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The Amarna
First part of
conference report...

Sex, serpents
and subterfuge:
Cleopatra in the movies

Our Nine Measures of Magic series concludes

Heka at the Louvre




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Vol 1 Issue 1 Vol 1 Issue 2 Vol 1 Issue 3 Vol 1 Issue 4 Vol 1 Issue 5 Vol 1 Issue 6 Vol 2 Issue 1 Vol 2 Issue 2 Vol 2 Issue 4
Cracking Codes: Undersea Cities King Djoser Science v. The Naming of Queen of Egypt: Nine Measures Neb Re: Flying over Egypt
The Rossetta Egyptology on Valley of the Archaeology Kings Amelia Edwards of Magic A Ramesside The Saladin
Stone the internet Kings Lesson of Egyptian Mapping The Egyptian Official Exhibition
The Mummy Ramesses the Plumbing the Bahareya Museum, Berlin Ancient Egypt Underworld Egyptian Music:: The Amarna
Detectives Great Secrets of the The Temple of ‘Heaven and Hell’ Treasures of the Luxor Museum Doug Irvine Heresy (Part 2)
The Lost Tomb Finding Pharaoh Sphinx Horus Pharaohs

Mar/Apr 2002 May/June 2002 July/August Sept/Oct 2002 Nov/Dec 2002 Jan/Feb 2003 Mar/Apr 2003 May/June 2003 July/Aug 2003
Vol 2 Issue 5 Vol 2 Issue 6 2002 Vol 3 Issue 2 Vol 3 Issue 3 Vol 3 Issue 4 Vol 3 Issue 5 Vol 3 Issue 6 Vol 4 Issue 1
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Humour in Egypt’s female Birds & Beasts of Ballooning above Images Investigators: the return of Charming the at the Brooklyn
Egypt Luxor Coptic Cairo: the the ‘Savants ‘ in France
Ancient Egypt Pharaoh snake and the Museum of Art
Ancient craft skills Hanging Church Egypt Egyptian icon?
The Pharaoh Hatshepsut’s Der El Medina Part 1 Restored The camel’s tale
scorpion Nefertiti: Sun
Hound Red Chapel Egypt’s Emerald Queen

Oct/Nov 2003 Dec/Jan 2003/4 Feb/Mar 2004 April/May 2004 June/July 2004 Aug/Sept 2004 Oct/Nov 2004 Dec/Jan 2004/5
Vol 4 Issue 2 Vol 4 Issue 3 Vol 4 Issue 4 Vol 4 Issue 5 Vol 4 Issue 6 Vol 5 Issue 1 Vol 5 Issue 2 Vol 5 Issue 3
Miu! The Egyptian Exploring Khufu’s Vamping Venus Venus and the Vamp The God Seth What happened Obelisks in Exile How old is the
Cat Story Pyramid Egptianising Art (Pt. 2) Crime and at Meidum? The Canopic Shrine of Sphinx at Giza?
Detroit Institute Desert Images The power of Boats on the Nile Punishment Mummy: Tutankhamun Growing old disgrace-
of Arts The Inside Story The Gilf Kebir & Gilf fully at Deir el Medina
Egyptian burial porphyry The Oriental Howard Carter and
A New Home for the Uweinat The ‘Destruction of
customs The Forty Days Road Institute, Chicago the Goldsmith Mankind’
Petrie Museum

Feb/Mar 2005 Apr/May 2005 June/July 2005 Aug/Sept 2005 Oct/Nov 2005 Dec/Jan 2005/6 Feb/Mar 2006
Vol 5 Issue 4 Vol 5 Issue 5 Vol 5 Issue 6 Vol 6 Issue 1 Vol 6 Issue 2 Vol 6 Issue 3 Vol 6 Issue 4
The Egyptian Royal Dogs in ancient Egypt Tutankhamun’s Queen Meryetamun Rameses II at Ancient Egyptian Granite or Quarzite?
Family ‘The Riddle of the mummy: at Akhmim Gerf Hussian and Sphinxes Rock types in
Discovering the lost Pyramids’ by the CT scan results Dressing Nefertiti the Ramesseum The Temple of Ptah Egyptian sculpting
half of a Papyrus Zahi Hawass The Island of Replica tomb of The Royal Mummy Ancient Egyptian A soul of Nekhen
The tomb of Yuya and Luxor Museum Elephantine Thutmose III in A Victorian view of Medicine Ancient Egypt in
Thuya Ancient Egyptian Edinburgh Egypt A Lion of Madrid
Houses Amenhotep III
ANCIENT Page 42: A recent exhibition at

the Louvre focussed on Heka
and its practitioners. Artefacts
from the Museum's own exten-
sive collection were on view.


Competition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Page 14: The second part of our holiday competition brought to you by AE and AWT.
The Amarna
Heresy con- Photostory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
ference set Stunning new photography of the sites of ancient Egypt.
some old ideas
alongside new Cover feature: The Amarna Heresy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
research; there's The first part of a report on the recent UK conference.
no doubt that
Akhenaten retains Vamp, Victim or Vulture? Cleopatra on Film . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
his appeal. Egypt has long provided a rich source of inspiration for the arts; and no Egyptian more so
than Cleopatra, as Sean McLachlan reports.

Nine Measures of Magic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28

The ancient Egyptians used magical power by word and deed to overcome their enemies,
explains Dr Panagiotis Kousoulis in the last part of our in-depth series.

Who Sings to his Ka every day: Discovering the Music of Ancient Egypt . . . . . .36
Doug Irivine and Miriam Bibby investigate Egyptian musical sources.


Heka at the Louvre...........................................................................................................................42

A recent exhibition complements our 'Nine Measures' series, as Cathie Bryan explains.

Leiden has a new view of Egyptology ....................................................................................48

Leiden's world class Egyptology collection has a new display; and who better to
describe it than Curator Maartin J Raven.

Page 48: Taking centre stage of the Museum of

Leiden's new display is this magnificent statue of
Hatshepsut, reunited from pieces belonging to
Leiden and the Metropolitan Museum, New York.


Page 22: Claudette
Colbert, one of the
many faces of con-
Cleopatra, joins the

ranks of silver screen
goddesses in a look at
how the 'Serpent of the Nile' has been
interpreted by the Hollywood myth-makers.


Editor's Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7

Ancient Egypt News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8

News and Views from the world of Egyptology.

Review Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52

Those Martians finally put in an appearance.
Page 36: Bastet (right)
and musicians (below)
Society Contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
represent the
divine and
Events Diary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
human sides
Events for the winter season.
of Ancient
Netfishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
Fruity pharaohs? Don't ask.


Contents ...........................................................................................................................................................4

Who's who at AE ....................................................................................................................................................6


Back Issues .............................................................................................................................................45

Coming next issue ...........................................................................................................................59





Miriam Bibby BA, M Phil, Cert. Egy.

The Amarna Miriam was educated at Nottingham and Manchester
Heresy: Universities. As a freelance writer, her work has been
First part of
conference report... published in various periodicals in the UK and USA.
She combined her interest in horses and Egyptology
to research her M Phil topic, 'The Horse in Ancient
Egypt'. She is a former editor of 'Hoofprint' and is a
marker for the Manchester University Distance
Sex, serpents
and subterfuge:
Cleopatra in the movies
Learning Certificate.
Our Nine Measures of Magic series concludes
Heka at the Louvre





THIS ISSUE’S Professor Rosalie David BA, PhD, FRSA

COVER PICTURE Professor David is Director of the Mummification
Research Centre at Manchester University, Keeper of
The Amarna period provokes great Egyptology at the Manchester Museum, Director of
interest in students of Egyptology the University of Manchester Egyptology Certificate
and a recent conference outlined and Distance Learning Courses and the first woman
some new - and old - ideas on the professor of Egyptology in the UK. She is the author
reign of Akhenaten and other royals of numerous books and articles on mummies and
of the period. The first part of the the religious practices of the ancient Egyptians, a presenter of TV and radio programmes
conference report can be found in and an extremely popular lecturer all over the world.
this issue of Ancient Egypt maga-
zine. Was Akhenaten a heretic?
Opinion is still strongly divided; but THIS MONTH’S CONTRIBUTORS ARE:
exciting new investigations in the
Valley of the Kings may provide the
possibility to shed further light on Cathie Bryan
Cathie Bryan holds degrees in Anthropology from Hunter
College and in Egyptian Archaeology from the Institute of
Archaeology, UCL, London, as well as a Business Masters from
New York University. She has designed computer databases for
Egyptian art collections, worked on various projects at the
Louvre, Paris (including the exhibition and publication Egypt in
Paris and offers Egyptian-themed walking tours, also in Paris.

Sean McLachlan
Sean McLachlan is an archaeology graduate and journalist based in Tucson,
Arizona, USA, reporting on science, archaeology and political issues. He has
excavated at sites in the Middle East and Missouri. His other passion is for
early cinema and its interpretation of historical themes.

Panagiotis Kousoulis
Dr Kousoulis gained his doctorate from the School of Archaeology,
Classics and Oriental Studies of the University of Liverpool in 1999. He is
now a Research Fellow in the Department of Mediterranean Studies of the
University of the Aegean (Rhodes, Greece).
With thanks to:
Doug Irvine, Dr Maarten Raven, Angela Dennett and Bob Partridge.




ith Amarna in mind as a As I thought of this, while EGYPT
W result of the August examining the original photographic
Amarna Heresy record of the heads of the canopic
Conference, it was likely vessels, an idea began to emerge. We
that thought would turn to some of the have been conditioned into thinking
intriguing issues raised by the period, by earlier research that the heads rep-

and in particular the mysteries of the resent a queen or princess of the peri- Editor:
occupant of tomb KV55. od, be it Tiye or Kiya or another as Miriam Bibby
70 High Street
The battered funerary equip- yet unidentified, which has added to Langholm
ment in the tomb carries references to the mysteries of the KV55. Why do Dumfriesshire
Queen Tiye, mother of Akhenaten. the heads have to represent a female DG13 0JH
The body in the ravaged at all?
coffin has been identified To a modern eye, Tel: 013873 81712
variously as male or the heads do appear com-
female over the years. The “W e have been pletely feminine in Consultant Editor:
canopic vessels were orig- appearance, but there are Professor Rosalie David
inally made for Kiya, wife numerous examples of
of Akhenaten, whose his- conditioned into ancient Egyptian art, from Published by:
Empire Publications
tory is subject to much the Amarna period as well 1 Newton Street,
speculation, and of whom thinking by earlier as other times, that Manchester M1 1HW
we have learned much of deceive in the same way. Tel: 0161 273 7007
the little we do know research that the The eyes are outlined with Fax: 0161 273 5007
since the middle of the kohl (both men and
Advertisement Manager:
twentieth century. heads represent a women wore this) and the Mike Massey
The heads of the Nubian style wig gives the Tel: 0161 928 2997
vessels, however, were queen or impression of long hair Fax: 0161 941 4372
not, it was pointed out by that we tend to associate
two speakers at the confer- more with women than Subscriptions:
ence (David Rohl and Dr princess of men. Kate Schofield
Aidan Dodson) the origi-
nals: they do not fit. They ”
the period...
The Nubian style
wig tends to be associated
Production and Design:
Clive Grace
were presumed, shortly more with Amarna 07929 127827
after the discovery of the women than men.
tomb, to represent Queen Tiye; later However, this is not exclusively the Stuart Fish
they came to be identified as Kiya. case; and in one of the images that is
The body itself has been the most frequently identified as Printed by:
subject of a recent investigation by Smenkhare (assuming his existence) Visual Colour (UK) Ltd,
experts Dr Nasri Iskander and Joyce his figure is shown wearing a similar, 6 Gregson Road,
South Reddish,
Filer, of the British Museum. Even to although shorter, wig. Stockport,
this non-expert eye, the photographs Take another look at the SK5 7SS
of the skull that accompanied the images of the heads of the canopic
description of the investigation in the vessels from tomb KV55, and remove Ancient Egypt is published
Bulletin of the Egypt Exploration the modern prejudices. Take another bi-monthly by Empire
Publications. The contents of
Society were strikingly those of a look too, at images of Tutankhamun. this magazine are fully
robust male individual with an excel- What do you really see? protected by copyright and
lent set of teeth. Separated from the nothing may be reprinted or
body, it has been suggested that the reproduced without permission
skull is that of a different individual. of the editor, Miriam Bibby. The
publishers are not liable for
However, communication with Joyce statements made and opinions
Filer suggests that both body and expressed in this publication.
skull, whether of two different people Miriam Bibby,
or not, are the mortal remains of a Editor. © Miriam Bibby 2001
young man. ISSN : 1470 9990



British Museum hosts major new

Agatha Christie exhibition
To accompany the Agatha throughout the evening.
Christie and Archaeology In addition, Agatha Christie on
Exhibition, the British Museum is Film will present a series of British
hosting a series of events which classics with a special Saturday
begins with the Ancient Near screening of Lawrence of Arabia
East Week from Monday 5th until (10 November) to conclude
- Saturday 10th November 2001. Ancient Near East Week. All films
The season also includes pre- are free and will be screened in
sentations on the latest archaeo- the Clore Education Centre from
logical discoveries in the Delta 14.30. Murder on the Orient
and Upper Egypt covering sites Express (8 November), Evil
over four millennia. The four Under the Sun (9 November),
Thursday lunchtime lectures are The Mirror Crack’d (20
free of charge and start with an December) and, of course, Death
overview of the major discoveries on the Nile (21 December) will
in Egyptian archaeology over the conclude the season to put every-
last two centuries. The lectures one in the mood for Christmas
Donald Wiseman, Agatha Christie, Max Mallowan and Neville include The rediscovery of with a final juicy mystery.
Chittick (left to right ) at Nimrud, 1950. Picture © John Mallowan Ancient Egypt presented by For details contact the British
George Hart (22 November Museum on 020 7323 8000.
A major exhibition hosted by the assistant cleaning and repairing 13.15); Senneferi’s tomb at
British Museum this autumn will objects. Thebes by Nigel Strudwick – (29
celebrate the connection of AE readers will find much to November 13.15); Balamun, site
crime writer Agatha Christie to interest them in this exhibition, of ancient Behdet by Jeffrey
archaeology. Agatha Christie the idea of Dr Charlotte Spencer – (6 December 13.15);
and Archaeology: Mystery in Trümpler who is Curator of and Hierakonpolis with Renée
Mesopotamia will be of interest Classical Archaeology at the Friedman – (13 December 13.15).
to those who have watched or Ruhrland Museum in Essen, There will also be a film festival
read Death on the Nile as well Germany. The items on display which includes a British Museum
as her lesser known works set will include costumes from the Friends Evening Opening of
in Middle Eastern contexts and film Death on the Nile as well Death on the Nile (4 December
with an archaeological element as the Royal Standard of Ur 2001, 18.00 - 21.00). Entry is £5
such as Appointment with and other key archaeological to non members. That evening,
Death and Murder in pieces. The display also promis- there will also be a lecture by
Mesopotamia. es a reconstructed sleeping Henrietta McCall: Agatha Christie:
Agatha Christie was married compartment from an Orient Mystery in Mesopotamia and The
to the archaeologist Max Express train of the early 20th Egyptian Sculpture Gallery, the Book jacket by Robin
Mallowan and spent time work- Century; and visitors could Mummy galleries and the Macartney for the first edition
ing on sites at Ninevah, Ur, and always include a trip to see The Parthenon Sculpture gallery will of Death on the Nile, the
other locations in north eastern Mousetrap if they really don’t all be open. Other events and Crime Club, Collins, 1937
Syria where she worked as an know ‘whodunnit’ yet. workshops will take place © Matthew Pritchard



New Egypt tours by Egypt Colossal task awaits

Society of Bristol German preservation team
Also from the Egypt Society of supporting group has formed an
Bristol comes news of an organi- international charitable founda-
sation dedicated to helping to tion to help raise funds for the
preserve the ‘Colossi of preservation of the area. The
Memnon’ (actually Amenhotep contact details are: The
III) and the surrounding area. A Association of the Friends of the
team from the German Colossi of Memnon, Étude de
Archaeological Institute has Mâitre Nicolas Gagnebin, 2, rue
been working at the mortuary Saint-Laurent, Geneva,
temple of Amenhotep III and a Switzerland.

Amenemhet I and Sesostris I are just two of the pyramids of

Lisht you can visit on a new Tour.

There’s news of a tour to Egypt dates are 7-20 December 2002

organised by the Egypt Society and more information can be
of Bristol that offers an excellent obtained by ringing 0117-942
opportunity to view some of the 1957 after 7.00 pm.
lesser known sites of Egypt as
well as the best known locations.
It’s two weeks long but can be
taken as two separate weeks if
preferred. The first week con- One of the two giant statues which are all that remain of the
centrates on pyramid sites Temple of Amenhotep III.
including Lisht and Abu Rowash
in addition to the expected Giza
and Saqqara, Dahshur and so
Burrell autumn and winter
on; but the second week takes
in a selection of Delta sites
season events
beginning in Alexandria before There's an action packed winter year olds. Belly dancing tutor Ann
progressing to Rashid (Rosetta), season at the Burrell Collection in McLaughlin will be demonstrating
Sais, and finally Tanis. The tour Glasgow to accompany the and teaching dance on Saturday
is led by Dr Aidan Dodson and extended Digging for Dreams 24 November, and on Saturday
the society is able to offer a very exhibition (now until January 10 November there will be a per-
reasonable price for those who A wooden statue excavated 2002). On Sunday 11 and 25 formance of Sands of Time, a
make bookings through it. The from the pyramids at Lisht. November, and 9 December musical produced by GNNG
2001, Egypt will be brought to life Productions by arrangement with
with art and storytelling sessions Scottish Opera. Drawing is fea-
What’s going on in Cairo? for 5 to 11 year olds and 3 to 7 tured on 20 October, with the par-
ticipants contributing to
Visitors to Cairo will find a com- produce large pieces of
prehensive listing of what’s on in Egyptian art.
the city by visiting the pages of For details of these, the and other events, con-
web site of Al Ahram newspaper tact and make book-
which produces a version for ings by calling the
English speakers. The listing Burrell on 0141 287
includes galleries, cinema 2550.
screening and festivals and is a
good way of checking these out Keep up to date with news at Glasgow’s Burrell
in advance of a visit. Museum.



A message from Late news

on Airlines
Dr Mamdouh El-Beltagui and flights
September 2001, and express AE endorses Dr El-Beltagui's The latest news on airlines as
our grief and sincere condo- message of grief and condo- we went to press was that a
lences to the friendly American lence, and his comments on number of carriers stated they
people as well as to the family peace, security and hospitality, would have to cancel their
members and friends of the inno- remembering that many nations flights and ground their planes
cent victims. have directly suffered as a con- due to lack of insurance cover
'Egypt, as a peace-making sequence of these recent events. in the wake of the terrorist
nation, denounces all acts of vio- Additional information provided attack on the USA. UK airlines
lence and terrorism. And as far by the Egyptian government out- were meeting with the Transport
as the tourism industry is con- lines increased security in the Secretary Stephen Byers and
cerned, we have created an wake of the attacks and the can- insurance bosses to see what
extremely secure destination, cellation of the performance of cover could be provided. There
where all visitors enjoy a peace- Aida scheduled for October 'as a were also meetings going on in
As we went to press, AE ful environment. Terrorism repre- gesture of solidarity with the the US and the European
received the following message sents a serious impediment to American nation.' We are also Union; the US government was
from Egypt's Minister of the flourishing of the tourism sec- advised that special help and offering an airline rescue pack-
Tourism, Dr Mamdouh El- tor, which is delicately linked to assistance was provided to the age of $5 billion to try to over-
Beltagui after the recent tragic the notions of peace, security 1,661 tourists from the USA in come the situation.
events in the USA: and hospitality. Egypt on the day of the attack. For further information, check
'We are extremely shocked 'I can assure you that our AE has also received a num- the latest on the BBC news
over the disastrous terrorist country will continue to provide ber of messages from readers website at:
attack which struck the United a safe and secure tourist desti- expressing their grief, shock and
States of America on 11th of nation.' sympathy. lish/business/



doug PT






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‘Eternal Egypt’ exhibition tours world

The Brooklyn Museum of granite lions from Amenhotep The Palace of the
Art is to host, from 23 III's temple at Soleb in Nubia. Legion of Honor,
November 2001 until 24 This piece was restored under San Francisco
February 2002, an exhibi- the rule of King Tutankhamun. (10 August until
tion of over 140 master- There are also items from the 3 November
works of ancient Egyptian Amarna period including a 2002), the
art from the British sculptor's tool for creating Minneapolis
Museum. Eternal Egypt will images of Amarna royalty, this Institute of Art
display items dating from the being a moulded plaster face. (22 December
1st Dynasty until Roman The exhibition's guest curator 2002 until 16
period Egypt, including is Dr Edna Russman, Curator of March 2003), the
colossal statuary. One of the the Department of Egyptian, Field Museum,
oldest objects in the exhibi- Classical and Ancient Middle Chicago (26 April
tion is also one of the tiniest: Eastern Art at the Brooklyn until 10 August
a small ivory plaque deposited Museum of Art. Dr Russman 2003) and the
in the tomb of the first Dynasty also edited the accompanying Walters Art
king, Den. The ancient catalogue which includes contri- Museum, Baltimore
Egyptians skill in working in var- butions by T.G.H. James of the (21 September
ious media including wood will British Museum. 2003 until 4
be celebrated. For further details of the January 2004).
The largest complete item in exhibition contact the Brooklyn
the exhibition is one of the Museum on www.brookly- Also on tour is
magnificent and famous The other venues for this 18th dynasty
Eternal Egypt's tour include the ushabti of King
Head of Amenophis III. dating from 1350 B.C., is just one of the Nelson-Atkins Museum, Kansas Ahmose I -- the earliest known
artefacts at the touring Eternal Egypt Exhibition. City (12 April until 2 July 2002), ushabti of a king.

Obelisks are no drag with ‘ancient kite’

Far Left: The 6,900 pound
obelisk model being lifted,
proving at least that the
Ancient Egyptians could have
moved the obelisks (and
indeed other objects) in
this way.

Left: Video footage taken by

one of the team using a small-
er obelisk and a smaller kite.

Researchers from the American hour) according to a report in obelisk. During the course of the The conclusion was that
science institute, Caltech, came National Geographic Magazine. work, the team discovered that a even without a kite, a drag
up with an interesting new The only technical items metal ankh, 'long assumed to be chute could have lifted the
Egyptology-linked project earlier needed were a kite, a pulley merely (merely? - Ed) a religious obelisk. However, the team
this year. Mory Gharib, an aero- system and a support frame, symbol - makes a very good wondered if there would be suf-
nautics professor and his team, and the kite succeeded in get- carabiner for controlling a kite ficient wind to lift such a thing in
used a kite to raise a 6,900 ting the kite flyer, Eric May, into line' reported National Egypt. Hmmm.
pound (3132.6kg) obelisk to an the air as well. It took about 25 Geographic; but, of course, 'no- Further details can be found
upright position in the desert at seconds to raise the obelisk on one has found any evidence that on a web site at http://
Palmdale. The obelisk is 15 foot the second attempt. Apparently the ancient Egyptians moved
(3m) high and was raised in 22 the team is planning a second stones or any other objects with /news/2001/06/0628_calte-
mile an hour winds (35.4km per project with an even bigger kites and pulleys.' chobelisk.html


3&$03%&% '03




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AMARN at the Louvre
he Amarna Heresy, this year’s joint Davis concluded on the ‘heresy’ issue

There is nothing so inclined
conference offered by ISIS (the that as the Aten is seen in tombs from earlier
to bring out strong feelings Institute for the Study of periods, Akhenaten was not a heretic for intro-
Interdisciplinary Sciences), and SES, ducing the Aten, but rather for the closure of
in the follower of Sussex Egyptology Society, saw a twofold state temples, the banning of traditional gods
increase in delegates and a new venue at the and the removal of the name of Amun from
Egyptology than that brief University of Reading. Despite having a strong monuments; with Nefertiti as co-regent.
theme, the conference was somehow not as
but peculiar period when integrated as last year, with distinct differences The issue of a co-regency
between the presentations on mainstream The first of the lectures offered by Dr Aidan
Akhenaten ruled Egypt Egyptology and those giving more personal Dodson focussed on another co-regency issue –
points of view. that of Akhenaten (as Amenophis IV) and
from his new city of Amenophis III. His own endearingly ‘Vicar of
Akhetaten. Viewed until Akhenaten the Heretic? Bray’ opinion on the subject has now veered (in
John Davis opened on Saturday morning with his own words) towards the ‘qualified view of
recently as a heretical and the rueful comment that he was aware that this a co-regency’, citing recent work by Ray
was the ‘death slot’ as warm-up man for the fol- Johnson in support of this.
disparate outgrowth from lowing lecturers; nonetheless, his well-received The divinisation of both Amenhotep
presentation gave a very necessary outline of III and Queen Tiye is evident in temples at
Egyptian theology and the manifold ways in which Akhenaten had Sedeinga, where Tiye appears as both Hathor
been viewed by generations of Egyptologists and Tefnut, significant deities in the Egyptian
political ideology and (and ‘Egyptologists’, it should be said, since pantheon and Soleb, where Amenhotep III
the term is frequently used rather generously). appears as a deity in his own right.
despite the disreputable air He made his own views clear: Around the 30th regnal year of the
‘Akhenaten was not astounding, but different’, king, argued Dr Dodson, images of Amenophis
that hangs about the whole a theme expanded upon later in the lecture. III make him appear more youthful than he
Akhenaten, he continued, has received actually was, and the child-like imagery is part
proceedings, informed stu- praise (or censure) as the instigator of of the manifestation of the king as solar deity,
monotheism; Velikovsky proposed comparison the ‘dazzling sun’; perhaps the Aten itself?
dents are drawn to a love-
with Oedipus; other commentators have com- Further, images of the king with pendulous
hate relationship with mended him as a visionary, a mystic and a poet. belly and breasts are precursors of imagery at
Davis continued that Gardiner held that ‘he Amarna. Graffito from the mortuary temple at
Amarna as with no other wears a fanatical look’; while Pendlebury Meidum, continued Dr Dodson, states that the
described Akhenaten as ‘a religious maniac’. A ‘king established his son in his inheritance’.
time or place in the long gallery of the best-known kings of Egypt was The royal jubilee may have included the eleva-
displayed, with the theme that in such compa- tion of Amenhotep IV into what he described
history of Egypt. ny, was Akhenaten truly outstanding? vividly as a ‘royal divine corporation’, in which



each of the royal personages plays a particular
divine role: Amun, Hathor, Tefnut and Shu.

The king as divinity

Combined images in one lintel of Akhenaten,
Nefertiti and four daughters, and on the other
side, Amunhotep III, Tiye, and Bekhetaten sug-
gest continuity between the reigns and the ‘pro-
motion’ of this divine corporation. Examples
from year 3-4 of the reign of Amenhotep IV
show Amenhotep III
worshipping his own
divine form; and an
image of the two kings
may show Amenhotep
“A khenaten
IV worshipping his
father’s ‘divine was not a heretic
F u r t h e r for introducing the
archaeological evi-
dence of the regency Aten, but rather
might come from
Thebes, where a figure
of Amenhotep IV is
for the closure
shown undertaking acts
of worship; there are of state
Amenhotep IV, and fur-

ther back, figures of
Amenhotep III and
Tiye; Tiye is clearly shown holding the hand of
Amenhotep III. ‘Mixing of the dead and living
through this sort of physical contact does not
occur,’ said Dr Dodson.
Finally the case of the Amarna corre-
spondence was cited, this including letters to
Amenhotep III. ‘Why would this old corre-



damaged and showing the ravages of time,

shows the royal family, Akhenaten, Nefertiti
and their daughters, adoring the Aten.
Sarcophagus fragments from Queen Tiye’s
burial have also been found in the tomb. After
the Amarna period, said Professor Martin, both
bodies would have been removed to a cache at
Thebes. In one unfinished room within the
tomb, he found sherds including one with the
regnal date of year 17.

Evocation of the Aten

The scenes within the royal tomb have suffered
ravages but records exist to show the royal
family worshipping the Aten, ‘a visual evoca-
tion of the hymn to the Aten’ stated Professor
Martin. ‘As the sun rises, birds and animals
come to life again.’ The scenes include for-
eigners, Africans Asiatics and others, all
brought together in worship of the sun’s disc.
Above: No stranger to contro- spondence have been taken to Akhetaten?’ Within these scenes are images
versy, David Rohl indulges in argued Dr Dodson, concluding that the busi- depicting the death of a royal princess in child-
some lively debate ness of state was carried out from Amarna, and birth. The king and queen mourn the death
that Amenhotep III was indeed there. while courtiers and nurses are in attendance.
The Vizier is there too, in the scenes, once with
The Royal Tomb flabellum held over the head of the child.
Professor Geoffrey Martin then took the audi- While the whole suggests a gathering to cele-
ence to the royal necropolis at Amarna, situat- brate a birth, of course in reality the circum-
ed in a valley leading from the Great Wadi. His stances have changed to bereavement: ‘The
detailed presentation reflected his years of King and Queen, god and goddess, are here
work at the site, mainly on the Royal Tomb shown as distraught human beings,’ said
constructed for Akhenaten. Professor Martin, suggesting that at least two
The massive sarcophagus plinth of the Amarna princesses died in childbirth.
occupies a major part of the burial chamber. Of While the tomb does not include tra-
the sarcophagus itself, only fragments remain, ditional scenes of the afterlife, funerary equip-
Below: An increased number of but sufficient, Prof. Martin pointed out, to pro- ment of earlier periods was certainly still in
delegates, a new venue and a vide measurements that show it fitted the use, and one scene shows the equipment of
popular subject produced a plinth. Princess Meketaten on one small wall.
memorable conference. Imagery within the tomb, although Canopic chest fragments and ushabti figures
from the period are known – over 250 still
exist, some in almost complete form. Wooden
boat fragments were also found within the
tomb along with large diorite bowl fragments
dating from earlier reigns as far back as Unas
and Khafre, suggesting both continuity of
some belief and links with earlier monarchs.

Horemheb’s career
Professor Martin’s second lecture was a guid-
ed tour of the originally intended burial site of
General, later King, Horemheb. This is a tomb
with which Professor Martin is very familiar; it
lies in a ‘street’ of notable officials of the late
New Kingdom, and it was suggested that
Memphis was always the administrative capi-
tal of Egypt, while the burials in the south were
those of rulers.
As would be expected, the tomb con-
tains many references to Horemheb’s martial



career and there are faint echoes of the Amarna Harmonious planning
period in one reference to Horemhead as Talatats – reused blocks of
‘Beloved of the Aten’. Professor Martin point- stone from Amarna – have
ed out scenes of prisoners of war being been found at various sites
‘processed’; the images include violent depic- around Egypt, and from
tions of captive Nubians being punished by these, computer-generat-
Egyptians; there is a possible image of a cap- ed reconstructions have
tive Hittite couple; and at a scene of a royal been made. Lucia Gahlin
durbar of Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun, it suggested that the pro-
is Horemheb who is the receptionist of all for- portions of the Great
eign individuals. Temple, once projected,
When Horemheb took the throne, he reflect the limits of the
had a further tomb built in the Valley of the city; the North Riverside
Kings, but ensured this secondary royal resi- Palace appears to mirror
dence of the afterlife by having the royal the Great Palace, and
uraeus added to it. The tomb was the resting also the King’s House to
place of Horemheb’s second wife, Mutnodjmet the south, giving a
who died in the 13th year of her husband’s meticulous example of
reign, and within the tomb were found the bro- city planning, designed
ken skeletal remains of a woman and a foetus; to produce a harmo-
the woman was aged about 40 and had appar- nious whole in which
ently died in childbirth. buildings reflect each
other and the site.
On to Akhetaten While it is
Lucia Gahlin’s lecture took the audience to the often hard to identify
heart of the subject with its overview of the site the precise function of
of Amarna, Akhetaten itself. This secure site particular buildings,
on a plain of 15 sq. miles, with the city to the Princess Meritaten is
west is bounded on the south and east by the definitely associated
natural boundary provided by the desert cliffs; with the North Palace,
and within those cliffs to the east, of course, is said Lucia Gahlin.
the often-commented upon natural opening, While there has been
‘representing perfectly the hieroglyph for removal of much mate-
Akhetaten’ as the sun’s disk appeared in it. rial since the 1930’s,
Excavations have been carried out remaining limestone
there for over 100 years. Since 1977, work has lustration benches and
been carried out by Barrie Kemp under EES other items suggest luxu-
funding. rious bathing facilities
Research carried out there includes for the royal family.
experimental archaeology. Photographic From Akhetaten, Above: Central to the religious
records, including aerial photogra- we gain knowledge worship of the Amarna Royal
phy, have also enhanced knowl- about the family was the manifestation of
edge of Akhetaten, and the the sun's disk, the Aten. Here
overwhelming impression is Akhenaten, Nefertiti and their
of a vast foundation, daughter raise offerings to the
with the city on the east Aten, the beneficence of which
bank of the Nile, and to the royal family is made clear
cultivation to provide its in the rays reaching down to
food supply taking place them.
on the west bank. The
population could have
been huge; esti-
mates suggest
45,000 peo-

Left: Akenaten and Nefertiti

steal a kiss on the great royal
chariot of Electrum.



daily life of all classes of Egyptian society at next burials of Amarna royalty would be near-
this time; in areas, the housing is mixed, partic- by, and that the contentious KV55 burial did
ularly in the north and central area where exca- indicate the former presence of Tiye. If their
vations have taken place. There is evidence of grave goods were given up for re-use in
large estates, with the walled garden areas and Tutankhamun’s burial, where were the bodies?
water features that appear often in Egyptian They must have been in Thebes, concluded Dr
wall paintings, but the basic design for all hous- Reeves, concluding that more remains of
ing was similar, and simply constructed on a Amarna period royalty must be lying in the
larger or smaller scale depend- Valley of the Kings, or are
ing on the status of the family. known remains still waiting
to be identified.
Status housing
The workmen’s village, situat-
“T Most readers of AE
he most exciting will be aware that in 1998 Dr
ed 1-2 km outside the city, con- Reeves, along with Field
sisted of 66 identical houses development, however, Director Geoffrey Martin,
plus one larger dwelling. gained the concession to exca-
Associated animal pens have vate in a triangle of land
Above: Akhenaten: Egypt's
also been found. Chapels for
is the discovery, between KV56 and KV9. It
False Prophet by Nicholas
private worship are also associ- was in this area that Carter had
Reeves, Director of the Amarna
ated with the housing, suggest- some 4-5m below begun his search for
Royal Tombs Project, is the lat-
ing that household deities did, Tutankhamun. Certain anom-
est work to focus on the most
despite popular belief, continue the ground surface, alies were known from the
contentious and discussed
at Amarna. ground, and the KV56 plans,
member of the Amarna Royal of items of
The massive Great like those of Tutankhamun’s
Temple, or House of the Aten, tomb, seemed to avoid the
Publisher: Thames and Hudson
reflects the other end of the
building scale, with its bound-
Amarna date... ” central area of the site.
Excavations have
ary extending an enormous already discovered work-
ISBN: 0500051062
750m by 230m. This massive construction, of men’s shelters of the date of Ramesses III – VI,
which next to nothing remains, provided the and 1000 items have been discovered, includ-
focal point of worship by the royal family in ing gold jewellery.
the city of Akhetaten.
New discoveries
Amarna Royal Tombs Project The most exciting development, however, is
The delegates were then treated to two addi- the discovery, some 4-5m below the ground
tional items; a presentation by Dr Nicholas surface, of items of Amarna date, including
Reeves, Director of the Amarna Royal Tombs sherds. Dr Reeves presented a slide of a large
Below: Dr Nicholas Reeves. Project, and further details of the recent dis- slab of limestone with an image, in charcoal, of
Amarna Royal Tombs Project covery of the tomb of the High Priest of the what he described as a pot-bellied official in
Director and Joint Field Aten at Saqqara. Dr Reeves argued that the ‘typical Amarna dress, with arms raised in ado-
Director. (1998, 1999, 2000) reuse of burial equipment in the tomb of ration.’ This, in undisturbed layers in the Valley
Tutankhamun was far greater than previously of the Kings was clear evidence of ‘Amarna
Below Right: Professor realised. Tutankhamun’s death coincided with Activity’.
Geoffrey T. Martin. Amarna the removal of Amarna royalty from Akhetaten There was also a fragment of a
Royal Tombs Project (Joint to the Valley of the Kings, thus making this canopic jar similar to material from KV55, with
Field Director, 1998, 1999, 2000) equipment available to Ay. grinding suggesting removal of inappropriate
Dr Reeves went on to argue that the texts, as with KV55. We were left at this point
to await further updates later in the year on this
extremely exciting – and important – project.

The concluding piece from the conference will

be in the next issue of Ancient Egypt magazine,
including a report from Professor Geoffrey
Martin on the discovery of the tomb of a sig-
nificant official – the Priest of the Aten – found
recently at Saqqara.


lexand ria

Interesting times for


Reading the future

of The new library of
Alexandria will hold
he building looks
mous spaceship

like an enor-
landed just missing has crash-

Neb Re
within it a vast collectio sloping roof measuresthe sea. Its
n in diameter and tilts 160 metres
of records in the form pool, which butts into a shallow wading
of against a giant black
sphere rising out
of the ground. The
books and manuscr façade makes up rear
ipts tional front façade the lack of a tradi-
granite wall. Chiselled with a massive
in addition to the grey
latest hundreds of different into the stone are
archiving methods guages from all over letters in various lan-
such ing the origins of the world, symbolis-
reading and writing.
as CD-roms. It will Alexandria’s new
library lies right
also on the sea-front
gate of the site –also promenade with
the main northern hold memories of rooms for 2,000 reading
of more pri- on – which, with massive a users
seven terraced levels. cascading over
e know the names noted by Habachi
from Ancient first makes clear the
Did the centralised bureau-

cracy of ancient Egypt,

with W vate individuals
Egypt than from any
before classical
Rome. Many of these
names come from
monument al
Greece and very

stelae, defences.
with an excavation
ping statues or tombs – purpose. By contrast, very series of mud-brick
mudbrick towers,
civilisation stone-clad nature of the fort’s military
A major new discovery
over a number of
was the
seasons of a
, each 16
and arranged in
Above: After Neb-Re's
lintels containing his
titles were overturned
in such a manner to
names and
and reused
suggest a
varied and schismat
past, in which it has
been everything from
planned for a collection The library has
books, 50,000 manuscri of eight million
other documents,
The aim
pts, pamphlets and
as well as 50,000

the construction is of the 200-Million-Dollar


its intensive record-kee essentially private a substan- metres

long by 3 metres wide,
of the temple. Was he seen to revive the glorious
could make to the north deliberate removal.
non-royal Egyptians a row immediately the state cen- intellectual centre ry of the ancient
little few acknowledged impact on major public The discovery within one of these magazines as too powerful by of the “Bibliotheca
and kingly focus, offer tial, and responsibil - pottery storage vessels
tre far away in the Nile Valley? Alexandrina”, which
burned to the ground
buildings; this was
a privilege
pri- of a series of
complete ancient world to the in 48 BC. Here
representations of the Eastern His lifestyle, with luxury in the world-ren
of types from around library of ancient owned
opportunity for individual ity of the king. ‘Illicit’ buildings of a variety jar and accessorie s, might history the most knowl-
the walls of royal ean (such as stirrup bathroom edgeable minds
vate individuals on are rare Mediterran confirmed Zawiyet give a clue to his authority.
playground of wealthy of
at Deir el-Bahri – Canaanite amphorae) and produced their that time researched
on a – such as Senenmut trad- greatest works, among
‘empire-building’ even enough to excite comment. the Nile Valley and Umm el-Rakham Bronze Age.
’s role as an important Europeans. The city them Euclid’s treatise
However, beyond an ing post of the Late nt has been
still “Bibliotheca Alexandr on geometry. The
for ina” housed around
very minor scale? Perhaps Delta rather more possibilitie
s existed A more recent developme of the exists on a number 750,000 documen
In south-east corner ts,
enterprising official
to make his mark.
s the discovery, in the up of
of Pharaonic date and including papyri of
we can see monument domestic area made a whole corpus
fortress, of a major levels, as Claudia Greek texts, including of
the lifestyle of Neb Re, Nubia, for instance,
Setau for Ramesses
II, and communal ovens.
series of small houses the garrison of the Haj Aristotle. the work of
erected by the Viceroy Setau himself. But, a
is where
items but prominently featuring give This, we assume, excavation in this Ali explains.
complete with luxury although a posting
to the colonies might fortress actually lived, and next A modern wonder
rather more opportunit
ies activity for the ?
an Egyptian official were, area is a major planned area will, we hope, Alexandria’s new
library is currently
than at home, there in this
such as bath and pedestal for self-promotion go in few seasons. Work n on what life was
most prestigious
Egyptian project the
how far one could give us detailed informatio in a New Kingdom Toshka, the great
obviously, limits to
the predominant position soldier greening of an area after
like for an ordinary vast desert, south in the
toilet, casts light on an effectively usurping
and may help us determine
with of
seen as a project Egypt. The library is
of the king. known to us fortress, exact size of the garrison that will contribute
of the The most distant posting was the greater precision the to be rediscovering the
city. to
enterprising official empire evidence, we believe ate the Pharos lighthousPlans exist to recre-
in Egypt’s New Kingdom el-Rakham, on the which, on present
fortress of Zawiyet Umm over 500 men.
of the man in
Wonders of the Anciente, one of the Seven
Dr 300 km west of But what do we know World, destroyed
Ramesside period, as Mediterranean coast by an earthquake
. Here a fortress-town of
charge of this major outpost of Egyptian in
near the current site the 14th century AD,
with walls 5 m. thick,
guard- the excavations of of Fort Qait Bey.
sq.m. in area and FEATURE power? Since 1994 Throughout the old
Steven Snape explains. trade routes from
team have revealed in several
ant of are diligently creating town painters
ed Egypt’s maritime Libyan Liverpool
of monuments naming Left: Neb-Re, 'Command
on truculent local of the site a number Umm el- a new image, by
and kept a close eye ‘Overseer of Foreign the fort' of Zuwiyet painting over the
Photography by Susanna excavated since 1994 Neb-Re, who is titled frontier with But most of it is
façades in tones of
nomads. This fortress, to have of Troops’; in effect, Rakham on Egypt's Left: Ancient Alexandria cosmetic in the colour
of Liverpool, seems Lands’ and ‘Overseer to the best , “Potemkin Pink”.
by the University or Libya, had access epicentre of philosophy It
abandoned during Commandant of the
Fort. , blow with the hand only takes a single
been founded in, and craftsmen as this remarkable

Thomas came across this comes vividly to life
of Ramesses II. The first place we Right: A sketch of in this break through the on the old façades to

Who Sings to
shortly after the reign statue
has re- doorways of two thirds life size
harps, pipes and flutes, image from the catalogue
So far the Liverpool team
but character was on the limestone
nine depicted on an ancient as
FEATURE the British Museum's for aged brickwork of fresh plaster and the
a small, well-built, . The lintels of all tomb near the pyramids.
shows. old residences and
excavated and planned first dug the nine magazines II, Cleopatra of Egypt las. The building
material is rotten, vil-
temple, which was cartouche of Ramesses exhibition.
sadly uninscribed doorways bear the 38 Picture courtesy of away by the ravages eaten
the central magazine,
archaeologist Labib
G neglect of decades. of the sea air and the
13 the BMP, ©
but the lintel from
up by the Egyptian
We have also worked
NETFISHIN British Museum 2001 Alexandria’s architec-

Habachi in the 1950’s. tural heritage has
IDE WEB EB... been left to decay.


every day:
2001 ULY 2001 2001 ANCIENT

12 39

Chairman of the
Keith Grenville, National has drawn atten-

DISCOVERING welcome from his South Africa
Below: Banquet scene: apy extends a warm Egyptian Society of own web site
THE MUSIC to AE readers

fragment of wall painting
ANCIENT EGYPT OF Nebamun, Thebes, from the tomb of beautiful new domain the Forum of tion to the society’s you can
Egypt. 18th Dynasty, at m/g/gr/grenvill/ where
example of a Theban around 1350 BC.
tomb painting. Musicians A fine and some new friends Internet based n about mummies
is an interesting informatio
guests, dressed in
festive clothing. The and dancers entertain Amun. The Forum pro- find some of the society.
most striking in the musicians are perhaps in its membership both as well as the events

includes in South Africa for instance, has
image being represente the society which Philip Science Museum,
frontally rather than d ists and what moderator all Durban Natural its stun-
in profile. fessional Egyptolog peoples who love of Ptolemaic date with
(British Museum) as “lay s, a beautiful coffin
Gould describes
In last issue’s Ancient There are four moderator decorated mummy.
things Ancient Egypt.” and both ningly AE will recall the
Regular readers of

hile we don’t know one in the States,
how three in the UK and and post items from Eton College
Egypt, Douglas Irvine ancient membership exhibition based on
Durban mummy, of

Egyptian to join in. elling

music FEATURE approval is required by Major Myers; the
sounded, with a collected of Akhmim, was
described how his there’s a set of It’s a very lively group priest Peten-Amun
inter- basic sources that posting; the the its way into the South
inform lot of activity and and finally found
with mes- by Myers

ancient music in Egypt,’ us about site was buzzing
est in the music of explained recent African collection. ed using non-
musician and composer sages after the It has been investigat
Doug School on reconstruction made
ancient cultures devel- Irvine. ‘Students Bloomsbury Day techniques and a
will be familiar with
of Egyptology and destructive k, whose qualificati
on for this
the many rep- the subject of Pyramids by Dr Bill Aulsebroo FEATURE
Ph.D. in Forensic
oped. In this detailed resentations of none: he holds a
musicians and Power. is is second to of

musical instrumen While controversy resulting display
ts from tomb Reconstruction. The tion looks truly
pyramids Facial

or Vulture?
paintings, reliefs, (and and reconstruc
article he goes on graffiti not avoided
reac- coffin, mummy
to ture. We depend quite and sculp-
a bit on these tend to provoke strong on the web site. and
visual sources to is thankful- stunning that offer you rest Vivien Leigh on stage
explain that while determine who tions in people), it Now for two sites mate- with Laurence Olivier
Egypt played what instrumen considers to be its looking at more academic Antony and Cleopatra in
instruments were
ts, how the ly made clear who the Forum lies towards recuperation after at www.abka Picture copyright Mander (1951)
The home pages of
the so if one’s fancy be found
has not yielded a grouped and held,
target audience, and rial. The first is to pages on & Mitchenson.
set of the performance contexts isn’t the place to new addition to the
and how instru- West Cornwall Egyptian ‘aliens built the pyramids’ this is, I think, a fairly that it is “all about
ments changed over Egyptology and
written music theory time.’ Society... yes they
real- there isn’t a local The introduction says
or go. However, if you prefer the Net. to, or relat-
The vivid, lively
images of ancient to us
ly do ripple! group near you, or people living in, travelling to be a lot
Egyptian musicians atmos- connecting There seems
notation from antiquity , often women, are the details of their
work. the ongoing group any way to Egypt.”
, ing in their silence. tantalis- However, thanks can pro- ed by forums and
They represent some to phere that the Net including groups,
most relaxed and of the preserving climate, Egypt’s at the on offer, , and so the emphasis
there are other sources intimate scenes from some of vide, take a look at sales exchanges
Egyptian art. Textual ancient their instrumen
sources yield further ts have survived Forum’s URL rather than Egyptological. If
information in the in good shape and is social be good
of information at form of titles, particularl from http://gr oups.yah visit the site it would
our funerary contexts, y in the modern investigato these, When August and you will readers impressions.
of musicians and families group/Amun where
r can Louis n. In to have some

musicians. of learn much about construc- nly a few months for
disposal. Doug Irvine after the first
The scene changes find further informatio Finally, after surfing
tion Lumière screening, postings rippling
‘One could labour
over the interpreta- ing
techniques without hav- Lumière showed the Thomas Edison
she quickly bedazzles
to Antony’s camp.
There order to access the need hours, just
drift away on the
tion of an ancient to apply destructiv very showed the earliest
and Miriam Bibby musician’s specific
action in methods, an e ture, ‘The Execution
historical pic- few the Roman leader
with a you will, of course, The 1912 ‘Cleopatrahome page of West
a tomb painting or coy glances and poses, (www.egyp-
relief, but a literate opportunity Queen of Scots.’ of Mary, of Antony’s much to the chagrin membership. duced at a transition Egyptian ’Society was pro-
could simply read scholar which does not first motion pictures Historical subjects wife and Octavian. group offering time for filmmaker s.k). It’s
investigate ancient the caption over the
subject’s other climates
extend to to of film’s original were one Another Improvem ents in tology.btin
head: “Oh well, it
says right here that such as genres. The most elaborate
scene comes when forum facilities to its mem-
decreasing yrelaxing
and the and Hapy
is Ity and she’s a singer.” her name Mesopotamia. In those first years Antony visits her cost of celluloid
Society blissfully
made it possible
Egyptian musical Mystery solved,’ con- an amazed Paris audi- lasting only a minute films were crude, at her palace. She
puts Egypt and to makeEast
Middle longer and forward to more of
tinued Doug. or so and dealing quite a show - gladiator of bers is Theon Ancient Scene’ this more lookselaborate movies.
‘X-rays were simple subjects such with - the whole The Egyptian Society matches, dancing girls It ran nearly
in our ‘Societies 90 minutes whenrelaxed
Those ancient musicians made of an Egyptian as a vaudeville routine thing hasaan
looks (AEMES), featured ran ansite
on your most features 2
rest in relatively wealthy , often laid to angle harp ence in 1895, no-one military march. But or EgyptianSouth Africa
outfits, webit site
bit like vaudeville
in the groupstillweb hour
pleaseor less.throughou t Volume
But Gaskill and
at the Louvre, by 1910, film times
interestingbut is enoughissue. x.html, and
dition of their skin burials, the fine con- for
instance,’ explained
getting longer and
plots and
were Antony to
fight Octavian. to inspire
www.geoc confidence didn’t
ical of AE magazine.
and hands providing orate. Directors expressed scenery more elab- tionally hilarious where you can findThere’s an era work.
the British Egyptolog to cam-
evidence of their further Doug. ‘Without could know they were their roots in the the- n about when a note,
sequence as is also noted in
as ‘anicent’
Much of the movie
a play, withis correct. is still filmed HAPY
profession in life, having atre by presenting informatio messengerDirectory (BES), that
cannot tear into the instrumen to scenes brings the pharaoh South of fixed,
group, too.mid-range shots. Later
t, a lot of ‘Antony and Cleopatra, from popular plays. Actium. Amummies in news the Societies
defeat at We’ve first news of more,
an the
film the camera begins to
demonstrating what story, exotic setting ’ with its romantic of bad tidings Africa Cleopatra offers the bearer panning across scenes move a bit
was respectabi a glass of poisoned and
34 and Shakespearean closer views of the giving
lity, was a natural goes through an wine. He actors. As www.anc
choice. incredibly acrobatic own Website
against the’scouple at:fortune turns
to Ancient Egypt Magazine
to become the most The earliest process requiring dying at the battle of Actium,
ANCIENT EGYPT pow- was made in 1910 surviving Cleopatra film most of the a serpentine flexibility
to log on and the camera cuts
OCTOBER/NOVEMBE by Pathé-Frères, When forget
stage.Don’t between Antony
R 2001 company that was a French two guards he is finally finished, Cleopatra at an ever and
indi- EGYPT
quickening pace,
OCTOBER/NOVEMBE erful artistic medium World War I. It runs
the industry leader
until Antony then
nonchalantly chuck
him off camera. cating the increasing ANCIENT
R 2001 ANCIENT of slightly longer than arrives at the palace tension felt by the
EGYPT minutes and all the ten Octavian and steps with characters. Their anguished
action 58his army in hot pursuit, looks and histri-
the twentieth century. gle stage. The primitive takes place on a sin- himself, blows stabs
onics as their forces
35 fixed.
era remains
and cumbersome
cam- dies. Cleopatra
Cleopatra a kiss,
and promptly onslaught look overplayed under Octavian’s
Different scenes retreats to her bedchamb ence, but are still to a modern audi-
structed just as are
Even time would be in a play, by changing con- a pack of weeping, flailing er with fairly effective.
no scenery rather than the location. the her lover in the afterlife. servant girls to join The battle itself is never shown
have unfortunately The credits was beyond the producer’s - it
been lost. By today’s standards also beyond the budget. It was
barrier to its creative The film opens in sy and overacted, the film is clum- budget to make
where the queen
arrival. The scene
Cleopatra’s court,
is informed of it was state of the
Antony’s year could
but for audiences
of the
art. Few film production time
s that
didn’t blow in the
occasions walls tremble On a number of
sets that
‘Antony and
potential. Sean is typically Orientalis match its ominously, creating
harem girls lounging t: of richly costumed elaborate sets or numbers an unintentional
about, burly Nubians extras. This was memorabl Antony and Cleopatra’ apt metaphor for
ning her Highness,
and every man wearing
fan- cinema. e s approaching doom. Cleopatra,’ with its
Mclachlan takes us Nemes headcloth a
to . Cleopatra also
wears a Charles
Two years later,
American director The silver screen’s
Nemes, along with Gaskill filmed another first romantic story, exotic
a jewelled vest and sex symbol...
the movies, Egyptian dress. Despite being sheer epic tale. version of the
- heavily covered It starred Helen Gardner, Gaskill’s version
women in mainstream as all actress who a
films were at the reflected her character’ famous ‘Cleopatra’ by J. Gordon
was popular, but the
1917 setting and
so much so that the time, personality s forceful Edwards was a box
style. fateful asp has to by being the film’s office sensation. It
on the neck, she gives bite her producer and
off an alluring presence. editor, positions rarely held by brilliant Theda Bara.
starred the beautiful
and Shakespearean
She decides to meet Hollywood even women
barge (rowed by
the Roman, and hails today. She also designed in been no other actress
There has probably
her costumes, which the in
arrives along a river
more burly Nubians),
which version. look inspired by
the that was better suited the history of film respectability, was a
set at the back of the Gardner plays the Pathé for the role. Dubbed
stage. a vulnerable Ptolemaic queen as ‘the screen’s first
, lovelorn woman. sex symbol’ by film
rian Leonard Maltin, histo- natural choice...
Bara intrigued her
with her beguiling fans
22 looks and bizarre


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or Vulture?
VÄxÉÑtàÜt ÉÇ nly a few months after the first The scene changes to Antony’s camp. There

When August and Louis
Lumière screening, Thomas Edison she quickly bedazzles the Roman leader with a
showed the earliest historical pic- few coy glances and poses, much to the chagrin
Lumière showed the very ture, ‘The Execution of Mary, of Antony’s wife and Octavian.
Queen of Scots.’ Historical subjects were one The most elaborate scene comes when
first motion pictures to of film’s original genres. Antony visits her at her palace. She puts on
In those first years films were crude, quite a show - gladiator matches, dancing girls
lasting only a minute or so and dealing with - the whole thing looks a bit like vaudeville in
an amazed Paris audi-
simple subjects such as a vaudeville routine or Egyptian outfits, but it is enough to inspire
military march. But by 1910, film times were Antony to fight Octavian. There’s an uninten-
ence in 1895, no-one getting longer and plots and scenery more elab- tionally hilarious sequence when a messenger
orate. Directors expressed their roots in the the- brings the pharaoh news of the defeat at
could know they were atre by presenting scenes from popular plays. Actium. A furious Cleopatra offers the bearer
‘Antony and Cleopatra,’ with its romantic of bad tidings a glass of poisoned wine. He
story, exotic setting and Shakespearean goes through an incredibly acrobatic dying
demonstrating what was respectability, was a natural choice. process requiring a serpentine flexibility and
The earliest surviving Cleopatra film most of the stage. When he is finally finished,
to become the most pow- was made in 1910 by Pathé-Frères, a French two guards nonchalantly chuck him off camera.
company that was the industry leader until Antony then arrives at the palace steps with
World War I. It runs slightly longer than ten Octavian and his army in hot pursuit, stabs
erful artistic medium of minutes and all the action takes place on a sin- himself, blows Cleopatra a kiss, and promptly
gle stage. The primitive and cumbersome cam- dies. Cleopatra retreats to her bedchamber with
the twentieth century. era remains fixed. Different scenes are con- a pack of weeping, flailing servant girls to join
structed just as in a play, by changing the her lover in the afterlife.
Even time would be no scenery rather than the location. The credits By today’s standards the film is clum-
have unfortunately been lost. sy and overacted, but for audiences of the time
The film opens in Cleopatra’s court, it was state of the art. Few film productions that
barrier to its creative where the queen is informed of Antony’s year could match its elaborate sets or numbers
arrival. The scene is typically Orientalist: of richly costumed extras. This was memorable
potential. Sean harem girls lounging about, burly Nubians fan- cinema.
ning her Highness, and every man wearing a Two years later, American director
Nemes headcloth. Cleopatra also wears a Charles Gaskill filmed another version of the
Mclachlan takes us to Nemes, along with a jewelled vest and sheer epic tale. It starred Helen Gardner, a famous
dress. Despite being heavily covered as all actress who reflected her character’s forceful
the movies, Egyptian- women in mainstream films were at the time, personality by being the film’s producer and
so much so that the fateful asp has to bite her editor, positions rarely held by women in
on the neck, she gives off an alluring presence. Hollywood even today. She also designed the
She decides to meet the Roman, and hails her costumes, which look inspired by the Pathé
barge (rowed by more burly Nubians), which version. Gardner plays the Ptolemaic queen as
arrives along a river set at the back of the stage. a vulnerable, lovelorn woman.



Vivien Leigh on stage with Laurence Olivier in

Antony and Cleopatra (1951)
Picture copyright Mander & Mitchenson.

Y|ÄÅ The 1912 ‘Cleopatra’ was pro-

duced at a transition time for filmmakers.
Improvements in technology and the
decreasing cost of celluloid made it possible
to make longer and more elaborate movies.
It ran nearly 90 minutes when most features
still ran an hour or less. But Gaskill and
Gardner’s confidence didn’t extend to cam-
era work. Much of the movie is still filmed
as a play, with fixed, mid-range shots. Later
in the film the camera begins to move a bit
more, panning across scenes and giving
closer views of the actors. As fortune turns
against the couple at the battle of Actium,
the camera cuts between Antony and
Cleopatra at an ever quickening pace, indi-
cating the increasing tension felt by the
characters. Their anguished looks and histri-
onics as their forces fall under Octavian’s
onslaught look overplayed to a modern audi-
ence, but are still fairly effective.
The battle itself is never shown - it
was beyond the producer’s budget. It was
also beyond the budget to make sets that
‘Antony and
didn’t blow in the wind. On a number of
occasions walls tremble ominously, creating Cleopatra,’ with its
an unintentional but apt metaphor for
Antony and Cleopatra’s approaching doom. romantic story, exotic
The silver screen’s first setting and
sex symbol...
Gaskill’s version was popular, but the 1917
‘Cleopatra’ by J. Gordon Edwards was a box
office sensation. It starred the beautiful and
brilliant Theda Bara. There has probably respectability, was a
been no other actress in the history of film
that was better suited for the role. Dubbed natural choice...
‘the screen’s first sex symbol’ by film histo-
rian Leonard Maltin, Bara intrigued her fans
with her beguiling looks and bizarre person-


The many
fa c e s o f a in ality. She dressed all in black, her angular fea-
C le o p a t r tures and kohl-circled eyes alluring but faintly
menacing under her square-cropped raven
black hair.
Theda Bara: 1917 She claimed to have been born at the
base of the pyramids and gave long, rambling
Theda Bara's publicity for her 1917 press conferences during which she ate raw
Cleopatra stated that she was born in the meat and regaled reporters with tales of her
shadow of the Pyramids; her Gothic style psychic powers. She even performed séances
augmented the myth. 'Vamp' entered the where she talked to her dead house pets. Her
English language as a result. publicists hinted that she was a vampire, and
the word ‘vamp’ entered the English language
because of her.
Sadly, there is no surviving copy of
the film. Like so many works of the silent era,
no one thought of preserving it. Movies were
disposable, re-releases were rare and there was
no television on which to broadcast old pro-
ductions. All copies were either thrown away or
Claudette Colbert 1934 allowed to decay. Publicity shots show Bara at
her Gothic best, decked out in pseudo-Egyptian
Claudette Colbert was the first screen garb and fixing the camera with a hypnotic and
Cleopatra to have a voice - she is con- almost menacing gaze. Reviews indicate she
vincing because 'even she is not sure played Cleopatra as the strong, seductive, will-
of her true motives, a bewitching ful woman she probably was, but no script sur-
woman who leads men to their vives to tell us more. What may have been one
destruction'. of the greatest portrayals of the fabled queen is
lost to history.
But Cleopatra wasn’t to remain silent
forever. In 1934, Cecil B. DeMille directed the
first talking Cleopatra picture, a lavish epic in
the grandiose style of Depression-era
Hollywood. At a time of soup lines and the
Dust Bowl, audiences flocked to movies that
showed beautiful people in wealthy surround-
Vivien Leigh: 1945 ings. DeMille made some of the best.
Critics hated it. They called it ‘a com-
Vivien Leigh's stage performances
edy of modern manners in fancy dress.’ But it
may have enthralled, but her 1946
was exactly what the audiences wanted.
film version of Cleopatra does not
Despite his lavishness, DeMille was a
convince. Leigh shot to stardom
stickler for accuracy. He is said to have stormed
as Scarlet O'Hara in Gone with the
onto the set moments before a shoot to remove
Wind; 'I have found my Scarlet,'
a silver cup from the scene. It was centuries too
said the Director as Atlanta
late in style, and he wouldn’t tolerate it being in
burned in the background.
his picture. Even Colbert’s hairpins were muse-
um replicas.
Colbert is convincing as the mercurial
Cleopatra. Starting as a pouting, spoiled girl,
Amanda Barrie: she quickly learns the rules of the political game
1964 into which she is thrust, eventually manipulat-
ing everybody with whom comes into contact.
Carry on Cleo, undoubtedly There’s a hardness, a practicality beneath her
Carry On comedy at its best, flirtation that rings true. This could be the real
had the inspired pairing of Syd Cleopatra - both ruthless and coy - a woman in
James as Antony and Amanda a man’s world able to hold her own and unafraid
Barrie as Cleo. The film has to use her one trump card.
one of the most memorable Cleopatra sets out to seduce Caesar,
lines ever, uttered by Kenneth played by Warren William, in order to save her
Williams as the dying Caesar: throne from Ptolemy. The two are electric
'Infamy, infamy, they've all got
it infamy!'



together as powerful rulers locked in a battle of to a chaste peck on

wills. Both struggle with an intriguing mixture the forehead in the
of self-interest and love as they try to have final scene. Caesar
both a relationship and a political alliance. ‘I departs, promising
am Egypt,’ Cleopatra declares. ‘Only if I make to send a ‘real
you so,’ is Caesar’s reply. Here are two people man’ (his words)
who are used to being obeyed. They have in the form of
never before had to deal with an equal. Their Antony.
conflict is never resolved; Caesar goes back to L e i g h ’s
Rome only to meet his death. Cleopatra is
At first it is the same with Antony, downright
played by Henry Wilcoxon. She sets out to painful to watch.
dominate him, even taunting him at their first We are treated to
meeting, ‘I’m dressed to lure you, Antony. such queenly
Don’t you know you’re my enemy, you and statements as,
your hungry Rome?’ ‘My blood is
And lure him she does. She showers made of Nile
him with wealth and dazzles him with dancing water, that’s
girls. In a memorable scene, her slaves pull up why my hair is
a net from the sea and out slither a half dozen so wavy,’ and
girls clad only in seaweed, who present ‘When I am old enough I
Antony with jewel-filled oysters. The girls shall do what I like. I shall be able to poison
aren’t the only ones being reeled in. the slaves and watch them wriggle.’ Cleopatra Published to accompany the
Cleopatra’s motives are entirely mer- is reduced to a simple child. major British Museum exhibition
cenary. Having grown callous from the affair Luckily, Joseph Makiewicz saved the on Cleopatra, Cleopatra's Face:
with Caesar, she thinks only of her political subject in 1963 when he directed the most Fatal Beauty continues the myth
position. She even poisons his wine to save famous version of Cleopatra. Starring of Cleopatra as seductress,
her country, only to realize that she’s fallen in Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton, this femme fatale and vamp with
love. She knocks the deadly draught out of his three-hour epic delves deeply into the motiva- images from stage, screen and
hand and cries, ‘At last, I’ve seen a god come tions and relationships of Antony, Caesar and art. Quotes from writers through
to life. I am no longer a queen, I’m a woman!’ Cleopatra. the ages continue the theme
This is cold comfort for Antony, The ghost of Alexander the Great and promote the image; but was
belittled after his defeat by his fellow Romans. hovers over their every action. Many of the it the real Cleopatra? Recent
‘You gave up the world for a woman,’ they key monologues and conversations happen by investigations suggest a far
taunt, ‘and the world gives you its scorn for his tomb. Julius Caesar visits the tomb and more astute and political figure.
it.’ He dies regretting his foolishness, calling weeps. Cleopatra asks him why. The ruler
out to the heavens, ‘Antony, the plaything of a replies, ‘When he conquered the world he was
woman!’ 31. I am 51.’ Cleopatra responds by saying
that if Egypt and Rome united, they could still
Femme fatale conquer the world. After Actium, Mark
Colbert’s Cleopatra is the ultimate femme Antony hides away from Cleopatra in
fatale. She is seductive and controlling and Alexander’s tomb. Besotted with wine, he
impossible to understand since even she is not launches into a brilliant self-pitying mono-
sure of her true motives, a bewitching woman logue about how he is forever in Caesar’s
who leads men to their destruction. shadow, little knowing that Caesar was living
Not so with Vivian Leigh’s rendition in Alexander’s shadow.
in the 1945 ‘Caesar and Cleopatra.’ This Makiewicz has hit upon something
Cleopatra is nothing more than a silly little
girl. The movie opens with her hiding in the
here - great rulers are still human. They have
faults, conceits and, above all, insecurities.
“Great rulers
desert from both Ptolemy and the Romans. Alexander’s vast conquests created a cult of
She is found (saved) by Caesar, played by a personality that echoed across the centuries. are still human.
smug and paternal Claude Rains. Caesar is Most rulers were painfully aware that they
charmed by the fluffy and innocent heir to the could never match his feats. As the mobs of They have faults,
Ptolemaic dynasty and makes everything bet- sycophants who crowded around every throne
ter by getting rid of Ptolemy and plopping her throughout history told these kings of their conceits and,
on the throne of Egypt. Rains is the indulgent greatness, of their vast fame and glorious
father trying to make his spoiled daughter domains, his name must have crept through
grow up. Forget the whole bit about Caesarion the dark recesses of their minds. Did
above all,
- it never happened. Their romance is reduced Charlemagne wince when his subjects called
insecurities.... ”

For Caesar, the marriage to

Cleopatra is at least in part a political
one. Cleopatra seduces him more
with her dreams of world conquest
than her physical charms.
Nevertheless, she is hurt when some
servants convince her that he never
really loved her. When Antony
arrives in Egypt, it is to meet a
wiser, more calculating pharaoh
who sets out to enthrall him. In the
famous barge scene, she intoxicates
and titillates Antony. A drunken
Bacchus caressing an Egyptian
woman, obviously meant to portray
Antony and Cleopatra, parade
before him. It is an act both seduc-
tive and humiliating. Antony is
taught his place from the very
But all does not go accord-
ing to plan. Cleopatra finds herself
falling madly in love and the two
are pulled into the vortex of history.
Antony is tormented by the memory
of Caesar, the man who came before
him in all things, even Cleopatra’s
bedchamber. Cleopatra, despite her
lover’s obvious failings, refuses to
betray him, and so loses her king-
dom and her life. It is this dramatic
love triangle, and the world it
shook, that makes the story of
Antony, Cleopatra, and Julius
Caesar so fascinating. Makiewicz’s
film shines because he realized this
more than any other director.

Keeping the story fresh

The challenge of Cleopatra for direc-
tors and scriptwriters is a tough one - we
all know what happened. They can only play
with history so much before our sense of what
the story ‘is’ gets in the way. The best versions
Cleopatra the Egyptian: the him ‘the Great?’ Did the Byzantine emperors of Cleopatra turned this into an asset, by con-
temple foundations of the lay awake nights dreaming of matching centrating on character development and elabo-
Ptolemaic period, with their Alexander’s conquests? Makiewicz shows us rate sets. Burton’s tortured Antony, DeMille’s
unique hieroglyphs, give us our they probably did. sumptuous palaces, Bara’s enticing femme
best knowledge of daily ritual in In most films, Antony is more com- fatale - these are what keep the story fresh.
Egypt. Ruling over a diverse pelling than Caeser. He is the one Cleopatra Directors had plenty to work with.
population may have given the truly falls for. Only in Makiewicz’s treatment The historical record is rich in political detail
queen her ability to be all does Caesar come to the fore. He is the wise but tantalizingly vague when it comes to the
things to all people, providing and confident statesman, secure in his role and people involved. This allowed filmmakers to
her ability to negotiate with and able to command respect from his subordi- recreate the story for each new generation. As
manipulate, for a while at least, nates. Burton’s Antony is none of these things. Wilcoxon says to Colbert when she asks him if
the growing power of the It’s odd that Cleopatra falls for him so com- he would leave her for another woman, ‘You
Roman empire. pletely. Perhaps Antony, who like all of are another woman. New, always new, com-
Burton’s characters wears his heart on his pletely new.’
sleeve, is ultimately more trustworthy. AE


page 29.qxd 13/02/1950 19:25 Page 1


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Nine Measures of

n the Book of Overthrowing specific forces from the mythical and divine

Throughout Egyptian
Apophis, the longest and most world into the mundane sphere and the situa-
important part, in terms of its magi- tion the magician needed to deal with.
history, a major focus of cal value, of the Papyrus Bremner- Cultic language was the medium and
Rhind (4 th century BC), the expression process to access the divine and to link the
ritual activity was ‘what is said consisting of magic’ is fol- mundane and terrestrial spheres into a united
lowed by the statement ‘when Apophis is ceremonial performance.
placed (on) the fire’, indicating that ver- The mechanisms involved in the
intended to overcome
bal expressions (spells) and physical assembly and function of a magical narrative
modes of action (known as apotropaic
personal, divine or for- techniques) provide the core of ceremoni-
al Egyptian magic. Each episode of a ritu-
eign enemies of the king al was composed of a series of threat for-
mulae and magical utterances combined
with a number of symbolic gestures and
or state. Other members techniques. This combination was essen-
tial for the effective outcome of the magi-
of Egyptian society also cal procedure.

Spells and conjurations

availed themselves of Spells and oral conjurations form the corner
stone of a magical ritual. The importance of
these apotropaic prac- spells is very well exemplified in the direct
equation and identification of heka with the spo-
tices, which are ken word. In col. 24/17-18 of the Apophis Book
in the Papyrus Bremner-Rhind we read: ‘Retire,
turn back at this magic (heka) which has come
described for us in the forth from my mouth for Pharaoh!’1 Magical
speech during the ceremony formed the channel
final part of our series through which the magician could activate and
reinforce both his magical capabilities and the
accompanied apotropaic techniques.
by Dr Panagiotis It was the special meaning and
apotropaic force, hidden within the literary
Kousoulis. structure of a magical narrative, that caused the
mobilisation of certain powers and actions dur-
ing the course of the ceremony.
The pronunciation of special ‘words
of power’ could extract, either through their
own verbal ascendancy or in conjunction with
other literary elements within the narrative,


Left: Four terracotta figurines of bound
Nubians, c. 20th – 19th centuries BC. These
were used in execration rituals (Pinch 1994,
fig. 49).

Right: Terracotta model of a woman

pierced with iron nails, c. 200-
300 AD. This figurine was
buried in a pot with a lead tablet inscribed
with a love charm. Louvre inv. E 27145
(Pinch 1994, fig. 48).

Below: Foreign enemies representing subject nations. Among them are Beduins, Nubians,
Libyans, Cretan and Babylonians. The enemies kneel in supplication and are tied together
by a papyrus stem symbolic of Egypt. This frieze adorns the dais of the thrones of
Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye in the tomb of Anen (TT 120), c. 1380 BC. The Metropolitan
Museum of Art’s Collection of Facsimiles, 33.8.8.

could vary, from the simple quotation of a tection (lists) and specially designed threat and
mythical background (historiola), that com- curse formulae within a broader performative
prises the main point of reference for the and liturgical environment.
mobilisation and development of the magical
action, to more sophisticated literary tech- ‘I have overcome the enemies of
niques, such as the identification of the magi- Pharaoh’
cian with a specific god whom he invokes dur- Within this ritual environment, the power of the
ing the rite (divine speech), the enumeration of oral incantations was reinforced by the symbol-
certain parts of the body with their divine pro- ic destruction of wax figurines in the form of



Above: The Pylon Gateway of the enemies of cosmic and political order, or made of wax and drawings on papyri was the
the temple of Horus at Edfu. It the burning of a sheet of papyrus, with the rule for the majority of the sacrificial actions
is decorated with the propa- name and figure of the enemies drawn on it: performed during the ceremony.
gandistic scenes of the king This special use of objects has its own
smiting his enemies. These ‘This spell is to be recited over (an image symbolic meaning and apotropaic value, which
representations were reflect- of) Apophis drawn on a new sheet of rely on the specific material that is used and the
ed in the everyday cultic per- papyrus in green ink, and (over a figure of) magical principle of analogy and similarity that
formances inside the temple Apophis in red wax. See, his name is is expressed between the two poles in the cere-
precinct, where a priest, rep- inscribed on it in green mony, these being the figurine or
resented the king, was ritually ink … I have overthrown iconographic papyrus (the object
slaying images of human ene- all the enemies of or medium) on the one hand and
mies and divine demons. Pharaoh from all their
seats in every place where
“A the divine or human enemy (the
n object made target), on the other.
Below: Detail from the East they are. See, their names The similia similibus
pylon-gateway of the temple written on their breasts, of wax is characterised formulae are traditionally
of Horus at Edfu, showing having been made of wax, referred to as sympathetic or
Ptolemy XII smiting his ene- and also bound with by its vulnerability homeopathetic rituals, but they
mies bonds of black rope. Spit can more precisely described as
upon them! To be tram- thus, it could easily be ‘persuasively analogical’; ritual
pled with the left foot, to of this kind is not based on poor
be fallen with the spear destroyed during science or a failure to observe
(and) knife; to be placed empirical data but rather on a
on the fire in the melting-
furnace of the copper-

the rite... strong belief in the persuasive
power of certain kinds of formu-
smiths … It is a burning laic language.
in a fire of bryony. Its ashes are placed in a
pot of urine, which is pressed firmly into a Images of wax
unique fire.’2 The choice of wax as the basic constructive
material for the figurines is related to its pecu-
Although it is not unlikely that an exe- liar physical properties, that makes it quite suit-
cration ritual continued occasionally to involve able for magical operations, and to its mytho-
human sacrifice, the use of execration figurines logical association with the divine realm: wax



Magical healing statue of

Djedhor from basalt (323-317
BC). It was inscribed with
magical spells against
snakes and other malign
creatures. In its front part,
it shows the young god
Horus trampling upon croc-
odiles (E. Russmann,
Egyptian Sculpture:
Cairo and Luxor,
London 1989, 195).

Inset: Detail of the healing statue of

Djedhor, showing Horus trampling
upon crocodiles. This kind of scene
imitates the relevant scenes in the
cipi-stele of the Late Period.



Representation of the rth-p’t as a primeval substance was said to be created ‘Spitting upon, trampling and
ritual (‘subjugating humani- by the sun god himself.3 Yet, an object made spearing’
ty’), performed in the temples of wax is characterised by its vulnerability After the formation of the appropriate imple-
of the Ptolemaic period. The and, thus, it could easily be destroyed during ments that could serve as medium and solid
king netting wildfowl with the the rite. Also, the fact that it can be burnt with- points of reference for expelling an amorphous
gods Khnum and Horus the out leaving any ashes distinguishes it as a per- adversary, the ritualist commences the magical
Behdet. Temple of Khnum, fect symbol guaranteeing the total eradication procedure.
hypostyle hall, Esna, of the hostile image that it represents. The According to the rubric of the Apophis
Ptolemaic period (R. same attributes could also apply to the book, quoted earlier, the magical procedure is
Wilkinson, Symbol and Magic papyrus plant, which was used on which to basically developed into the following steps
in Egyptian Art, London 1994, write the various spells and draw the hostile with occasional variations: ‘spitting upon’ (psg)
fig. 141). images. the hostile image, ‘trampling upon’ (sin) it with
For the Egyptians, the colour green his ‘left foot’ ‘spearing’ (hw) it with his ‘spear’
(w3d) was derived from and was associated (m‘b3) or ‘knife’ (ds) ‘binding’ (q3s) and wrap-
with the papyrus plant (w3d), as a symbol of ping it in the papyrus, before placing it on the
flourishing (w3d) and eternal renewal. Both fire (hh).
bear, amongst other properties, strong protec- In addition to the positive, curative
tive attributes expressed in a variety of ways aspects of spitting and its role to the creation of
and contexts. ‘Papyrus column’ amulets made cosmos, which is envisioned in so many
of green stone were regarded as very effective Egyptian myths and tales, its potential nature as
in expelling evil in the real world and the here- a weapon of destruction and corruption is well
after. From the Ramesside period onwards, and emphasised in the magical texts and well prac-
especially during Graeco-Roman times, lion- tised in the apotropaic dromena.
headed goddesses, particularly Bastet, Sekhmet Because the act of spitting was hostile
and Menhet, carry the papyrus as a symbol of and magically threatening, it could be easily
protection and elimination of every harmful associated with the ejected venom of serpents,
notion or enemy. scorpions, insects, and other creatures. Thus,



Left: Ptolemy VII

Euergetes II destroys a
prisoner before the god
Horus the Behdet. Edfu
temple, Ptolemaic period
(R. Wilkinson, Symbol and
Magic in Egyptian Art,
London 1994, fig. 155).

Left: Ramesses II with

prisoners of war. From the
Temple of Amun at
Karnak. Dynasty 19 (R.
Wilkinson, Symbol and
Magic in Egyptian Art,
London 1994, fig. 156).

spitting figures prominently in both the recitations

and praxis of execrations directed against wax fig-
urines representing the divine demons and their Left: It was the combina-
associates. tion of the potency of the
Trampling upon an enemy was a standard word in conjunction with
gesture in magical rites. It derives from the common ritual action which pro-
imagery of the traditional enemies of Egypt, repre- duced the efficacy of the
sented on the king’s footstool and on the sole of his magical ritual, often enact-
sandals, so that he was constantly trampling on them. ed as a type of play based
The same idea is found in funerary on ancient Egyptian
magic. The casting of the hostile image with a mythological stories such
spear or knife follows the spitting technique. In as that of Horus and Seth.
fact, this formula dominates the relevant reliefs on
the walls of the Ptolemaic temples. The king, rep-
resented by the priest in the everyday re-enact-
ment of the rite, spears the enemy (human or
divine) in the presence of the patron deity of the
temple (the temple statue in real life). The sacrifi-
cial immolation of the figurines comes as the final
apotropaic step and symbolises the total destruc-
tion of the enemy.
The theme of the burnt offering is not
normally considered central to Egyptian ritual, but
where it is developed, it carries the theme of sac-
rifice of the enemy. Quite often, the precise place
where the fire takes place is clearly stated in the
rubrics of the magical papyri: ‘To be placed on the



traced back, at least, to the Middle

Kingdom depiction of a small brazier in
the context of offering scenes. An oval
cavity, 68m deep, in the form of a trun-
cated cone, excavated at Mirgissa could
have served a similar purpose.6 Into this
pit were placed five unbroken crucibles
of dried mud, duplicates of the typical
crucible used for copper smelting.
Since wax does not leave any
residue after being burned, it was the
ashes from the papyrus that had to be col-
lected ‘in a pot of urine’ and placed, con-
secutively, on a new fire. There is a par-
allel correlation, here, between a by-
product of the human body, the waste
liquid, which has to be discharged from it
as totally useless and, somehow, danger-
ous for its harmonious function, and the
The ritual formulae fol- visible symbolic remains of a superhu-
lowed a set pattern of fire in the furnace of the coppersmiths’4 and, else- man foe, which are still regarded malicious until
actions in which the where, ‘the furnace (w3w3) shall consume you.’ they are completely dispersed.
human or demonic
enemy was first execrat- Preserving the House of Life The power of encircling
ed, using images, before The term w3w3 is a reduplicated form of After the burning of the enemy’s physical
the final destruction of the verb w3 (‘to roast’) meaning ‘fire, ‘body,’ assimilated to a wax substitute or a
these images by fire. flame.’ It is attested quite often in the drawing on a sheet of papyrus, the magician
funerary texts of the Middle and New endeavours to control his malicious activities in
Kingdom referring to the divine flame, the Underworld through the magical technique
personified as the uraeus or ‘mistress of of ‘encircling’ (phrt) his ‘shadow’.7 Although
fire’, that burns up the enemies of Osiris the term phr is especially involved in prophy-
in the Underworld. There is, here, a direct lactic rites for purification, its destructive,
conformity between the ritual burning of aspects cannot be dismissed.
wax figures as common cultic practice on In the Underworld, the ‘subjugation’
earth, and the mythological execution of yielded by the technique of encircling consist a
criminals and sinners in the Underworld. major threat for all the parts of the personality
Based on this analogy between religious of both the blessed deceased and hostile
practice and funerary dramatisation, the demons. It is this function of phr that is meant
representations of such furnaces on the under the rubric of this book and is performed
tomb walls could help us conceive an idea by the magician likewise. What actually hap-
about their form and liturgical applica- pens in the ritual against Apophis is the acqui-
tions, since no information or depiction is sition by the magician/priest of a funerary
given in the Apophis Book. spell/rite, spell 108 of the 18th Dynasty Book
The citation of the word ‘furnace of of Dead, which deals exactly with the same
coppersmiths’ implies a metal construction theme: the deprivation of the power of the ser-
enduring enough for fusing or melting copper. pentine demon by the successful use of magical
It might be similar to the one quoted in the late control (phr):
Ptolemaic period story Instructions of
Ankhsheshonq, as ‘brazier/furnace of cop- ‘I am the Great of Magic (heka), the son of
per’and in Papyrus Salt 825, where it intro- Nut. My magic (akhu) has given to me
duces a whole section of execration practices, against you ... I have encircled this sky,
part of the rth-p‘t ritual (for the preservation of while you are in bonds.’8
the ‘House of Life’), which is illustrated by
vignettes depicting four square furnaces with There seems to be here a close affiliation of
two bound enemy motifs in them, ready to be phr with both notions of the Egyptian magic, heka and
destroyed by fire.5 akhu, which not only confirms the prophylactic and
These furnaces could be either artificial magical nature of the former, but also it divulges the
or natural constructions, attached to the temples divine origin and practice of the technique as a method
for this purpose. Their representation could be to retain cosmic order and to repel the forces of chaos.



There is again here, as with the burn- a fourteen day period at Edfu, execration
ing formula above, a direct juxtaposition and images of serpentine images of Apophis,
integration between the funerary rites as these together with those of hippopotami and croco-
are expressed through the multifunctional diles, symbolising Seth, are used in execration
funerary texts of the New Kingdom, and the rituals against the enemies of Horus.9
magical apotropaic techniques and formulae. The rituals were completed with the
‘striking of the eye’ (of Apophis), the offering of
A suitable day and hour the hippopotamus cake, the ‘trampling of fishes’
The choice of the suitable day and hour for the and ‘destruction of all the enemies of the king.’
magical operation was essential for the success of The destruction of the enemies should also have
the rite. Such choice was deter- been part of the Busirite liturgy
mined by the nature and charac- of the Osiris Mystery performed
ter of the rite, as well as the spe- from 23 to 30 Khoiak near the
cial mythological bonds that “R tomb of Osiris in the divine
ituals that were necropolis at Dendera.
connect it with the divine sphere.
Thus, rituals that were Another allusion to
related to the sun god and his related to the sun god the Apophis’ destruction as a
adversaries, usually took place liturgical component is found
in the morning, while spells and his adversaries, in the Apis bull embalming rit-
against the dangers of the night ual described in the Papyrus
were performed at dusk. Also, usually took place in Vindob. 3873.10
calendars of lucky and unlucky After the mummifica-
days, where the classification of the morning, while tion process, the coffin contain-
the days was based on events in ing the mummy is placed on a
myth, play an important role as
guidelines for the designation of
spells against the dan- boat and is then transported to
the Lake of the Kings in a pro-
the time the performance. cession attended by the god-
Very often, a particular gers of the night were desses Isis and Nephthys and
rite, like the one against Apophis,
could be practised every day. This performed at dusk... ” headed by the god Wepwawet of
Upper Egypt and the god
frequent performance reflects the Wepwawet of Lower Egypt, Footnotes
daily fight between Apophis and the sun-god in Horus and Thoth. On the arrival at the Lake the
the Underworld, which was common and well Apis is lifted up onto a raised platform, while 1 Faulkner, JEA 23 (1937), 169-70.
developed theme within the context of the funer- priests sail across the Lake reading from nine 2 P. Bremner-Rhind, col. 23/6-10
ary papyri, Underworld books and apotropaic sacred books. The Apis then undergoes the and 26/2-6 = Faulkner, JEA 23
sun hymns of the New Kingdom onwards. Opening of the Mouth ceremony before it (1937), 168 and 172; similar tech-
returns to the Embalming House. Two of the niques are used for the destruc-
Horus of Edfu nine books being recited by the priests are enti- tion of Seth in P. BM 10081, 5/7-10
The performance of the magical practices with- tled ‘The book of the protection of the divine = Schott, Urk. VI, 35-42; cf. idem.,
in the liturgical environment of a temple was bark’ and ‘the book of exorcising of (evil).’ MDAIK 14 [1956], 181-89).
closely interconnected with all the major reli- These rituals could be addressed against any 3 Raven, OMRO 64 (1983), 28-30.
gious festivals. Thus, during the festival in malign demon or human enemy. 4 P. Bremner-Rhind, col. 26/4 =
favour of Horus the Behdetite, celebrated over AE Faulkner, JEA 23 (1937), 171.
5 Derchain 1965, pls. 10-12; com-
pare É. Chassinat et al., Le Temple
Further Reading:
d’Edfou (Cairo, 1960), vol IX, pl. 48
1. Ph. Derchain, Le Papyrus Salt 825 (B.M. 10051) van Oudheden te Leiden 64 (1983), 7-47. (Plate 9) and vol. X, pl. CXIV.
(Brussels, 1965). 7. R. K. Ritner, The Mechanics of Ancient 6 Ritner 1993, 157.
2. P. Eschweiler, ‘Bildzauber im Alten Ägypten’, Egyptian Magical Practices (Chicago, 1994), 74- 7 Ritner 1993, 57-67.
Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 137 (Göttingen, 1994). 190. 8 G. Allen, The Book of the Dead
3. R. O. Faulkner, ‘The Bremner-Rhind Papyrus I-IV’ 8. S. Schott, ‘Urkunden mythologischen Inhalts. or Going Forth by Day (Chicago,
Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 22-24 (1936-38). Bücher und Sprüche gegen den Gott Seth’, 1974) 85-6.
4. Y. Koenig, Magie et Magicians dans l’ Egypte Urkunden des aegyptischen Altertums VI 9 É. Chassinat et al., Le Temple
ancienne (Paris, 1994), chapter 4. (Leipzig, 1929). d’Edfou (Cairo, 1930), vol. V,
5. G. Pinch, Magic in Ancient Egypt (London, 9. S. Schott , 'Totenbuchspruch 175 in einem 134/1-7.
1994), 76-103. Ritual zur Vernichtung von Feiden,' Mitteilungen 10 R. L. Vos, The Apis Embalming
6. M. J. Raven, ‘Wax in Egyptian magic and symbol- des Deutchen Archäologischen Instituts, Ritual (P. Vindob. 3873) (Leuven,
ism,’ Oudheidkundige Mededelingen het Rijksmuseum Abteilung Kairo 14 (1956), 181-89 1993), 52-3, 159-62, and 248-51.



Who Sings to
his every day:

hile we don’t know how

In last issue’s Ancient
ancient Egyptian
Egypt, Douglas Irvine music sounded,
there’s a set of
described how his inter- basic sources that inform us about
ancient music in Egypt,’ explained
est in the music of musician and composer Doug
Irvine. ‘Students of Egyptology
ancient cultures devel- will be familiar with the many rep-
resentations of musicians and
oped. In this detailed musical instruments from tomb
paintings, reliefs, graffiti and
article he goes on to sculpture. We depend quite a bit on
these visual sources to determine
explain that while Egypt who played what instruments, how
the instruments were grouped and
has not yielded a set of held, the performance contexts and how
instruments changed over time.’ reveal
written music theory or The vivid, lively images of ancient to us the details of their work.
Egyptian musicians, often women, are tantalis- However, thanks to Egypt’s
notation from antiquity, ing in their silence. They represent some of the preserving climate, some of
most relaxed and intimate scenes from ancient their instruments have survived
there are other sources Egyptian art. Textual sources yield further in good shape and from these,
information in the form of titles, particularly in the modern investigator can
of information at our funerary contexts, of musicians and families of learn much about construc-
musicians. tion techniques without
disposal. Doug Irvine ‘One could labour over the interpreta- having to apply destructive
tion of an ancient musician’s specific action in methods, an opportunity
and Miriam Bibby a tomb painting or relief, but a literate scholar which does not extend to
could simply read the caption over the subject’s other climates such as
investigate ancient head: “Oh well, it says right here that her name Mesopotamia.
is Ity and she’s a singer.” Mystery solved,’ con- ‘X-rays were
Egyptian musical tinued Doug. made of an Egyptian
Those ancient musicians, often laid to angle harp at the Louvre,
traditions. rest in relatively wealthy burials, the fine con- for instance,’ explained
dition of their skin and hands providing further Doug. ‘Without having to
evidence of their profession in life, cannot tear into the instrument, a lot of

Right: A sketch of harps, pipes and flutes, as
depicted on an ancient tomb near the pyramids.

Below: Banquet scene: fragment of wall painting from the tomb of

Nebamun, Thebes, Egypt. 18th Dynasty, around 1350 BC. A fine
example of a Theban tomb painting. Musicians and dancers entertain
guests, dressed in festive clothing. The musicians are perhaps the
most striking in the image being represent-
ed frontally rather than in profile.
(British Museum)

Arched wooden harp from the tomb of Any, Thebes, Egypt. New
Kingdom, 1550-1069 BC. Usually made of wood and inlaid with
bone and faience, harps were often shown in
banquet scenes, decorating the walls of
tombs. (British Museum.)

These ivory clappers are

made in the form of hands.
Used as a musical instru-
ment, clappers were often
played together with sis-
tra, harps and pipes.
Photo: © Kate Preftakes
Photography, 1997

Left: A painted ceramic vase in

the shape of a woman playing the
lute; 18th Dynasty. (British

construction details were discovered.’ musical structure and numerous modes or tun-
Evidence from reliefs, wall ings, is among the most highly evolved musi-
paintings and some of the hieroglyphic cal systems in the world. A skilled musician
inscriptions and texts of hymns and knows those rules and knows how to convey
songs do mean that we are well advised individuality and expression within a set struc-
on the contexts in which ancient ture. It’s possible that ancient performances
Egyptian music was played. could have worked this way.’
‘Musicians played an impor-
tant role in religious ceremony. Music Tuning systems
placated the deities and it was an impor- The art of ancient Egypt cannot be taken at
tant part of numerous festivals and ban- face value, but since artistic representations
quets. Music was connected to work and provide one of the principle sources of evi-
labour and there are beautiful depictions dence, art has been used to attempt to identify
associating music with intimacy and sexu- possible tuning systems.
ality. The Egyptians loved music,’ is ‘For example, people have looked at
Doug’s belief. instruments in tomb paintings to examine and
compare the lengths of strings on a harp. Doing
Evidence for notation? this, it was thought, would help decipher spe-
Although there is no evidence for notation, cific ratios
Doug is of the opinion that a strict musical for- between string
mula must have operated, for temple and lengths which
courtly music, at least. could then
‘I don’t see musicians taking requests translate into
in the Temple of Amun during a ceremony! It pitch intervals
is possible that, within a well-established and possibly
structure, some kind of improvisation could musical scales.
have taken place. Today, Egyptian music All of this from
incorporates the use of musical improvisation. pictures!’
However, this only works within an estab- Doug
lished and sophisticated set of musical concedes that
rules, and Arabic music, with a 24 tone this is ‘an



intriguing idea, though nothing conclusive has the experts were divided on the conclusions
been reached from this approach and it reached with the information they analysed.
assumes that the ancient artisans were highly ‘No matter what the results were, it’s
accurate in recording all the details of the another good example of the ways in which
instruments they rendered. One can actually people have attempted to uncover some of
take string lengths from tomb paintings and the deepest mysteries surrounding ancient
create a system from which music is made. Egyptian music. My feeling is that the
I’m not sure it would have much to do with the music made by ancient Egyptians will
sounds the ancients were making, but it would remain elusive, and will simply keep us
fit in nicely with 20th century experimental wondering.’
music concepts.’ While studying ancient texts and
In recent years, the music of ancient images relating to music is of interest in itself,
Egypt has begun to receive, at last, greater there is a further value to the subject. Musical
investigation than ever before. During the instruments changed over time, with new
1930’s, a famous radio broadcast of the sound items coming into Egypt and perhaps new tra-
of the silver trumpet from the ditions and influences.
tomb of Tutankhamun was ‘That is the great
made (and this can be heard, if thing about ancient Egypt.
the listener has the appropriate
software, on the web-site
“T The evidence is so rich, for
he evidence is so so long a period of time, that one can trace musical evolu-
However, the 1990’s have seen rich, for so long a tion across thousands of
a different approach to years without ever having to
research, which involves the period of time, that one leave Egypt. What we see is
participation of modern day that specific traditions exist-
musicians from Egypt. ed during certain times in
‘During the 1990’s, a
can trace musical Egyptian history,’ explains
team of scholars and musicians Doug.
analysed some of the Pharaonic evolution across ‘During
flutes on display at the the Old Kingdom,
Egyptian Museum in Cairo,’ thousands of years for example, certain
explained Doug. ‘The late instruments
Egyptian nay (flute) virtuoso, without ever having to were used that
Mohammed Effat, performed are unique to
on the flutes, and at the time he
was considered the flute player

leave Egypt... that time. The
end-blown flute is Above:Bastet
in all of Egypt. The concept of depicted most frequently in shaking a sistrum and
the study was this: unlike a stringed instru- the Old Kingdom. This was also a time when holding an aegis, with kittens at
ment, whose open strings are capable of pro- chironomists were employed, a group of musi- her feet. (British Museum).
ducing a fairly broad range of possible pitches cians that made sets of hand signals, the mean-
(depending on how they were tuned), a flute ing of which is not known. Sometimes chiron-
has fixed points from which specific pitches omists made hand signals and sang. Even the
are made through finger holes. way the musicians sat was unique in the Old
‘In the study, they recorded both sur- Kingdom, with one leg tucked under and the
viving and reconstructed flutes and gathered other knee pointing upward. A good example Left: Professional musicians
tables of information on of this comes from a 5th Dynasty scene in the existed on several social levels
tunings, etc. It was a very tomb of Nenchefka from Sakkara from 2400 in ancient Egypt. Temple musi-
sophisticated study. The BC. cians held the office of “she-
real questions and criti- ‘The scene depicts a flute player, a meyet” to a particular god or
cisms came in the inter- clarinet player, chironomists and a floor goddess which was a position
pretation of the data. harpist. We know the chironomists appear of high status frequently held
It’s too complex to only in the Old Kingdom and that the end- by women. Musicians connect-
get into, but the blown flutes enjoy prominence then. The floor ed with royal households were
authors drew con- harp with its gradually curving neck, a large highly regarded, as were gifted
clusions based on instrument, is a type seen only in the Old singers and harp players.
a small num- Kingdom.’ Lower on the social scale were
ber of instru- The period providing the least entertainers for parties and
ments, and amount of information is the Middle festivals.



Kingdom, but there is enough to show that new spots on animal hide indicating the type of ani-
instruments such as the lyre and lute were mal that was used in the making of an instru-
“There are also imported. ‘The lyre first appears in tomb paint-
ings not in the hands of Egyptians, but in the
The ancient Egyptians made use of
hands of foreigners, Bedouins. The famous both domesticated and wild animals in the pro-
many musical sub- lyre player from Beni Hassan from about 1850 duction of musical instruments. Animal gut
BC depicts this very clearly.’ and sinew were used for strings. Simple rattles
tleties we’ll never know These and other images show that were made of clay, and bronze was used in the
some instruments fell from fashion while oth- construction of sacred instruments such as the
ers became popular, and that ‘depictions of sistrum and cymbals. Doug is intrigued by the
about. The virtuoso female musicians dominate the New possibilities of home-made instruments ‘that
Kingdom, along with new instruments. could have been crafted from recycled materi-
musician who played Cultures may not take immediate acceptance als. So far I have no evidence for this type of
to new instruments. By the New Kingdom the instrument, but it would be hard to imagine
the lute like no-one lyre becomes an Egyptian favourite. The evi- someone not using basic objects at hand to
dence really helps us to see that Egyptian cul- make some music with.’
before or since, the ture evolved over time and that music evolved While Hathor and Bes are the
right along with the changing tastes of the Egyptian deities perhaps most associated with
singer whose vocal culture.’ musical traditions, it is evident that music was
Ancient Egyptian musical instru- an important part of all temple rituals and a
abilities were known up ments also reveal the ingenuity and skill with requirement of all the gods. ‘Bes is so often
which the manufacturers worked the natural depicted with the frame drum (one of my
resources around them. ‘They had access to favourite instruments) and I will continue to
and down the Egyptian various types of wood, some domestic, some refer to him in upcoming recordings that incor-

imported. Wood was used for sound boxes and
necks of instruments, or drum shells.
porate the frame drum, an instrument that
thrives in modern day Egypt, North Africa and
Animal skin was widely used as the across the Arab world,’ said Doug.
sound board of stringed instruments and for ‘Hathor is connected to love, beauty
drum heads. Images of harps even depict the and fertility and she’s a patron of women and



of music. Her associations are numerous and Roman stonework:

often those associations include music. She’s ‘Strange to behold Suggested Further
seen holding the sistrum, the sacred rattle. is the stone of this wall Reading:
Even the handle of the sistrum will, at times, broken by fate
have her head carved into the handle. She also The strongholds are bursten Music and Musicians in
plays the frame drum. The work of giants decaying Ancient Egypt by Lise
‘Thanks to written records, we find the roofs are fallen Manniche, published by the
that many Egyptian gods and goddesses were the towers are tottering British Museum Press,
honoured with music making and with musical Mouldering palaces roofless London 1991; Catalogue of
references. For example, carved hieroglyphs Weather marked masonry shattering Antiquities in the British
on a surviving shoulder harp reveal the words Shelters time-scarred tempest-marred Museum III: Musical
‘sweet is the air Amun’. Ceremonies praising undermined of old Instruments, by R D
Amun definitely involved music, and the tex- Anderson, BMP, London
tual sources go on to reveal whole classes of Earth’s grasp holdeth 1976; Les instruments de
singers, such as “Singers of Amun” and the Its mighty builders musique égyptiens au Musée
very top echelon of musicians, referred to as tumbled, crumbled du Louvre by C. Ziegler, Paris
“Singers in the Interior of the Temple of in gravel’s harsh grip 1979.
Amun”.’ Till a hundred generations
The importance of the musician’s role of men pass away.’
is evident in the ‘Short Hymn to the Aten’:
Human fears and hopes are recognis-
‘Singers, musicians, shout with joy, able across the centuries, and it is left to the
In the court of the benben-shrine, musicians and poets to express these ideas to
And in all temples of Akhet-Aten, the rest of humanity. Does music make the
The place of truth in which you rejoice.’ concept more palatable, or is it simply that they
(trs. M Lichtheim) dare to address it? If complex and subtle
thought was made available in Egyptian
We are still left with the mystery of songs, then this must
these sweet-voiced singers and the music they surely have been the
made. The songs must have been many and var- case with the accom-
ied, from work-songs to bawdy music in the panying music.
brothel at Deir el-Medina, from sacred music to ‘There are
martial tunes, from love songs to the complex also many musical
thought regarding existence in the words of the subtleties we’ll never
blind harper from the tomb of King Intef: know about. The vir-
tuoso musician who
‘Those who built tombs played the lute like
Their places are gone, no-one before or
What has become of them? since, the singer
I have heard the words of Imhotep and whose vocal abilities
Hardedef, were known up and
Whose sayings are recited whole. down the Egyptian
Their walls have crumbled, empire,’ Doug
Their places are gone, believes. ‘There are
As though they had never been! many questions in my
None comes from there, mind concerning how
To tell of their state, music at any one spe-
To tell of their needs, cific time changed as
To calm our hearts you travelled up and down the Nile. I would be Above: Rhythm was at the
Until we go where they have gone!’ very surprised if local songs didn’t differ core of Egyptian religious
(trs. M Lichtheim) depending on where in Egypt you were. practices, rituals and proces-
‘When people ask me what I think the sions. Many percussionists we
The passing of time, the mysteries of music sounded like, I ask them about their have information about were
death, the crumbling of ancient works, have impressions of ancient Egyptian architecture, women who were highly
provided a theme for poets that has lasted artwork, and so on. Their music must have trained court musicians or
longer than the builders and the buildings they reflected the culture’s many other great employed by large temples as
created. This theme occurs in an Anglo-Saxon achievements that we in the modern world musician priestesses. Male
poem, set to music by Peter Hamill in the late admire so deeply.’ percussionists often appeared
1970’s, in which an observer comments on AE as military drummers.



at the Louvre

his compact exhibition was organised The programme of Room 2 was magic

Earlier this year, the
into four rooms. Room 1 introduced and religion in the realm of the temple, and
Louvre hosted an exhibi- the nature of heka as a component of magic and the state. Reliquaries, talismans,
Egyptian views of the supernatural, magic ‘balls’ bearing the name of a deity, stat-
including representations of it as a man sur- uettes and ex-voto of protective deities and
tion on Egyptian magic
mounted by the hieroglyph which writes his papyri featured in this presentation of the inter-
name, as a child with a solar disk, and as a face between magic and religion. As the head
and ritual. Cathie Bryan helper to Horus upon the crocodiles. The force of state, pharaoh’s role in maintaining order on
of heka could be harnessed by mankind as a earth and his responsibility to protect the peo-
takes us through the protection against visible and invisible enemies ple (rekhyt) in general and against the classic
found in the world of the living, the world of enemies of Egypt was examined in execration
revealing items in a the dead and the world of the gods. texts, sculpture and stelae. The other side of
Much space was devoted to the classi- magic and the state explored was the impossi-
review that compliments cal enemies of Egypt depicted as bound cap- bility of effective rebellion and resistance
tives. Rendering representations of the enemy against the power of the king, as pointed out by
our Nine Measures of helpless through art and spell was part of the Dr Kousoulis in his series of articles; magic
magic needed to defeat him. Cosmic enemies was simply viewed as one possible form of
Magic series. The the- the serpent Apophis and Seth and the eternal
cycle of their challenges and defeats were
matic exhibition present- shown alongside the forces of order and good-
ness, such as Ma’at, the sun god in his various
ed objects associated aspects and Osiris and Isis. Their
roles were however more complex
with magic and sympa- than this: Apophis, it is pointed out in
the accompanying catalogue, was
always defeated, and Seth played an
thetic magic which are
important role in the Egyptian pantheon,
possessing temples of his own. Magic
normally dispersed objects and spells to defeat the gods of
disorder through ritual by man and
between the Louvre’s the gods were well illustrated in
this first section.
four Egyptian circuits, Re is prominent as
defender of the state, particu-
supplemented by related larly in his form as a predato-
ry beast such as the ‘Great
objects on loan. Cat of Heliopolis.



Left: This winged and

composite figure, Bes
panthée, wearing a
crown and with four
arms, exudes a slightly
menacing presence
that evokes the idea of
Egyptian magic. In fact
he is associated with
beneficial magic and
was a popular house-
hold deity.

Left: From time immemorial, the

god Bes had associations with
the goddess Hathor and the Above: Far from being
magic needed for safe parturition. the occult and menac-
His popularity lasted well into ing force that magic
Ptolemaic times. became in early mod-
ern Western society,
Heka was an amoral
power that could be
used for either good or
ill and was regularly
harnessed by priest-
magicians in order to
benefit the Egyptian
state. Images of the
enemies of Egypt,
bound and captive,
make a strong state-
ment of redress
against wrong-doers.




Below: Images of serpents, and in
particular the great enemy of Re,
Apophis, show the inevitable tri-
umph of the sun god; the cobra
goddess Wadjet extended her pro-
tection over the king of Egypt,
Right: From earli-
proving the king's domin-
est times, the kings
ion over potentially
showed themselves
chaotic forces.
overcoming the ene-
mies of Egypt and
this symbolism had
an enduring appeal
for magicians and

Above: The power of the eye:

amulets in the form of parts of
the body were a vital part of the
burial equipment of the ancient
Egyptians. The eye retains its
appeal into modern times and is
a popular image for modern
jewellery makers.
rebellion and magical methods aimed at harm- cept. Hetepi, head of magicians, with his bag
ing the king were treated accordingly. of magic tools (cat 208) was most impressive.
Room 3 presented aspects of the The last section of room 4 examined Egyptian
magician’s ‘user manual’: sources of magic magic and the occult understood from the 19th
writings, what to say, necessary gestures, and century through the present.
accessories and talismans appropriate to the The exhibition catalogue follows
occasion. Room 4 grouped together diverse closely the organisation of the exhibit and
themes: threats in everyday life for which includes essays by exhibition curator Marc
magic could provide some protection (against, Etienne. Since the majority of the objects
for instance, the anger of the gods, illness and relating to magic are too specialist to appear in
Catalogue Details dangerous animals), mythological and histori- the other guides to the Louvre’s Egyptian col-
cal magicians and the survival of magic in lection, the catalogue is a useful reference.
Author: Marc Etienne Graeco-Roman Egypt. Highlights include (The catalogue listing could have been made
Title: HEKA: Magie et cover boy Bes panthée (cat. 140a) and many more useful by noting the current gallery loca-
envoûtement dans l’Egypte other examples of Bes as a magical helper. tion of the objects within the Louvre!) Equally
ancienne, Paris: Catalogue objects 250 -252 illustrate a love appreciated is the French point of view, which
spell assemblage, complete with the text and the writer finds is not easily accessible to the
Publisher: Les Dossiers du figure of the object of desire as a bound captive English speaking audience, apart from profes-
Musée du Louvre pierced by (non destructive) needles. sional Egyptologists or those who visit the
ISBN: 2-7118-4030-1 Representations of and evidence for of real-life Louvre in person.
Price: 140FF (approx. £13.36p) magicians and priests was an intriguing con- AE


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Volume 1. Issue 1. Volume 1. Issue 2. Volume 1. Issue 3. Volume 1. Issue 4.
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the Lost Tomb. Ancient Temples. Sphinx. of Horus at Edfu.



Interesting times
for Neb Re:
A Ramesside official
tells his tale...
Ancient instruments -
We interview musician
Doug Irvine

The moving history of

Nubian burials

Our series:
“9 Measures
of Magic”

TRAVEL SECTION Ancient Egypt Vol 2 Issue 2



Volume 1. Issue 5. Volume 1. Issue 6. Volume 2. Issue 1. Volume 2. Issue 2.

The Naming of Kings Cleopatra - Queen of Egypt. A Nine Measures of Magic. Neb Re: Uncovering the story
A visit to the Egyptian profile of Amelia Edwards. Journey into the Egyptian of a Ramesside official.
Museum in Berlin Mapping the world of the Underworld. An Interview with Egyptian Music: An interview
“Heaven and Hell” at National Ancient Egyptians. Treasures the Director of the Luxor with Doug Irvine. The story of
Museums of Scotland of the Pharaohs. Mummification Museum. Nubian burials
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A news flash in from the Tour Egypt web site at the end of
August advised that TWA would no longer offer flights to
Egypt after the end of September 2001. Any passengers who
had booked flights after that date would have travel arrange-
ments made by TWA on other flights. The number to contact
for further details is (800) 658 2150. Thanks to Jimmy Dunn
of for providing this information.


The new library at Alexandria has received a gift of a num-
ber of electronically created images from France. Included
amongst them are rare historical documents showing the
construction of the Suez Canal, microfilm images of maps
and construction drawings of the cities of the canal and
books on Port Said. The award has been made with the
assistance of the Suez Canal Friends Association and the The new Library at
Egyptian cultural office in Paris, and training was provided Alexandria will now house
by the Association for a library secretary to become versed historic microfilm images
in aspects of this unique documentation. For further details, (some never seen
visit the web site at before) of the construc-
eg/online/html14/o250821m.htm tion of the Suez Canal.


The new Suez Canal Overhead Bridge will be opened offi-
cially in October. The 3100m long bridge, which is 20m
wide and crosses the canal 70m above the water, is the
product of a joint Japanese/Egyptian project in which 60%
of the total cost of 650 million was provided as a grant by
the Japanese government. The whole project took three and
a half years during which the construction teams worked 24
hours a day. The project will assist in 'opening up' Sinai and
is only one of a number of such projects such as the
Ismailia-Rafah line. Ismailia governor Major General Fuad
Saad Eddin described the project as 'a symbol of co-opera-
tion between Egypt and Japan'. It was expected that the
opening would be witnessed by a number of vessels from
all over the world.


An article in an August 2001 edition of Al-Ahram
describes the delights of diving holidays in the Red Sea and
warns of the threat to the beautiful but fragile marine envi-
ronment there. Jenny Jobbins describes the development
along the coast there as 'unequalled in almost any resort
anywhere'; 60,000 visitors a week are now hosted by the
hotels and dive centres.
While 'the dive centres and the Ras Muhammed
National Park officials maintain the sites with deeply com-
mendable care,' Jobbins warns that 'the fragile reef , though,
is no match for the numbers.'
If planning a diving holiday in Sharm El-Sheikh,
the article contains invaluable information on coral reef 'eti- A scorpion fish, just one of the many
quette'. Follow the instructions to ensure good diving and the species of delicate wildlife living on the
continued safety of the coral reefs. fragile reef that holidaying divers in Sharm
El-Sheik can see, but must be aware are




Try out a couple of web sites if you're planning a trip to
Egypt; the pages of are very easy to navi-
gate, with useful maps and the advice is equally straightfor-
STORIES FROM EGYPT... ward and useful, particularly for first time travellers. It's a
similar story at the colourful pages of www.i- where honest, not to say frank, advice
is available and there is a link to BABEL:arabic so that you
can pick up the lingo, not to mention the Encyclopaedia of
the Orient, although the pages of this seemed a lit-
tle reluctant to appear. Check it out and tell AE
travel pages what you think.

Canal traffic passes HURGHADA COMMENTS

under the bridge There were some pithy comments on the massive
while still under development at Hurghada in the latest issue of the
construction. The newsletter of the Egypt Society of Bristol. The
new Suez Canal Egyptian government has plans for 150 hotels and a
overhead bridge marina, as reported in earlier issues of AE. With plans
will be officially to expand tourism in Egypt from 1 million visitors per
opened on October 6 and year to an astounding 12 million in 30 years time, the
will connect the Egyptian mainland with the impact on Egypt's population and resources will become
Sinai peninsula. a major issue. The newsletter points out the wish of the
Egyptian Minister of Tourism for the proceeds of tourism to
help Egypt's poor and needy, a central tenet of Islam which
is applied most practically and not just theoretically. 'When
will a "poverty levy" be placed on tourists, I wonder?'
writes the author of the piece.

The pyramid of Khafre re-opened to tourists in July 2001.
The Egyptian government has a policy of closing each of
the three famous pyramids at Giza in turn to reduce the
humidity problem created by the thousands of tourists visit-
ing this most popular of Egyptian sites.

As AE went to press, world news was still dominated by
The Giza Pyramids pictured here are Khufu, Khafre and events in the USA. The Egyptology community is an inter-
Menkaure; each part of mortuary national one, and so professionals working in the subject
complexes. Each pyramid had an were undoubtedly affected, personally and professionally.
adjoining mortuary temple where How this might or might not alter travel is, at the time
rituals for the dead king's spirit of writing, a complete uncertainty.
and for the Egyptian gods may With regard to travel to Egypt, AE can
have been carried out. This was only re-iterate the advice that has always been
linked by a causeway to a valley given within these pages: Egypt represents a
temple near the Nile floodplain safe and welcoming tourist destination for the
that acted as an entrance to majority of the millions who go there; but
the whole complex. The Giza maintain contact with your national consulate
complexes also include pits for the latest news, and make sure that you are a
for funerary boats, smaller regular visitor to the pages of, the
subsidiary pyramids and official site of Egyptian tourism, where you are
numerous other tombs. sure to find the latest and most helpful advice on
Presiding over the Giza Egyptian destinations.
necropolis is the enigmatic
Great Sphinx.




has a new view of
n the first ten years of its existence, the sculptures, mummies, pottery, jewellery, etc.

The National Museum of
Leiden Museum bought a number of pres- Visitor’s facilities such as a restaurant, a muse-
Antiquities was founded tigious private collections of ancient art um shop, or a classroom for school groups were
which earned its reputation as one of the lacking or below modern standards.
in 1818 by King William foremost museums of antiquities in Europe. It had long been the Museum’s ambi-
This is especially true of the museum’s tion to change all this, but we were dependant
I. whose explicit wish Egyptian department, which ranks as one of the on the planning of the Office of Works and
ten best collections in the world. On May 17th, were kept dangling on the waiting-list for
that the new museum after five years of limited access, the Leiden years. Matters took a different course when the
Museum has finally re-opened its doors on an museum (like all national collections in the
was to compete with the attractive new display of its treasures. Netherlands) was privatised in 1995 and it was
realised that a major building project was
British Museum and the Taffeh Temple essential for the continued existence of the
Those who have visited Leiden in the past will Museum of Antiquities as a flourishing institu-
Louvre. He could not recall the charming situation of the Museum of tion. The first phase of the project consisted of
Antiquities on the Rapenburg, said to be the a total restructuring of the building.
have chosen a better most beautiful canal in the Netherlands. The
museum is housed in a complex of brick build- Storyline
director than Caspar ings dating to the early 19th century. With their When the temple of Taffeh arrived in the 1970’s,
regular succession of sash-windows and the the former courtyard of the museum was already
Reuvens to realise his ornamental sandstone gate they look attractive provided with an acoustic roof, thus becoming
enough. Upon entering the building, however, the largest museum hall in the Netherlands. Now
ambition, writes Dr one could not fail to notice the less attractive this former courtyard was opened both towards
aspects of this situation. Most galleries were the surrounding galleries (where the new shop
Maarten J Raven, long and narrow, and formed an illogical maze and restaurant, the toilets and wardrobes, and the
of rooms full of unexpected corners and dead archaeological information centre have been
Curator of Leiden’s ends, where visitors soon got lost. installed) and towards the street (allowing an
Climate control was notoriously attractive view of the temple and some Egyptian
world famous absent, with the consequence that both the vis- sculptures). Along the other exterior walls of the
itors and the collection suffered from the building, an inner screen wall was erected, allow-
Egyptology collection, effects of heat, cold, and drought. Although the ing proper climatisation of the interior and creat-
entrance hall with the Egyptian temple of ing shop-windows along the street.
who tells us about recent Taffeh was quite spectacular, the rest of the dis- The remaining inner courtyard of the
play was antiquated, unsafe, and impractical. building was roofed over and integrated with the
improvements there. There was no clear educational concept, but adjacent areas, resulting in spacious new gal-
instead the bulk of the material was displayed leries for the permanent collections and two large
in a rigorous and rather boring classification:




halls for temporary exhibitions. Similarly, the Middle Kingdom is linked with the Above: New presentation of
The Egyptian department now occupies theme of technology, and the Late Period with mummies and coffins dating to
a strategic position on the ground floor of the mummification. the Late and Graeco-Roman
museum’s new wing, whereas before it was dis- This apprach enables the visitor to periods (7th cent. B.C. – 2nd
persed over two floors. Just as for the Graeco- understand the gradual changes of Egyptian soci- cent. A.D.
Roman, Near Eastern and Dutch departments ety, from an introspective culture focussed on the
involved in the re-installation project, the display capital Memphis to an empire comprising vast
is based on a clear storyline which aims to recre- areas in the Sudan or along the coasts of Asia,
Below: Reconstruction of a liv-
ate the archaeological context of each object. For and thereby becoming entangled in the politics of
ing-room in an ancient
the Egyptian collection, this has resulted in a Persia, Macedonia, and Rome. At the same time,
Egyptian house dating to the
mixture of a chronological and a thematic dis- the basic characteristics of this culture, such as its
New Kingdom.
play. dependence on the river Nile or
Six successive periods are each intro- its peculiar religion, can be pre-
duced by a key-figure who comments on the cul- sented in an attractive way.
tural changes in general and on one specific Thus, a presentation of objects
aspect of civilisation in particular. For instance, has given way to one of themes.
the Leiden statue of a scribe is flanked by a wall-
panel giving the basic facts about the Old Scale Models
Kingdom and about the art of writing. The fol- A prominent part in the new
lowing part of the display then shows a selection layout is played by the use of
of objects dating to the Pyramid Age, and next to full-scale reconstructions,
it there is a reading room where visitors can find using original objects placed
out about hieroglyphs and other scripts. in a recreated context. For



Right: Two legs of a funerary bed of one of the ‘black
pharaohs’ in the shape of sphinxes with nubian
heads. These pieces from one of the Right: Reconstructed
cemeteries at Napata (8th-4th cent. head of Sensaos, a
B.C.) could be acquired in 1999. girl who was mum-
mified in 109 A.D.
and whose mummy
was scanned in 1997.

Below: Fragment of a statue of Senenmut,

favourite official of Queen Hatshepsut (1473-1458
B.C.), with the head of her daughter Nofrure. This
fragment could be
acquired in 1997.

Left: The seated statue of Queen Hatshepsut

consists of a torso belonging to the Leiden
Museum and a head and lower half
belonging to the Metropolitan Museum of
Art. The three parts were re-united in
instance, one of the museum’s Middle ed number of audiovisual elements and com-
Kingdom coffins is combined with a puters helps to break the monotony of the pres-
number of tomb statues, servant mod- entation. Thus there are moving images of the
els, a canopic box, and a number of Nile and of the Museum’s excavations at
pottery vessels to simulate a tomb- Saqqara, interactive programmes where visi-
chamber of the period with sandy soil tors can find out about mummy research or
and rock-cut walls. Other reconstruc- decipher hieroglyphic texts, and one can listen
tions show an Egyptian living-room, to the autobiographies inscribed on the votive
a mummification workshop, or an stelae from Abydos. All of this should help to
animal catacomb. hold the attention of the numerous school
Another means to illustrate the origi- groups who visit the museum, or to attract new
nal setting of objects in the collection visitors who do not have the habit of coming to
is the use of scale models depicting museums.
pyramids, temples, tombs, or houses. During the five-year period of prepar-
The architectural and geographical ing this display, we have made a special effort
context of the exhibits is likewise to find out what the public wants by organising
shown by the photographs and maps population research, setting up a number of
of the wall-panels which introduce highly diverse temporary presentations moni-
each sub-theme of the dis- tored by visitor surveys, and we even prepared
play. a questionnaire based on a set of trial cases.
Finally, a limit-



Above: New presentation of New Kingdom sculptures from Saqqara, with the three tomb statues of Maya and his wife Meryt. Maya
was treasurer of King Tutankhamun. (1333-1323 B.C.) His tomb was relocated by an expedition of the Leiden Museum in 1986.

Recent Aquisitions al brought up from the reserves, such as a quar-

Of course, we have not neglected the interests ry mark from the Meidum pyramid, relief frag-
of our more scientifically-minded guests. The
well-known treasures of the Leiden Museum
ments from the Labyrinth at Hawara, or finds
from the Museum’s excavations of a Meroitic
“Even regular
such as the mastaba chapel, the New Kingdom village; and the results of modern research such
sculptures from the tombs at Saqqara, or the as a model of the tomb of Maya or the recon- visitors to our
fabulous collection of mummies and coffins structed head of a mummified Romano-
can again be admired in a new and attractive Egyptian girl. collection marvel at the
presentation. Thus the museum is ready to face
Even regular visitors to our collection the new millennium. Together with an ambi-
marvel at the amount of unknown material in tious programme of temporary exhibitions,
amount of unknown
the new display: recent acquisitions such as the we trust that the new display of the perma-
head of a statue of Hatshepsut’s favourite nent collections will boost the annual number material in
Senenmut, the wonderful bed legs from Napata,
or the panel of a canopic box showing a Roman
of visitors and ensure the Leiden Museum its
place in society. For those who want to pre- the new display... ”
citizen between two ancient Egyptian gods; pare their visit (and for our virtual visitors) it
recent restorations such as the statue of Queen is perhaps good to know you will find the
Hatshepsut rebuilt from fragments belonging to museum has an attractive website
the Leiden Museum and the Metropolitan ( where full information is given
Museum of Art, the monumental bronze Osiris on its activities.
figures, or the Coptic textiles; unknown materi- AE




WIT AND HUMOUR IN others (especially foreigners), the royal family,

THE REVIEW PANEL swearing and bodily functions – yep, it’s all
THIS ISSUE IS: there in the humour of Ancient Egypt.
Let’s begin with the mild stuff.
Miriam Bibby he cartoon-like humour of a surpris- Houlihan describes a ‘nursery rhyme’ problem
Angela Dennett
Robert Partridge
T ing amount of Egyptian funerary art
might come as a revelation to a new-
comer to Egyptology. Hieroglyphic
inscriptions, from
the Old Kingdom
in the Rhind mathematical papyrus which
involves ‘7 houses, 49 cats, 343 mice, 2401
ears of spelt and 16807 hekat of grain’ based on
the progression of 7x7x7x7x7. Does it remind
you of anything? ‘As I was going to St Ives, I
onwards, are some- met a man with seven wives; each wife had
times the ancient seven sacks, each sack had seven cats, each cat
world equivalent of had seven kits: kits, cats, sacks and wives –
speech bubbles or how many going to St Ives?’ The answer is, of
captions accompa- course, one. The old ones are the best.
nying witty illustra- The knowledgeable reader will find
tions. It might not many old ‘chestnuts’ in this book, such as the
be much of a conso- story of the roaring hippopotami that woke the
lation once you’re Delta king many miles away, the goose that is
dead to be surround- taking an eternity to roast in the everlasting
ed for eternity by stone of a tomb and the ‘twenty half-naked sexy
scenes of side-split- young women, wearing only see-through fish-
ting mirth, but hon- net dresses, rowing King Snofru’s pleasure
estly, you’d die boat’ (nudge nudge, wink wink); a drunken
laughing and it nanny neglects her charges who are running riot
would help to take (you can’t get the staff).
your mind off the There will probably be much that is
cost of the funeral. new, however, such as the use of nicknames and
Egyptian vivid, mocking descriptions, such as ‘Roy,
humour ranges from dubbed the firebrand of the granary. He neither
the bucolic to the budged nor
taking in all
points in
Benny Hill
and blue jokes and, as Carol Andrews
once pointed out, frequently veers
towards the Viz end of the humour scale.
There’s nothing very alternative about it and
nor is it by any stretch of the imagination, in
modern parlance, politically correct. In fact it
is often brutal with the physically infirm and
Right: How the country folk lived:
foreigners taking the brunt of the ‘jokes’. Sex,
taken from the wall painting in the
tomb chapel of Baket III at Beni foreigners, drunkenness, animals, work, boss-
Hasan. es, the ‘class system’, the misfortunes of



to be an ideal book for a relaxing read.

The Egyptian Woman tells the
story of Nebetiunet (Nebet), an upper
middle class lady who is a weaver,
seamstress and Chantress of Mut as
well as a busy wife and mother.
The book covers a year in
Nebet’s llife
and takes
place during
the early
years of the
reign of
Ramesses II. She is
Above: Defecating panic-stricken cats, resourceful married to Amenose
youths and a mouse magistrate? Just the thing to (Ameny) who is secre-
dip into when Egyptology gets a little too ordinary... tary to the Tjaty. Nebet
and Ameny have six
stirred since his birth.’ children, three girls, two
Attention is spent, rightly, on the of whom are married,
remarkable papyri in which a wealth of animals and three boys. There
plays out the activities and pastimes of humans. are other family mem-
Tongue-in-cheek mice get one over on the cats bers including an inter-
(Tom and Jerry), a donkey lolls in comfort fering sister-in-law, and
under a sun canopy on board a boat and a various servants, provid-
mouse-god is carried along in solemn proces- ing a good mix of char-
sion by four jackals. acters. The list of names
After several thousand years it is still at the beginning came in
easy to see the humour in these scenes and very handy for refer-
texts, but there is a darker message; humour, for ence.
the kings of Egypt, was not just a matter of The book
having a giggle at the antics of a court jester chronicles the happy
(although Houlihan suggests that dwarves, in and sad days of any fam-
particular, performed this function). It was a ily. We follow the heart-
potent weapon in their constant striving to get break of Mutemwiya,
over the message of Egyptian superiority, part the eldest daughter who,
of the overall armoury of magic, military after two years of mar-
strength and economic control. riage, has not yet had a
The book devotes its final section to baby, and Khaemwese
the Turin ‘satirical-erotic’ papyrus, with illus- the youngest son, who is
trations. Racy stuff. Don’t lend it to a maiden a trainee scribe but is possibly losing his sight.
aunt. I lent it to mine and didn’t get it back! Each chapter covers a month and so
the seasons are followed with accompanying
MAB festivals. These are described in great detail and
feel so real that it is easy to imagine sitting on
Title: Wit and Humour in Ancient Egypt the riverbank watching the procession go by.
Author: Patrick F Houlihan This is beautifully detailed fiction with
Publisher: The Rubicon Press hundreds of authentic details which have been
ISBN 0-948695-69-2
very well-researched. It didn’t occur to me once
Price: £21.95 (Hardback)
to question any statement, as it was all so cred-
ible. The story flowed easily and had an ending
THE EGYPTIAN WOMAN which cried out for a sequel, which one hopes
will follow soon.
hat does an Egyptomaniac

read when he or she needs a Title: The Egyptian Woman
little light relief from all the Author: Hilary Wilson
text books? Chances are it Publisher: Michael O’Mara
will be a novel with an Egyptian theme, of ISBN 1-85479-800-6
Price: £14.99 (Hardback)
which there are not too many. I found this



THE SECRET HISTORY OF World and Electric Egypt. As one picture cap-
ANCIENT EGYPT tion for the Great Pyramid clearly tells us
‘…new evidence suggests that it was a power
he number of books published on plant used by the ancient Egyptian to generate

T Ancient Egyptian subjects never ceas-

es to amaze, although sometimes it is
difficult to get hold of some of the bet-
ter titles in bookshops, whose buying depart-
ments tend to concentrate on the more popular
electricity’. The pyramid was designed, appar-
ently, to resonate like a tuning fork. The Queens
Chamber was a hydrogen generator, and the
corbelled niche there was equipped with a cool-
ing tower…. I could go on, but I won’t.
or sensational titles. It seems that ‘evidence’ is used very
I have just received a copy of one such selectively (now there’s a surprise!). The author
book to review; it is in bookshops and you may, completely ignores new discoveries such as the
therefore, be tempted to buy it. workmen’s village and tombs at Giza, which
The book has an eye-catching cover make it abundantly clear from textual evidence
(always a good idea). The author tells us how that the inhabitants were involved in building
his interest in ancient the tomb of the King, not a power plant.
Egypt was originally The ‘mystery’ of how the Egyptian cut
awakened by a friend who hard stones such as granite is examined in depth
had written a best-selling and ignores recent and conclusive practical
book Flying Saucers Have archaeological results by experts such as Denys
Landed. Not the usual way Stocks, in Manchester.
to come to the subject I Apparently the ancient Egyptians may
must admit…but I suspect have made and used helicopters, submarines,
you can see where this airships and aircraft, as shown in some carvings
review is heading. The from Abydos. In fact one of the illustrations (of
Bibliography included at some hieroglyphs, well carved, but slightly
the back of The Secret damaged) to my untrained eye actually appears
History is itself interesting, to show Thunderbird 2. But then I expect you
where, surprisingly, Mark all know this already.
Lehner’s title The I am sorry, but I just cannot take this
Complete Pyramids of book seriously, and the really worrying thing is
Egypt (an excellent book), that I suspect that there might actually be some
stands out like a beacon readers who will happily part with their £16.99
amongst less credible and believe every word! Isn’t that a disturbing
works like Atlantis thought?
Enigma, Martian Genesis RP
and Giza Power Plant. Title: The Secret History of Ancient Egypt
I will admit this Author: Herbie Brennan
book has been a struggle Publisher: Judy Piatkus (publishers) Ltd.
for me to read - and those Price: £16.99
of you who know even a little about ancient
Egypt will understand why.
Information on pyramid measurements
is given in abundance. Even the Egyptians were
not consistent with their own unit of measure-
ment, the cubit, so modern measurements and
comparisons can be meaningless. Too many
facts and figures can be both confusing and dif-
ficult to dispute. We are told that a line drawn
though the Great Pyramid will divide the earth
into two hemispheres (I followed that!) com-
prising of equal parts of water and land and
another line can divide the land masses of our
planet into two equal halves. I can’t dispute this,
but I would be curious to see this confirmed by
cartographers, and see how accurate the results
actually are.
I became a little more lost and con-
Right: Herbie Brennan fused in the chapters Sonics in the Ancient



There are Egyptology societies and groups all over the UK (and the world) offering a range of activities to interested
SOCIETY CONTACTS amateurs. A contact list of societies is provided below. Victor Blunden of the long-established and highly successful
Manchester Ancient Egypt Society (MAES) is willing to offer advice to any new groups starting out.

The Ancient Egypt & Middle East Society Friends of the Egypt Centre 26 St James Street Stafford. ST16 1PX
Secretary: Mrs Sue Kirk Secretary: Vivienne Saunders Wetherby Tel: 01785 607949
2 Seathorne Crescent 6 Eversley Road Leeds. LS22 6RS
Skegness Sketty Tel: 01937 580703 The Sudan Archaeological Research
Lincolnshire. PE25 IRP Swansea. SA2 9DA Society
Tel: 01754 765341 Tel: 01792 208789 Chairman: Derek Welsby The Northampton Ancient Egyptian C/o The British Museum
The Friends of the Petrie Museum Historical Society Great Russell Street
The Ancient World Society Secretary: Jan Picton Secretary: Revd. Douglas G Catt London. WC1B 3DG
Chairman: Peter Mitchell Petrie Museum of Egyptian 195 Billing Road
99 Belmont Avenue Archaeology Northampton. NN1 5RS The Sussex College of Egyptology
Sandbach University College London Tel: 01604 627710 Education Officer: Robert Scott
Cheshire. CW11 1BT Gower Street 38 Bulkington Avenue
Tel: 01270 764540 London. WC1E 6BT The Plymouth and District Worthing Egyptology Society West Sussex. BN14 7HY
Secretary: Stevie Doidge Tel: 01903 202099
The Association for the Study of Institute for the Study of Underhill Farm
Travel in Egypt and the Near East Inter-disciplinary Sciences Tutwell
Secretary: Dr Patricia Usick Secretary: Carole Keats Stoke Climsland Sussex Egyptology Society
32 Carlton Hill 10 the Greenway Callington Chairman: Janet Wilton
London. NW8 0JY Enfield Cornwall. PL17 8LU Downsview Cottage
Tel: 0207 328 2735 Middlesex. EN3 6TJ Tel: 01579 370309 Wappingthorn Farm Lane Tel: 01992 719788 Steyning
106662, Sussex. BN44 3AG
Durham Ancient Egypt Forum Poynton Egypt Group Tel: 01903 813203
Secretary : Barry Hetherington Leicestershire Ancient Egypt Society Secretary : Liz Sherman
22 George Street Secretary: Mrs June Joyce 7 Craig Road
Darlington 1 Ashmead Crescent Macclesfield Tameside Egypt Group
Co. Durham Birstall Cheshire. SK11 7XN Secretary : Anne Marie Lancashire
Tel: 01325 2823326 Leicester. LE4 4GS Tel: 01625 612641 152 Victoria Street
Tel: 0116 267 5615 Newton
The Egypt Exploration Society Hyde
Secretary: Dr Patricia Spencer The Manchester Ancient Egypt Prestwich Egyptology Club Cheshire. SK14 4AS
3 Doughty Mews Society (MAES) Secretary: Mrs Florence Sokol Tel : 0161 366 6810
London. WC1N 2PG Secretary: Victor Blunden 27 Willingdon Drive
Tel: 020 7242 1880 12 Thornleigh Road Prestwich Fallowfield Manchester. M25 1PA The Thames Valley Ancient
Manchester. M14 7RD Tel: 0161 773 2886 Egypt Society
The Egypt Exploration Society – Tel: 0161 225 0879 Secretary: Philip Wickens
Northern Branch The South Yorkshire Egyptology 467 Basingstoke Road
Secretary: Prof. Rosalie David Society (Selket) Reading. RG2 0JG
The Manchester Museum North East Manchester Egypt Adam Cadwell Tel: 0118 987 2878
The University Society (NEMES) 37 Windermere Court
Oxford Road Chairman: Alan Fildes North Anston The Three Counties Ancient
Manchester. M13 9PL 65 Kersal Road Nr Sheffield. S25 4GJ History Society
Tel: 0161 275 2634 Prestwich Tel: 01909 563629 Secretary: Michael Farey
Manchester. M25 9SN Box Farm House
Egypt Society of Bristol Tel: 0161 773 2877 The Society for the Study of Birlingham
Chairman: Dr Aidan Dodson Ancient Egypt Nr Pershore
c/o Department of Archaeology Secretary: Mrs Rhoda Payton Worcs.WR10 3AB
University of Bristol The North East Lincolnshire 51 Park Road Tel: 01386 750223
43 Woodland Road Egyptology Association Boythorpe
Bristol Chairman: Steve Johnson Chesterfield Wessex Ancient Egypt Society
Tel: 0117 942 1957 109 Sanctuary Way Derbyshire. S40 2LP Chairman: Angela Dennett
Grimsby Tel: 01246 276771 4 Maclean Road
The Egyptian Society (UK) Bournemouth
Secretary: Maggie Cooper Dorset. BH11 8EP
Barn Cottage North Kent Egyptology Society The Southampton Ancient Tel: 01202 241973
Newtown (RAMASES) Egypt Society
Milborne Port Secretary: Mrs Anne Lloyd Secretary: Norman Pease
Sherborne 32 St Margaret’s Drive Brambletye The West Cornwall Egyptian
Dorset. DT9 5BJ Wigmore Whitenap Lane Society
Tel: 01963 251638 Gillingham Romsey. SO51 5ST Secretary: Su Bayfield
Kent. ME8 0NR Tel: 01794 516352 Treen Cottage
Egyptology Scotland Tel: 01634 310579 Zennor
Secretary: F A Walker St Ives
30 Athole Gardens Staffordshire Egyptology Society Cornwall. TR26 3DE
Glasgow. G12 9BD North Yorkshire Ancient Egypt Group Secretary : Mrs Dawn Williams Tel: 01736 798514
Secretary: Jo Hirons 19 Clare Road




13th Ancient World Society. Trip to 27th Thames Valley Ancient Egypt 24th Sussex Egyptology Society. Dr
London to visit Museum of Conservancy Society. Study Day: Sand & Chiffon: Penny Wilson, Hidden Secrets and Lost
and John Soames Museum. Contact Peter Hollywood’s Vision of Ancient Egypt. Cities: The Rediscovery of Sais. Christmas
Mitchell, 01270 764540. Contact Philip Wickens, 0118 987 2878. party follows. Contact Janet Wilton,
01903 813203.
13th Birkbeck College, London. Day 27th Sussex Egyptology Society. Jan
School: Striking an attitude:Inter-personal Picton, Who were the Sea Peoples? 27th The Egyptian Society of South
relationships in ancient Egypt and Nubia. Contact Janet Wilton, 01903 813203. Africa. AGM followed by Egyptian
With Margaret Judd, Dr Bill Manley, Auction Sale. Contact Keith Grenville,
Miriam Bibby and Maria Cannata. 31st North Yorkshire Ancient Egypt
Contact Lesley Hannigan, 0207 631 6631. Group. Adam Cadwell, Ushabtis. Contact
Anne Murray, 01423 861604. 28th North Yorkshire Ancient Egypt
14th Thames Valley Ancient Egypt Group. Dr Penny Wilson, The Amarna
Society. Paul Whelan, The New Kingdom NOVEMBER Iconoclasts. Contact Anne Murray,
to Beginning of the Late Period. First of 01423 861604.
10 meetings. Contact Philip Wickens,
0118 987 2878. 3rd Wessex Ancient Egypt Society. John DECEMBER
Davis, Who was the Pharaoh of the
17th Friends of the Egypt Centre, Exodus? Contact Angela Dennett, 01202
Swansea. Christina Riggs, The Art of 241973. 1st Egyptology Scotland. Dr Aidan
Dying in Roman Egypt. Contact Sandra Dodson, Shelters for Eternity; Ancient
Hawkins, 01792 553977. 5th Tameside Egypt Group. Ken Egyptian Coffins and Sarcophagi.
Downs, Ramesses III. Contact Ken Contact the membership secretary, F A
18th Thames Valley Ancient Egypt Downs, 0161 367 7703 Walker, Egyptology Scotland, 30 Athole
Society. Dr Aidan Dodson, Early Gardens, Glasgow, G12 9BD.
Ancient Egypt. Contact Philip Wickens, 7th Ancient World Society. The Temples
0118 987 2878. of Karnak and Luxor. Contact Peter 1st Thames Valley Ancient Egypt
Mitchell, 01270 764540. Society. Quiz and social. Contact Philip
19th Poynton Egypt Group. Paolo Wickens, 0118 987 2878.
Scremin, Photography – Old Kingdom. 12th Manchester Ancient Egypt Society.
Contact Liz Sherman, 01625 612641. Patricia Winker, The History and 1st Wessex Ancient Egypt Society. Dr
Collection of the Institute of Archaeology, Alix Wilkinson, The Garden in Ancient
20th Ancient Egypt and Middle East Liverpool. Contact Victor Blunden, 0161 Egypt. Contact Angela Dennett, 01202
Society. Caroline Simpson, Subject TBA. 225 0879. 241973.
Contact Sue Kirk, 01754 765341.
14th Bristol Museum. Dr Jeffrey 3rd Tameside Egypt Group. Christmas
20th Leicestershire Ancient Egypt Spencer, Preparing for immortality: the meeting, with talk by Alan Fildes. Contact
Society. Carol Andrews, The Ancient ancient Egyptian attitude to death. Ken Downs, 0161 367 7703
Egyptian Sense of Humour. Contact June Contact Bristol Magpies via Bristol City
Joyce, 0116 267 5615. Museum and Art Gallery, 0117 922 3571. 5th Ancient World Society. Pharaoh
Tutankhamun. Contact Peter Mitchell,
20th Manchester Ancient Egypt Society. 17th Leicestershire Ancient Egypt 01270 764540.
Day School. The Amarna Period. Contact Society. Peter Phillips, The Columns of
Victor Blunden, 0161 225 0879. Egypt. Contact June Joyce, 0116 267 5615. 5th Friends of the Egypt Centre,
Swansea. Peter Reason, Art in the
20th – 21st Seven Wonders Travel in 17th Thames Valley Ancient Egypt Ramesside Period. Contact Sandra
conjunction with The Bloomsbury Society. Tba. Contact Philip Wickens, Hawkins, 01792 553977.
Academy and Bloomsbury Theatre 0118 987 2878.
hosts The 3rd Annual Egypt Revealed 8th Ancient Egypt and Middle East
Symposium: Reports from the Field 2001. 20th Egypt Society of Bristol. Fiona Society. Christmas Lectures & Dinner
Speakers include Dr Zahi Hawass, Dr Simpson, Libyans in Ancient Egypt. with lecture by Lucia Gahlin. Contact Sue
Mark Lehner, Dr Kent Weeks and Dr Contact Dr Aidan Dodson, 0117 942 1957. Kirk, 01754 765341.
Salima Ikram. Contact the Director, The
Bloomsbury Academy, Department of 21st Three Counties Ancient History 10th Manchester Ancient Egypt Society.
History, University College London, Society. Tba. Contact Michael Farey, Khalid Daoud, Liverpool Excavations at
Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT. 01386 750223. Saqqara: the Kairer Mastaba. Contact
23rd The Egyptian Society of South Victor Blunden, 0161 225 0879.
Africa. Fr. Roderick Walsh, A Journey 23rd Poynton Egypt Group. Judith
through Coptic Egypt. Contact Keith Corbelli, Alexandria the City. Contact Liz 11th Egypt Society of Bristol. David
Grenville, Sherman, 01625 612641. Singleton, An Investigation of Two 21st



Dynasty Painted Coffin Lids (BM EA

24792 & EA35287) for Evidence of EXHIBITIONS:
Materials and Workshop Practices.
Contact Dr Aidan Dodson, 0117 942 1957.
Now extended until January 2002.
13th Three Counties Ancient History The Burrell Collection in Glasgow, Pollok
Society. Lecture and Christmas social. Country Park, Pollokshaws, Glasgow Tel: +44
Contact Michael Farey, 01386 750223. (0) 141 287 2550 Ancient Egypt: Digging for
Dreams An interactive exhibition featuring
15th Leicestershire Ancient Egypt
Society. AGM & Christmas Social. exhibits from the Petrie Museum.
Contact June Joyce, 0116 267 5615.
23 November 2001 until 24 February 2002
17th – 18th University of Birmingham, The Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York, USA.
Department of Ancient History and Web site: Eternal
Archaeology.. Current Research in Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from
Egyptology III symposium for graduates the British Museum. An opportunity to view
in the British Isles. Contact Nina more than 140 masterpieces from the BM's
Wahlberg, Rachel Ives, Roberto Gozzoli or extensive collection of Egyptian art.
Dan Lines on or
write to Current Research in Egyptology
8 November 2001 until 24 March 2002
III, Department of Ancient History and
Archaeology, University of Birmingham, The British Museum, London, UK. Tel: +44
Birmingham B15 2TT. (0)20 7323 8000. Agatha Christie and
Archaeology:Mystery in Mesopotamia.
JANUARY 2002 An exhibition celebrating mystery writer
Agatha Christie's contribution to archaeology.
Includes costumes from Death on the Nile and
5th Wessex Ancient Egypt Society. Prof. other Egyptian artefacts.
Joan Rees, Amelia Edwards: Egyptologist
and Novelist. Contact Angela Dennett,
01202 241973.
Deadline for submission
9th Ancient World Society. Abu Simbel. All events entries should be received one
Contact Peter Phillips, 01270 764540. month prior to publication for inclusion
in the next issue
15th Egypt Society of Bristol. Serena
Love, Memphis: Searching for the Old
Kingdom Capital. Contact Dr Aidan
Dodson, 0117 942 1957.
Please Note
18th Poynton Egypt Group. George Hart,
Ancient Egypt and the Greek World. It is always advisable to check with the
Contact Liz Sherman, 01625 612641.
show organisers before attending an
19th Leicestershire Ancient Egypt event in case some of the details have
Society. Caroline Simpson, Robert Hay’s been changed prior to publication. If
Panoramas of Thebes/Qurna. Contact you wish to add an event to the Ancient
June Joyce, 0116 267 5615.
Egypt Events Diary please contact the
21st University of Bristol. Amelia Editor, Miriam Bibby at:
Edwards Lecture. Dr Penny Wilson, The
Ancient, the Old and the Imported: recent Ancient Egypt Events Diary
work at Sais. Contact University of 70 High Street
Bristol, 0117 928 9000. Langholm
26th Sussex Egyptology Society. Julie DG13 0JH
Hankey, Arthur Weigall: the Amazing Life
of My Grandfather. Contact Janet Wilton, Tel: 013873 81712 or
01903 813203. 0879 167 4421

30th North Yorkshire Ancient Egypt Email:

Group. Anne Murray, The Valley of the
Golden Mummies. Contact Anne Murray,
01423 861604.



ast issue you were promised more

L and
about the gods and goddesses of and it’s
ancient Egypt. A quick search using always worth checking the comprehensive
one of the best engines available - history, culture and religion pages on
Google - brought in quick results of over
17,000 pages. There are numerous summaries One thing to watch for is that a num-
and lists of the deities of Egypt, provided by ber of the personal sites have an eclectic
both amateur Egyptologists and academic approach to religion, happily mixing main-
institutions. It’s worth having a look at a num- stream Egyptological approaches with refer-
ber of these since they tend to take slightly ences to lesser Egyptological lights (although
different approaches and often provide notorious in other fields) such as Aleister
diverse information on the same deity. One Crowley. One such site (
general grumble that comes from surfing is kristi2.html), for instance, refers to the deity
that few sites provide follow-up references. Heru-ra-ha as ‘a composite deity in Crowley's
Museum sites are often a good starting quasi-Egyptian mythology, composed of Ra-
point and this proved to be the case with the Hoor-Khuit and Hoor-per-Kraat. Apparently
Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) on without basis in historical Egyptian mytholo- gy, but the name translated into Egyptian,
This has a brief but useful introduction to con- means something approximating “Horus and
cepts behind divinities in Egypt as well as a Re be praised”.’
quite concise and detailed list. The descriptions ‘What is a fruity pharaoh?’ was the dis-
of the divinities are well-written with insight tracting question posed by a Chihuahua in
and sensitivity. With regard to Hathor in cow Nemes headdress at
form, for example: ‘A herd of cattle was a index.html Fortunately, the site also gave a
beautiful sight because it repre- quotable response: ‘That depends on who you
sented wealth in the form of ask. To the kids, a fruity pharaoh is a recently-
food, milk, hides and work, deceased king that has been properly mummified
as oxen pulled the ploughs to ensure an eternal afterlife. To people with less
of farmers. Cattle dung active imaginations, it's a potato-headed orange
was a valuable fertiliser that has been preserved by drying.’
and had many uses in To discover how to make
building. The Egyptians your own fruity pharaoh, should you
admired many qualities in be so inclined, visit the site. You
cows, besides their will need a potato, orange, plastic
economic benefits. box and various other implements
The cow’s careful (here's one I prepared earlier). And a
tending of her calf vivid imagination. The site also
was a model for offers quite a lot of information
motherhood.’ on the deities of Egypt
Be your own Anubis, The Metropolitan Museum in New including a range of clip-art
mummify an apple, or York also provides excellent pages on the especially suitable for
maybe an orange. Go deities, with good links and it’s easy to flow school students. Plus
on, you know you want around the Museum's site. This can be found your opportunity to
to... on buy 18 flexible rubber
htm/ls_gods.htm magnets to decorate your
Other general sites with listings of appliances.
Egyptian deities include www.contrib HAPY

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