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- Exellent !!! we had a lovely time there
- Im proud of you to do this
- Great job !
- Have a nice day
- Wow! She so beautiful
- What look gorgeous !
- What a wonderful performance
- Well,thats great
- How clever you are!

- Thank you
- Im glad you enjoyed it
- Im glad you like it
- Thanks.Do you really think so?
- Thanks a lot

2.Showing Care
- I was deeply sorry to hear that youre sick
- I know how it feels
- Get will son
- Im sorry to hear that
- You look pale
- You look so bad, can I help you?
- Thats awful, I agree with you
- Please accept my condolences

Phrase: Reponses:
- How fortunate - Thank you
- You have done a good work - its very kind of you to say so
- Id be the first to congratulate you on your success - Thanks for you saying
- Please , accept my warmest congratulations - I am glad you think so
- It was really great to hear to hear about - Oh not really
- you are fantastic ! - Nothing to it
- Thats excellentof you
When a noun means only one,it is said to be singular. When a nouns means more than one, it is said to be
1. Formed by adding-s to a singular noun
Example : - book books
-pencil pencils
- cat cat
- dog dogs

2. Formed by adding es ( singular noun ending s,-z,-x,-sh,-ch)

Example:- quiz quizzes
- dish dishes
- witch witches
- box boxes
- glass glasses

3.Formed by changing y to ies ( singular noun ending y preceded by consonant)

Example :- baby babies
- city cities

4.Formed by adding s ( singular noun ending-y preceded by vowel)

Example: - boy boys
- day days

5.Formed by adding es (singular noun ending in o preceded by a consonant)

Example :- here heroes
- tomato tomatoes
6.Some formed by changing f/-ef to ves (singular noun ending in f, -fe)
Example: -wife wives
- beef beeves
- knife knives
7. Some formed by changing f,-fe to s
Example :- roof roofs
- safe safes

Singular Plural
Ox Oxen
Man Men
Goose Geese
Tooth Teeth
Foot Feet
Mouse Mice
1. Positive statements Negative statements
Ex: She is a singer, isnt it?

Negative statements Positive statements

Ex: She is not a singer, is she?

2. Positive Imperatives usually take positive future tags

Ex: come in,will you?

3.Negative imperatives usually take positive future tags

Ex: Dont stand up, wil you?

4.Other forms of modals are also possible

Ex: Open the window,would you?

5.Never,seldom,have negative meaning, so we take positive tag

6. Sometimes tag question are used with Imperatives for Invitations and Request
a. Invitations :we use wont
Ex: come to my party, wont you?
Join us, wont you?
b.Request : we use can, will, would , and shall
Ex: Lets go,shall we?
You can help me do my homework,cant you?

7.With be : - Denada is from Indonesia, isnt she?

- You are lazy, werent you?
- He was lazy, wasnt he?

8.Present tense : - You like watching TV, dont you?

- She wants go to market, does she?

9.Past tense : - Ryan went to library yesterday, didnt he?

- She didnt make a cake last night,did she?

10.Present continuous :- It is shinning brihting,isnt it?

- The boys are walking,arent they?

11.There : - There is a clock in the class, isnt there? - There are many books on the desk,arent there?
-Bagian dari Auxiliary
-Menambah arti kata dalam kalimat |

Example : - Can
- Could
- May
- Might
- Will
- Must , etc

modal yang menyatakan kemampuan
Pattern :
S+ can/could + inf + o/c
Example :
- I can lift the rock
- She could swim fast

Means :
S + to be 1 + able to + inf + C
S + to be 2 + able to + inf + C

Example :
- I can lift the rock
I am able to lift the rock

- She could swim fast

She was able to swim fast

2. Permission
modal yang menyatkan izin
yaitu seseorang mangizinkan orang lan melakukan sesuatu
Pattern :
S + can/may + inf + C
S + could/might + inf + C

- You can go now
- Because of the rain, you might stay here
Means :
S + to be 1 + allowed + to inf + C
S + to be 2 + permitted + to Inf + C

Example :
-You can go now
You are allowed to go now
- Because of the rain,I might stay here yesterday
I was permittedto stay here yesterday

3. Obligation
modal yang manyatakan kewajiban/keharusan

A.Harus/ wajib

have to,
+ has to, + inf +C
had to

Example : I must go to school because today is examination

S + should/ought to + inf + C
Example : Rani should visit her grandmother every week

modal yang menytakan kemungkinan yang akan terjadi saat ini atau pada masa yang akan datang

S + must + inf/be + C
Example :
Ricky has 5 big houses and 5 cars. He must be rich

Means : - Sure
- Certain
- Conclude
Example :
- I am sure he is rich
- I certain he is rich
- I conclude he is rich
B. Mungkin

S + may/might + inf/ be + C

Example : Anto is not at home . He may go to Rimas house

Means : - Perhaps
- Possible
- Probable

Example :
- Anto is not at home . He may go to Rimas house
Means :
- Perhap she goes to the Rimas house

5. Logical Conclusion
modal untuk menarik kesimpulan dari sebuah kejadian

A.Pasti telah

S + must + have + P3/been

Example : Andi got good mark in English

Means: - sure
- certain
- conclude

Example : He must studied hard

Means : - I am sure , He studied hard
- I certain ,he studied hard
- I conclude , he studied hard

B. Mungkin telah

S + may/ might + have + P3/ been

Example : Her room was still dirty. She might have had no time to clean it

Means : - Perhaps
- Possible (bly)
- Probable(bly)
Example : Your grandfather might forgotten your name
Means : Perhaps your grandfather forgot your name

C. Seharusnya telah

S + should + have + P3/been

Example : She failed the test she should have studied harder
Means : kalimat berlawanan dalam bentuk past

Degree Of Comparison
1) Positive Degree (tingkat biasa)
2) Comparative Degree (tingkat lebih)
3) Superlative Degree (tingkat paling)

Example : - Fani has 5 boyfriend

- Anisa has 7 boyfriend
- Gendis has 10 boyfriend

1.Fani is beautiful girl

2.Anisa is more beautiful than Fani
3.Gendis is the most beautiful girl among others

B.Formative of Comparison
1).Comperative Degree
a.Adjective that consist of 1 or 2 syllables added er & then
example: tall taller
Dinda is taller than Delvira

b.Adjective that consists of more than 2 syllabels more & than

example : expensive more expensive
The doll in mall is more expensive than in supermarket

2).Superlatif Degree
a.Adjective that consists 1 or 2 syllabels added est & the
eg: tall tallest
Fira is the tallest student in the class
b. Adjective that consists of more than 2 syllabels added most &the
eg: expensive most expensive
My car is the most expensive car in the world

C.Irregular Comparison ( tingkat perbandingan tak beraturan )

Positive Comparative Superlative Meaning

Good/well Better Best Baik
Bad Worse Worst Buruk
Old Older Oldest Tua (umur )
Old Elder Eldest Tua ( urutan )
Late Later Latest Terlambat
Late Latter Last Akhir
Little Less Least Sedikit
Much More Most Banyak
Many More Most Banyak

Note :
1.Comparison of equality ( Tingka perbandingan setara)
As positive As
ex: Dimas is as smart as Fauzan

2.Comparative and Comparative ( semakin lama semakin )

ex: Fera gets smarter and smarter and smarter in English

3. The comparative, the comparative ( semakin..,semakin.)

ex: - The sooner, the better
- The more handsome you are , the more girls come on you

4.There are some adjectives that consists of one or two syllabels added ,ore in comparartive and most in
There are with siffix ous,-full,-ing,-ed,-et,-nt,-st

Positive Comparative Superlative

Famous More famous Most famous
Honest More honest Most honest
Exact More exact Most exact

5.They are some adjective get er and more in comparative & most in superlative
They are adjective with suffix er,-ow,and some

Positif Comparative Superlative

Clever Cleverer/more clever Cleverest/most clever
Handsome Handsomer/more handsome Handsomest/ most handsome
Relatif Pronoun
Relatif pronouns adalah pronouns / kata ganti benda yang menghubungkan sebuah adjective clause ( anak
kalimat pengganti kata sifat) dengan antercedent nya ( kata benda yang terlatak sebelum kata sifat ).

Perhatikan contoh berikut!

- Tono studies English
- Tono will go abroad next month

Jika kedua kalimat digabung :

- Tono who studies English will go abroad next month
- Tono who will go abroad next month studies English

Kind of Relatif Pronouns adalah :

1.Who : menghubungkan anak kalimat dengan antedent orang (subject)
2.Whom : menghubungkan anak kalimat dengan antedent orang (object)
3.Which : menghubungkan anak kalimat dengan antedent benda (subject/object)
4. That : menghubungkan anak kalimat dengan antedent berupa orang atau benda (subject/object)
5.Whose: menghubungkan anak kalimat dengan antedent orang berupa kepunyaan (passive case)

Example :
-Mr.Hadi lives next door
- Mr.Hadi is very kind
Mr.hadi who lives next door is very kind

-I met Roy Marten yesterday

-Many girls love him
I met Roy marten whom many girls love

-I just bought a car

-It was made in Germany
I just bought a car which was made in Germany

-The man comes to dinner

-He is my fathers old friends
The man that comes to dinner is my fathers old friend

-Mr.Harman likes Jazt Music

-His daughter is very beautiful Mr.Harman whose daughter is very beautiful likes Jazz Music
Purpose : to retell something that happened that in the past and to tell a series of past event

Generic structure
Orientation : who are involved in the story ( the participants) when and where the story happened.

Event : tell what happened in a chronologicsl order

Reorientation: the conclucion of the event

Language Features
- focus on individual people use the word : I, we ,David
- the use of action verbs : went , spent , played
- the use of past tense
- the use of time conjuctions : and,but,finally
- the use adverbs and adverbs of pharses : my house, two days ago

Example :
My Experience
Tthe incident occurred about 8 month ago,precisely on Monday I over sleep. After I woke up quickly
go take a shower and go straight to school without breakfast. I go at 6.30,and at the time if going car will not
start until the end if this car at 6.40 can be switched on and get going.
At a time when many vehides are scrambling trip to the first.Whwn there is a car journey truck that crah
ini two motocycles. It causes a very long traffic jams that can not move a little.The jams occur until around
7.15 a.m andfinally can escapefrom the traffic jams.But it turn out the breakdown does not occur at the
place that was it, the hose a distance of 2 km there is congestion again.Congestion is caused due to a car that
crashed into a tree.Because I was afraid Iwas late to school reckless out of the car and walk. After a long
walk finally my father can finally escape from the traffic jams.And immediately got into the car continue the
Arriving at the school all the students had the line in the field and carry the flag ceremony. I was
nervous because it was the first I came late. Because I was late I had to line up in front of the field. I feel
very embarrassed, it is an unforgotable experiences.
Oleh :
Mutia Amanda