of the single
secondary wire always can be used in the calculation, for this case.

5.5 Rated equivalent secondary e.m.f requirements

To guarantee correct operation, the current transformers (CTs) must be able


to correctly reproduce the current for a minimum time before the CT will begin
to saturate.

5.5.1 Line differential protection

The protection is designed to accept CTs with same characteristic but


different CT ratios between two terminals of feeder. The difference of ratio
should not be more than 4 times.

Because the operating characteristic of the line differential protection is based


on the calculation of fundamental component of current, the CT saturation will
result in too much error of the calculation of differential current and reduce the
security of the protection. The CT applied should meet following requirement.

For 330kV and above transmission line protection, TPY CT is preferred. To


guarantee the accuracy, Kssc should be satisfied following requirement:

Where

368
Chapter 25 Appendix

Ipcf: Maximum primary fundamental frequency fault current at internal faults


(A)

Ipcf: Maximum primary fundamental frequency fault current at external


faults (A)

Considering auto-reclosing operation, Eal should meet the following


requirement, at C-O-C-O duty cycle

Where

Ktd: Recommended transient dimensioning factor for verification, 1.2.


recommended

To 220kV transmission line protection, Class 5P20 CT is preferred. Because


the system time constant is less relatively, and then DC component is less,
the probability of CT saturation due to through fault current at external fault is
reduced more and more.

Esl can be verified as below:

Where

Ks: Specified transient factor, 2 recommended

Only at special case, e.g. short output feeder of large power plant, the PX
class CT is recommended. Ek should be verified based on below equation.

Where

Ks: Specified transient factor, 2 recommended

5.5.2 Transformer differential protection

It is recommended that the CT of each side could be same class and with
same characteristic to guarantee the protection sensitivity.

For the CTs applied to 330kV voltage level and above step-down transformer,
TPY class CT is preferred for each side.

369
Chapter 25 Appendix

For the CTs of high voltage side and middle voltage side, Eal should be
verified at external fault C-O-C-O duty cycle.

For the CT of low voltage side in delta connection, Eal should be verified at
external three phase short circuit fault C-O duty cycle.

Eal must meet the requirement based on following equations:

Where

Ktd: Recommended transient dimensioning factor for verification, 3


recommended

For 220kV voltage level and below transformer differential protection, P Class,
PR class and PX class is able to be used. Because the system time constant
is less relatively, and then DC component is less, the probability of CT
saturation due to through fault current at external fault is reduced more and
more.

For P Class, PR class CT, Esl can be verified as below:

Where

Ks: Specified transient factor, 2 recommended

For PX class CT, Ek can be verified as below:

Where

Ks: Specified transient factor, 2 recommended

5.5.3 Busbar differential protection

The busbar differential protection is able to detect CT saturation in extremely


short time and then block protection at external fault. The protection can
discriminate the internal or external fault in 2-3 ms before CT saturation. So
the currents from different class CT of different feeders are permitted to inject
into the protection relay. The rated secondary e.m.f of CTs is verified by
maximum symmetric short circuit current at external fault.
For P Class, PR class CT,

370
Chapter 25 Appendix

For TP class CT,

Ipcf: Maximum primary short circuit current at external faults (A)

5.5.4 Distance protection

For 330kV and above transmission line protection, TPY CT is preferred. To


guarantee the accuracy, Kssc should be satisfied following requirement:

Where

Ipcf: Maximum primary fundamental frequency current at close-in forward


and reverse faults (A)

Ipcf: Maximum primary fundamental frequency current at faults at the end of


zone 1 reach (A)

Considering auto-reclosing operation, Eal should meet the following


requirement, at C-O-C-O duty cycle

Where

Ktd: Recommended transient dimensioning factor for verification, 3.


recommended for line which length is shorter than 50kM, 5 recommended for
line which length is longer than 50kM

To 220kV voltage and below transmission line protection, P Class CT is


preferred, e.g. 5P20.

Esl can be verified as below:

Where

371
Chapter 25 Appendix

Ks: Specified transient factor, 2 recommended

Only at special case, e.g. short output feeder of large power plant, the PX
class CT is recommended. Ek should be verified based on below equation.

Where

Ks: Specified transient factor, 2 recommended

5.5.5 Definite time overcurrent protection and earth fault


protection

For TPY CT,

Kssc should be satisfied following requirement:

Where

Ipcf: Maximum primary fundamental frequency current at close-in forward


and reverse faults (A)

Ipcf: Maximum applied operating setting value (A)

Considering auto-reclosing operation, Eal should meet the following


requirement, at C-O-C-O duty cycle

Where

Ktd: Recommended transient dimensioning factor for verification, 1.2


recommended

For P Class and PR class CT,

Kalf should be satisfied following requirement:

372
Chapter 25 Appendix

Where

Ipcf: Maximum primary fundamental frequency current at close-in forward


and reverse faults (A)

Ipcf: Maximum applied operating setting value (A)

Esl can be verified as below:

Where

Ks: Specified transient factor, 2 recommended

For PX class CT,

Ek should be verified based on below equation.

Where

Ks: Specified transient factor, 2 recommended

5.5.6 Inverse time overcurrent protection and earth fault


protection

For TPY CT,

Kssc should be satisfied following requirement:

Where

Ipcf: Maximum applied primary startup current setting value (A)

Considering auto-reclosing operation, Eal should meet the following

373
Chapter 25 Appendix

requirement, at C-O duty cycle

Where

Ktd: Recommended transient dimensioning factor for verification, 1.2


recommended

For P Class and PR class CT,

Kalf should be satisfied following requirement:

Where

Ipcf: Maximum applied primary startup current setting value (A)

Esl can be verified as below:

Where

Ks: Specified transient factor, 2 recommended

For PX class CT,

Ek should be verified based on below equation.

Where

Ks: Specified transient factor, 2 recommended

374