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Science Class 10 Notes for Our Environment

Introduction

The environment includes our physical surroundings like air (or atmosphere), water bodies, soil (land) and all the organisms such as plants, animals, human beings and micro organisms like bacteria and fungi (called decomposers).

The waste materials produced by the various activities of man and animals are poisonous

to some extent and can be divided into two main groups :

1. Biodegradable wastes, and

2. Non-biodegradable wastes.

Ecosystem

An ecosystem is a self-contained unit of living things (plants, animals and decomposers), and their non-living environment (soil, air and water). e.g. a forest, a pond, a lake, a greenland etc.

There are two components of an ecosystem : biotic component and abiotic component.

Biotic component : It includes three types of organisms:

Producer

Consumer

Decomposer/saprophyte

Abiotic component

Consumers can be further divided into three groups : herbivores, carnivores and omnivores.

Planktons are very minute or microscopic organisms freely floating on the surface of water in a pond, lake, river or ocean. Planktons are of two types : Phytoplanktons and Zooplanktons.

The microscopic aquatic plants freely floating on the surface of water are called phytoplanktons.

The microscopic aquatic animals freely floating on water are called zooplanktons. The freely floating protozoa are an example of zooplankton.

The micro-organisms which break down the complex organic compounds present in dead organisms like dead plants and animals and their products like faeces, urine, etc. into simpler substances are called decomposers.

Food Chains and Webs

The sequence of living organisms in a community in which one organism consumes another organism to transfer food energy, is called a food chain.

A food chain is unidirection where transfer of energy takes place in only one direction.

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In aquatic ecosystem of the biosphere, like fresh water ponds, lakes or sea, the food chain starts with microscopic free floating plants (phytoplankton)

starts with microscopic free floating plants (phytoplankton) The various steps in a food chain at which

The various steps in a food chain at which the transfer of food (or energy) takes place are called trophic levels.

The inter-connected food chains operating in an ecosystem which establish a network of relationships between various species, is called a food web.

How do our activities affect the environment Global Warming

The addition of certain pollutants like the carbon dioxide gases increases the temperature of the earth.

The reduction in the forest cover also contributes to the heating of earth. This is called global warming.

Ozone Layer formation and importance Ozone (O 3 ) is a molecule formed by three atoms of oxygen. Ozone, is a deadly poison. It shields the surface of the earth from ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the Sun. This radiation is highly damaging to organisms.

Ozone at the higher levels ofthe atmosphere is a product of UV radiation acting on oxygen (O 2 ) molecule. The higher energy UV radiations split apart some molecular oxygen (O 2 ) into free oxygen (O) atoms.

The deplation of ozone layer is due to CFC (chloro fluorocarbons).

SOME IMPORTANT POINTS

Flow of materials in an ecosystem is cyclic but flow of energy is unidirectional.

There is a continuous transfer of energy from one trophic level of organisms to the next in a food chain.

Ten percent law states that only 10 percent of the energy entering a particular trophic level of organisms is available for transfer to the next higher trophic level.

The increase in concentration of harmful chemical substances like pesticides in the body of living organisms at each trophic level of a food chain is called biological magnification.

The disposal of waste should be done in a scientific way. There are different methods of waste disposal. The method to be used depends on the nature of the waste. Some of the important modes of waste disposal are :

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(i) Recycling

(ii)

Preparation of compost

(iii)

Incineration

(iv)

Landfill

(v)

Sewage treatment

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Science Class 10 Notes for Carbon and its Compounds

1. Bonding in Carbon

Carbon form covalent bonds.

Formation of covalent bond : Covalent bond formation involves sharing of electrons between bonding atoms which may be either same or different.

Covalency : The number of electrons contributed by an atom for sharing is known as its covalency.

Characteristics of covalent compounds :

(i) These compounds are molecular in nature (i.e. they exist as single molecules)

(ii) These are insoluble in water and soluble in benzene, kerosene and petrol etc.

(iii) These compounds are poor conductor of electricity.

2. Allotropy in Carbon

The property due to which an element exists in two or more forms, which differ in their physical and some ofthe chemical properties is known as “Allotropy” and the various forms are called “Allotropes”.

Carbon exists in two allotropic form (i) crystalline (ii) amorphous. The crystalline forms are diamond and graphite whereas the amorphous forms are coal, charcoal, lamp black etc.

Fullerenes form another class of carbon allotropes. The first one to be identified was C- 60, which has carbon atoms arranged in the shape of a football.

3. Unique Nature of Carbon

Catenation : The property of elements to form long chains or rings by self linking of their own atoms- through covalent bonds is called catenation. The extent of catenation depends upon the strength of the bonds between the atoms involved in catenation.

4. Saturated and Unsaturated Carbon Compounds

In saturated compounds the valencies of all the carbon atoms are satisfied by single bonds between them.

While in the unsaturated compounds, the valencies of all the carbon atoms are not satisfied by single bonds, thus in order to satisfy their valencies, they form double or triple bond between the carbon atoms.

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5. Straight chain compounds : The compounds which contain straight chain of carbon

atoms e.g. normal butane (C 4 H 10 ), normal pentane ( 5 H 12 ) etc.

6. Branched chain compounds : Those compounds which are branched.

e.g. iso-butane (C 4 H 10 ), isopentane (C 5 H 12 ), neopentane (C 5 H 12 ) etc.

7. Closed chain compounds or Ring compounds :

Cyclic compounds are called closed chain or ring compounds e.g. cyclohexane (C 6 H 12 ), cyclopentane (C 5 H 10 ), cyclobutane (C 4 H 8 ), cyclopropane (C 3 H 6 ) etc.

8. Hydrocarbons

All those compounds which contain just carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons.

9. Functional Group

The atom or group of atoms which determine the properties of a compound is known

as functional group. e.g. OH (alcohol), CHO (aldehyde), > C = C < (alkene), CC (alkyne) etc.

10. Homologous Series

A series of compounds in which the same functional group substitutes hydrogen in a carbon

chain is called a homologous series.

e.g. CH 3 C 1 and C 2 H 5 C 1 differ by a CH 2 unit.

11. Nomenclature

Chemists developed a set of rules, for naming organic compounds based on their structures which is known as IUPAC rules.

The IUPAC name of an organic compounds consists of three parts.

Prefix word root Suffix

Word Root : A word root indicates the nature of basic carbon skeleton.

In case a functional group is present, it is indicated in the name of the compound with either as

a prefix or as a suffix.

While adding the suffix to the word root the terminal „e‟ of carbon chain is removed If the carbon chain is unsaturated then the final `ane‟ in the name of the carbon chain is substituted by „en& or yne‟ respectively for double and triple bonds.

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3 | P a g e 12. Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds : (i) Combustion :

12. Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds :

(i) Combustion : Carbon compound undergo combustion reaction to produce CO 2 and H 2 0 with the evolution of heat and light.

CH 4 +O 2 > CO 2 + 2 O + heat and light

(ii) Oxidation :

> CO 2 + 2 O + heat and light (ii) Oxidation : The substance which

The substance which are used for oxidation are known as oxidising agent.

e.g alkaline KMnO 4 , acidified K 2 Cr 2 O 7 .

(iii) Addition reaction :

Unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkenes and alkynes undergo addition reaction in presence of catalysts e.g.

undergo addition reaction in presence of catalysts e.g. www.ncerthelp.com (Visit for all ncert solutions in text

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(iv) Substitution reaction : Saturated hydrocarbons give substitution reaction e.g. methane in presence of sunlight undergo chlorination.

13. Some Important Carbon Compounds

Alcohols : Compounds containing -OH group attached to a carbon atom are known as alcohols.

Example : Ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH) : commonly known as alcohol.

Properties of ethanol :

1. Reaction with sodium : Due to its weakly acidic nature, ethanol reacts with sodium to

librate H 2 gas.

nature, ethanol reacts with sodium to librate H 2 gas. 2. Reaction with conc : H

2. Reaction with conc : H 2 SO 4 :

H 2 gas. 2. Reaction with conc : H 2 SO 4 : Alcohol as a

Alcohol as a fuel : Alcohol (ethanol) is added to petrol upto 20% and the mixture is called “gasol”.

Harmful Effects of Drinking Alcohol :

If the alcohol used for drinking purposes contains some methyl alcohol (CH 3 OH) as impurity then it may cause serious poisoning and loss of eye sight.

It is habit forming and damages liver if taken regularly in large quantities.

Ethanoic Acid (Acetic Acid) CH 3 COOH:

Ethanoic acid, commercially known as acetic acid belongs to a group of acids called carboxylic acid.

Chemical properties :

(i) Reaction with a base :

2CH 3 COOH + 2NaOH → 2CH 3 COONaH 2 O

(ii) Reaction with carbonates and bicarbonates :

2CH 3 COOH + Na 2 CO 3 → 2CH 3 COONa + CO 2 + H 2 O

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CH 3 COOH + NaHCO 3 → CH 3 COONa + H 2 O + CO 2

(iii) Reaction with alcohol : (Esterification)

O + CO 2 (iii) Reaction with alcohol : (Esterification) Esters react is the presence of

Esters react is the presence of an acid or a. base to give back the alcohol and carboxylic acid- this reaction is known as saponification.

14. Soaps and Detergents :

Soaps : Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of long chain acid carboxylic acids.

Detergent : They are ammonium or sulphurate salts of long chain carboxylic acids.

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Science Class 10 Notes for Diversity in living Organisms

1. The production of new organisms from the existing organisms ofthe same species is known as reproduction.

2. Asexual Reproduction : Modes of sexual reproduction used are binary fission,

multiple fission, Budding, spore formation, regeneration, vegetative propagation, tissue culture, fragmentation

3. Sexual Reproduction : In sexual reproduction, a male gamete (germ cells) fuses with a

female gamete to form a new cell called ‘zygote’. This zygote then grows and develop into a new organism in due course of time.

When male gamete and female gamete fuse, they form a zygote and the process is known as fertilization.

Fertilization is of two types :- External fertilization and Internal fertilization.

4. Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants :

Flower is meant essentially for sexual reproduction.

Pollination is the process in which pollen grains are transferred from the anther to stigma of the carpel. It is of two types self pollination and cross-pollination.

In the fertilization process primary endospermic nucleus is formed.

After the fertilization process, ovary developes into the fruit whereas ovules into the seed.

5. Reproduction in Human Being : The sex organ in males are testes and ova in females.

Male reproductive organ consist of a pair of testes, vasdeferens, a pair of epididymis, a pair of ejaculatory duct, urethra, pairs of accessory gland.

Female reproductive part consist of a pair of ovaries, a pair of fallopian tube, uterus, vagina, external genitalia, mammary glands and accessory glands. Ovary produces the female gametes (eggs or ova) and female sex hormone (estrogen).

If sperms are present, fertilization of ovum takes place in the upper end of the fallopian tube.

Bleeding accompanied by discharge of soft tissue lining the reproductive tract is menstrual flow. It last for 3-5 days.

Secretory phase lasts for 12-14 days.

Fertilization process occurs in fallopian tube. In this process zygote is formed. In this process umbilical cord is produced which is attached to foetus. During this

process two hormones are produced which are estrogen and progesterone.

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Progesterone stops mensturation and prevents ovulation. The placenta protects the body against diseases. Due to contraction of uterine muscles young one is expelled and the phenomenon is called parturition.

If the egg is not fertilized, it lives for about one day. Since the ovary releases one egg every month, the uterus also prepares it self every month to recieve a fertilized egg.

After the age of 45-50 years menses stop and process is called menopause.

Fertility control can be done chemically, mechanically or surgically.

6. Reproductive Health Barrier methods

(i) Mechanical barrier method:- They prevent contraception by preventing either sperms from entering uterus or preventing implantation if fertilization has occurred. The instruments are condom, cercival cap, diaphragm & ICDU method.

(ii) Hormonal method: They are used by women for suppressing the production of ovum. i.e. , oral pills, Implants morning after pills.

(iii) Chemical contraception: They are creams, jellies and foaming tables which are placed in vagina for killing the sperms at the time of coitus.

(iv) Surgical techniques:

(a) Vasectomy: The two vasa deferential of the male are blocked by cutting a small piece of

tying the rest. This prevents the passage of sperms from testes to semen.

(b) Tubectomy:A portion of both the fallopian tubes is excised to ligated to block the

passage of ovum

7. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

It is a group of infections caused by different types of pathogens that are transmitted by sexual contact between a healthy person and an infected person. The sexually transmitted diseases are also called venereal diseases (VDs). Some 30 different types of STDs are known. Fol example :

Gonorrhoea, Syphilis, Trichomonas, Genital warts, AIDS.

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Science Class 10 Notes for Heredity and Evolution

1.

The transmission of characters from parent to their off springs is known as heredity.

The study of heredity and variations is known as genetics.

Clones are those organisms which are the carbon copies of one another.

Variation in sexually reproducing organisms are caused due to the following factors like environment, crossing over and recombination of genes and mutation.

The first study of inheritance was done by Gregor Mendel on garden pea.

Paired condition of chromosomes is known as diploid.

Unpaired condition of chromosomes is known as haploid.

DNA (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid), RNA (Ribo Nucleic Acid) is the genetic material in all organisms.

2.

Mendel’s laws of inheritance are

(i) Law of Dominance (ii) Law of Segregation (Law of purjty of gametes) (iii) Law of Independent Assortment

3. Genotype is the composition of genes present in an organism and the characteristic which

is visible in an organism is called its phenotype.

4. When two parents cross (or breed) to produce progeny (or offsprings), then their progeny

is called F1-generation (First Filial Generation) and when the first generation progeny cross among themselves to produce second progeny, then this progeny is called F2-generation or second Filial Generation.

Mendel conducted his famous experiments on garden pea (Pisum sativum).

He used a number of contrasting characters like round / wrinkled seeds, tall/ short plants, white/ violet flowers and so on.

5. During Monohybrid Cross

When tall pea plants are crossed with short pea plants then in Fi generation only tall plants were obtained.

F 2 progeny ofFi tall plants are not all tall but one quarter of them are short indicating that both tallness and shortness traits were inherited in F1 but only tallness trait was expressed due to dominance.

In dihybrid cross two pairs of contrasting characters were considered. Tall plant with round seeds were crossed with short plant with wrinkled seeds. In Fi tall plants with round seeds were obtained. On selfing these F, plants with F 2 produced tall plants with round seeds, short plant with wrinkled seeds and some new combinations (tall plant

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with wrinkled seeds and short plant with rounds seeds) were also obtained. The tall/short trait and round wrinkled traits are independently inherited.

The expression of a particular trait is controlled by gene.

6. DNA is the source of making protein in a cell.

The section of DNA that provides information for one protein is called gene.

7. Physical and Chemical Basis of Heredity

Mendel (1866) said that heredity was controlled by particles, called germinal units, or factors.

8 Sex determination is the process by which the sex of a person is determined.

All human chromosomes are not paired. 22 pairs are called autosomes. Women have a perfect pair of sex chromosomes XX. But men have a mismatched pair XY.

9. Evolution

It is the sequence of gradual changes which take place in the primitive organisms over millions of years in which new species are produced.

A. The evidences of evolution are :

i. Homologous organs, ii. Analogous organs, and

Fossils

B. Theories of Evolution

Jean Baptiste Lamarck gave the first theory of evolution.

Darwin’s Theory of Evolution

Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882) explained the evolutionary principle in his famous book “The origin of species”. The theory proposed by him is popularly known as theory of natural selection or Darwinsim.

The main features of the theory of natural selection are as follows:

(i) Over production (ii) Limited food and space

(iii)

Struggle for Existence

(iv)

Variations

(v) Natural Selection or Survival of the Fittest

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10. Speciation : The process by which new species develop from the existing species is known

as speciation.

The factors which leads to speciation are :

Geographical isolation

Genetic drift and

Variations

11. Classification

Evolutions are of three types :-

(i) Convergent Evolution (ii) Divergent Evolution, and (iii) Parallel Evolution.

12. Fossils : The remains of dead plants or animals that lived in the remote past are known as

fossils.

Various kinds of fossils are : Ammonite, Trilobite and Dinosaur.

13. Evolution by Stages : Evolution of complex organs have taken place bit-by-bit

over generations.

For example eye, feathers of birds have evolved because of survival advantage of intermediate stages.

Thus changes in DNA during reproduction are the main cause of evolution.

14. Human Evolution : All have beings belong to single speceis Homo sapiens, although

there were many races of humans.

They have originated in Africa, some ancestors left Africa and migrated to West Asia, Central Asia, Eurasia South Asia, East Asia, Indonesia, Australia, America, while others stayed there.

Excavating, time-dating, studying fossils, determining DNA Sequences have been used for studying human evolution.

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Science Class 10 Notes for Periodic Classification of Elements

1. Classification means identifying similar species and grouping them together.

2. Lavoisier divided elements into two main types known as metals and non-metals.

3. Doberiner’s Law of Triads:

According to this law, “in certain triads (grout) of three elements) the atomic mass of the central element was the arithmetic mean of the atomic masses of the other two elements.” But in some triads all the threc elements possessed nearly the same atomic masses, therefore the law was rejected.

e.g., atomic masses of Li, Na and K are respectively 7, 23 and 39, thus the mean of atomic masses of I St and 3rd element is

Limitations of Doberiner’s Triads: He could identify only a few such triads and so the law could not gain importance. In the triad ofFe, Co, Ni, all the three elements have a nearly equal atomic mass and thus does not follow the above law

4. Newland’s Law of Octaves:

According to this law “the elements are arranged in such a way that the eighth element starting from a given one has properties which are a repetition of those of the first if arranged in order of increasing atomic weight like the. eight note of musical scale.”

Drawback of Newland’s law of Octaves:

(i) According to Newland only 56 elements exists in nature and no more elements would be discovered in the future. But later on several new element were discovered whose properties did not fit into law of octaves.

(ii) In order to fit new elements into his table Newland adjust two elements in the same column, but put some unlike elements under the same column.

Thus, Newland‟s classification was not accepted.

Mendeleev’s Periodic Table :

Mendeleev arranged 63 elements known at that time in the periodic table. According to Mendeleev “the properties of the elements are a periodic function of their atomic masses.” The table consists of eight vertical column called „groups‟ and horizontal rows called „periods‟.

Merits of Mendeleev’s Periodic Table:

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(i) At some places the order of atomic weight was changed in order to justify the chemical and

physical nature.

(ii) Mendeleev left some gap for new elements which were not discovered at that time.

(iii) One of the strengths of Mendeleev‟s periodic table was that, when inert gases were discovered they could be placed in a new group without disturbing the existing order.

Characteristics of the periodic table : Its main characteristics are :

(i) In the periodic table, the elements are arranged in vertical rows called groups and

horizontal rows called periods.

(ii) There are eight groups indicated by Roman Numerals I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII. The elements belonging to first seven groups have been divided into sub-groups designated as A and B on the basis of similarities. The elements that are present on the left hand side in each group constitute sub-group A while those on the right hand side form sub-group B. Group VIII consists of nine elements arranged in three triads.

(iii) There are six periods (numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6). In order to accomodate more elements, the periods 4, 5, 6 are divided into two halves. The first half ofthe elements are placed in the upper left corners and the second half occupy lower right corners in each box.

Achievements of mendeleev’s periodic table

(i) The arrangement of elements in groups and periods made the study of elements

quite systematic in the sense that if properties of one element in a particular group are known,

those of the others can be easily predicted.

(ii) Prediction of new elements and their properties : Many gaps were left in this table for undiscovered elements. However, properties of these elements could be predicted in advance from their expected position. This helped in the discovery of these elements. The elements silicon, gallium and germanium were discovered in this manner.

(iii) Correction of doubtful atomic masses :

Mendeleev corrected the atomic masses of certain elements with the help of their expected positions and properties.

Limitations of mendeleev’s classification :

(i) He could not assign a correct position of hydrogen in his periodic table, as the properties of

hydrogen resembles both with alkali metals as well as with halogens.

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(ii) The isotopes of the same element will be given different position if atomic number is taken as basis, which will disturb the symmetry of the periodic table.

(iii) The atomic masses do not increases in a regular manner in going from one elements to the

next.

So it was not possible to predict how many elements could be discovered between two elements.

6. Modern Periodic Law : This law was given by Henry Moseley in 1913. it states,

“Properties of the elements are the periodic function of their atomic numbers”.

Cause of periodicity : Periodicity may be defined as the repetition of the similar properties of the elements placed in a group and separated by certain definite gap of atomic numbers.

The cause of periodicity is the resemblance in properties of the elements is the repetition of the same valence shell electronic configuration.

7. Modern Periodic Table

Moseley proposed this modern periodic table and according to which “the physical and chemical properties of elements are periodic function of their atomic number and not the horizontal rows called “periods”. The groups have been numbered 1, 2, 3 …. 18 from left to right.

(ii) The elements belonging to a particular group make a family and usually named after the first member. In a group all the elements contain the same number of valence electrons.

(iii) In a period all the elements contain the same number of shells, but as we move from left to

right the number of valence shell electrons increases by one unit.

The maximum number of electrons that can be accommodated in a shell can be calculated by the formula 2n2 where n is the number of the given shell from the nucleus.

8. Trends in Modern Periodic Table : The trends observed in some important properties of

the elements in moving down the group (from top to bottom of the table) and across a period (from left to right in a period) are discussed below :

(i) Valency : Valency may be defined as the combining capacity of the atom of an element with atoms of other elements in order to acquire the stable configuration (i.e. 8 electron in valence shell. In some special cases it is 2 electrons).

(ii) Atomic size : It refers to the distance between the centre of nucleus of an isolated atom to its outermost shell containing electrons.

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The atomic radius decreases on moving from left to right along a period. This is due to an increase in nuclear charge which tends to pull the electrons closer to the nucleus and reduces the size of the atom.

In a group atomic size decreases from top to bottom due to increase in number of shells.

(iii) Metallic and non-metallic properties : In a period from left to right metallic nature

decreases while non-metallic character increases.

In a group metallic character increases from top to bottom while non-metallic character decrease.

(iv) Electronegativity : The relative tendency of an atom to attract the shared electron pair

of electrons towards itself is called electronegativity.

In a period from left to right, the value of electronegativity increases while in a group from top to bottom the value of electronegativity decreases.

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Science Class 10 Notes for Light (Reflection and Refraction)

1. Ray of Light : A line drawn in the direction of propagation of light is called a ray of light.

2. Beam of Light : A group of rays of light emitted by a source of light is called a beam of

light. A light beam is of three types.

(i) Parallel beam : A group of light rays parallel to each other is known as parallel beam of light. 7.

(ii) Divergent beam : A group of light rays spreading out from a source of light is called

divergent beam of light.

(iii) Convergent beam : A group of light rays meeting at a point is called convergent beam 8. of light.

3. Reflection of Light : There are some surfaces which have ability to send the light back in

the same medium when light strikes it. This 9. phenomena of sending the light back in the same

medium by a surface is called reflection of light.

(i) The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal at the point of incidence, all lie in a same plane.

(ii) The angle of incidence is always equal to the angle of reflection, i = r.

4. Image : When light rays meet or appear to meet after reflection from a mirror,then it is

called an image.

1. Real Image : It is a kind of image which is formed by actual intersection of light rays after

reflection.

2. Virtual Image : It is a kind of image which is formed by producing the reflected rays

backward after reflection.

5. Plane Mirror : Plane mirror is a piece of glass whose one side is polished by using silver

paint, which is covered by a coating of red paint to protect the silver layer.

6. Spherical Mirrors : It is part of hollow glass sphere whose one surface is polished.

There are two types of spherical mirror.

(i) Concave Mirror : It is a spherical mirror whose outer surface is polished and inner or concave side is reflecting surface.

(ii) Convex Mirror : It is a spherical mirror whose inner is polished and outer side or convex

side is the reflecting surface.

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Principal Focus :

A point on the principal axis of a spherical mirror where the rays of light parallel to the principal axis meet or appear to meet after reflection from the mirror.

Focal Length :

The distance between the pole (P) and principal focus(F) of a spherical mirror is called the focal length of the mirror. It is denoted by f.

Uses of Concave Mirror :

(i) It is used as a shaving mirror because when it is placed close to the face, it forms a large

image.

(ii) It is used in solar heating devices like solar cooker, because it converges Sun’s rays over a small area to produce high temperature.

(iii) It is used for security checking purposes.

10. Uses of Convex Mirror :

(i) It is used as rear view mirror in automobiles because it gives erect image as well as

diminished due to which Pt has wider field of view.

(ii) It is also used in street lights.

11. Mirror Formula :

It is a relation between distance of object, distance ofimage from the pole ofthe mirror and it’s focal length, i.e., relation between ‘u’, ‘v and It is given by

i.e., relation between ‘u’, ‘v and It is given by 12. Magnification : It is defined

12. Magnification : It is defined as the ratio of height of image to the height of the object. It is

denoted by letter m.

to the height of the object. It is denoted by letter m. 13. Refraction of Light

13. Refraction of Light : The bending of ray of light when it passes from one medium to

another is called refraction of light.

Laws of Refraction :

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(i) The incident ray, the refracted ray and the normal at the point of incidence all lie in the same plane.

(ii) When a ray of light undergoes refraction then the ratio of sine of angle of incidence to the sine of angle of refraction is constant.

14. The Refractive Index : The refractive index of medium 2 with respect to medium is given

by the ratio of the speed of light in medium 1 and the speed of light in medium 2. This is

usually represented by the symbol n 21 . This can be expressed in an equation form as

n 2 1 . This can be expressed in an equation form as 15. Refraction by

15. Refraction by spherical lenses : Lens is a transparent medium which is formed by

joining two pieces of spherical glass. There are two types of lenses.

(i) Convex Lens : It is a lens which is thicker at the centre and thinner at the edges.

(ii) Concave Lens : It is a lens which is thinner at the centre and thicker at the edges.

16. Terms related to a lens

Optical Centre of Lens : It is the centre of the lens through which light can pass without any deviation.

Principal Axis : It is the line passing through optical centre and is perpendicular to the line joining its edges.

Principal Focus : It is a point on the principal axis where all light rays which are parallel to principal axis either converge or appear to diverge from, after refraction.

17. Lens formula :

appear to diverge from, after refraction. 17. Lens formula : 18. Magnification : Magnification, m =

18. Magnification : Magnification, m = h 2 /h 1

Ratio of height of image to the height of object.

It is also given by v/u i.e., Ratio of distance of image to the distance of object.

i.e., Ratio of distance of image to the distance of object. www.ncerthelp.com (Visit for all ncert

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19. Power of a lens : A beam of light parallel to principal axis either gets converged or diverged after refraction by a lens. Some lenses converge the beam of light to a small extent and some lenses converge it to a large extent. This ability of lens to converge or diverge a beam of light is known as the power of lens.

Si unit of power of lens is dioptre : One dioptre is the power of a lens whose focal length is 1

m.

Power of a combination of two or more lenses :

If two or more lenses are placed together to form a combined lens then the power of this

combined lens is equal to the sum of the powers of individual lenses.

P = P 1 + P 2 + P 3 + ……

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Science Class 10 Notes for The Human Eye and the Colourful World

1. The Human Eye It is a natural optical instrument which is used to see the objects by human beings. It is like a camera which has lens and screen system.

(i) Retina : It is a light sensitive screen inside the eye on which image is formed. It contains rods and cones.

(ii) Cornea : It is a thin membrane which covers the eye ball. It acts like a lens which refracts

the light entering the eye.

(iii)

Aqueous humour : It is fluid which fills the space between cornea and eye lens.

(iv)

Eye lens : It is a Convex lens made of transparent and flexible jelly like material.

Its curvature can be adjusted with the help of ciliary muscles.

(v) Pupil : It is a hole in the middle of iris through which light enters the eye. It appears black

because light falling on it goes into the eye and does not come back.

(vi) Ciliary muscles : These are the muscles which are attached to eye lens and can modify the

shape of eye lens which leads to the variation in focal lengths.

(vii) Iris : It controls the amount of light entering the eye by changing the size of pupil.

(viii) Optical nerve : These are the nerves which take the image to the brain in the form of electrical signals.

2. Accomodation power : The ability of eye to change the focal length of eye lens with

the help of ciliary muscles to get the clear view of nearby objects (about 25 cm) and far distant objects (at infinity).

3. Colour blindness : Some people do not possess some cone cells that respond to certain

specific colours due to genetic disorder.

4. Myopia (Short sightedness) : It is a kind of defect in human eye due to which a person

can see near objects clearly but he can not see the distant objects clearly. Myopia is due to

(i) excessive curvature of cornea. (ii) elongation of eye ball.

5. Hypermetropia (Long sightedness) : It is a kind of defect in human eye due to which a

person can see distant objects properly but cannot see the nearby objects clearly. It happens due to

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(i) decrease in power of eye lens i.e., increase in focal length of eye lens.

(ii) shortening of eye ball.

6.

Presbyopia : It is a kind of defect in human eye which occurs due to ageing. It happens due

to

(i) decrease in flexibility of eye lens.

(ii) gradual weakening of cilliary muscles.

7. Astigmatism : It is a kind of defect in human eye due to which a person cannot see

(focus) simultaneously horizontal and vertical lines both.

8. Cataract : Due to the membrane growth over eye lens, the eye lens becomes hazy or

even opaque. This leads to decrease or loss of vision.

The problem is called cataract. It can be corrected only by surgery.

9. Dispersion of white light by a glass prism : The phenomenon of splitting of white light

into its seven constituent colours when it passes through a glass prism is called dispersion of white light. The various colours seen are Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange and

Red. The sequence of colours remember as•VIBGYOR. The band of seven colours is called spectrum.

10. Composition of white light : White light consists of seven colours i.e., violet, indigo, blue,

green, yellow, orange and red.

11. Monochromatic light: Light consisting of single colour or wavelength is called

monochromatic light, e.g., sodium light

12. Polychromatic light : Light consisting of more than two colours or wavelengths is

called polychromatic light, e.g. white light.

13. Recombination of white light : Newton found that when an inverted prism be placed in

the path of dispersed light then after passing through prism, they recombine to form white light.

14. Formation of rainbow : The water droplets act like small prisms. They refract and disperse the incident sunlight, then reflect it internally, and finally refract it again when it comes out of the raindrop. Due to the dispersion of light and internal reflection, different colours reach the observer’s eye.

15. Atmospheric Refraction : The refraction of light caused by the earth’s atmosphere (having

air layers of varying optical densities) is called atmospheric refraction.

16. Why, the duration of day becomes approximately 4 minutes shorter if there is no

atmosphere on earth : Actual sun rise happens when it is below

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the horizon in the morning. The rays of light from the sun below the horizon reach our eyes because of refraction of light. Similarly, the sun can be seen about few minutes after the actual sun set. Thus the duration of, day time will increase by 4 minutes.

17. Scattering of light : According to Rayleigh’s law of scattering the amount of scattered light α /(wavelength ) 4

So that the wavelength of violet, blue and indigo is small as compared to the rest of the colours. So sky appears blue in colour.

18. Colour of the Sun at sunrise and sunset : At noon, the light of sun travels relatively shorter distance through earth’s atmosphere thus appears white as only a little of blue and violet colours are scattered. Near the horizon, most of the blue light and shorter wavelengths are scattered and sun appears red.

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Science Class 10 Notes for Management of Natural Resources

1. Anything in the environment which can be used is called a natural resource.

Controlling system for the use of natural resources in such a way as to avoid their wastage and to use them in the most effective way is called management of natural resources.

Ganga Action Plan (GAP) was formulated to reduce pollution load of river Ganga by more than 75%. The water quality has been tested from time to time by checking coliform (group of harmless bacteria in human intestine) number/ 100 ml.

2. Forest and wild life :

Forests are vast areas, located far away from human inhabitation where wild plants of various kinds grow and animals of different varieties live without the intervention of humans.

Forests are “biodiversity hot spots”.

A person with an interest or concern in something is called a stakeholder.

(A) To consider the conservation of forests, we need to look at the stakeholders who are :-

(i) The people who live in or around forests, are dependent on forest products for various

aspects of their life.

(ii) The Forest Department of the Government which owns the land and controls the resources

from forests.

(iii) The industrialists from those who use `tendu’ leaves to make bidis to the ones with

paper mills who use various forest produce.

(iv) The wild life and nature enthusiasts who want to conserve nature in its pristine form.

A major programme called silviculture has been started to replenish the forests by growing more trees and plants.

Steps for conservation of energy resources are :

(i)

Save electricity, water etc by not using useless.

(ii)

Use energy efficient electrical appliances to save electricity.

(iii)

Use pressure cooker for cooking food.

(iv)

Use solar cookers.

(v)

Encourage the use of biogas as domestic fuel.

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(vi) Fuel efficient motor vehicle should be designed to reduce consumption of petrol and diesel.

3. Pollution

(A) When coal and petroleum based fuels (like petrol and diesel) are burnt, the products

of combustion are : Carbon dioxide, Water, Sulphur dioxide and Nitrogen oxides and if combustion take place in an insufficient supply of air (or oxygen), then some carbon monoxide is also produced. Out of all the products of combustion of these fuels, only water is harmless and does not affect the environment. All other products are harmful and hence pollute the environment.

(B) The harnessing of water resources by building dams has social, economic

and environmental implications. Alternatives to large dams exist. These are locale-specific and

may be developed so as to give local people control over their local resources.

The fossil fuels, coal and petroleum, will ultimately be exhausted. Because of this and because their combustion pollutes our environment, we need to use these resources judiciously.

The destruction of forests affects not just the availability of forest products but also the quality of soil and the sources of water.

Large scale killing of snakes disrupts the food chains in which snakes occur and creates and imbalance in nature.

The various sources of water which are available to us are: Rains, Rivers, Lakes, Ponds, Wells, Oceans and Glaciers (Snow mountains). Rain is a very important source of water.

The pollution of river water is caused by the dumping of untreated sewage and industrial wastes into it.

The contamination of river water can be usually found from two factors :

(i)

the presence of coliform bacteria in river water, and

(ii)

measurement of pH of river water.

(a)

Rain water harvesting is an age-old practice in India. Water-harvesting techniques

used depend on the location where it is to be used.

Various advantages of water stored in the ground are :-

(i)

The water stored in ground does not evaporate.

(ii)

The water stored in ground spreads out to recharge wells and provides moisture for crops

over a wide area.

(iii) The water stored in ground does not promote breeding of mosquitoes (unlike stagnant

water collected in ponds or artificial lakes).

(iv) The water stored in ground is protected from contamination by human and animal

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(b) Traditional Water Harvesting Systems

3 | P a g e (b) Traditional Water Harvesting Systems www.ncerthelp.com (Visit for all ncert

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