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Unit Operations of

Particulate Solids
Theory and Practice

Enrique Ortega-Rivas

CRC Press
Taylor & Francis Croup
Boca Raton London New York

CRC Press is an imprint of the

Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business


Contents

Preface xiii
Author xvii

Part I Characterization of Particulate Systems


and Relation to Storage and Conveying
1 Introduction 3
1.1 Definitions of Unit Operations 3
1.2 Powder and Particle Technology 6
1.3 The Solid State: Main Distinctive Properties 7
1.3.1 Primary Properties 8
1.3.1.1 Particle Size and Shape 9
1.3.1.2 Particle
Density 18
1.3.2 Packing Properties 23
1.3.2.1 Bulk Density 23
1.3.2.2 Other Packing Properties 26
References 29

2 Bulk Solids: Properties and Characterization 31


2.1 Introductory Aspects 31
2.2 Classification of Powders 32
2.2.1 Jenike's Classification 33
2.2.2 Geldart's Classification 34
2.3 Sampling 37
2.4 Failure Properties 48
2.4.1 Introduction 48
2.4.2 Description of Failure Properties 50
2.4.3 Experimental Determinations 50
2.4.4 Other Important Properties 61
2.5 Laboratory Exercise: Determination of Some
Failure Properties of Powders 65
2.5.1 Introduction 65
2.5.2 Instrument and Materials 66
2.5.3 Shear Tester Operation 66
2.5.4 Calculations and Report 67
2.6 Particle Size Analysis 67
2.6.1 Introduction 67
2.6.2 Definitions of Characteristic Linear Dimension 68
2.6.3 Types of Distributions 68

v
vi Contents

2.6A Measures of Central Tendency 69


2.6.5 Presentation of Data 71
2.6.6 Laboratory Techniques for Size Measurement 76
2.6.6.1 Microscopy 77
2.6.6.2 Screening 77
2.6.6.3 Sedimentation 81
2.6.6.4 Centrifugation 82
2.6.6.5 Light Diffraction 85
2.6.6.6 Particle Counters 85
2.6.6.7 Online MeasurementTechniques 86
2.7 Laboratory Exercise: Particle Size Analysis by
Different Methods 89
2.7.1 Introduction 89
2.7.2 Materials and Instruments 90
2.7.3 Accessories 90
2.7.4 Microscopy Method 91
2.7.4.1 Introduction 91
2.7.4.2 Slide Preparation 91
2.7.4.3 Measurement of Particle Size 91
2.7.4.4 Procedure 91
2.7.4.5 Calculations and Report 92
2.7.5 Screening Method 92
2.7.5.1 Introduction 92
2.7.5.2 Choice of Sieves 92
2.7.5.3 Procedure 93
2.7.5.4 Calculations and Report 93
2.7.6 Sedimentation Method 93
2.7.6.1 Introduction 93
2.7.6.2 Preparation of Sample 94
2.7.6.3 Procedure 94
2.7.6.4 Calculations and Report 94
2.7.7 Instrumental Method 95
2.7.7.1 Introduction 95
2.7.7.2 Procedure 95
2.7.7.3 Calculations and Report .95
References 97

3 Storage and Conveying of Bulk Solids 101


3.1 Introduction: Storage Alternatives 101
3.2 Outdoors Storage 101
3.3 Confined Storage 102
3.3.1 General Considerations 103
3.3.2 Types of Silos 104
3.3.3 Wall Stresses in Axisymmetrical Bins 108
3.3.4 Wall Stresses in Other Types of Vessels 112
Contents vn'

3.3.5 Natural Discharge from Silos 112


3.3.5.1 Flow Theories 113
3.3.5.2 Hopper Opening for Coarse Bulk Solids 116
3.3.5.3 Hopper Opening for Fine Bulk Solids 120
3.3.6 Assisted Discharge 123
3.3.6.1 Types of Discharge 123
3.3.6.2 Passive Devices 123
3.3.6.3 Active Devices 123
3.3.7 Feeders for Discharge Control 127
3.3.7.1 Feeders Description 127
3.3.7.2 Charge and Power Calculations 128
3.3.7.3 Discharge Control in Feeders 130
3.3.8 Other Design Factors 130
3.4 Laboratory Exercise: Evaluation of Wall Loads in Silos 134
3.4.1 Introduction 134
3.4.2 Equipment and Materials 134
3.4.3 Instruments and Apparatuses 134
3.4.4 Procedure 134
3.4.5 Calculations and Report 135
3.5 Bulk Solids Conveying 135
3.5.1 Introduction 135
3.5.2 Belt Conveyors 136
3.5.3 Chain Conveyors 143
3.5.3.1 Scraper and Apron Conveyors 145
3.5.3.2 Bucket Elevators 148
3.5.4 Screw Conveyors 151
3.5.5 Pneumatic Conveying 155
3.5.5.1 Introduction:
Types of Conveyors 155
3.5.5.2 Dense-Phase Systems 157
3.5.5.3 Dilute-Phase Systems 159
3.5.5.4 Design and Selection of
Dilute-Phase Systems 163
3.6 Laboratory Exercise: Pneumatic Conveying
Characteristics of Different Granules 171
3.6.1 Introduction 171
3.6.2 Equipment and Materials 171
3.6.3 Procedure 171
3.6.4 Calculations and Report 172
References 173

Part II Bulk Solids Processing

4 Size Reduction 179


4.1 Fundamental Principles of Comminution 179
viii Contents

4.1.1 Introductory Aspects 179


4.1.2 Forces Involved in Size Reduction 180

4.1.3 of Comminuted Materials 181


Properties
182
4.2 Energy Requirements in Comminution
183
4.2.1 Rittniger's Law
4.2.2 Kick's Law 183

4.2.3 Bond's Law and Work Index 184

4.3 Size Reduction 184


Equipment
4.3.1 Classification 184

4.3.2 Characteristics 184

4.3.2.1 Crushers 185

4.3.2.2 Rollers Mills 188


4.3.2.3 Hammer Mills 189

4.3.2.4 Disc Attrition Mills 189


4.3.2.5 Tumbling Mills 191
4.3.2.6 Other Types of Mills 192

4.3.3 Operation of Equipment 195


4.4 Criteria for Selecting Size Reduction Processes 200
4.4.1 Characteristics of Raw Materials 201
4.4.2 Feeding and Discharge Control 201
4.4.3 Moisture 202
4.4.4 Heat Generation and Removal 202
of Criteria and Main 203
4.4.5 Summary Applications
4.5 Laboratory Exercise: Determination of

Reduction Relations Using a Hammer Mill 204


4.5.1 Introduction 204

4.5.2 and Materials 204


Equipment
4.5.3 Instruments 205
205
4.5.4 Screen Analysis
4.5.5 of the Hammer Mill 205
Operation
4.5.6 Calculations and Report 205

References 206

5 Size 207
Enlargement
Processes 207
5.1 Introduction: Agglomeration
Fundamentals: Strength of Agglomerates 207
5.2 Aggregation
5.3 Agglomeration Methods 212
5.3.1 Tumbling Agglomeration 212

5.3.2 Pressure Agglomeration: Compaction 214


216
5.3.3 Equipment Operation Variables
5.4 Selection Criteria for Agglomeration Methods 219
5.4.1 Raw Materials Characteristics 219

5.4.2 Product 221


Properties
5.4.3 221
Technique Options
222
5.5 Design Aspects of Agglomeration Processes
Contents ix

5.6 Applications 224


5.7 Laboratory Exercise: Comparing Methods for
Tumbling Agglomeration of Powders 224
5.7.1 Introduction 224
5.7.2 Equipment and Materials 225
5.7.3 Instruments 225
5.7.4 Measurement of Particle Size Distributions 225
5.7.5 Operation of the Drum Agglomerator 225
5.7.6 Operation of the Pan (Disc) Agglomerator 225
5.7.7 Friability Test 226
5.7.8 Calculations and Report 226
References 226

6 Mixing 229

6.1 Introduction 229

6.2 Blending Mechanisms 230

6.3 Statistical
Approach of
Mixing Processes 231

6.3.1 Sampling 232


6.3.2 Blending Quality:
Mixing Indexes and Mixing Rate 233
6.4 Mixing Equipment 239
6.4.1 Tumbling Mixers 239
6.4.2 Horizontal Trough Mixers 240
6.4.3 Vertical Screw Mixers 241
6.5 Design and Selection Factors 241
6.6 Laboratory Exercise: Determination of Blending
Indices for Different Tumbling Mixers 244
6.6.1 Introduction 244
6.6.2 Equipment and Materials 244
6.6.3 Instruments or Apparatuses 244
6.6.4 Operation of the Mixers 245
6.6.5 Calculations and Report 245
References 246

7 Fluidization 249
7.1 Theoretical Fundamentals 249
7.1.1 Bulk Density and
Porosity of Beds 250
7.1.2 Fluid Flow through Solids Beds 250
7.1.3 Mechanism of Fluidization:
Aggregative and Particulate 251
7.2 Fluidized Regimes 253
7.2.1 Pressure Drop-Velocity Relationship 254
7.2.2 Incipient Fluidization and
Minimum Fluidizing Velocity 256
7.2.3 Heterogeneous Fluidization: Bubbling 261
X Contents

264
7.2.4 Spouted Beds
267
7.3 Applications of Fluidization
7.3.1 Applications in the Petroleum and
Chemical Industries 268

7.3.2 Fluidized-Bed Combustion 268

7.3.3 Drying in Fluidized Beds 269

7.3.4 Coating of Particles and Particulates 272

7.4 Laboratory Exercise: Fluidized-Bed Coating of


Food Particulates 276

7.4.1 Introduction 276

7.4.2 Equipment and Materials 276


7.4.3 Instruments and Apparatuses 276

7.4.4 Operation of the Fluidized Bed 276

7.4.5 Evaluation of the Coating Thickness 277


7.4.6 Friability Test 277

7.4.7 Calculations and Report 277

References 278

Part III Separation Techniques for Particulate Solids

8 Introductory Aspects 283


8.1 Different Mixtures Relevant in Industry 283

8.2 Classification of Separation Techniques 283


284
8.3 Specific Techniques for Granular Materials
References 286

9 Solid Mixtures 287

9.1 287
Screening
9.1.1 Basic Principles 287

9.1.2 Design and Selection Criteria 289


296
9.1.3 Equipment Used
301
9.2 Electromagnetic Separation
9.2.1 Basic Principles 301

9.2.2 Equipment and Applications 303


9.2.3 Selection Criteria 306
9.3 ElectrostaticSeparation 307
Basic 307
9.3.1 Principles
9.3.2 Equipment and Applications 309
312
9.3.3 Applications in Fine Particulate Systems
9.4 Laboratory Exercise: Efficiency of Separation on
312
Single-Stage Screening
9.4.1 Introduction 312

9.4.2 and Materials 313


Equipment
Contents xi

9.4.3 Instruments or Apparatuses 313


9.4.4 Screening Procedure 313
9.4.5 Calculations and Report 314
References 316

10 Solid-Fluid Systems 317


10.1 Introduction: Simultaneous Flow of Fluids and Solids 317
10.1.1 Classification of Fluids 317
10.1.2 Dynamics of Particles Submerged in Fluids 320
10.2 Separati on Efficiency 324

10.2.1 Evaluation of
Efficiency 324

10.2.2 Total Gravimetric


Efficiency 325

10.2.3 Partial Gravimetric Efficiency 327

10.2.4 Grade Efficiency and Cut Size 329

10.3 Solid-Gas Separations 333

10.3.1 Introduction 333

10.3.2 Use of Cyclones 334

10.3.2.1 Description of the Process 334


10.3.2.2 Theoretical Aspects 336

10.3.2.3 Operating Variables 337

10.3.2.4 Applications 340

10.3.3 Air Classifiers 340

10.3.3.1 Description of the


Technique 340
10.3.3.2 Theoretical Aspects 341

10.3.3 Operation and Applications 343


10.3.4 Gas Filters 345
10.3.4.1 Description of the Process 345

10.3.4.2 Operation Characteristics and Applications 348

10.3.5 Scrubbers 348


10.3.5.1 ProcessDescription 349
10.3.5.2
Equipment and Applications 349

10.3.6 Other Techniques 351


10.3.6.1 Settling Chambers 351
10.3.6.2 Electrostatic Separators 352

10.4 Solid-Liquid Separation Techniques 353


10.4.1 Properties of Suspensions: Rheology and Flow 353
10.4.1.1 Laboratory Exercise:
Rheograms of Suspensions 359
10.4.2 Pretreatment of Suspensions: Coagulation and
Flocculation 360
10.4.3 Selection ofSpecific Techniques 362
10.4.3.1 Laboratory Exercise:
Settling Tests to Select a Proper Technique 365
10.4.3.2 Calculations and Report 366
xii Contents

10.4.4 Sedimentation 367


10.4.4.1 Introduction 367
10.4.4.2 FreeSettling 368
10.4.4.3 Hindered Settling 368
10.4.4.4 Sedimentation Rate Stages 369
10.4.4.5 Operating Principles: Design and
Selection Factors 370
10.4.4.6
Laboratory Exercise: Acceleration of
Settling Rates by Coagulants 377
10.4.5 Centrifugation 378
10.4.5.1 Introduction: Centrifugal Techniques 378
10.4.5.2 Applications of Centrifugation 379
10.4.5.3 Centrifugal Clarification 379
10.4.5.4 Centrifugal Filtration 381
10.4.5.5 Fixed Wall Devices: Hydrocyclones 383
10.4.5.6 Centrifugation Equipment 388
10.4.5.7 Laboratory Exercise: Efficiency of
Hydrocyclone Separations 392
10.4.6 Filtration 394
10.4.6.1 Filtration Theory 395
10.4.6.2 Constant Pressure Filtration 396
10.4.6.3 Constant Rate Filtration 400
10.4.6.4 Filtration Media and Filter Aids 402
10.4.6.5 Filtration
Equipment 403
10.4.6.6 Laboratory Exercise: Filtration Curves

Using a Filter Press 408


10.4.7 Other Techniques: Membrane Separations 409
10.4.8 Dimensionless Scale-up of Equipment 419
References 426

Appendix 1: International (SI) System of Units 429

Appendix 2: Density and Viscosity of Water at Different


Temperatures and 101.325 kPa 431

Appendix 3: Density and Viscosity of Air at Different


Temperatures and 101.325 kPa 433

Appendix 4: Dimensional Analysis 435

Appendix 5: Standard Screen Scales 437

Appendix 6: Guidelines for the Preparation of Laboratory Reports 441

Appendix 7: Notation 449

Index 457