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1 Introduction
T.J. Freeborn
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, U.S.A.
Tel.: +12053486634
Email: tjfreeborn1@eng.ua.edu
A.S. Elwakil
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of Sharjah, Sharjah, U.A.E.
Email: elwakil@ieee.org
B. Maundy
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
Email: bmaundy@ucalgary.ca
2 Todd J. Freeborn et al.
filter circuits emerged [14,15]. This field has focused on theory [12,1,18], im
plementation [3,17,20], as well as applications [21] of filters with magnitude
characteristics not easily realizable using integerorder circuits. While tradi
tional filters typically yield 20n dB/decade stopband attenuations (where n
is the filter integer order), fractionalorder filters provide more precise con
trol with 20(n + ) dB/decade attenuations, where 0 1 is the
fractionalcomponent of the order. These concepts also provide alternative de
sign methodologies for the realization of asymmetric bandpass [2] and band
reject [11] filters with high quality factors.
Filter circuits are typically designed using their transfer functions rather
than their time domain representations, which also remains true when design
ing them using fractionalorder concepts. Whereas integerorder filters use the
integer order Laplacian operator, s, fractionalorder filters use the Laplacian
operator raised to power yielding s , which is referred to as the fractional
Laplacian operator.
Lowpass (1 + ) order fractional transfer functions have previously been
explored to realize approximated Butterworth [7] and Chebyshev [8] pass
band magnitude characteristics. These responses were both realized using the
fractional transfer function
k1
H11+ (s) = (1)
s1+ + k2 s + k3
where the coefficients k1,2,3 were selected to optimize the responses over a select
frequency band. However, while the Butterworth and Chebyshev approxima
tions can be realized with allpole transfer functions the Inverse Chebyshev and
Elliptic approximations require both poles and zeros. Therefore, it is required
to explore further (1 + ) order transfer functions with both poles and zeros.
In this work, a (1 + ) order transfer function is investigated to approximate
the stopband ripple characteristics of Inverse Chebtshev lowpass filters. The
optimum coefficients required are determined using a nonlinear least squares
optimization routine. MATLAB simulations of the (1 + ) order lowpass filters
with fractional steps from = 0.1 to = 0.9 designed using this process are
given as examples. Further, validation with SPICE simulations of 1.2, 1.5, and
1.8 order lowpass filters and experimental results of a 1.5 order filter realized
using an approximated fractional order capacitor in a MultipleInputBiquad
(MIB) circuit are given.
Inverse Chebyshev lowpass filters are generally realized using lowpass notch
circuits described by the transfer function
s2 + k 2 02
H2 (s) = (2)
s2 + s Q0 + 02
Approximated FractionalOrder Inverse Chebyshev Lowpass Filters 3
10
20
Magnitude (dB)
30
40
50
60
70
80
2 1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10
Frequency (rad/s)
Fig. 1 Simulated magnitude responses of (1 + ) lowpass fractional order filter circuits for
= 0.1 to 0.9 in steps of 0.1 with coefficients selected to approximate inverse Chebyshev
stopband response.
transfer function given by (3) and (4), respectively, over the frequency band
103 , 103 rad/s. This optimization problem is described by
k
X 2
min k H (x, )  C2 () k22 = min (H (x, i )  Cn (i )) (5)
x x
i=1
s.t. x > 0.1
GR
R
 R
+
 R

+
+
Fig. 2 MultipleInput biquad topology with RC ladder structure to realize a 4th order
integer approximation of a fractional order capacitor given in subset.
Table 2 Component values to realize (7) for the coefficients in Table 1 when = 0.2, 0.5,
0.8.
C1 (F) C2 (F sec1 ) R1 () R2 () R3 () R () GR ()
0.2 49 1.41 1.04M 6.15k 2.08M 6.15k 3.07k
0.5 165 1.41 142k 1k 284k 1k 500
0.8 3.23 1.41 351k 2.24k 702k 2.24k 1.12k
in shaping the magnitude response, increasing the potential control over the
attenuation and ripple characteristics. In the following section, stability is
analyzed to ensure these fractional transfer functions are physically realizable.
2.1 Stability
a2 W m+k + a3 W k + 1 = 0 (6)
6 Todd J. Freeborn et al.
The roots of (6) for = 0.1 to 0.9 were calculated with k = 1 to 9, respectively,
when m = 10. The minimum root angles, W min , for each case are given in
Table 1 and are all greater than the minimum required angle, W  > 2m = 9 ,
confirming that each transfer function using the coefficients in Table 1 is stable
and physically realizable.
3 Circuit Realization
The (1+) order transfer function (4) can be physically realized using the MIB
circuit, given in Fig. 2, when the capacitor C2 is replaced with a fractional
order capacitor. A fractionalorder capacitor is an element with impedance
ZC = 1/s C where C is the pseudocapacitance with units F sec1 and
0 1 is the order. This component derives its name from the order placing
it between the traditional circuit elements of a resistor ( = 0) and capacitor
( = 1). The transfer function of the MIB circuit using the fractionalorder
capacitor for C2 is given by:
Vo (s) b1 s1+ + b2 s + b3
H(s) = = 1+ (7)
Vin (s) s + b 4 s + b 5
where b1 = R/R3 , b2 = (1/R3 C1 G 1/R1 C1 ), b3 = 1/C1 C2 R2 R, b4 =
1/GC1 R, b5 = 1/C1 C2 R2 .
The values to realize the approximated fractional Inverse Chebyshev re
sponses are determined solving the system of equations formed by comparing
the coefficients of (4) and (7). Solving for orders (1 + ) = 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8
using the coefficients from Table 1 when the DC gain (a4 ) is neglected while
setting R2 = R, R1 = GR3 , and G = 0.5 yields the scaled values given in Table
2. These values were scaled to realize realistic component values by applying
a magnitude scaling Km = 1000 and frequency scaling Kf = 2000.
Table 3 Component values to realize 4th order approximations of 1.41F sec1 fractional
order capacitors with = 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8.
Values
Component = 0.2 = 0.5 = 0.8
Ra () 11.9 991 53.1k
Rb () 60 2.25k 35.1k
Rc () 152.8 3.38k 29.7k
Rd () 635.2k 7.93k 41.5k
Re () 34.4k 65.8k 125k
Cb (F) 465n 9.39n 0.435n
Cc (F) 904n 33.2n 3.05n
Cd (F) 982n 60.2n 9.06n
Ce (F) 422n 77.9n 22.8n
105
Impedance 
104
3
10
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Frequency (Hz)
Fig. 3 Impedance magnitude of approximated fractional order capacitor (dashed) compared
to the ideal (solid) with pseudocapacitance of 1.41 F sec1 with = 0.5 after scaling to
a center frequency of 1 kHz.
magnitude of the ideal (solid) and approximated (dashed) 1.41 F sec1 and
fractionalorder capacitor with order = 0.5 shifted to a center frequency of
1 kHz is presented in Fig 3. From this figure the approximation is very good
over almost 4 decades, from approximately 200 Hz to 70 kHz.
Using the component values in Tables 2 and 3 the approximated fractional
order Inverse Chebyshev lowpass filter was simulated in SPICE using LF411
op amps. The simulations realized (1 + ) = 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8 responses which
are given in Fig. 4 as dashed lines. For comparison, the ideal responses of (4)
are also given as solid lines. The SPICE results show good agreement with the
ideal responses confirming the stopband ripples with a fractionalorder step in
the transition from passband to stopband. It should be noted that the SPICE
8 Todd J. Freeborn et al.
0 = 0.8
10
= 0.2
Magnitude (dB)
20
30
40
50
60
0 1 2 3 4 5
10 10 10 10 10 10
Frequency (Hz)
Fig. 4 PSPICE simulations using Fig. 2 compared to ideal simulations of (7) as dashed and
solid lines, respectively, to realize approximated Inverse Chebyshev lowpass filters of orders
(1 + ) = 1.2 and 1.5, and 1.8.
The MIB circuit was physically realized to validate the proposed fractional
order lowpass filters. A 1.5 order ( = 0.5) filter was implemented using AD844
op amps, which have a wider bandwidth than the LF411 op amps used for
simulations. To take advantage of the larger bandwidth, design components
were scaled to a frequency of 100 kHz as follows: R = R2 = 400 , R1 = 227
k, R3 = 113 k, C1 = 1 F and approximated fractionalorder capacitor
C2 = 1.4 F sec1 with = 0.5 when G = 2. The components to realize
the approximated fractionalorder capacitor were also scaled as: Ra = 100 ,
Rb = 225 , Rc = 330 , Rd = 800 , Re = 6.6 k, Cb = 1 nF, Cc = 3.3
nF, Cd = 6 nF, Ce = 7.8 nF. The response of this circuit to a sinusoidal input
swept from 10 Hz to 100 kHz in 200 msec with amplitude 1 V is given in
Fig. 5(a). The attenuation in the stopband was measured as 9 dB/decade
which is very close to the theoretical attenuation of 10 dB/decade. Further,
a zoomin on the point where the filter magnitude peaks is shown in Fig. 5(b)
confirming stability. The peak gain value of 2.36 dB was measured at 3.86 kHz.
4 Conclusion
A fractionalorder transfer function with fractional zeros and poles was pro
posed that approximates the magnitude ripple characteristics in the stopband
Approximated FractionalOrder Inverse Chebyshev Lowpass Filters 9
(a)
(b)
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