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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

The writer presents about the background of the study including why the

writer chose the topic. Teaching reading through SQ3R strategy for the first year

students of the Kabukarudi Junior High School in academic year 2013-2014 is the

main focus of this study. Therefore, the writer discusses about the subchapter of the

study as follows.

A. Background of the Study

A lot of countries in the world encourage their society to able to use

English as second language. By mastering English, people can get up to date

information from around the world. In present there are many information come to

Indonesia cover through a short of media. For example: by Internet, Television,

Radio, Newspaper and Book.

The writer assumes that people in the good ability in English are able to

comprehend the English text that they read. By reading an English text people can

automatically change they reviews and they will have advance knowledge like other

people from board.

Language is a system of structurally related elements for coding or

meaning (Richard, 1986: 17). Language is a set of grammatical rules with number

of vocabulary items. In this case, the number of vocabulary items means words. A

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writer may communicate with the readers by arranging words into a passage

according to a certain topic.

English has been thought in Indonesia for a long time. Now days,

English is formally foreign language in Indonesia from elementary school level

to university level. It is expected that student will be more familiar to learning

English language its self. Students can learn English by reading English

textbook, for example: magazines, newspapers, novels, and so on. Even though

learning textbook has a specific difficulty to get the meaning of the text; it does

not mean that there is no way to comprehend the text. According to Christine

C.M.Goh and Rita Elaine Silver (2004; 29) second language, refers to any

language learned later in life. It means usually means a language learned after

age 5, and it usually means at least some of the learning is aided by instruction or

schooling. Foreign language is a language which is got, when someone learned

about second language.

The writer chooses this topic because, in this era, in line with new

curriculum, a teacher must be professional. The teacher must have a good

quality, so it is necessary to apply some strategies in the teaching of reading. The

writer chooses SQ3R strategy in the teaching of reading because the strategy has

is it a challenging strategy, and it is seldom used in the teaching of reading to

Junior High School Students.

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B. Reason For Choosing the Topic

Reading is getting the meaning from printed material. This means that

the students read something to know the meaning of printed text. Reading can

use print resources to understand incoming messages or produce out going

message. Some student may read fluently but this does not mean that they

understand the message in reading. Therefore, the students need to use a strategy

in reading text.

In this study the writer find out a number of questions that can be

investigated in details as follows:

1. What is the useful strategy for teaching reading to Junior High School

Student?

2. What techniques of teaching reading are considered to be suitable for Junior

High School students?

3. What are the students difficulties in understanding English text book?

C. Limitation of the Study

The writer limits this study to the teaching reading through SQ3R

strategy for the first year students of junior of Junior High School. The writer

wants to find out the effectiveness of the SQ3R strategy in the teaching of

reading English textbook and use it to understand the contents of the text. The

teacher applies the strategy to improve the students understanding and the writer

tries to survey technique, questionnaires, reading, reciting and reviewing to find

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out whether there is an effectiveness of using SQ3R strategy in the teaching of

reading.

D. Statement of the Problem

Based on the focus of the study and due to limitation of time, the

problem of the study can be stated as follows:

1. To what extent is the reading skill of the students who are taught using SQ3R

strategy?

2. To what extent is the reading skill of the students who are taught without

using SQ3R strategy?

3. Is there any significant differences beween the reading skill of the students

who are taught using SQ3R strategy and those who are taught without using

SQ3R strategy?

E. Objectives of the Study

This research was carried out to:

1. find out the extent of the reading skill in the students who are taught using

SQ3R strategy.

2. find out the extent of the reading skill in the students who are taught witout

using SQ3R strategy.

3. to find out whether or not there is any significant difference between the

students who are taught using SQ3R strategy and the students who are taught

without using SQ3R strategy

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F. Significance of the Study

By doing the study, the writer hopes that the result will hopefully, useful

and helpful for:

1. English teacher

Teacher can improve and develop method of teaching reading

2. Student

To improve the students to study harder, by using reading, they are expected to

be able to develop their competences in reading skill.

3. Reader

To improve the readers about technique of reading English by using good

method.

G. Definition of Key Terms

1. Teaching

Teaching is an activitythat tries to help someoneto acquire

Developing skill, attitude, idea, apperception a language (Slameto, 2003:95).

Here, teaching means someone activities provides the reading ability of the

students in the process of learning.

2. Reading

Reading is the ability to draw meaning from the printed page and interpret this

information appropriately.

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3. Strategy

A method or plan chosen to bring about a desired future, such as achievement

of a goal or solution to a problem.

4. SQ3R

SQ3R exists by Survey, Question, Read, Recite, and Review. This is designed

to help student become more active in their reading and retaininformation more

easily. SQ3R helps make reading purposeful and meaningful, so that students

use their time most effectively.

H. Outline of the Study

The outline of this study is divided into five chapters as follows:

Chapter I, Introduction, consists of Background of the Study, Reason for

Choosing the Topic, Statement of the problem, objective of the Study,

Significance of the study and Definition of Key Terms.

Chapter II, Related Review of Literature, presents the theories dealing with the

application of teaching of reading skill.

Chapter III, Method of the Research, explains about place and time of the

Research, Population, Sample, The Instrument, Design of the Study, technique

of Collecting Data, Technique of Data Analyzing.

Chapter IV, Research Result contains of data description, Data Analysis and

discussion.

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Chapter V, Conclusion and Suggestion, gives the conclusion of the research and

some suggestions based on the study which could be useful for further study.

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A. Research Variable

Students have many purposes in reading, among the others to get a good

score, to pass the exam, to graduate from their school and to provide them with

knowledge to continue their studies to higher level. In order to achieve the goal,

the ability in reading is needed. Nunan (1989 ; 32) says it is important to bear in

mind that reading is an invariant skill, there are different types of reading which

correspond to the many different purpose we have for reading.

One take a many benefits through reading, it is because books can teach

very much, they can serve as inspiration and they can also be a trusted friends. In

short by reading books one can take many advantages for daily life, reading

activities are also important especially for SMP students.

Because through reading, they are will gain knowledge, information,

message and so forth. Therefore student are encourages to read to read as many

books as possible.

A student who will continue his study at higher level really needs

reading ability. We cannot deny that the source of science, literature, news, issue

of education and general knowledge are mostly from foreign countries and most

of them are written in English, a language which is considered as the

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international language, when the students continuous his study at university,

reading ability is urgent, since many reference books are still written in English.

The aim of this discussion is to make the basic assumptions of this study

clear. Besides that, the writer also wants to presents some references to support

the research findings.

B. Reading

Reading is one of the four basic skills in learning language scientific

books or other written media, because by reading we will get information we

need. Reading is the key to learn everything from the past, present or future.

The more reading we do, the more knowledge we will get.

Reading is activity of changing a written text into sounds, and

understanding its meanings. Reading in the wide side sense involves various

skills including how to understand a message of a text, and to make

communication in written forms.

C. The Importance of reading

One take many benefits through reading, it is because books can

teach very much, they can serve as inspiration and they can also because old

and trusted friends. In short by reading books one can take many advantages

for daily life, reading activities are also important especially for SMP (Junior

High School) students.

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Because through reading, they will gain knowledge, information,

message and so forth. Therefore, students are encouraged to read as many

books as possible.

A student who will continue his study at higher level really needs

reading ability. We cannot deny that the source of science, literature, news,

issue of education and general knowledge are mostly from foreign countries

and most of them are written in English, a language which is considered as the

international language, when the students continuous his study at university,

reading ability is urgent, since many reference books are still written in

English.

Actually reading is not only important for supporting further study

but also for general life, for those who do not continuous their study but plan

to look for job. Reading ability is also such a benefit many advertisement of

vacancies in the English is essential and this include reading ability.

That benefit of the students good reading ability may be possible

answer why the Indonesian government gives much time allocation to the

teaching

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D. The definition of reading

The definitions of reading are presents as follows:

1. Reading is process of expressing written language,

2. Reading is an application of a set of cognitive skills for getting a

comprehension of a text.

3. Reading is a process of thinking, or a process of language processing.

4. Reading also has a meaning as a process of a giving meaning for the visual

symbols.

Besides it is a combination of words recognition, intellect, and emotion.

Reading can be defined as a tool for communication for other or us. While

reading, we communicate with meaning of the text we get, and probably inform

it to someone else. Here, reading accuracy is needed to avoid misunderstanding.

This depends on the readers ability in comprehending between the body and the

brain here, because reading is very complex.

Anderson (1969:5) writes that reading is a very complex process. It

requires a high level of muscular coordination, sustained effort and

concentration. But reading is more than just a visual task. Not only does the

reader see and identify the symbols in front of him but also he must interpret

what he reads in the light of his own background, associate it with the past

experience and project it beyond this in terms of ideas, judgment, applications

and conclusions.

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From all the explanations and the definitions above, the writer can

conclude that, basically, reading is an attempt to understand and comprehend the

message set down by the writer to bring meaning and to get meaning from

printed or written materials.

E. The Aims of Reading

The main of reading is to catch the idea or information in paragraph or the

text like what has been stated before, but some of other reading aims will be

mention as follows:

1. Reading of details or fact

Reading to get detail information or fact for example we want to know some

new invest in medical, health, etc.

2. Reading for main idea

Reading to know the reason of some activities idea of human being.

3. Reading for sequenced or organization

We read to know what happen in each part of stories action, etc.

4. Reading for Inference

5. In this order is to find out the conclusion from the action of the idea in the

text.

Reading to classify.

6. Reading to classify is to get information or action of writer in the text or

paragraph.

Reading to evaluate

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7. The reader tries to evaluate the writer has done or what someone tries to

explain or contrast.

8. Reading to compare or contrast

The readers compare the plot of the story or contest, whether having

similarity with self of contrast (Tarigan 1984:8)

F. Stages of Understanding English text

Based on T. M. Whorter Katheleen (2005: 17) there are some suggestions to

strengthen the comprehension of English text.

1. Analyze the time and place which you are reading, its means that by reading

a text we will get message from the text depend on where we are reading and

how long we spend our time to reading the text.

2. Rephrase each paragraph in your own words. You might need to approach

complicated material sentence expressing each in your own words.

3. Read aloud each sentences or section that is particularly. By reading out loud

will makes difficult to understand.

4. Reread difficult or complicated sections. In fact at times, several reading is

appropriate and necessary.

5. Slow down your reading rate. On occasion, simply reading more slowly and

carefully will provide you with the needed boost in comprehension.

6. Write guide question next to heading. Refer to you question frequently

underline and got down or answers.

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7. Write a brief outline of major point. This will help you to see the overall

organization and progression your ideas.

8. Highlight key idea. After you have read a section, go back, think about, and

underline what is important, and his sorting process builds comprehension

and recall.

9. Write notes in the margin. Explain or rephrase difficult complicated ideas or

sections

Reading is a key to step towardsto knowledge barn. Knowledge or

information about knowledge is lying undiscovered in the book. The way to

found the information or knowledge which is lying undiscovered inside the book.

Reading skill, determining the results of the knowledge, its mean that reading

skill is needed, because to understand about the development of knowledge right

now, reading skill is very needed. But sometimes we always face some problem

when we tried to find information or knowledge which lying in the book, because

of lack of knowledge. To overcome the problem, you candetermine if you lack

background of knowledge. When you lack of background information, take

immediate steps to correct problem:

a) Consult other sections or your texts, using the glossary and index.

b) Obtain a more basic text that the reviews fundamental principles and

concepts.

c) Consult reference material (encyclopedias, subject or biographical

dictionaries).

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d) Ask your instructor to recommend additional source, guidebooks, or review

texts.

G. Kinds of reading

There are four kinds of reading

1. Silent reading

Silent reading can be taken into consideration as the reading for

comprehension, because this type of reading needs a deep thought to

understand the contents of a reading passage silently in order to be able to

concentrate on it and keep some important ideas in our minds. Because the

action of reading must be done slowly, so this reading is called silent reading.

2. Reading aloud

This type of reading is also called oral reading, the teacher ask the

students to read a reading text orally and loudly, reading aloud does not need

much thought. In language teaching, reading aloud is very important for the

teacher to apply in order to know and check the students pronunciation

marks. Reading aloud is much used for teaching poetry, poem, dialogue, play

and drama, because these kinds of starts require sounds to be produced.

3. Intensive reading

Intensive reading is reading shorter text to extrac specific information.

This more accuracy involving reading for detail. It is a careful reading. When

we are n the extensive reading, we most be careful of some new or un

familiar words, which are sometimes found in it. This is why, in the intensive

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reading a dictionary must always be with us to look up the meaning of the

unfamiliar words.

The purpose of studying passage in the intensive reading is to

concertrate on a certain point. So if we read a passage carefully, it means that

we read slowly until we understand what we have read. In other words we

read the passage to understand and to comprehend all details of everything

written and printed in it. Teh intensive reading is also called readind

comprehension.

4. Extensive reading

Extensive reading is read liner text, usually for ones own pleasure.

This is a fluency activity, mainly involving global understanding. The

intention of extensive reading is to read for pleasure. It is outside classroom

reading. It can be done by all the students anywhere. The material of

extensive reading may be a magazine, a newspaper, a bulletin, and so on in

which can be increase students knowledge and extend their experience. It is

very important for the teacher to encourage and motivate the students to read

many kinds of outside-classroom scientific textbook.

H. Reading skills

Reading is a way to communicate with others. In this case the writer uses

the arrangement of certain words. Readers may find some messages in the text

from the author who spreads out his/her knowledge to the readers as the receivers

of the message.

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The micro skills of reading comprehension according to Brown (1987:

307) are as follows:

1. Discriminate among the distinctive graphemes and autographic patterns of

English

2. Retain chucks of language of different lengths in short-terms memory

3. Process writing at an efficient rate of speed to suit the purpose,

4. Recognize a core of words order patterns and their significance

5. Recognize grammatical word classes (nouns, verb, etc.) system ( e.g. tense,

agreement, patterns, rules, and elliptical forms ),

6. Recognize that a particular meaning may be expressed in different

grammatical form

7. Recognize cohesive devices in written discourse and their significance for

interpretation,

8. Recognize the communicative function of written text, according to form and

purpose

9. Infer context that is not explicit by using background knowledge

10. Infer links and connection between events, ideas, etc, deduce cause and

effect, and detect such relation as main idea, new information, given

information, generalization, and exemplification

11. Distinguish between literal and implied meanings

12. Detect culturally specific references and interpret them in a context of the

appropriate cultural schemata, and

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13. Develop and use a battery of reading strategies such as scanning and

skimming, detecting discourse markers, guessing the meaning of words from

context, and activating schemata for the interpretation of text.

In this case, reading is not merely comprehending or understanding the

text, but it is also memorizing the text, especially among the student who learns

in Junior High SchoolKabukarudiLamboya, Sumba Barat. They need the skills to

memorizing the text, they read from time to time.

I. Principles Behind Teaching Reading

There are six principles behind teaching reading according Harmer (1998:70):

1. Reading is not a passive skill.

Reading is an incredibly active occupation. To do successfully, the

students have to understand what the word mean, see the pictures the words are

painting, understand the arguments, and work out if they agree with them. If they

do not do these thing-then they only just scratch the surface of the text and

quickly forget it.

2. Students need to be engaged with what they are reading.

Students need to be engaged with the reading text-not actively interested

in what they are doing-are less likely to benefit from it. When they are really

fired up by the topic or the task, they get much more from what is in front of

them.

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3. Students should be encouraged to respond to the content of a reading text, not

just to the language.

Of course, it is important to study reading texts for the way they use

language, the number of paragraphs they contain and how many times they must

give students a chance to respond to that message in the same way.

4. Prediction is a major factor in reading.

When students read text in their own language, they frequently have a

good idea of the content before they actually read. Books covers give them a hint

of what is in the book, photographs and headlines hint at what articles are about

and report look like reports before they read a single word.

5. Match the task to the topic.

Once a decision has been taken about what reading text the students are

going to read, they need to choose good reading tasks the right kind of questions,

engaging and useful puzzles etc. The most interesting text can be undermined by

asking, boring and inappropriate question: the most common place passage can

be made really exciting with imaginative and challenging tasks.

6. Good teachers exploit reading text to the full.

Any reading text is full of sentences, words, idea, description, etc. It does

not make sense just to get students to read it then drop it to move on to

something else. Good teachers integrate the reading text into interesting class

sequences, using the topic discussion and further tasks using the language for

study and activation.

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J. Stages of Teaching Reading

There are three main stages of teaching reading; pre-reading activity, whilst

reading activity and post-reading activity.

1. Pre-reading activity

Pre-reading activity is the activity done before the students read the text

to get the message.

The function of this activity is to lead the students interest to the text and

prepare them to the next stages.

Some activities which the teacher can do before the students read the text

for the message are:

a) To give questions, explanation, or description to arouse the students interest

to the text

b) To give communication activities related to the text.

c) To teach unfamiliar vocabulary.

d) To develop predicting skill.

The teacher should give warm-up, lead in or pre teaching

a. Warm-up

Teacher should give general illustration to the students. For example:

education in Indonesia and then the teacher gives question that refer to the topic

and teacher ask the students to read the text or to listen explanation that contain.

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b. Lead in

The teacher gives illustration of the content the interesting topic. It is

done before teaching by the teacher.

c. Pre teaching

The teacher gives some question to the students. These questions help the

students in understanding about text.

2. Whilst reading activity

Whilst reading activity is the main activity of teaching reading. The only

activity here is to develop the students reading skill.

In this activity reading skill is developed. Here are some guidelines:

a. Select a really new text to the students

b. Use effective techniques to develop a particular skill.

c. Lower the level of difficulty when the students fail to answer the question

d. Accept the students logical answer.

3. Post-reading activity

Post reading activity shows the effect of the students understanding of the text. In

this step the teacher give change to the students to apply their knowledge that is

given before.

K. SQ3R Strategy

Robinson developed the use of SQ3R strategy in 1967. The SQ3R strategy

consists of fife steps. They are Survey, Question, Read, Recite and Review. Robinson

(1964: 27) writes that background of the SQ3R strategy is based on some

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experiments. The students include the followings: A quick survey is done which

speeded up reading and aided retention. SQ3R showed and asking a question, before

starting each section also helped reading. Other experiments showed that the very

rapid forgetting, after reading can be markedly slowed down by the simple expedient

of forcing oneself to recite from memory after reading. Other experiments showed

something as to the best timing of this self-recitation during the study period. Various

studies emphasized the importance of understanding the large meaning in the

selection, and of seeing the pattern of relationship. Outlining, relating that material to

ones interest, and a brief review while reading were shown to help with this. Still

other experiments showed the value of distribution of effort in studying.

SQ3R is a useful technique for fully absorbing written information. It helps

you create a good mental framework of a subject, into which you can fit facts

correctly. It helps you set study goals. It also prompts you to use the review technique

that will help to fix information in your mind.

By using SQ3R to actively read document, you can get the maximum benefit

from your reading time.

This study will explain the steps of the SQ3R method and help you decide

when to use this method. As the acronym SQ3R suggest, the process has five steps.

They are: Survey, Question, Read, Recite, and Review.

1. Survey

This step helps you gather the information necessary to focus on focus to the

chapter and formulate question for yourself as your read the chapter. Is not necessary

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to have answers to your questions at this step of the process. The answer will came

later in the process. This step should take not more than 5-10 minutes but is very

important.

a) Read the title this helps you brain begin to focus on the topic of the chapter.

b) Read the introduction and/or summary. This orients you to how this chapter

fits the authors purpose. It also provides you with an over view of the

authors statement of the most important points.

c) Read each boldface heading and subheading. This helps you create a

framework for the chapter in your mind before you begin to read. This

framework provides a structure for the thoughts and details to come.

d) Review any graphics cards, maps, diagrams, pictures, and other visual aids are

there to make the point. Publisher will not include these items in the book

unless they are deemed to significantly add to the text.

e) Review any reading aids in the chapter. This includes italics, chapter

objectives, definition and study question at the end of the chapter. These aids

are there to help you sort, comprehend and remember. Use them to your

advantage.

2. Question

As you read this section, you will be looking for the answer to your question.

For example, if you are reading a book to help you improve your study and the

heading is use a regular study area, the question you might ask is why should I

have a regular study area be located?

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When your mind is actively searching for answer to question, it becomes

engaged in the learning process. This will helps you remember and understand the

information.

3. Read

Read one section of one chapter at a time, looking for an answer to your

question for that section. Pay attention to bolt and italicized text that authors use to

make important point. Be sure to review everything in the section, including tables,

graphs, and illustrations. As this features can communicate an ideas more powerfully

than written text.

4. Recite

At the end of each section, look up from the text and in your own words recite

and answer to your question for that section. Then write down your answer. Be sure

to provide example that support it.

Now repeat the Question, Read, and Recite steps for each section of the

chapter or assigned reading. First ask a question for the next section. Then read to

find the answer. Finally, recite the answer in your own words and jot it down. The

written question and answers will helps you study in the future.

5. Review

Review is to retest the students understanding about the text. The students

memorize the main points of the text probably in not more than five minutes and do

their test later on. They do not have to be worried about their wrong answer. They do

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not have to feel guilty when they cannot answer the teachers questions because they

forget the statements or main ideas based on the text.

Review is an interactive improvement. Such a movement is needed in this step

because to review means to retest what the students have read. Review combines read

and recite because they have a close relation that helps the students comprehend the

text well.

Based on Francis P. Robinson and cited by Sudarso (2004; 59), SQ3R consists

of Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review.

Survey the students are able to find certain keyword. And they understand the

main ideas of the text.

Question the students are able to make some questions based on the text.

Read the students can get some mean ideas from the text.

Recite the students are able to answer some question based on the text, and are

able to write the mean ideas based on the text.

Review students reread theme or sub theme parts from important text and

make the question what main ideas of the first and second paragraph, or what the text

about, her/him.

According to Robinson, (1994: 78), SQ3R consist of five steps, Survey,

Question, Read, Recite, And Review. The writer will divide this strategy in to three

steps in the class activity:

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1. Pre- reading : survey and question

Spend some time to introduce the topic, ask student to skimming for an

overview of main ideas, scanning, predicting, and student can bring the best of their

knowledge and skills to a text. Students also ask questions about what he or she

wishes to get out of the text.

2. While reading : Read

Ask students to take note while they are reading; give students a sense of

purpose for reading rather than just reading because teacher ordered it.

3. After reading: Recite and Review

Give some questions and ask students to answer the question, vocabulary study,

identifying the authors purpose, examining grammatical structure.

L. Hypothesis

Based on the problem statements that are presented by the writer, the

writer hypothesis is stated as follows:

1. Alternative hypothesis (Ha): there is significant improvement in reading

skill students using SQ3R (Survey, Question, Reading, Review, Recite)

method.

2. Null hypothesis (Ho): there is no significance improvement in reading

skill students using SQ3R (Survey, Question, Reading, Review, Recite)

method.

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CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH

This chapter is discussing the methodology of the research. It included the

place and time of the research, the research design, data collection technique, and

data analysis technique.

Research can be used to analyze and find out the successful and educational

process. The way to get knowledge or solve the problem is called the research

method. It is important to select and use the right research method; because it is able

to make the research process get easier.

Ali (1984:21) says that research method is a way to get knowledge or to solve

the problem that is faced. Method of the study explain about the type of the research,

setting of the research, subject of the research, design of the research, procedure of

the research, techniques of data analysis.

A. Type of the Research

In this study, the writer used experimental research. Experimental research

is a systematic research, logical and accurate in controlling condition. The purpose

is to examine the possibility in relation to cause effect to one or more the

experimental group which gets a treatment condition and to compare the result

with one or more the control group which does not get a treatment condition

(Sudjana, 2005:32).

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B. Setting of the Research

The study was done done on September until November. The writer asked

four times meeting which each durations 1 meeting = 2x45 minutes, the place of

research is in SMP N 1 Kabukarudi, Lamboya, Sumba Barat.

C. Subjects of the Research

1. Population

The beginning step of the experiment is statement of population.

Arikunto (2006:115) state population is whole subject of research . In

addition, Nunan (1992:231) says population is all cases, situations, or

individuals who share one or more characteristics.

The population of the research was the whole of the eighth grade

students at SMP N 1 Kabukarudi, Lamboya Sumba Barat 2013/2014. The

total population 97students, it consisted of 3 classes, it can be seen from the

following table:

Table 1.1`

The students total of SMP N 1Kabukarudi, Lamboya, Sumba Barat

No Class Total students

1 VII A 35

2 VII B 30

3 VII C 30

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2. Sample

After deciding the population, the next step is deciding the sample.

Sample is part of population to be investigated. According to Nunan

(2006:120) stated that sample is a subject of individuals or cases from within

a population.

In the study, the writer used purposive sampling (Sudjana, 2005:55). It

is based on the certain goal which is made by writer and based on the

characteristic of population which had known before.

The procedure is the writer chose two classes as sample because this

study is aimed to find out the difference of mean after the treatment has been

done. Two classes were chosen as sample, those classes are VII A (35

students) and VII C (30 students). So, the total of sample was 65 students.

They are sample because of those classes have not the significant difference

mean in their English achievement for the seventh grade in Academic Year

2013/2041. The samples were the seventh grade students of SMP N 1

Kabukarudi, Lamboya Sumba Barat in Academic Year 2013/2014. The writer

used two classes as sample; those classes are VII A (35 students) as control

class and VII C (30students) as experimental class.

29
D. Design of the Research

To conduct a study we want, first of all we must take a study design.

Study design is a plan for gathering and analyzing the study findings. So, it is

done effectively for the writer to conduct the study.

In this case, the writer compared two cases namely the reading

comprehension between the students taught with SQ3R method and taught

without SQ3R method.

From the study, it can be found whether or not there is significant

difference between the teaching readings of the seven grade students at SMP

N 1 Kabukarudi, Lamboya Sumba Barat in the Academic Year 2013/2014

taught with SQ3R method and taught without SQ3R method.

Table 1.2

Research design

Pre-test Treatment Post-test

T1 X T2

Where:

T1 : to know the students level skill in reading without technique

X : treatment of technique

T2 : to know the students level skill in reading using technique

30
The aim of this design is to know the influence of SQ3R method in the

result of study on the teaching reading: A case of the seven grade students of

SMP N 1 Kabukarudi, Lamboya Sumba Barat in academic years 2013/2014.

E. Instrument of the Research

An instrument is needed to collect the data collection. In this study, the

writer uses a test as an instrument. According to Suprihadi (2001:1), test is a

sample of behavior under controlled or specified condition and aimed at providing

a basis for forming judgment. The test is used to know the teaching reading of the

seven grade student at SMP N 1Kabukarudi, Lamboya, Sumba Barat in Academic

Year 2013/2014 taught with SQ3R method.

The research instrument is an important device to collect the data in this

study. The writer chose a test as an instrument to collect the data.

The writer took a written test, reading comprehension test. The reason for

using written test because written test is testable to all students. It is more

representative, effective, and efficient and it can be more objectively.

The test is 20 items of multiple choices. The multiple choice of the test

type is based on the consideration of student test papers because the correct

answers are just one. Besides that, it will be easier to score students. The time is

allotment is 30 minutes. The test are consist two different text first is recount text

and the second is narrative text.

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F. Methods of Collection Data

The data collection means the way the writer should collect the

information about the problems being examined. To make this study successful

the writers use two ways to collect the data.

1. Library research

The writer tried to find some statements, ideas, and information from

the some books and literature that have relation with this title. The writer

attempts to look for some books that are related to the topic of this final

project. The writer also got the data from the web.

2. Field research

a. Technique of collecting the data

To find out the required data for this final project, the writer gave

written test to the students. They consist of two types, here first give pre-

test to the students. Before giving post-test, the students get treatment. It is

the way to increase students understanding about the material. Second,

give post-test to the students.

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Table 2.1

The table of level achievement

Score Category

85 100 Excellent

70 84 Good

56 60 Fair

45 55 Poor

0 44 Fail

(Arikunto, 2006:245)

b. Procedures of collecting the data

The writer uses some steps to collect the data as follow:

1) The writer asked permission from the head master of SMP N

1Kabukarudi, Lamboya Sumba Barat.

2) The researcher observed and does a research.

3) The writer gave a test to the students by giving a topic.

4) After that, the writers gave score the students and begins to calculate

the result of students level to complete this final project composition.

G. Technique of Data Analysis

Data have been obtained and gathered to be processed and analyzed using

statistical form to test hypothesis and to get the result of study conclusion. Mean

33
is the sum of all the values that occur most frequently. Standard Deviation is a

measure of the dispersion of a set of a score from the mean of the score.

To know the effective students reading skill in reading comprehension

using SQ3R (Survey, Question, Reading, Review, Recite) method the writer

use hypothesis.

The steps to get the result of this final project is to compare of result

pre-test and post-test

In measurement student achievement, the researcher uses the formula:

MD
t0
SE MD

t0 t-value

M D = Mean of Difference

SE MD = Standard Error of Mean of Difference

Before getting the t-test, the first step to analyze the data of the

students reading scores to find mean of score for seventh grade students. It

can be found by using the formula as follows:

D
MD
N

M D = mean of difference

D = the sum of difference between variable 1 (X) and variable 2 (Y), and D

can be found by formula as follow:

D = X-Y

34
N = Number of cases

Then, to find out of standard error mean deviation ( ), the

researcher using formula:

SD D
SE M D
N -1

SE MD = standard Error of Mean of Difference

SD D = standard deviation from the differentiate between variable X and

variable Y,

To find out SDD use formula as follows:

2
D2 D
SD D
N N

N = Number of cases.

(Sudijono, 2010: 305)

35
Prepare a table experiment analysis t-test

Table 2.2

Table experiment analysis t-test

Name of Score of difficulties D D2

subject After get


Before get
treatment (X-Y) (X-Y)2
treatment (X)
(Y)

N= D D
2

Comparing between to (t-test) with tt(t-table)

To know the hypothesis is significance or not, so the result of to

(t-test) should be calculated with tt(t-table)and standard of significance

is 5% or 1% (df or dbdegrees of freedom the result is = N-1). If the

result of to>tt the hypothesis alternative is accepted. Meanwhile to<tt the

hypothesis alternative is not accepted.

36