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# Lecture 2 : Mathematical Modeling of Control Systems :

## Block Diagrams Simplification

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mehrez.marzougui@fsm.rnu.tn

10 octobre 2015
Dr. Mehrez Automatic control system 10 octobre 2015 1/1
Course Outline

## Dr. Mehrez Automatic control system 10 octobre 2015 2/1

Block Diagrams Block Diagram Simplifications

It is important to note that blocks can be connected in series only if the output of one block is
not affected by the next following block. If there are any loading effects between the
components, it is necessary to combine these components into a single block.

single block, the transfer function of which is simply the product of the individual transfer
functions.

## A complicated block diagram involving many feedback loops can be simplified by a

step-by-step rearrangement. Simplification of the block diagram by rearrangements
considerably reduces the labor needed for subsequent mathematical analysis.
In simplifying a block diagram, remember the following.
1 The product of the transfer functions in the feedforward direction must remain the same.
2 The product of the transfer functions around the loop must remain the same.

It should be noted, however, that as the block diagram is simplified the transfer functions in
new blocks become more complex because new poles and new zeros are generated.

## Dr. Mehrez Automatic control system 10 octobre 2015 3/1

Block Diagrams Block Diagram Simplifications

## R(s) C(s) R(s) C(s)

G1 (s) G2 (s) G1 (s)G2 (s)

## Combining blocks in parallel or eliminating forward loop

R(s)
G1 (s)
+ C(s)
+
R(s) C(s)
G2 (s) G1 (s) + G2 (s)

R(s) C(s)
+ G1 (s)

G2 (s)
1 + G1 (s)G2 (s)

## Dr. Mehrez Automatic control system 10 octobre 2015 4/1

Block Diagrams Block Diagram Simplifications

R1 (s) C(s)
R1 (s) +
C(s) +
+

R2 (s) 1
R2 (s)

## Moving a summing point after a block

R1 (s) C(s)
R1 (s) C(s) G(s) +
+
+ G
+
R2 (s)
R2 (s) G(s)

## Dr. Mehrez Automatic control system 10 octobre 2015 5/1

Block Diagrams Block Diagram Simplifications

## Moving a summing point ahead of a block

R1 (s) C(s)
R1 (s) C(s) + G(s)
+
G(s) +
+
R2 (s) 1
R2 (s)
G(s)

R(s) C(s)
R(s) C(s) G(s)
G(s)

1 R(s)
R(s) G(s)

## Dr. Mehrez Automatic control system 10 octobre 2015 6/1

Block Diagrams Block Diagram Simplifications

R(s) C(s)
R(s) C(s) G(s)
G(s)

C(s)
C(s) G(s)

## R1 (s) C(s) R1 (s) C(s)

+ + + +
+ + + +
R2 (s) R3 (s) R3 (s) R2 (s)

## Dr. Mehrez Automatic control system 10 octobre 2015 7/1

Block Diagrams Block Diagram Simplifications

Example 1

Simplify the block diagram shown in the following figure. Then, obtain the closed-loop transfer
C(s)
function .
R(s)

R(s) C(s)
+ + G1 + G2

H1 H2

H3

First, group blocks G1 and H1 in one simple block and also group blocks G2 and H2 in one
simple block .

R(s) G1 G2 C(s)
+
1 + G 1 H1 1 + G 2 H2

H3

## Dr. Mehrez Automatic control system 10 octobre 2015 8/1

Block Diagrams Block Diagram Simplifications

Example 1 Cntd

## Combining the blocks in series, we get

R(s) G1 G2 C(s)
+
(1 + G1 H1 )(1 + G2 H2 )

H3

## Eliminating the feed back path, we get

G1 G2
R(s) (1+G1 H1 )(1+G2 H2 ) C(s)
1 + (1+G HG1)(1+G
G2
H3
1 1 2 H2 )

## The closed loop transfer function is :

C(s) G1 G2
TF = =
R(s) (1 + G1 H1 )(1 + G2 H2 ) + G1 G2 H3

## Dr. Mehrez Automatic control system 10 octobre 2015 9/1

Block Diagrams Block Diagram Simplifications

Example 2

Simplify the block diagram shown in the following figure. Then, obtain the closed-loop transfer
C(s)
function .
R(s) H 3

R(s) T1 C(s)
+ G1 + + G2 G3

H2

H1

H3

R(s) C(s)
+ G1 + + G2 G3

H2
G3
H1
G3

## Dr. Mehrez Automatic control system 10 octobre 2015 10 / 1

Block Diagrams Block Diagram Simplifications

Example 2 Cntd

## Combining G2 and G3 and eliminating H3 (feed back loop), we get

R(s) G2 G3 C(s)
+ G1 +
1 + G 2 G 3 H3

H2
G3
H1
G3

H2
Eliminating the feed back path , we get
G3
G2 G3
R(s) 1+G2 G3 H3 C(s)
+ G1 G2 G3
1+ . H2
1+G2 G3 H3 G3

H1
G3

## Combining all the three blocks, we get

R(s) G1 G2 G3 C(s)
1 + G 2 G 3 H3 + G 2 H2 + G 1 G 2 H1

C(s) G1 G2 G3
The closed loop transfer function is : TF = =
R(s) 1 + G 2 G 3 H3 + G 2 H2 + G 1 G 2 H1
Dr. Mehrez Automatic control system 10 octobre 2015 11 / 1
Block Diagrams Block Diagram Simplifications

Example 3

Simplify the block diagram shown in the following figure. Then, obtain the closed-loop transfer
C(s)
function .
R(s) R(s) C(s)
+ + G1 + G2

H1 H2

H3

R(s) C(s)
+ + G1 + G2

H2
H3

H1 H2

## Dr. Mehrez Automatic control system 10 octobre 2015 12 / 1

Block Diagrams Block Diagram Simplifications

Example 3 Cntd

R(s) G1 G2 C(s)
+ +
1 + G 2 H2

H3

H1 H2

## Eliminating the feed back path H3 , we get

R(s) G1 G2 C(s)
+
1 + G 2 H2 + G 1 G 2 H3

H1 H2

## Eliminating feed back loop H1 H2 , we get

R(s) G1 G2 C(s)
1 + G 2 H2 + G 1 G 2 H3 + G 1 G 2 H1 H2

## The closed loop transfer function is :

C(s) G1 G2
TF = =
R(s) 1 + G 2 H2 + G 1 G 2 H3 + G 1 G 2 H1 H2

## Dr. Mehrez Automatic control system 10 octobre 2015 13 / 1

Block Diagrams Block Diagram Simplifications

Example 4
Simplify the block diagram shown in the following figure. Then, obtain the closed-loop transfer
C(s)
function .
R(s)
H3

R(s) + C(s)
+ G1 + G2 + G3 G4

H1 H2

First move the branch point between G3 and G4 to the right-hand side of the loop containing
G3 , G4 , and H2 . Then move the summing point between G1 and G2 to the left-hand side of the
first summing point.
1 H3
G1 G4

R(s) + C(s)
+ + G1 G2 + G3 G4

H1 H2

## Dr. Mehrez Automatic control system 10 octobre 2015 14 / 1

Block Diagrams Block Diagram Simplifications

Exemple 4 Cntd

By simplifying each loop, the block diagram can be modified as shown in following figure :
H3
G1 G4

R(s) + G1 G2 G3 G4 C(s)
+
1 + G 1 G 2 H1 1 + G 3 G 4 H2

## The Open Loop Transfer Function is :

   
G1 G2 G3 G4 H3
OLTF =
1 + G 1 G 2 H1 1 + G 3 G 4 H2 G1 G4

C(s)
Further simplification, the closed-loop transfer function is obtained as :
R(s)
R(s) G1 G2 G3 G4 C(s)
1 + G 1 G 2 H1 + G 3 G 4 H2 G 2 G 3 H3 + G 1 G 2 G 3 G 4 H1 H2

C(s) G1 G2 G3 G4
=
R(s) 1 + G 1 G 2 H1 + G 3 G 4 H2 G 2 G 3 H3 + G 1 G 2 G 3 G 4 H1 H2

## Dr. Mehrez Automatic control system 10 octobre 2015 15 / 1

Block Diagrams Block Diagram Simplifications

Example 5
Simplify the block diagram shown in the following figure. Then, obtain the closed-loop transfer
C(s)
function .
R(s)

H2

R(s) C(s)
+ + G1 + G2 G3
+

H1

First move the summing point between G1 and G2 to the left-hand side of the second
summing point. The block diagram can be modified as shown in following figure :
H2
G1

R(s) C(s)
+ + + G1 G2 G3
+

H1

## Dr. Mehrez Automatic control system 10 octobre 2015 16 / 1

Block Diagrams Block Diagram Simplifications

Exemple 5 Cntd

## Eliminating the feed back path H1 and combining, we get

H2
G1

R(s) G1 G2 C(s)
+ + G3
1 G 1 G 2 H1

H2
Combining blocks in cascade and eliminating feed back loop , we get
G1
R(s) G1 G2 G3 C(s)
+
1 G 1 G 2 H1 + G 2 G 3 H2

## The closed loop transfer function is :

G1 G2 G3
CLTF =
1 G 1 G 2 H1 + G 2 G 3 H2 + G 1 G 2 G 3

## Dr. Mehrez Automatic control system 10 octobre 2015 17 / 1

Block Diagrams Block Diagram Simplifications

Example 6
Simplify the block diagram shown in the following figure. Then, obtain the closed-loop transfer
C(s)
function .
R(s) R(s) 1 1 C(s)
+ K
s+a s

+ s2
+

0.1

1
First move the branch point between and K to the right-hand side of the of the block K.
s
s2
Then combine blocks in parallel and 0.1 :
K
R(s) 1 K C(s)
+
s+a s

s2
+ 0.1
K

K
R(s) 1 s C(s)
K 2
s+a 1+ s
( sK + 0.1)

## Dr. Mehrez Automatic control system 10 octobre 2015 18 / 1

Block Diagrams Block Diagram Simplifications

Example 7
Simplify the block diagram shown in the following figure. Then, obtain the closed-loop transfer
C(s)
function .
R(s)
G4

R(s) + C(s)
+ + G1 + G2 G3 +
+ +

H2

H1

First move the branch point containing H1 ahead of the block G2. Then combine forward
blocks (G2, G3 and G4) and move again the branch point containing H1 after this resulting
block, we get :
R(s) C(s)
+ + G1 + G4 + G2 G3
+ +

H2

H1 G 2
G4 + G2 G3

## Dr. Mehrez Automatic control system 10 octobre 2015 19 / 1

Block Diagrams Block Diagram Simplifications

Example 7 Cntd

Eliminating the feed back loop H2 and combining with the cascade block G1, we get
R(s) G1 (G2 G3 + G4 ) C(s)
+ +
+ 1 H2 (G2 G3 + G4 )

H1 G 2
G4 + G2 G3

## Eliminating the feed back loop, we get

R(s) G1 (G2 G3 + G4 ) C(s)
+
1 H2 (G2 G3 + G4 ) G1 G2 H1

## The closed loop transfer function is

G1 (G2 G3 + G4 )
CLTF =
1 H2 (G2 G3 + G4 ) G1 G2 H1 + G1 (G2 G3 + G4 )

## Dr. Mehrez Automatic control system 10 octobre 2015 20 / 1

Block Diagrams Block Diagram Simplifications

Example 8
Simplify the block diagram shown in the following figure. Then, obtain the closed-loop transfer
C(s)
function .
R(s)
H3

R(s) C(s)
+ G1 + + G2 G3

H2

H1

First move the two branch points containing H1 and H2 after the block G3. Then eliminate the
feedback loop H3 , we get :
R(s) G2 G3 C(s)
+ G1 +
1 + G 2 G 3 H3

H2
G3
H1
G3

## Dr. Mehrez Automatic control system 10 octobre 2015 21 / 1

Block Diagrams Block Diagram Simplifications

Example 8 Cntd

By simplifying each loop, the block diagram can be modified as shown in following figure :
R(s) G1 G2 G3 C(s)
+
1 + G 2 G 3 H3 + G 2 H2

H1
G3

## The closed loop transfer function is

G1 G2 G3
CLTF =
1 + G 2 G 3 H3 + G 2 H2 + G 1 G 2 H1