Sei sulla pagina 1di 72

Traffic and Highway Engineering ()

CVL 4324

Chapter 14
Highway Surveys and Location
Dr. Sari Abusharar
Assistant Professor
Civil Engineering Department
Faculty of Applied Engineering and Urban Planning
2nd Semester 2015-2016 1
Outline of Presentation

 Introduction

 Principles of Highway Location

 Highway Survey Methods

 Highway Earthwork and Final Plans

2
3
Introduction
What is a highway Survey?
The various stages of examination of an area so as to locate the
road finally in an economical manner are known
as highway surveys.

4
Introduction
Highway Location
Location of proposed highway is an important first step in its
design. Particular location is based on:

 Topography
 Soil characteristics
 Environmental factors such as noise and air pollution
 Economic factors

5
Introduction
Techniques for highway surveys
Surveys usually involve measuring and computing horizontal and
vertical angles, vertical heights (elevations) and horizontal
distances. Data from surveys are used to produce maps with
contour lines and longitudinal cross sections.
Most engineering consultants and state agencies presently
involved in highway locations use computerized techniques to
process the vast amounts of data that are generally handled in
the decision process. These techniques include:

 Ground surveys
 Remote sensing
 Computer graphics 6
Introduction
Ground Surveys
 Transit (theodolite): Used for measuring angles in both vertical
and horizontal planes

 Level: Used for measuring changes in elevation

 Measuring tapes: Used for measuring horizontal distances


(Nowadays Electronic Measurement Devices (EDMs) are used)

 Modern transit frameworks can do all three (vertical and


horizontal angles, distance and elevation measurements)

7
Level

Theodolite

8
Total Station Measuring tapes
9
Introduction
Remote Sensing
Measurement of distances and elevations using devices located above
the earth such as:

Airplanes (aerial photography or photogrammetry)


 Global Positioning Systems (GPS) using orbiting satellites

The most common uses of photogrammetry in highway engineering


are the identification of suitable locations for highways, and the
preparation of base maps for design mapping, showing all physical and
man-made features plus contours of 2- or 5-ft intervals. In both of
these uses, the first task is to obtain the aerial photographs of the area
if none is available.
10
11
Introduction
Computer Graphics
The combination of photogrammetry and computer techniques.
Information obtained from photogrammetry is stored in a
computer which allows plotting the highway route, make changes
very easily and realize the effects of the change immediately.

12
Principles of Highway Location
Roadway elements such as curvature and grade must blend with each
other to produce a system that provides for the easy flow of traffic at
the design capacity, while meeting design criteria and safety
standards.
The highway should also cause a minimal disruption to historic and
archeological sites and to other land-use activities.
Environmental impact studies are therefore required in most cases
before a highway location is finally agreed upon.

The highway location process involves four phases:


I. Office study of existing information
II. Reconnaissance survey
III. Preliminary location survey
IV. Final location survey 13
Principles of Highway Location
I. Office Study of existing information
The first phase in any highway location study is the examination of all
available data of the area in which the road is to be constructed.
This phase is usually carried out in the office prior to any field or
photogrammetric investigation.
All of the available data are collected from:
existing engineering reports, maps, aerial photographs, and charts
Data are usually available at:
states departments of transportation, agriculture, geology,
hydrology, and mining

14
Principles of Highway Location
I. Office Study of existing information
The type and amount of data collected and examined depend on the
type of highway being considered, but in general, data should be
obtained on the following characteristics of the area:
Engineering, including topography, geology, climate, and traffic
volumes
Social and demographic, including land use and zoning patterns
Environmental, including types of wildlife; location of recreational,
historic, and archeological sites; and the possible effects of air, noise,
and water pollution
Economic, including unit costs for construction and the trend of
agricultural, commercial, and industrial activities
Preliminary analysis will identify unsuitable sites for the highway
such as sites of archeological importance. 15
Principles of Highway Location
II. Reconnaissance Survey
The object of this phase of the study is to identify several feasible
routes using aerial photographs and taking into account the following:
Terrain and soil conditions
Serviceability of route to industrial and population areas
Crossing of other transportation facilities, such as rivers, railroads,
and highways
Directness of route
Control points between the two endpoints are determined for each
feasible route. For example, a unique bridge site with no alternative
may be taken as a primary control point. The feasible routes identified
are then plotted on photographic base maps.
16
Principles of Highway Location
III. Preliminary Location Survey
During this phase of the study, the positions of the feasible
routes are set as closely as possible by establishing all the
control points and determining preliminary vertical and
horizontal alignments for each.
Preliminary alignments are used to evaluate the economic and
environmental feasibility of the alternative routes.
Economic Evaluation
Economic evaluation of each alternative route is carried out to
determine the future effect of investing the resources
necessary to construct the highway.

17
Principles of Highway Location
III. Preliminary Location Survey
Environmental Evaluation
Construction of a highway at any location will have a significant
impact on its surroundings. A highway is therefore an integral
part of the local environment and must be considered as such.
In cases where an environmental impact study is required, it is
conducted at this stage to determine the environmental impact
of each alternative route. Such a study will determine the
negative and/or positive effects the highway facility will have
on the environment.

18
Principles of Highway Location
IV. Final Location Survey
 The final location survey is a detailed layout of the selected
route. The horizontal and vertical alignments are determined,
and the positions of structures and drainage channels are
located.
 Set out the points of intersections (PI) of the straight portions of
the highway and fit a suitable horizontal curve between these.

The fitted curve is


determined through trial
and error for best alignment
based on both engineering
and aesthetic factors (easier
with computer techniques).
19
Principles of Highway Location
Location of Recreational and Scenic Routes

The location process of recreational and scenic routes follows


the same steps as discussed earlier, but the designer of these
types of roads must be aware of their primary purpose. For
example, although it is essential for freeways and arterial
routes to be as direct as possible, a circuitous alignment (
) may be desirable for recreational and scenic routes to
provide access to recreational sites (such as lakes or
campsites) or to provide special scenic views.

20
Scenic Routes

21
Recreational Routes

22
Principles of Highway Location
Location of Recreational and Scenic Routes
Three additional factors should be considered in the location of
recreational and scenic routes:
1. Design speeds are usually low, and therefore special provisions
should be made to discourage fast driving, for example, by
providing a narrower lane width.
2. Location should be such that the conflict between the driver's
attention on the road and the need to enjoy the scenic view is
minimized. This can be achieved by providing turn-outs with wide
shoulders and adequate turning space at regular intervals, or by
providing only straight alignments when the view is spectacular.
3. Location should be such that minimum disruption is caused to the
area.
23
Principles of Highway Location
Location of Highways in Urban Areas
Urban areas usually present complex conditions that must be
considered in the highway location process. In addition to factors
discussed under office study and reconnaissance survey, other factors
that significantly influence the location of highways in urban areas
include:

 Connection to local streets


 Right-of-way acquisition
 Coordination of the highway system with other
transportation systems
 Adequate provisions for pedestrians

24
Principles of Highway Location
Connection to Local Streets
When the location of an expressway or urban freeway is being
planned, it is important that adequate thought be given to which local
streets should connect with on- and off- ramps to the expressway
or freeway. The main factor to consider is the existing travel pattern in
the area.
 The location should enhance the flow of traffic on the local
streets.
 The location should provide for adequate sight distances at all
ramps.
 Ramps should not be placed at intervals that will cause confusion
or increase the crash potential on the freeway or expressway.
25
Freeway Entrance

Freeway exist

26
Principles of Highway Location
Right-of-Way Acquisition
One factor that significantly affects the location of highways in urban
areas is the cost of acquiring right of way. This cost is largely
dependent on the predominant land use in the right of way of the
proposed highway. Costs tend to be much higher in commercial areas,
and landowners in these areas are often unwilling to give up their
property for highway construction. Thus, freeways and expressways in
urban areas have been placed on continuous elevated structures in
order to avoid the acquisition of rights of way and the disruption of
commercial and residential activities. This method of design has the
advantage of minimal interference with existing land-use activities,
but it is usually objected to by occupiers of adjacent land because of
noise or for aesthetic reasons. The elevated structures are also very
expensive to construct and therefore do not completely eliminate the
problem of high costs. 27
Elevated Highways

28
Principles of Highway Location
Coordination of the Highway System
with Other Transportation Systems

Urban planners understand the importance of a balanced


transportation system and strive toward providing a fully integrated
system of highways and public transportation. This integration should
be taken into account during the location process of an urban highway.
Several approaches have been considered, but the main objective is to
provide new facilities that will increase the overall level of service of
the transportation system in the urban area.
For example, park-and-ride facilities should be provided at transit
stations to facilitate the use of the Metro system, and exclusive bus
lanes have been used to reduce the travel time of express buses during
the peak hour.
29
Public
transport
system

30
Principles of Highway Location
Adequate Provisions for Bicycles and Pedestrians
Providing adequate facilities for bicycles and pedestrians should be
an important factor in deciding the location of highways, particularly
for highways in urban areas.
Pedestrians are an integral part of any highway system but are more
numerous in urban areas than in rural areas.
Bicycles are an alternate mode of transportation that can help to
reduce energy use and traffic congestion.
Therefore, special attention must be given to the provision of
adequate bicycle and pedestrian facilities in planning and designing
urban highways.
Facilities for pedestrians should include sidewalks, crosswalks, traffic-
control features, curb cuts, and ramps for the handicapped.
Facilities for bicycles should include wide-curb lanes, bicycle paths
31
and shared-use paths.
Facilities for pedestrians

32
Bicyclist on a shared roadway Bicyclist in a bike lane

Bicyclists and pedestrians on a


33
Bicyclists in a wide curb lane separated (shared-use) path
Principles of Highway Location
Principles of Bridge Location
The basic principle for locating highway location determines bridge
location, not the reverse. Only in cases where the bridges need to be
skewed or foundation problems exist, the location of the bridge can be
a factor in highway location due to higher costs associated with the
above mentioned bridge conditions.

A detailed report should be prepared for the bridge site selected to


determine whether there are any factors that make the site
unacceptable. This report should include accurate data on soil
stratification, the engineering properties of each soil stratum at the
location, the crushing strength of bedrock, and water levels in the
channel or waterway.

34
Skewed Bridges

35
HIGHWAY EARTHWORK AND FINAL PLANS
Highway Grades and Terrain
One factor that significantly influences the selection of a
highway location is the terrain of the land, which in turn affects
the laying of the grade line.
The primary factor that the designer considers on laying the
grade line is the amount of earthwork that will be necessary for
the selected grade line.
One method to reduce the amount of earthwork is to set the
grade line as closely as possible to the natural ground level. This
is not always possible, especially in undulating ( )or hilly
terrain.
The least overall cost also may be obtained if the grade line is
set such that there is a balance between the excavated volume
and the volume of embankment. 36
HIGHWAY EARTHWORK AND FINAL PLANS
Highway Grades and Terrain
 Another factor that should be considered in laying the grade
line is the existence of fixed points, such as railway crossings,
intersections with other highways, and in some cases existing
bridges, which require that the grade be set to meet them.
 When the route traverses flat or swampy areas, the grade line
must be set high enough above the water level to facilitate
proper drainage and to provide adequate cover to the natural
soil.
 The height of the grade line is usually dictated by the expected
floodwater level.
 Grade lines should also be set such that the minimum sight
distance requirements are obtained.
37
HIGHWAY EARTHWORK AND FINAL PLANS
Computing Earthwork Volumes
One of the major objectives in selecting a particular location for
a highway is to minimize the amount of earthwork required for
the project. Therefore, the estimation of the amount of
earthwork involved for each alternative location is required at
both the preliminary and final stages.
To determine the amount of earthwork involved for a given
grade line, cross sections are taken at regular intervals along the
grade line. The cross sections are usually spaced 50 to 100 ft (15
to 30 m) apart, although this distance is sometimes increased for
preliminary engineering.

38
A B
C
G
D
E F

39
40
HIGHWAY EARTHWORK AND FINAL PLANS
Computing Earthwork Volumes
These cross sections are obtained by plotting the natural ground levels
and proposed grade profile of the highway along a line perpendicular
to the grade line to indicate areas of excavation and areas of fill.
When the computation is done manually, the cross sections are
plotted on standard cross-section paper, usually to a scale of 1 in. to 10
ft (1/50 or 1/100) for both the horizontal and vertical directions. The
areas of cuts and fills at each cross section are then determined by the
use of a planimeter or by any other suitable method.

41
HIGHWAY EARTHWORK AND FINAL PLANS
Computing Earthwork Volumes
In long constructions which have constant formation width and side
slopes it is possible to simplify the computation of cross-sectional
areas by the use of formulae. These are especially useful for railways,
long embankments, etc., and formulae will be given for the following
types of cross-section:
(a) sections level across
(b) sections with a cross fall
(c) sections part in cut and part in fill
(d) sections of variable levels

42
HIGHWAY EARTHWORK AND FINAL PLANS
SECTIONS LEVEL ACROSS

43
HIGHWAY EARTHWORK AND FINAL PLANS

44
HIGHWAY EARTHWORK AND FINAL PLANS
SECTIONS WITH A CROSS FALL

45
HIGHWAY EARTHWORK AND FINAL PLANS
SECTIONS WITH A CROSS FALL

46
HIGHWAY EARTHWORK AND FINAL PLANS

47
HIGHWAY EARTHWORK AND FINAL PLANS

48
HIGHWAY EARTHWORK AND FINAL PLANS
SECTIONS PART IN CUT AND PART IN FILL

49
HIGHWAY EARTHWORK AND FINAL PLANS
SECTIONS PART IN CUT AND PART IN FILL

50
HIGHWAY EARTHWORK AND FINAL PLANS

51
HIGHWAY EARTHWORK AND FINAL PLANS

52
HIGHWAY EARTHWORK AND FINAL PLANS
SECTIONS OF VARIABLE LEVELS

53
HIGHWAY EARTHWORK AND FINAL PLANS
SECTIONS OF VARIABLE LEVELS

Note:
The areas of cuts and fills at each cross section are determined by
the use of a planimeter or by any other suitable method. Surveying
books document the different methods for area computation.

e.g, Surveying by Bannister, Raymond, and Baker, 6th edition, 1993.


54
HIGHWAY EARTHWORK AND FINAL PLANS
Computing Earthwork Volumes
A common method of determining the volume is that of average
end areas. This procedure is based on the assumption that the
volume between two consecutive cross sections is the average
of their areas multiplied by the distance between them,
computed as follows:

55
Example

56
HIGHWAY EARTHWORK AND FINAL PLANS
Computing Earthwork Volumes
 It is common practice in earthwork construction to move
suitable materials from cut sections to fill sections to reduce to
a minimum the amount of material borrowed from borrow pits.
 When the materials excavated from cut sections are compacted
at the fill sections, they fill less volume than was originally
occupied. This phenomenon is referred to as shrinkage and
should be accounted for when excavated material is to be
reused as fill material.
 The amount of shrinkage depends on the type of material.
Shrinkages of up to 50 percent have been observed for some
soils. However, shrinkage factors used are generally between
1.10 and 1.25 for high fills and between 1.20 and 1.25 for low
fills. 57
HIGHWAY EARTHWORK AND FINAL PLANS
Computing Earthwork Volumes

58
59
60
HIGHWAY EARTHWORK AND FINAL PLANS
Computing Ordinates of the Mass Diagram
 The mass diagram is a series of connected lines that depicts the
net accumulation of cut or fill between any two stations. The
ordinate of the mass diagram is the net accumulation in cubic
yards (yd3) from an arbitrary starting point.

 Thus, the difference in ordinates between any two stations


represents the net accumulation of cut or fill between these
stations. If the first station of the roadway is considered to be
the starting point, then the net accumulation at this station is
zero.

61
62
fill cut

63
HIGHWAY EARTHWORK AND FINAL PLANS
Interpretation of the Mass Diagram
1. When the mass diagram slopes downward (negative), the
preceding section is in fill, and when the slope is upward
(positive), the preceding section is in cut.
2. The difference in mass diagram ordinates between any two
stations represents the net accumulation between the two
stations (cut or fill). For example, the net accumulation
between station 6 + 00 and 12 + 00 is 1302 + 904 = 2206 yd3.
3. A horizontal line on the mass diagram defines the locations
where the net accumulation between these two points is zero.
These are referred to as balance points because there is a
balance in cut and fill volumes between these points.
64
HIGHWAY EARTHWORK AND FINAL PLANS
Interpretation of the Mass Diagram
In Figure 14.17, the x axis represents a balance between
points A and D and a balance between points D and E.
Beyond point E, the mass diagram indicates a fill condition for
which there is no compensating cut. The maximum value is the
ordinate at station 20 + 00 of 478 yd3(fill). For this section,
imported material (called borrow) will have to be purchased
and transported from an off-site location.
4. Other horizontal lines can be drawn connecting portions of the
mass diagram. For example lines J-K and S-T, which are each
five stations long, depict a balance of cut and fill between
stations at points J and K and S and T.

65
66
HIGHWAY EARTHWORK AND FINAL PLANS
Computing Overhaul Payments
Contractors are compensated for the cost of earthmoving in the
following manner:

Typically, the contract price will include a stipulated maximum


distance that earth will be moved without the client incurring
additional charges. If this distance is exceeded, then the contract
stipulates a unit price add-on quoted in additional station-yd3 of
material moved. The maximum distance for which there is no
charge is called free haul. The extra distance is called overhaul.

67
68
fill cut

69
70
End of Chapter 14

71
HW # 1

Problems
14-2
14-6
14-14
14-15
14-16
72