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Strategic Interaction Erving Goffman ) A9tA Strategic Interaction ‘Whenever students of the human seene have considered the dealings individuals have with one another, the issue of caleulaton has aren: When a respectable motive is given {or action, are we to suspect an vlterior one? When an indi vidual support promise or threat witha convincing display ‘of emotional expression, are we to believe him® When an Individual seems carried away by feling, is he intentionally acting this way in order to erete an effet? When someone respond to usin a particular way, are we to see this 38 @ spontancoss reaction tothe station ora result of his having canvassed all other posible responses before deciding this ‘one was the most advantageous? And whether or not we have such concems, ought we to be worred about the individual believing that we have them? In recent years this traditional concer about ealelation has been taken up and refined by students of game theory. ‘This paper attempts to isolate the analytical framework i plein the game perspective, and show fs relationship (0 other perspectives in analyzing interpersonal dealings. 1 Individual typically make observations of their situation {in order to asses what ir relevantly happening around them and what is likely o occur. Once this ts dove, they often go ‘on to exercise another capacity of human intelligence, that of ‘making a choice from among a set of possible lines of re s i } sponse, Here some sort of masinzation of gn wil often Pinvolved, ten under condos of uneetanty ork. "as oie ne se wich an aor ald be tim ad ato a tay neta prpetv om ternal fens cooing the Uetcity and vi thy of varius couse of ato, Rationldeton mang i inied tyioasly, both asiessment and decision-making depend conreated erp of inteligenc, char storingesperence ferent nang ti expeienesvble when fs ele- Sra: However, whe Inteet ar served hy an individuals Intligone que anotnr mates an wndestanding of ‘whch routes shit from poycologial to soll terms "The Ln of ea thi pape wl be concerned with ean be calad’s pry 19 be del ar something wih wut intrest to promote: By the toon coalition meant ning of two or mote, ordinary append, parti, end thet faction ing tempor and in seguro Specie si, o promote a sgl tert "Fe intr of «pasty are promoted by ation taken tho puts Dehalfby vas who ar utborzed to ac fr Heep cf ding A dot el (cesometines asco) The player execs human cgay, eseng “at pry sono, sceting fom the salable coun of action and onimiting is prt 0 this leton, Note thats nda! may smelt ny fora prty andin another of his lovantcapacter~ Tear ofthe pry Halla every excl wih a tock pton knows Moreover, the nivel often sts for sty oF vc he hl escaped oe eb, ptr but nt be) we uly pet that C Ea wll play for isl The oad diereces be Freel done ra ot dl pil mere oe a "atta teak a or Seog ene sl nce tc ity and payer can re se ny oe ‘The gametheoretal approach clear enough on the nee to divide the invidal nfo party and player but les cer About other distinctive ways whch the nivale on™ feathguingsntn e cance ss pun ean that coviton cn be sch av to place i jeopardy the trilorodiy welfare td he wes cn be the interest that st tae in the games Now i should be sen that although hs Kind of wellae i obviously an alt tte ofthe india in jeopardy, a concer to preserve this stem wl th tre od ayo een 8 tribe. er so wen a fete given or taken a hotge oF ‘wien prt is dampened bese the owner of er have ten ocedto ride slong wth the gunmen who areselingt “An indvdaal may alo facto as ok that omens of expreing sd asking openly t poston thst has been taken The ealy history sf Westem diplomacy reepized ths posit with aterm, mnt, to refer to omens who had the expacity to aubttate for he presence of ik panl pl that spar sltbogh not to ogeiat fx a pro: Eran on the tr and, cul negotteb ot crea ally represco, Bing player solely)" Private ie provides js own ceremonial example: When an indvidal dees ‘0 pay his respects to an soqosintanc, diferent ceremonial form maybe ope ohn can sa tlre hit card case Bowers tobe delivered, or takes pron vst (Sen renee Al these forms ean be fenctionally equivalent, each const- toting valid mark of eg nthe lst ase, however, he Indvial uses hive a token in he eeemony. have mentioned several functions ofthe inv nthe ters of interaction wea to cme, One further fane= Xion sat be confdeed tat wl Iter much concerns ‘Ovi, th individual can serve asa source of tration Ste oler can wo in avin at th ssenent of he Sutin Thus we fly sume at imortant hiring iy to vole apersona latervion” and St instant date Wil not be bled. We can aio none tat ou Bish lie in oe eal rer nana fo oy ons than an Japanese ends ae TE party then, can uso an individ a «player pwn, tok an inforiant, Ln each of these cae, te individ serves av special ind of ganeelovant resource, But of eure the ndvidul ca a anton a es diferentted Sees pei source someone who performs aprescbed instrumental task tho necessary sleawrones of the aloe ofthis ak for frtberng the interests ofthe party nd no appreciable disetion in exeutng the performance ‘Ramer part however mall of he sig capably {r'v commander, but nthe sume sete a i the gum hati Sssigned to hin ‘Gren the several ways in which the inv can pe fon, we mst eet fo ad ts uncon often overlayed parca other kn inidal who fontions at pwn ed oto coe, patate nny other expat, being ano ‘any invalved= a we ay ut ta dear he who fone {Sma pawn cana Be the player, nthe xy of fat talus“ Gurr ton “ambassador ake another ex io Ment, wie Mv od ey ele el ec ysis age wh oto waar by esr fA at, SUAS mee len aig ee rege {Tab te Lad lo afer tm fh ered and eso opel ene om he wl ft iy ae eb ee ah ample, combines the functions of the ealir roles of nuncio and procurator. Similarly, he who functions as both pawn and player can also function as the party—the complication roa- tinely found in somual seductions and duels, Not Snally that although an individual can function as a pawa or asa taken, ‘ther objects of concern and valve can aleo, and, more typ cally than individuals, do, The player function, on the ober hhand, is largely restricted to individuals, the doomsday ma- ‘chine being ane ofthe exceptions 1 Given the elements that have been defined, one can now 0 onto consider their interactions. For this wil be ure to follow a custom in game theory and employ miniature scenarios of very farfetched Kind, ‘Our hero, Hary the forest ranger, is caught ina brush fe and perceives that to his eight there isa tal tre that might be possible to climb and may survive the flames, and to his left a high bridge already beginning to burn. Hany here is party, player, and pawn. AS party he has an nterest to save aie. Asa payer he assests the situation and ties to dope out the best chances. AF a pawn, he isthe Me that iin jeopardy. ‘Harry’ situation is such that four distinctive courses of action seem open to him. He can make forthe bridge. He ean snake forthe tree. He can all on his gods to save im, He ean dither, that is, tentatively try to discover new outs, vacate between bridge and tee, or give way to seams, rantings, and fainting. shall use the word turn to refer to Hary’s a om et ee hae ® moment and opportunity for choice, and move to refer to the ‘ction he takes consoquent on deciding to play his turn now * ‘Ta dealing with his situation, Harry can take a disinterested gamelike approach. He can Ist all his possibilities attach a Suocess probity function to each, and slve his problem by selecting what sms tobe his best chance. This itelf may not bea simple matter. The probability thatthe bridge will bur before he gets across it mast be considered against the chances of surviving the high fll nto the water. In any ease, ‘one har here something that can be defined as a game against nature, even though it might be thought that, for a full. fledged game to oreur, Harry must have a human opponent* “Although a gime against nature is a rudimentary game Indeed, some concepts important to game analysis can be la- troduced by it. One ofthese is the move. A move, analytically speaking, is nota thought or decision or expression, or anj- thing else that goes on in the mind of a player; i is «course ‘of action which involves real physical consequences in the texteral world and gives ris 0 objective and quite concrete Alterations in Hans life situation. (This fact sometimes ‘obsoured becnuse of the unfortunate role of reeeational ‘board games in the discussion of gaming) Furthermore, a a =—E—rti“ lea ten he be repr at on sre ee yea eehriaes citesraate gy tree ne SSEEYS. Sapte rey web maa, Snot deecng wd Seatieclannalineiaa ui mene Seer, a ia ‘munition is used, litle clarity and conssteny is found as to jst what iis that is boing investigated. In this paper, of couse, communication wa not a central subject matter. Assessments were one cena sve, itis tre, but these assessments were as often s result of expression leaned as they were result of communications conveyed, Go back to our tion and note that even though he can per. exive a movement to the tee, and even though Hany must ‘decide on the value ofthis move by beating in mind ts vi Dility, still one deals here with assesment, not communica: tion. Harry, in electing to dash forthe tee, and dolng 0, fs ‘ot communicating his move, ashe would were he to phone Thome and tell his mother what course of action he has de- cided upon; he is simply making a move that has one of its constitutive features the deplorable fact that evidence of its being under way wil be ready avaiable to the oppos!= tion, and the opposition i such as to make us ofthis informa tion to worsen Harry’ situation A similar point can be made f we tar back to board games that replayed “for fu,” that i, games where the intrinsic ot game resources are not clearly Inked to extrnsieenes and Spparently must in themselves provide the motivation for play. For here it looks as though the players are merely en. ‘Saged in signaling openly the moves that they make, that, “communicating” their moves. But in fac, ospeakaf convey. ‘ng a move on a board gune is loose way of desing what In games for fun the parties must start with the shared sentiments that winning within the rules ie desirable and signifcant—a condition not always satisfied, of course, a3 when Hay is obliged to play against someone much less skied than himself: Once the would of the game has been pay ahead thn go or lcky move can Boe 8 ‘meaningfal gain, Even here, however, a move is only incidentally a means 13 ) af eommunicaton, and it shuld not be sri hat some teve eine nominee oven. Te fat hat te iywny af cfrcomnt machine or eine reoure syria tobe taken 2 sg ht pe or mere com Irnication ave the ones bt aera viene That the whole gm ecto om the material wold. The ‘al pbiom offen noni ge not at of ‘okie taper move ad at ther hat invelvemetin ol of he any ote sive [Ses thn th sos hing of moves allows Tn such Seroycagnged gan noves inform, butts But one ‘Syst of te ove wha each moe dwn fat owe vce made vate the gana, ad 0 we op tprtcelr way that hae np fo te ae at tho Siler player cn thn eta hy thr moves (Wheres, 5, fnestiidon chs, te ly psy desiguation ef moves on Erg res does ive mee craton) m2 ge egy, the onde changed by each move, et tho ‘se offasonly games, ths happens tobe «word user cosy tained the nt nvovemet of th payer a fateh gamer ofc, tthe wie werd ht ive "Ther remains na sue regarding the place of stele interaction late toot ayia anos fn so eycolg) Tl ar odo wh the dil dtinctin be- ‘Eiken tg interaction sd what can be alld “expe 7 ihe Doglnlng of the paper was ugg thatthe tv nn eves pen to Hay the buted olin fr the tec or “eeang rae the eof vb, and at, on {hs gun alone (although trea ers) te vo moves sree rdeally diferent although this the eae a> Treas that athe gue bet arya the lon a move Ssomelig in aon toa rrore ft eveseat i san siete cheunstancevateing ston whose ellay jt Tapens tobe nuened by he ise of iby Now the {Duplction sides inthe fact at if we a wllg to fore ua seco tit ieee tiger Tata Seatac ices iicona eran eacaeeetim ashes iran a senor tee atcepeary atts lad a ne cng es vate oo ne saciceavhertamanege ‘cto en oc fates tern, : Sache Sie ee aan roc ei a ete Sciccoarultncte pega gepe oyu Seiten por inelpneciieamerumorme soins ceeegaraee forint niene eee ey Fete ae iorietmop ayant Una ciuarncirgeeraeees cerocancioneaneea cae iearhar pode ac ge Selo eidntecone oes Siowkegaapawieraant FBbte comes i ome, Hapa e pied ya op