Sei sulla pagina 1di 140

COPY 1

N C H R P 17-28

Pavement Marking Materials and


Markers: Safety Impact and Cost-
Effectiveness

TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD


NASNRC
LIMITED USE DOCUMENT

This proposal is for use of recipient in selection of a research agency to


conduct work under the National Cooperative Highway Research Program. If
the proposal is unsuccessful, it is to be returned to the NCHRP. Proposals are
regarded as fully privileged, and dissemination of the information included
therein must be approved by the NCHRP.
Operator Performance Laboratory (OPL)
Center for Computer Aided Design,

The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242

2 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


Summary Page 3
4 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal
1. SUMMARY PAGE

NCHRP PROJECT 17-28


Pavement Marking Materials and Markers: Safety Impact and Cost-
Effectiveness
Proposing Agency: University of Iowa
Center for Computer Aided Design
Operator Performance Lab (OPL)
4235 Engineering Building
Iowa City, IA 52242-1527
Phone: (319) 384-0811
Fax: (319) 335-5669
thomas-schnell@uiowa.edu
Person Submitting Thomas Schnell, Ph.D.
Proposal: Assistant Professor and Director OPL
University of Iowa
Proposal Written by: Thomas Schnell, Ph.D., Fuat Aktan, Ph.D.
Proposal Date: October 16, 2003
Principal Investigator: Thomas Schnell, Ph.D.,
Assistant Professor and
Director OPL
4235 Engineering Building
University of Iowa
Iowa City, IA 52242-1527
(319) 384-0811

Responsible Lisa L. Leff


Administrative Officer: Assistant Director Sponsored Programs
Division of Sponsored Programs
The University of Iowa
2 Gilmore Hall
Iowa City, IA 52242-1527
Phone: (319) 335-2120
Fax: (319) 384-2130
E-mail: lisa-leff@uiowa.edu

Proposed Contract Period: 36 Months


Total Contract Amount: $450,000.00
Fixed-Fee Portion: None

Summary Page 5
6 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal
2. TABLE OF CONTENTS

3. RESEARCH PLAN.............................................................................7

3.1. Introduction...............................................................................7
3.2. Statement of the Problem.........................................................8
3.3. Proposal Overview....................................................................8
3.3.1. Identification of Key Issues................................................8
3.3.2. Description of the Work Plan...........................................11
3.3.3. Technical Approach.........................................................14
3.3.4. Management Approach....................................................15
3.4. Research Team within the Task Context:................................16
3.4.1. Task A (no corresponding NCHRP task number)............18
3.4.2. Task B (RFP Task 1).........................................................20
3.4.3. Task C (RFP Task 2).........................................................21
3.4.4. Task D (RFP Task 3).........................................................22
3.4.5. Task E (RFP Task 4).........................................................23
3.4.6. Task F (RFP Task 5).........................................................24
3.4.7. Task G (RFP Task 6).........................................................24
3.4.8. Task H (RFP Task 7).........................................................25
3.4.9. Task I (RFP Task 8)..........................................................26
3.4.10.Task J (RFP Task 9).........................................................27
3.4.11.Task K (RFP Task 10).....................................................27
3.4.12.Task L (RFP Task 11)......................................................27
3.5. Anticipated Research Results.................................................28
3.5.1. Implementation Plan........................................................28
3.6. Applicability of Results to Practice.........................................29

4. QUALIFICATIONS OF THE RESEARCH TEAM..............................31

4.1. Principal Investigator..............................................................31


4.2. Co-PI........................................................................................32
4.3. Other Research Team Members..............................................33
4.4. Disclosure................................................................................34

5. ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE RESEARCH TEAM........................35

5.1. Thomas Schnell, Principal Investigator..................................35


5.2. Fuat Aktan, OPL, University of Iowa.......................................36
5.3. Pieter Poolman, OPL, University of Iowa................................36

6. OTHER COMMITMENTS................................................................37

6.1. Thomas Schnell, Principal Investigator..................................37


6.2. Fuat Aktan, Co-PI....................................................................37

Table of Contents 7
6.3. Pieter Poolman, Researcher....................................................37
6.4. Frank Schmidt, Researcher....................................................38
6.5. James Stoner, Researcher.......................................................38
6.6. David Forkenbrock, Researcher..............................................38

7. EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES......................................................39

7.1. University of Iowa...................................................................39


7.2. The College of Engineering, University of Iowa.....................39
7.3. The Operator Performance Laboratory...................................39

8. TIME REQUIREMENTS..................................................................47

9. ITEMIZED BUDGET........................................................................49

10. COOPERATIVE FEATURES.............................................................53

11. APPENDIX.......................................................................................55

11.1. Background Information.........................................................55


11.1.1.History of Pavement Markings.......................................55
11.1.2.Pavement Marking Retroreflectivity..............................56
11.1.3.Pavement Marking Visibility..........................................57
11.1.4.Vehicle Headlamps.........................................................63
11.1.5.Pavement Marking Retroreflectivity Characteristics.....65
11.1.6.Pavement Markings and Markers, and Their Safety
Impact 68
11.1.7.Surveys...........................................................................74
11.1.8.Visual Information Acquisition of Drivers......................75
11.2. References...............................................................................77
11.3. Rsums..................................................................................81
11.4. Support Letters.....................................................................117
11.5. Certifications.........................................................................119

8 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


3. RESEARCH PLAN
The work proposal herein requires expertise in the areas of human factors,
public policy, traffic engineering, pavement marking and raised pavement
marker application and visibility, and statistics. The results from the
proposed research will form the basis for formulating cost effectiveness of
pavement markings and raised pavement markers (RPM) from an
application and safety point of view. We are confident that we have formed
an excellent team, encompassing extensive expertise from over a decade of
pavement marking and marker research by Dr. Tom Schnell, Dr. Fuat Aktan,
and their group of researchers, traffic engineering and crash analysis
research by Drs. Pieter Poolman and James Stoner, public policy,
cost/benefit analyses, and crash analyses by Dr. Forkenborock who is also
the Director of the Public Policy Center, and Meta Analysis by Dr. Frank
Schmidt who co-authored two books on that subject matter.
3.1. Introduction

Pavement markings are by far the most widely used traffic control devices
on the roadways. They convey essential information to the motorists in a
continuous fashion, without any need to look away from the roadway.
Pavement markings appear to play a role in reducing the number of
accidents especially in location with high crash rates [1]. They convey
information on alignment, information on permission to pass other vehicles,
and information on the direction of traffic. Pavement markings convey this
information by virtue of configuration (dashed vs. solid), and color (white,
yellow). Thus, it is essential that pavement markings and their
configurations be identifiable to the drivers without ambiguities. It is often
argued that improved nighttime visibility of pavement markings will
improve driver safety. Improving and maintaining pavement marking and
marker visibility is usually associated with an infrastructure cost. Benefits
of improved visibility may come in the form of fewer crashes, fewer injuries,
and fewer fatalities, thus possibly reducing the cost to society. It is the goal
of this research to establish the link between pavement marking visibility
and their safety impact and cost-effectiveness.

Approximately 42,000 lives are lost due to traffic accidents on US


highways every year. While about one-quarter of the vehicle miles are
traveled at night, almost half of the traffic related fatalities occur at night.
This, for the most part, is due to the limited visibility at night. When adverse
weather conditions and a demanding driving environment such as work
zones are added to the picture, driving becomes a challenging, stressful,
and potentially a life-threatening task. Pavement markings and raised
pavement markers provide guidance and information to assist the driver in
lane keeping and preview of roadway alignment changes. Few recent
studies [2][3][4][5] conducted to investigate the safety impacts of pavement

Research Plan 9
markings/RPMs, seemed to pose new questions in terms of the cost
effectiveness of these traffic control materials. Contrary to the expectations,
in some of the cases, brighter materials seemed to cause safety drawbacks.

Pavement marking materials must be designed and applied considering


the driver needs, perceptual abilities, and limitations. A successful
assessment of the benefits provided by any road guidance system requires
correct identification of the measures of human performance. Thus, we
believe that an unbiased evaluation of material performance is possible only
by keeping the human and human performance in the loop. Accurate
assessment of pavement marking and RPM performance therefore depends
on how well they are seen and recognized under different geometries and
illumination conditions, as opposed to the single point estimators such as
the retroreflectivity coefficient (RL) measured under the ASTM 30m
standard geometry of 88.760 entrance and 1.050 observation angle (ASTM
E-1710). To determine pavement marking and marker effectiveness from a
user point of view, it is not sufficient to just know the retro-reflectivity, it is
necessary to know their visibility. Visibility ties into the ability of perceiving
lane position and anticipating roadway alignment changes. That ability ties
into driver safety which ultimately boils down to a cost to society. It is
needless to say that reducing the number of crashes is a highly desirable
goal as each and every crash puts a huge financial and societal burden on
all of us. The question is, however, how much of a reduction can be achieved
by virtue of pavement markings and markers and at what cost. That is the
question of pavement marking and marker cost-effectiveness.

Visibility, being a prime material performance measure, is quite complex


to deal with. It involves driver and vehicle characteristics, roadway
geometry, material reflectivity at various entrance and observation angles,
headlamp spatial beam distribution, atmospheric transmissivity, windshield
transmission, material age and condition, and the ambient lighting
conditions, just to name a few. It would be wishful thinking to simplify the
problem of pavement marking visibility into determining only the ASTM
30m standard retroreflectivity. The ASTM 30m standard geometry
retroreflectivity of a pavement marking is only a single point in a two-
dimensional retroreflectivity space, and does not linearly correlate with the
visibility performance. We feel that determining the visibility of pavement
markings and markers is one of several important steps in establishing the
causal link between cost and benefit. Based on over a decade of human
performance and computer modeling research, we have developed a
computer program called Tarvip (Target Visibility Predictor) that can take
into account the multitude of factors that drive pavement marking and
marker visibility and provide visibility distance information.

10 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


3.2. Statement of the Problem
The NCHRP project 17-28 will be conducted to investigate the balance
between the costs of material application and maintenance (direct costs)
versus the potential of savings from such applications, so as to realize an
optimum level of pavement marking and RPM service.

Although the direct and variable costs for material purchase and
maintenance are relatively easy to assess, the calculation of the benefit
potential requires expertise on topics such as human factors (visibility),
public policy, traffic engineering, and statistics. In addition, a
comprehensive knowledgebase is required to relate the visibility aspects of
pavement markings and markers with crashes, and eventually to translate
these figures into costs to the society. This is why we brought together an
excellent team of researchers, incorporating a wide spectrum of expertise in
human factors, traffic engineering, public policy, and statistical disciplines
with a particular emphasis on meta-analysis.

3.3. Proposal Overview

The following pages of this proposal provide a detailed description of our


plan for conducting the research and a description of our qualifications.

3.3.1. Identification of Key Issues


Visual information constitutes approximately 90% of the sensory input
required for driving [6]. Because of the highly visual nature of the driving
task, traffic control devices must be designed and implemented in a way
that they provide the drivers with adequate visual information in an
effective and timely manner.

Drivers tend to rely on the visibility of pavement markings and raised


pavement markers (RPMs) predominantly in the absence of supplementary
guidance. Since high-demand driving conditions require more visual and
cognitive resources be allocated on the roadway, the aforementioned traffic
control devices must function effectively when the driving task becomes
more challenging. Therefore, to successfully assess the safety benefits of
pavement markings and RPMs, one should encompass the knowledge of
pavement marking and RPM visibility for various vehicle types under
various weather, roadway, and lighting conditions. Nonetheless, the
visibility aspects of the pavement markings and RPMs are only one of the
necessary components in answering the safety benefit potentials of
pavement marking and RPM applications.

Research Plan 11
A more complex problem is to accurately identify the connection
between the visibility of pavement markings (and RPMs) and the rate of
crashes both during daytime and nighttime. Daytime pavement marking
visibility is not a function of retroreflectivity, and can constitute a baseline
for comparison with the nighttime visibility. Nighttime visibility of pavement
marking and RPMs depends on the retroreflectivity, headlamps,
driver/roadway/headlamp geometry, ambient lighting conditions, road
surface bidirectional reflectivity characteristics, and windshield
transmission, besides other uncontrollable factors. An in-depth review of
the literature and crash data is required to discover the link between
pavement marking (and RPM) visibility and crashes. We are confident that
our research plan, which will be further elaborated upon in following
sections, is an effective way to approach to this problem. Such an effort
requires expertise in the consolidation techniques of large and technically
unrelated research findings, and performing analysis thereupon, with
methodologies such as meta-analysis.

Once the relationship between crashes and the visibility of pavement


markings and RPMs is clarified, each crash needs to be translated into a
cost to society. This requires expertise in the field of public policy. The
direct cost figures from pavement marking/RPM applications, as well as the
crash related costs, will then be analyzed with non-linear optimization tools.
We like to visualize this process with a simplified cost function similar to
that shown in Figure 1.

12 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


Total Cost f C f C
Total Fixed f CCrash
Cost Function

V* at f CTotal 0
Visibility

Crash Related
Costs f CCrash

Long Term Material and


Maintenance Costs f C Fixed

Visibility
V* Daytime
Optimal Visibility
Visibility

Figure 1. Total Costs Associated with Pavement Marking and RPM


Applications.

The cost function shown in Figure 1 may depend on various factors such as
the climate, the traffic density and mixture, headlamps, pavement type, and
driver characteristics, besides many others, and is not purported to be a
ubiquitous representation. The actual cost function is a product of a set of
stochastic processes (i.e. the brighter the pavement marking/markers, the
great the possibility of driver complaisance and over-calibration of trust to
such guidance).

In the light of the above, key questions that should be answered include:

a. What are the conditions where crashes can be attributed to pavement


markings and PRMs, or the lack of visibility thereof?
b. Are there any safety program initiatives adopted by highway agencies
to reduce crashes that specifically address pavement marking and
RPM deployment?
c. Are there specific locations where specific safety programs are
implemented to promote safety through the use of particular
pavement markings/RPMs application initiatives?
d. What are other independent factors that may contribute to accidents
besides pavement marking and RPM visibility (such as roadway
geometry, atmospheric conditions, ambient lighting, vehicle types,
driver age, traffic density and volume, etc)?
e. What is the best method to consolidate and analyze data from the
crash databases (FARS, HSIS, CATS, MARS, ALAS, Collision Plot

Research Plan 13
Program, Collision Database System, Traffic Safety Data Service, etc)
that contain the data from these sites, which are likely to be at
different states?
f. What was the initial visibility of pavement markings/RPMs at the time
they were implemented at these specific sites under dry, wet, rainy,
and foggy conditions?
g. What were the crash rates at the time the pavement markings/RPMs
were implemented?
h. What were the states of independent variables identified at point (d)
above, at these sites at the time the pavement markings/RPMs were
first implemented?
i. What were the traffic densities, volumes, and mixtures at the time the
pavement markings/RPMs were first implemented?
j. What is the visibility of the same pavement markings/RPMs now (or
at a point in the future) under different weather conditions?
k. What are the current crash rates? Are there more crashes due to
material degradation?
l. What were the states of independent variables identified at point (d),
at these sites at the current time?
m. What are the traffic densities, volumes, and mixtures at the current
time?
n. What is the degree of correlation between pavement marking/RPM
visibility and crash rates?
o. Is it possible to develop a cost function (similar to the one shown in
Figure 1), and optimize the cost with respect to the visibility,
specifically for dry, wet, rainy, and foggy conditions based on these
findings ?
1

p. Based on the cost functions developed in (o), is it possible to generate


cost functions for pavement marking/RPM applications for different
reflectivity levels based on climatic characteristics and site-specific
considerations?

The research plan described in this proposal addresses these issues and
many more by developing a series of coordinated tasks, strategies, and
techniques. The results of this project are intended to assist rule-making
agencies to identify the best selection practices for pavement
markings/RPMs applications that will provide an optimum level of service
with minimal overall cost.

3.3.2. Description of the Work Plan


The goal of the proposed research is manifold:
1These cost functions will in part depend on material, application, and maintenance costs,
as well as the crash related costs. Maintenance costs relate to material degradation data,
which may require considerations in the very long run. However, in the absence of better
degradation data, NTPEP data can be substituted.

14 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


1. Identify key locations to determine the safety aspects of pavement
marking and RPM applications. To that end, we will develop an online
survey with a national and international perspective to explore the
safety initiatives, pavement management strategies, and adopted
procedures and guidelines of rule-making agencies with a specific
focus on pavement marking/RPM applications. We will also draw from
past pavement marking related questionnaires that were performed
by our lab (OPL) for the Iowa DOT [22] and under the ongoing NCHRP
5-18 effort [14]. We are certain that we have an excellent handle on
the pavement marking improvement initiatives and we will use our
current knowledge to properly structure the survey to get additional
information related to crash rates and safety results.

2. Determine the independent variables that may affect the crash rates
other than the pavement markings/RPMs from a traffic engineering
point of view. These independent factors may include the roadway
geometry, weather conditions, time of day, ambient lighting, vehicle
mixture, driver age, traffic density and volume, traffic speeds,
pavement reflectivity, and roadway functional classification, among
others.
3. Implement data mining strategies to identify the cases and the rate of
crashes that can be at least in part attributed to pavement
marking/RPM visibility. To that end, we will draw on any and all
available crash databases and use data mining and clustering
algorithms to sort the crashes according to cause. The goal is to
extract those crash descriptions that are likely to be associated with
visibility issues. The granularity of our crash data filtering will
become gradually smaller until we can isolate those crashes that were
caused by factors solely driven by pavement marking and RPM
visibility.

4. Convert those crashes into cost figures (Please see Table 10 in


Appendix section on page 81 for crash and fatality related cost figures
for the year 2000).

5. Perform in situ measurements of pavement marking reflectivity under


dry, wet, and continuous wetting conditions according to ASTM
standard practices E-1710, E-2177, and E-2176, respectively, with a
wet-capable instrument [25][26]. This will allow us to determine the
current pavement marking and RPM retroreflectivities [cd/m2/lx],
under the three distinct weather conditions. If there are too many
sites that would need to be visited, we will use sampling techniques.
We are convinced that there is an absolute need to know the condition
of the pavement markings at the crash locations. We are also aware
that the condition may be different at the time of measurement when

Research Plan 15
compared to the time a crash occurred but we will use pavement
marking age to roughly estimate the likely retroreflectivity at the time
of the crash. It would obviously be great if crash reports provided that
data but it is highly unlikely that pavement marking retroreflectivities
are recorded after a crash.

6. Convert the retroreflectivity figures into visibility measures with an


advanced visibility model such as the TarVIP model [7][8][9][10] for
the current state of the pavement markings/RPMs. Also, obtain the
initial retroreflectivities of the pavement markings/RPMs when they
were first applied, and obtain the visibility figures for the initial
condition as well.

7. Perform regression/correlation analysis to determine the relationship


between the rate of crashes and pavement marking visibility for newly
applied and used pavement markings/RPMs.

8. Merge findings to link the gaps in the literature, and conduct meta-
analysis to determine the effect sizes of each independent variables
mentioned in point (2).

9. Convert the pavement marking/RPM related crash figures into costs


to the society. Also determine the direct costs associated with
pavement marking/RPM applications for pavement markings with
different generic types and retroreflectivities.

10. Develop weather-specific cost functions. Based on the weather


specific cost functions, develop cost functions that will apply for
different climatic conditions based on the annual probabilistic
distribution of days particular to that climate (i.e. distribution of
number of clear days, number of rainy days, etc). Finally, optimize the
cost functions to determine the visibility alongside the retroreflectivity
levels for optimum level of service with minimal total cost.
11. Develop recommendations for rule-making agencies based on
the findings in point (10).

Our technical approach in addressing the issue associated with


pavement marking cost effectiveness is strongly based on the elements of
the RFP, with enhancements based on the knowledge and experience of the
research team. The teams research approach includes a well-defined goal,
with corresponding objectives, a technical approach structured on the goal
and objectives, and a management approach oriented to achieving
maximum effectiveness in the research activities. The following list of tasks
is based on the identified list of key issues given in section 3.3.1, and
outlines the tasks that need to be addressed in the direction of performing
each task given by the RFP:

16 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


Project activities that place a strong emphasis on the communication
with transportation agencies early and throughout the project
timeline. The cornerstone of this emphasis will be an extensive review
of existing literature and the survey findings. The research team has
an extensive database and expertise in online survey development,
deployment, and analysis from previous and ongoing studies [11][12]
[13][14].
Detailed critical literature review using expert reviewers.
A thorough evaluation of current safety programs in local, county,
state, national, and international levels, where pavement markings
and RPMs are the key countermeasures.
Mail out survey to state traffic engineers, material manufacturers and
suppliers, material testing laboratories, and others to determine the
safety impact, performance measures, and cost-effectiveness of
pavement markings and markers and agency use of performance-
based specifications for these materials. This task will focus on the
policies and procedures used by agencies for the purchase of
materials, their application, and their long-term performance as well
as the use of performance-based specifications for these purposes. We
will develop this survey being mindful of two other surveys that we
have just developed under NCHRP 5-18. The survey in this task will
provide data that is supplemental to any ongoing or recent past
surveys.
Based on the findings of the surveys and literature review, identify any
missing links between the safety impact of pavement markings and
markers and the cost-effectiveness of current practices for their use.
Identify all relevant independent factors that may contribute to
pavement marking visibility and crash potential. These factors may
include the roadway geometry, weather conditions, time of day,
ambient lighting, vehicle mixture, driver age, traffic density and
volume, traffic speeds, roadway functional classification, headlights,
type of pavement marking material, longitudinal gap between RPMs,
road surface bidirectional reflectivity characteristics, posted speed
limits, etc.
Create a comprehensive set of options that we could use to determine
the correlation between the visibility and safety impact of pavement
markings/RPMs, including key tasks, data collection and analysis
protocols, estimated budget, and schedule.
Identify the best option and generate a detailed work plan to carry out
the tasks associated with the proposed option with particular
emphasis on the analysis techniques such as meta-analysis. Also
conduct a preliminary cost/benefit analysis for pavement
markings/RPMs based on the findings.

Research Plan 17
Based on the findings of the proposed research option spelled out in
the work plan and the meta analysis, develop cost models, and lookup
tables for the aforementioned independent factors.
Development of a plan, and organization of meetings to communicate
the findings of the study to the agencies, and provide
recommendations, tools, and related procedures in determining the
best pavement-management strategies.
Development of a model performance-based specification, and a web
based documentation or application to support agencies with issues
related to pavement-management strategies.
Heavy emphasis on communications between members of the
research team and the NCHRP panel (through the NCHRP staff
officer) through technical memorandums, reports, and availability of
information on the web.

We feel that conducting additional field research, where pavement


marking/RPM reflectivities, configurations, and degradation are
systematically controlled, would be desirable but may be cost prohibitive. A
controlled field study would require a long time span on the order of at least
five years, and that is well beyond the projected scope suggested by the
RFP. We agree with the authors of the RFP in that we can use existing data
and advanced modeling and analysis techniques to obtain a fairly clear
picture of the cost effectiveness of pavement markings and RPMs and their
safety impact. A substantial body of research and a large volume of crash
data are available but no concerted effort was ever undertaken to
consolidate all that research and data into a coherent framework. The
proposed work will accomplish exactly that. Therefore, we prioritize the
consolidation of existing databases and findings of previous studies through
advanced techniques such as meta-analysis, and identification of missing
information, and strategizing a work plan to fill in the missing information.

The above listed key aspects of the work plan also parallels with another
research effort similar in nature. The OPL and the National Institute of
Standards and Technology (NIST) are currently in the process of developing
a work plan for field measurements of retroreflectance and color of
pavement markings under an ongoing NCHRP project (5-18, Color
Effectiveness of Yellow Pavement Markings). We are already receiving
invaluable information from various state agencies regarding the pavement
management and maintenance programs, and we believe that this
information provides us with a margin of advancement up-front. We have
developed state of the art electronic questionnaires using php scripting and
we could reuse much of the electronic automation that was developed for
those questionnaires. In the project NCHRP 5-18, we are specifying key
sites for field measurements of retroreflectance and color similar to what
we propose for the project 17-28. We believe that the measurements
obtained during the course of the former project may be significantly

18 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


helpful towards the objectives of this project. The tasks outlined in the
following sections describe our proposed methodology to achieve the goals
of this project without a further requirement for new field research.

3.3.3. Technical Approach

The work plan for this research effort utilizes a five-pronged approach as
follows:

Analyze information readily available from U.S. agencies, other


countries, and published research.
Determine the full extent of current knowledgebase regarding the
current state of pavement management strategies and their impacts on
safety.
Identify the gaps in the knowledgebase, and determine the most
suitable sites to obtain further information in the direction of filling
these gaps.
Conduct supplemental measurements and observations to determine
the current state of pavement markings at sample sites.
Obtain the information regarding the initial state of the markings at
those sites.
Compare the two states and the states in between by using the crash
databases.
Develop cost functions, models, and lookup tables.
Distribute the results.

The activities associated with each of these tasks are described in the
Work Plan section of this proposal. This technical approach is intended to
fully conform to project requirements set forth by NCHRP in the RFP.

3.3.4. Management Approach


The University of Iowa (UI) will serve as the sole contractor for this study.
The PI will be the main point of contact for all technical and most
administrative matters. The following management approach has been
developed in order to ensure that the research activities are congruent with
the project objectives and produce applicable research findings and/or
recommendations within the limits of the proposed schedule and budget.

A research team has been formed to provide the following benefits:


A broad base of expertise in traffic engineering, human factors,
public policy, statistics, material science, psychometrics, visibility
modeling for retroreflective materials, driver performance
evaluation, psychology, and survey design.
A strong conviction that research methodologies will provide

Research Plan 19
usable and implementable results. A strong link to practical
engineering.
Significant experience in researching many aspects of pavement
markings including:
- Pavement marking retroreflectivity, configuration, width, color,
wet vs. dry. Tom Schnell and Fuat Aktan conducted numerous
pavement marking research studies within the last 10 years [7]
[8] [9] [10] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]
[26].
- Pavement marking fabrication process,
- Pavement marking materials,
- U.S. transportation agency practices,
- Vehicle headlight performance.
The contractual and administrative aspects of the study will be
handled through the UI Division of Sponsored Programs.
The Principal Investigator will be responsible for all technical
activities of the research study.
Monthly and quarterly progress reports will provide a means of
monitoring the status of research activities and the budget.
The PI will place emphasis on maintaining communication at all
levels of the project. This contact includes:
- Frequent use of email to maintain communication at all levels.
The PI can be reached by email at thomas-schnell@uiowa.edu.
- Informal presentations on the status of the research to various
professional audiences that might have an interest in the
research, subject to the approval of the NCHRP staff
representative. Table 1 lists professional meetings that might be
considered for interim presentations during the course of the
research.

Table 1. Possible Venues to Present Research Progress for the Proposed


Effort

Date of Meeting
Organization and Meeting
2004 2005 2006
Earlier than
ATSSA Convention and Traffic Expo estimated project February 6-8
start date
CIE 26th Session June 7-11
January
TRB Conferences January 11-15 January 9-13
22-26
September
HFES Annual Meetings September 20-24
26-30
ITE Conference and Exhibit March 23-26, August 7-10 August 6-9

20 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


August 1-4
AASHTO Annual Meeting September 17-21
NTPEP Annual Meeting May 2-5

3.4. Research Team within the Task Context:


This section briefly introduces the research team members and their areas
of expertise as it relates to the identified outline of tasks given in Sections
3.3.2 (Description of the Work Plan) on Page 14 and 3.3.4 (Management
Approach) on Page 19. A more detailed section describing the capabilities
and expertise of the research team is given in Section 4.

Tom Schnell is the Principal Investigator (PI) of the research team, and
he assembled a team of experts with the necessary expertise, manpower,
and resources to effectively manage, conduct, and finalize the tasks
required for the successful conclusion of the proposed project. Dr. Thomas
Schnell is the Director of the Operator Performance Laboratory (OPL). He is
an expert in human factors and theoretical aspects of the human visual
system, pavement markings and retroreflectivity. Dr. Schnell has conducted
pavement marking research for more than a decade, and published many
papers related to pavement markings. He investigated virtually all aspects
of pavement marking visibility. He is also a renowned expert in the field of
driver visibility, driver eye scanning behavior, traffic sign legibility,
retroreflection and photometry. Over the years, he has lead the development
of the TarVIP model, and three Ohio University proprietary computer based
visibility models IRPE, LEGI, and PCVisi. Dr. Schnell has developed the
pavement marking visibility program CARVE [16][17][18][19]. He is the
chairman of the CIE (International Illumination Commission) Committee
TC4-38 (Road Signs) and he is a member of the Transportation Research
Board (TRB) Committee on Visibility. He is the author of over 30 journal
articles and more than 47 articles in conference proceedings.

Dr. Fuat Aktan, a research engineer and the head of the Ground
Transportation Research Branch of the Operator Performance Laboratory
(OPL). He is an expert on pavement marking/RPM visibility and modeling.
He developed the comprehensive modeling software TarVIP, a multi-purpose
tool that can predict the visibility distance of pavement markings and
markers and diffusing targets such as pedestrians as well as the legibility
distance of retroreflective signs . Fuat Aktan is a member of TRB
2

Committees A3C12 (Committee on Marking and Signing Materials), and

2Tarvip was in part implemented with FHWA funding under a subcontract to UI from
Virginia Tech. The model is being enhanced under another FHWA contract to evaluate the
roadway luminance induced by overhead luminaries. The TarVIP model is used by our
peers and practitioners for various studies with a particular focus on roadway object
visibility. TarVIP can be obtained free of charge upon request.

Research Plan 21
A3B02 (Committee on Vehicle User Characteristics). He has extensive
knowledge and modeling experience on retroreflectivitity of pavement
markings, road signs, diffusing targets, and headlamps. He is also a
member of HFES and CIE Committee TC 4-38 on road signs. The TarVIP
model will be an indispensable tool to convert the retroreflectivity measures
of the markings and RPMs into visibility performance. Dr. Aktan has 14
articles in journals and conference proceedings.

Dr. Peter Poolman is a Civil Engineer and an OPL post-doc research


associate. Dr. Poolman is a traffic engineer who has performed research in
the fields of driver behavior, traffic safety audits, accident analyses,
highway operations, road alignment and pavement testing over the past six
years.

Dr. Frank Schmidt is a Ralph Sheets Professor in the Department of


Management and Organization in the Tippie College of Business at the UI.
He is a renowned expert on meta-analysis, and he co-authored two books on
meta-analysis published in 1982 and 1990, and a third book to be published
in 2004.

Dr. David J. Forkenbrock is an expert on public policy, and he is the


director of the Public Policy Center (PPC) at the University of Iowa. He is
also the Director of Transportation Research Program at the PPC. Dr.
Forkenbrock is a professor in Urban & Regional Planning and in Civil &
Environmental Engineering Departments. His expertise is crucial in
determining the up-to-date cost figures of crashes, fatalities, and crash
related costs into quantitative terms applicable to an overall cost model.

Dr. James Stoner is another key member of the team with his traffic
engineering expertise. He is currently a professor in the Civil and
Environmental Engineering Department of the UI. He conducted several
studies with a focus on advanced simulation technologies, traffic control
procedures, driver information systems, automated highway systems, and
driving simulation, and travel demand modeling. Dr. Stoners expertise will
assist the team all traffic engineering related components of the project.

The research team will be assisted by other team members that


contribute expertise in existing pavement markings and methods of
evaluation, traffic engineering, graphic design, and questionnaire and
survey design. Among the assistants in this project are Adam Stegge,
Shaowei Yang, Yi-Ching Lee, Changbao Li, graduate students, and Carl
Richey, Research engineer. Carl is in charge of everything mechanical and
electrical at the OPL. He is an invaluable resource in building apparatus
and equipment. More information on Drs. Schnell, Poolman, Aktan,
Schmidt, Forkenbrock, and Stoner are presented in the Qualifications of the

22 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


Research Team section. Table 2 summarizes the areas of expertise of our
project team.

We have received the confirmation of support from Iowa DOT in the


form of a letter for collaboration, and for accessing the existing crash
databases and traffic related statistics with minimal restriction. Please refer
to the Section 11.4 for Support Letters.

Table 2. Proposed Project Staff and Demonstrated Areas of Expertise.

3.4.1. Task A (no corresponding NCHRP task number)


Developing the Project Web Site and File Sharing System:

This task will involve the administrative setup of the project


infrastructure. We will establish a password protected intranet web page
to share project related information between the team members. Access
will be limited to the personnel identified in this proposal. Another
password protected area will be reserved for NCHRP panel members in
order to access technical memoranda and project reports, if such access
is desired by the panel and approved by the NCHRP staff officer. The
password protected web site, restricted access shared network drive,
and user instructions will be located at:
http://opl.ecn.uiowa.edu/NCHRP17-28/.

Research Plan 23
Table 3. Overview of Tasks as Proposed and Relationship to Tasks

24 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


3.4.2. Task B (RFP Task 1)
Conduct Extensive Literature Review and Survey Transportation Agencies
and Sign Manufacturers:

Task B will provide the knowledge framework by conducting a


structured critical review and discussion of the relevant technical
literature according to an established process involving a group of
subject matter experts. The literature review will include the subject
matter including but not limited to the following areas:

i. Pavement marking/RPM types, characteristics, visibility,


reflectivity, agency pavement management strategies,
project/site specific pavement marking/RPM applications. OPL
already maintains substantial information on pavement marking
reflectivity and visibility.
ii. Pavement marking/RPM degradation characteristics (In most
cases, material degradation is not a linear function of time but
depends on traffic volume).
iii. Selected pavement marking performance measures (such as
reflectivity RL at 30m ASTM standard geometry), and the
correlation of these performance measures with visibility.
iv. Independent factors (i.e. the roadway geometry, weather
conditions, time of day, ambient lighting, vehicle mixture, driver
age, traffic density and volume, traffic speeds, roadway
functional classification, headlights, type of pavement marking
material, longitudinal gap between RPMs, road surface
bidirectional reflectivity characteristics, posted speed limits,
etc) that effect the safety impact of pavement marking/RPM
application.

The above list is not all-inclusive. In the review process, we will perform
a multi-faceted approach to identify the key literature components. Each
factor will be weighted according to subjective importance, as well as
experimental validity, applicability, and date of each literature source
will be evaluated. Concurrently, we will design and develop an online
survey to determine the current selection processes and related
specifications for pavement marking/RPM applications. As stated before,
we will re-use the electronic php scripts and automated data analysis
tools that we have developed for online questionnaires under earlier
projects for Iowa DOT [22] and under NCHRP 5-18. We will be very
mindful of the content of the earlier surveys to avoid duplication and
possible questionnaire burnout effects in the pool of respondents. The
survey will be deployed to obtain data from highway agencies (OPL
already maintains a state DOT contact database for pavement marking
applications), and other sources such as public/private-sector materials

Research Plan 25
testing laboratories, materials manufacturers and suppliers, and the
National Transportation Product Evaluation Program (NTPEP) for the
purpose of:
i. Understanding the current practices of pavement marking
purchase and application policies, guidelines, specifications, and
procedures.
ii. Determining the extent, to which the agencies incorporate
relevant research studies (internally or external) in their
policies, procedures, and selection criteria when determining
pavement marking/RPM application to promote safety.
iii. Whether agencies have specific sites where they implement
safety programs through the use of pavement markings/RPMs.
iv. Investigating the long term performance based specifications
in agency practices, and associated specifications and
guidelines.
v. Investigating the manufacturer practices and existing studies
in the direction of increasing the pavement marking or RPM
visibility.
vi. Investigating the manufacturer practices, studies, efforts,
measurement techniques, and criteria in determining the long
term performance of pavement markings and RPMs.
vii. Understanding the relationship between generic material
types and their respective dry and wet performance, as well as
degradation characteristics.

The surveys will be online at


http://opl.ecn.uiowa.edu/php/Surveys/NCHRP17-28/, as our previous
experience suggests much higher rates of turnout compared to mail-out
type surveys. No survey will be deployed or distributed prior to the
approval of the NCHRP panel.

The research team realizes the importance of the communication


established with the actual stakeholders that would be affected by the
findings of this research effort. During and after Task B, we will start
establishing contacts with organizations such as the ATSSA Pavement
Marking Division (PMD), AASHTO, FHWA, ITE, and state DOTs. The
final release of the findings will depend on the stakeholders needs and
requirements. Our efforts will also be towards two meeting sessions that
will be held at two of the possible venues listed in Table 1 on page 20.

3.4.3. Task C (RFP Task 2)


Review relevant practices, research findings, and other information
worldwide on the safety impact, performance measures, and cost-
effectiveness of pavement markings and markers:

26 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


This task will attend to the findings of the survey and literature review
issues in the light of key factors addressed in section 3.3.1 (Identification
of Key Issues) outlined on page 13. Based on the survey outcome, we will
investigate the possibility of determining 20 key sites where highway
agencies employ safety program initiatives involving pavement marking
and RPM implementation. We feel that identifying such sites and
obtaining retroreflectivity data under dry, wet, and continuous wetting
standard conditions at these sites is an effective approach in filling the
gaps of current knowledgebase regarding the pavement marking and
RPM cost effectiveness. It is very unlikely that one would be able to draw
meaningful conclusions from crash data alone. It seems to us that it is
absolutely essential to bridge the gap between crashes and material
performance and unfortunately, such performance data is not usually
included in crash reports.

We will also record unique site characteristics such as signing, traffic


patterns, etc. These sites will be the key locations in obtaining necessary
data to fill in the gaps and to provide linkage between earlier studies in
the literature for a more robust background required for the meta-
analysis process. The meta-analysis process is the cornerstone of Task G
(RFP Task 6), and will also be paralleled with the measurement efforts at
the key sites. The OPL is probably the worlds leading laboratory dealing
with pavement marking performance and we have the most
comprehensive list of visibility data and the most comprehensive bank of
tools to determine pavement marking visibility under dry, wet, and rainy
conditions for different material types [25][26]. With state-of-the art tools
such as the TarVIP model we will be able to establish crucial links
between retroreflectivity and visibility under different conditions for
different material types. The retroreflectivity information obtained from
the key sites will be utilized through the TarVIP model to determine the
visibility performance of the pavement markings and RPMs at these
sites.

Concurrently, we will start communicating the highway agencies that


maintain the crash databases, where the key sites are selected. The
formats for databases will be obtained, and crash database filtering
mechanisms will be developed as needed.

3.4.4. Task D (RFP Task 3)


Identify significant gaps in the understanding of the safety impact of
pavement markings and markers and the cost-effectiveness of current
practices:

The in-depth literature review conducted in Proposal Task B (RFP Task


1), and the outcome of Proposal Task C (RFP Task 2) will be used to

Research Plan 27
identify the directions where further information is required. The
research team will analyze the findings in the literature, and determine
whether the current pool of studies contain the following items:

- Type of pavement marking material


- Reflectivity/visibility of pavement marking/RPMs
- Configurations of the pavement markings/RPMs
- Roadway functional classification
- Weather condition
- Vehicle mix
- Traffic volume and density
- Driver characteristics (Age, vision, contrast sensitivity, etc)
- Vehicle speeds
- Vehicle headlamps (also a function of vehicle mixture)
- Ambient lighting conditions
- Pavement surface bi-directional reflectivity characteristics
(BDRF)
- Clear identification of a baseline condition and data acquisition
in more than one distinct point in time to assess the effect of
material degradation on safety measures.

The above list is not all-inclusive. More independent factors can be


added based on the literature review and surveys. Yet, if the studies in
the literature do not address all of the above factors (or if the ones that
address separate factors are all mutually exclusive), we believe that
more data may be required, and will be obtained through the key sites,
for successful achievement of the project objectives.

The research team will submit a memorandum to the NCHRP that


explains the gaps in the understanding of the safety impact of pavement
markings/RPMs, and further brainstorm for possible strategies to
effectively combine the pieces of information in the knowledgebase, as
well as alternative directions in obtaining further necessary data. The
memorandum will contain the key tasks, data collection and analysis
protocols, estimated budget, and schedule for each of the possible
strategies. We will also determine the most effective option within the
budget constraints and scope of the project. We propose to use data
driven methods involving meta-analysis, in-situ reflectivity
measurements, utilization of visibility modeling tools, and conversion of
crash related items into cost figures, which will be elaborated upon in
the upcoming task definitions. A controlled field study of crashes will not
be conducted.

28 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


3.4.5. Task E (RFP Task 4)
Prepare a detailed work plan for the option approved in Proposal Task D
(RFP Task 3):

This task will involve developing a work plan upon the approval of the
option proposed by the research team. We envision the work plan to
include the following tasks:
i. Determination of all independent factors that may influence driver
safety alongside the pavement marking/RPM reflectivity from a
traffic engineering point of view (The effect sizes each of these
factors will be established through the meta-analysis techniques
performed on the extensive literature review).
ii. Perform meta-analysis on the existing data to provide a holistic
analysis of the extensive literature findings. We think that meta-
analysis is an excellent tool to integrate findings from different
studies.
iii. Identify effect sizes for each independent factor, and the
shortcomings of the outcome of the meta-analysis.
iv. Perform retroreflectivity measurements with a portable
retroreflectometer according to ASTM standard practices E-1710
(dry condition), E-2177 (standard condition of wetness), and E-
2176 (standard condition of continuous wetting) at each of the key
sites determined in proposal Task 1, and document the levels of
each independent factor at each site.
v. Utilize TarVIP to obtain the visibility of pavement markings/RPMs
for the current and past state of the sites based on the
retroreflectivity data.
vi. Access the crash databases and implement the filtering strategies
established in Task 1 for each of these sites to determine the
current state of the safety impact for the calculated visibility.
vii. Obtain retroreflectivity figures for the same materials when they
were initially applied. We will try the following alternative
strategies to obtain this data (in the given order of preference):
a. Through the state agency records (there is a greater chance of
agencies having this information, because the sites will be
selected among specific safety program locations),
b. Through manufacturer/supplier data,
c. By requesting the state agency to measure the same material
next time it is applied according to the site-specific pavement
management programs,
d. Through new material data in TarVIP database.
viii. Utilize TarVIP to obtain the visibility of pavement markings/RPMs
at the initial state of the sites based on the initial retroreflectivity
data.
ix. Obtain pavement marking degradation factors as a function of time
(in the given order of preference):

Research Plan 29
a. Through agency records if such routine measurements had
been performed,
b. Through NTPEP data,
c. Literature,
d. Engineering estimates.
x. Determine the visibility of pavement markings/RPMs at different
points in time based on the material degradation functions for each
site.
xi. Correlate visibility and crash rates as they relate to the pavement
marking/RPM applications.
xii. Access the crash databases and determine the rate of crashes per
vehicle miles driven specifically due to pavement marking/RPM
visibility problems for current condition, initial condition, and the
conditions in between.
xiii. Determine the costs of these crashes to society via public policy
data.
xiv. Update the literature knowledgebase with this information, and
reiterate the meta-analysis.
xv. Obtain direct and indirect cost information from the state agencies
for the selected site pavement management programs (for
installation, maintenance, etc).
xvi. Develop cost functions for pavement marking/RPM visibility for
cost to the society and the costs obtained through agency cost
information from (xv).
xvii. Generate overall cost functions based on (xvi) as a function of
material retroreflectivity (which changes with the weather
conditions).

The above plan illustrates the preliminary approach of the research


team towards achieving the project objectives in an effective manner
congruent with the suggestions in the RFP. The action items associated
with each of the tasks outlined above may be improved during the
project execution to better suit the needs of the overall objectives and
the recommendations of the panel. However, the above methodology
constitutes the backbone of our approach in dealing with the complex
problem of integrating the existing data in the literature, while filling in
the gaps with making the best use of existing resources, without further
need of additional field evaluations. We are confident that our team will
offer the best possible strategies in integrating the past research,
compile the findings into meaningful terms, and establish realistic goals
towards developing new guidelines and specifications, as the team
incorporates renown experts in visibility, meta-analysis, public policy,
and traffic engineering fields. Our preliminary approach to the problem
is illustrated in Figure 2.

30 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


3.4.6. Task F (RFP Task 5)
Research Team and NCHRP Panel Meeting, Review of the Interim Report,
Revision of the Interim Report:

Within 9 months of the effective date of the contract, an interim report


of the findings of Task B (RFP Task 1) through Task E (RFP Task 4),
including the detailed work plan will be submitted to the project panel.
In the report, we will demonstrate a sound rationale for proceeding with
Phase II, and a candid assessment of its probability for success. The
research team will meet with the project panel approximately 1 month
later to obtain NCHRP approval to proceed with Phase II. The research
team understands that in case of an unsatisfactory rationale and
assessment, the project will be terminated at the conclusion of Phase I.
A revised interim report will be submitted with all the comments and
suggestions by the NCHRP properly addressed. The further tasks will
not be initiated without the approval of the panel.

3.4.7. Task G (RFP Task 6)


Execution of the Test Plan outlined in Task E (RFP Task 4), and the
development of correlation functions between the pavement marking
visibility performance and safety impact thereof, and cost function
development and optimization

The research team will conduct the subtasks in the approved work plan
as outlined in Task E (RFP Task 4) so as to:
i. Determine the correlation between the pavement marking/RPM
visibility and driver safety. The correlations will be determined for
various weather conditions and pavement marking/RPM and
roadway/pavement configurations.
ii. Translate the pavement marking/RPM visibility performance
shortfalls into the terms of crashes through the correlation
functions established in (i), and eventually to cost terms to the
society to generate cost functions.
iii. Optimize the visibility levels for different weather conditions and
generalize the functions for different climates (based on yearly
rainfall distributions) to achieve maximum cost effectiveness.
iv. Initialize lookup tables (in the form of matrices) and an electronic
database to utilize the findings of this task. We will seek panel
input, as well as the input from our contacts who will be the actual
stakeholders to further improve the lookup tables and the
electronic database to make them adaptable and functional for
practitioners to assist them in their pavement management
strategy policy decisions.

Research Plan 31
3.4.8. Task H (RFP Task 7)
Identification of the effect sizes of primary variables and the development of
a database and lookup matrices to assist practitioners in their decision
making process:

The independent factors, similar to those listed in Task D (RFP Task 3),
will be ranked based on the meta-analysis effect size suggestions for
each of the independent factors. We feel that the list given in Task D
(RFP Task 3) is rather extensive, but still far from being all inclusive.
The list will be updated during the in-depth literature review. Each
factor is not expected to affect the driver safety in a similar nature.
Therefore, we will establish criteria for including each independent
factor based on the effect sizes they impose on the safety
characteristics, and eventually to the cost figures. The research team is
fully aware of the fact that the findings of this research effort must be in
a simple yet effective form to assist the agencies in their policy making
decisions. To that end, we will have our communication lines open
throughout the project effort, and seek constant interaction and
feedback. The research team will therefore arrange a meeting with
practitioners at all levels (NCHRP Panel member(s) will also be asked to
participate). We propose to conduct this meeting at one of the venues
listed in Table 1 on page 20. The purpose of the meeting will be to
communicate our findings to the practitioners and stakeholders, and to
seek their inputs regarding implementation. We do not intend to develop
recommendations that would be infeasible. A 30 meter geometry
retroreflectometer may not be affordable for all practitioners to
3

measure the reflectivity of pavement markings and especially the RPMs


in all weather conditions, however simpler approaches may be
developed. We intend to generate a consensus on what type of a lookup
tool format (and possibly a simple tool that will interact with the
electronic database) will aid the practitioners at various levels the most.
The meeting will provide the research team with the direction of
recommendations and final deliverables.

3 One of the students at the OPL has developed a low-cost retroreflectometer for the Iowa
DOT. This retroreflectometer may hold some promise for DOT districts that cannot afford
expensive meters.

32 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


In-Depth Literature Review Surveys

Determine current
Determine Independent
practices in selecting
Factors that affect Select 20 Key sites where
visibility (AADT, pavement marking/ RPM
roadway/ vehicle/ driver Determine the gaps in the safety programs are being Investigate pavement
geometries, weather implemented through the use management strategies,
conditions, pavement knowledgebase guidelines, specifications
marking type, etc) of PM/ RPMs


INVESTIGATE INITIAL AND
CURRENT STATE OF THE KEY SITES

Measure Standard Retroreflectance and


obtain the levels of all independent
factors at the key sites
Determine current visibility using
Additional TarVIP


findings
Existing body through key Obtain current crash data
of Literature sites to link
Obtain initial standard retroreflectance
the gap and the levels of all independent
factors at the key sites, when program
was first implemented
Timeline

Determine initial visibility using


TarVIP
Obtain Initial Crash Data

Meta-Analysis

Convert safety/ crash data into cost


Identify the effect size of each independent factor, figures
determine threshold criteria for each factor, and
develop corelation functions between pavement Develop cost functions for crashes
marking/ RPM visibility and safety impacts thereof and fixed/ variable purchase and
installation costs, perform non-
linear optimization techniques

Develop cost-optimized selection specifications for


site-specific and climate specific pavement marking/
RPM applications

Figure 2. Research Teams Proposed Methodology in Interpreting the


Existing Body of Knowledge and Filling the Missing Links towards
the Achievement of the Project Objectives

3.4.9. Task I (RFP Task 8)


Developing guidelines for the general or project-specific selection of
pavement markings and markers on the basis of their safety impact and
cost-effectiveness:

This task will involve the development of guidelines (in collaboration


with the panel and practitioners) for general and project/site-specific
selection of pavement markings and markers to support safer and cost-
effective applications. The lookup tables (and the electronic database)

Research Plan 33
will be enhanced and modified to allow practitioners and agencies to
efficiently identify the cases of interest based on the reduced set of
independent factors in Task H (RFP Task 7), most likely through
illustrative examples (or via wizards to facilitate an electronic database
query), and determine the suggested material performance in the form
of standard retroreflectance (and possibly the configuration such as
spacing of RPMs). The guidelines will not specify a material by
manufacturer in particular, but will recommend in the lines of generic
material types with certain retroreflective performance. These
guidelines may ultimately lead to updates in relevant AASHTO, ITE,
TRB, and FHWA handbooks.

3.4.10. Task J (RFP Task 9)


Identify how the matrix and guidelines developed in Tasks 7 and 8 may be
integrated into agency pavement-marking/marker management systems and
into relevant AASHTO, ITE, TRB, and FHWA handbooks and manuals:

In addition to the survey outcome obtained in Task B (RFP Task 1), we


will perform an extensive search of current standards, practices, and
guidelines nationally and internationally to adopt and develop a feasible
and suitable methodology to transfer the research findings and lookup
tables into agency pavement marking/RPM management systems and
into relevant AASHTO, ITE, TRB, and FHWA handbooks. The initial steps
towards this goal will be taken in the practitioner meeting and in the two
selected venues. We will submit our methodology to the panel in the form
of a technical memorandum, and request the panel review and input.

If the panel agrees, the research team will also develop a web page
to communicate the findings, recommendations, and procedures to the
public. Emphasis will be given to convey this information in very simple
terms. After the NCHRP panel review, we will implement suggestions
and revisions as needed, and submit the deliverables to the NCHRP.

3.4.11. Task K (RFP Task 10)


Propose a model performance-based specification and associated criteria
for procurement of pavement markings/RPMs:

The research team will develop a model performance-based specification


and selected criteria along the lines outlined in Task H (RFP Task 7),
Task I (RFP Task 8), and Task J (RFP Task 9), and based on the cost-
optimized pavement marking/RPM reflectivity functions developed in
Task G (RFP Task 6). The proposed models will be communicated to the
panel via quarterly reports. These specifications will also be incorporated
into the final report.

34 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


3.4.12. Task L (RFP Task 11)
Development of the final report that summarizes the results, findings, and
conclusions of the research:

This task will focus on the completion of the final report and the
associated executive summary outlining the research. The final report
will incorporate the interim report explaining how the research was
conducted in detail, including the guidelines, model performance-based
specifications, lookup matrices, the electronic database, and the
developed tools for the practitioners to effectively utilize the findings of
the project in the form of appendices, and via the internet and/or CDs.

We will submit the final report for panel review, obtain the panel input,
and update the final report as suggested by the panel, prior to
resubmitting the updated version of the final report.
3.5. Anticipated Research Results

This research proposal has been developed to communicate the research


teams approach in creating recommendations and guidelines for
identification of the cost-optimized and safety-focused pavement
marking/RPM application practices, that can be adopted by state agencies
in assisting their pavement management programs. Those recommendations
and guidelines will be specifically designed to be readily adopted by the
relevant AASHTO, ITE, TRB, and FHWA handbooks and manuals.
The recommendations are expected to incorporate different factors
including the climate, AADT, vehicle mix, roadway geometry and functional
classification, pavement type, and ambient illumination conditions. As
researchers, we are interested and compelled to analyze the effects of as
many independent variables as we can. However, after we as researchers,
understand how something works, such as visibility performance and cost
tradeoffs in this case, we have to put a large effort to simplify and compile
the findings into a practical format. The PI and co-PI have conducted
several projects over more than a decade involving highway and rulemaking
agencies. The team incorporates the expertise to most effectively combine
the past research findings, as well as filling the required gaps in the
knowledgebase. We feel that we have the right mix of expertise in the
practical and theoretical domain to bring this project to a successful
conclusion. Throughout the proposal, we emphasized our current and
evolving connections with transportation practitioners as well as AASHTO,
ITE, and FHWA, from where we ultimately receive our most helpful
directions regarding the format of recommendations and assistance that
will be provided to the transportation agencies.

Research Plan 35
3.5.1. Implementation Plan

We intend to vigorously publicize our ongoing research progress (publish or


perish) and interim results using contemporary methods, including the
worldwide web, e-mail, listservs, but also through archival journals and our
own affiliations in professional societies and committees. Successful
implementation will also depend on early and close involvement of AASHTO,
FHWA, ITE, TRB, and the National Committee on Uniform Traffic Control
Devices (NCUTCD).

Our understanding of the subject matter suggests that we may have to


work with manufacturers and suppliers of pavement markings, as well as
rule-making agencies, throughout the project to ensure successful
completion of this project. We realize the need of close cooperation of the
stakeholders, to provide guidance in developing the guidelines, lookup table
matrices, and electronic database utilities.

We propose to work in close cooperation with state agencies that


implement traffic safety programs through the use of pavement
markings/RPMs, among which, we will identify key sites for field
measurements. We already have the support of Iowa DOT in the form of a
letter of support included in the Support Letters section on Page 139. Our
cooperative effort with the state agencies will ensure a thorough
understanding of the current pavement management strategies of different
agencies, their policies, and material selection processes. This way, we feel
more confident and comfortable in our efforts towards developing realistic
guidelines and performance-based specifications in assisting the agencies
with their site- or climate-specific pavement marking/RPM selection
processes.
3.6. Applicability of Results to Practice

Our results will be both scientifically sound and practically feasible


(possibly involving some trade-offs). We are quite sure that the outcome of
this project can be directly put to use towards establishment of guidelines
and possibly towards the rule making process.

36 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


Qualifications of the Research Team 37
4. QUALIFICATIONS OF THE RESEARCH TEAM
Rsums for the researchers on this project are contained in the Rsums
part of the Appendix section.

4.1. Principal Investigator


Thomas Schnell, University of Iowa: Dr. Schnell is a human factors engineer
who has performed research in numerous driver safety, traffic engineering,
and traffic control device evaluation projects over the past ten years. He has
twelve years of experience in human factors engineering, and six years
experience in industry. He has conducted many research studies in the field
of roadway delineation, pavement markings, color perception, driver
performance, workload assessment, and driver eye movement recording. A
few highlights are presented below:

Director of the Operator Performance Laboratory with a current research


budget of six active research projects funded by industry and
government in the field of human performance assessment. The OPL has
the required research infrastructure to successfully complete this
research
Expert in the field of visibility, color perception, legibility, retroreflection,
visibility modeling
Advisor to six graduate students and seven undergraduate students at
the OPL.
Supervisor of three full time OPL researchers, six graduate students,
seven undergraduate students, and one post doctoral researcher.
Energetic leader of a team of energetic engineers
Successful completion of research tasks:
1. Conducted many studies on pavement marking performance as
a function of retroreflectivity, color, width, material, application,
driver age, and many other relevant parameters.
2. Developed and/or refined a number of visibility models, traffic
flow models, and curve delineation models. These include (new
to old) TarVIP, PCVisi, CARVE, LEGI, and IRPE
3. Conducted several studies on color perception for pavement
markings, fluorescent and non fluorescent traffic sign sheeting
materials.
4. Studied the effects of tungsten halogen and HID headlamps on
driver eye fixation behavior.
5. Conducted numerous studies in driver comprehension, visibility
and legibility of traffic control devices
6. Conducted numerous driver eye scanning studies and developed
the necessary analysis tools.

38 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


7. Designed and implemented numerous instrumented vehicles to
conduct driver workload measurements and eye movement
research.
8. Developed electronic mail-out questionnaires and the necessary
analysis tools.
9. Developed a tool for conducting multi-level, multi-attribute
utility analyses.

Dr. Schnell teaches classes in Human Factors and Cognitive


Engineering, Quality Engineering and Quality Control (QFD). Dr. Schnell
also has considerable practical experience in interacting with engineers in
industry and government, and a solid knowledge of the current design and
manufacturing environment. He is versatile both academically and with a
hands-on implementation level. He has experience in guiding research to a
successful conclusion and leading development teams as a consultant in
industry. To date, Dr. Schnell has over 30 publications in journals and over
47 in conference proceedings. He serves on various committees:
Chairman of the Roadsign Technical Committee (TC-38) of the
International Committee on Illumination (CIE), Division 4, Lighting and
Signaling for Transport, February 1999 present.
Member of the International Committee on Illumination (CIE), Division 1,
Vision and Color, December 1998 present.
Member of the Transportation Research Board Simulation and
Measurement Committee A3B06, 1997 current.
Member of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 1992 present

Dr. Schnell wrote a dissertation on the legibility optimization of


uppercase alphanumeric text. His dissertation research finds application in
many areas but is particularly applicable in the traffic sign and license plate
legibility area.

As part of his Masters thesis, he developed a computer-based visibility


model called CARVE, which has subsequently formed the basis for a FHWA
grant. He received his Ph.D. from Ohio University, Athens, Ohio.

4.2. Co-PI
Dr. Fuat Aktan, University of Iowa: Dr. Aktan recently received his Ph.D.
degree from the University of Iowa in Industrial Engineering with a focus on
human factors field. He received his masters degree from the same
department in December 2000. His dissertation study investigated the
effects of headlamp glare induced by tungsten-halogen and high-intensity
gas discharge headlamps.

Dr. Aktan is an expert on roadway object visibility and modeling. He


developed the advanced roadway object visibility model TarVIP during his

Qualifications of the Research Team 39


past 5 years of research at the OPL. The TarVIP model was developed under
FHWA, NHTSA, and in part under NCHRP contracts. He has considerable
expertise in retroreflectivity, photometry, radiometry, and the capabilities of
the human visual system. He has conducted several research projects in
pavement marking visibility, headlamp glare and glare modeling, traffic sign
legibility, and driver eye-scan behavior. We believe that the TarVIP model
will be a key component of the proposed project in translating the standard
retroreflectivity measures into visibility performance domain. He also has
expertise on field measurements, and design and analysis of experiments.

He was the principal investigator in a recent project [26], which


investigated the performance of different pavement marking materials
under dry, wet, and rainy conditions in the field. He also co-investigates a
research study with Dr. Schnell that aims to incorporate an overhead
lighting module into the TarVIP model to determine the effects of overhead
lighting in driver visibility performance. This study is sponsored by the
FHWA.

Dr. Aktan also has substantial experience in online survey design and
implementation, database protocols and management, and software
development. He has 14 articles in journals and conference proceedings.

Dr. Aktan is a member of TRB Technical Committees A3C12


(Committee on Marking and Signing Materials), and A3B02 (Committee on
Vehicle User Characteristics). He is also a member of the CIE Technical
Committee on Road Signs (TC-38), and the Human Factors and Ergonomic
Society.
4.3. Other Research Team Members
Pieter Poolman, University of Iowa: Dr. Poolman is a traffic engineer who
has performed research in the fields of driver behavior, traffic safety audits,
accident analyses, highway operations, road alignment and pavement
testing over the past six years. While working at the Center of
Transportation Research of the University of Texas, he developed concepts
to improve operational flexibility of highway systems based on accident
analyses and cost/benefit studies. At the University of Stellenbosch, he
conducted pavement performance experiments through accelerated testing
and gained extensive experience in experimental design, multivariate
analysis, and mathematical modeling. Dr. Poolmans dissertation covered
many topics on human factors in driver behavior modeling, based on brain
functioning. From his study, insights on driver issues of visibility, risk
taking, decision-making processes, and automated tasks will be important
background information in establishing the safety impact of pavement
marking materials. As part of his Masters thesis, he also developed a new
standard for the design of both horizontal and vertical curves in highway

40 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


alignment. The study was based on safety aspects of both sight and
stopping distances and principles of microscopic simulation of traffic flow.

David J Forkenbrock, University of Iowa: Dr. Forkenbrock is director of the


University of Iowa Public Policy Center and professor of urban and regional
planning and civil and environmental engineering. His principal research
interest is the economic evaluation of transportation investments, including
those to improve safety. Recently, he completed an economic analysis of
highway safety policy issues for the U.S. Department of Transportation,
Office of the Secretary. He also recently served as principal investigator of a
NCHRP study that led to the publication of NCHRP Report 456, Guidebook
for Assessing the Social and Economic Effects of Transportation Projects,
which presents 52 practical methods for analyzing a wide variety of
economic impacts of different types of transportation projects. A separate
chapter is devoted to safety improvements. Professor Forkenbrock currently
serves as chair of the TRB Transportation Economics Committee (A1C01)
and is serving on two National Research Council special study committees
charged with making recommendations on transportation policy issues. He
chaired the steering committee for a joint TRB and FHWA conference on
benefit-cost analysis. He also prepared a research monograph for several
states on how to predict the economic return likely if various safety
enhancements were made to a given roadway. He has been the principal
investigator of 35 major studies, has published over 60 journal articles and
research monographs, and given over 100 major conference presentations.
Recently, he was honored by the National Academy of Sciences by being
selected as an honorary Lifetime Associate.

Frank Schmidt, University of Iowa: Dr. Frank Schmidt is a Ralph Sheets


Professor in the Department of Management and Organization in the Tippie
College of Business at the UI. He is a renowned expert on meta-analysis,
and he co-authored two books on meta-analysis published in 1982 and 1990,
and a third book to be published in 2004. He has over 150 journal articles
and book chapters on this subject, and he won numerous awards for his
work on the meta-analysis area. Professor Schmidt has received the
Distinguished Scientific Award for Contributions to Applied Psychology from
the American Psychological Association (joint with John Hunter), and the
Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award from the Society for
Industrial/Organizational Psychology (SIOP) (also jointly with John Hunter).
He has also received the Distinguished Career Award for Contributions to
Human Resources and the Distinguished Career Achievement Award for
Contributions to Research Methods, both from the Academy of
Management. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, the
American Psychological Society, and SIOP, and is former president of
Division 5 (Measurement, Statistics, & Evaluation) of APA. Dr. Schmidts
expertise will be extremely critical in evaluating the results of different

Qualifications of the Research Team 41


studies, and analyzing the technically unrelated research analyses and
literature via meta-analysis techniques.

James W. Stoner, University of Iowa: Dr Stoner is an Associate Professor in


the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, with a secondary
appointment in the Graduate Program in Urban and Regional Planning. He
is a traffic engineer with a very solid knowledge in pavement marking
performance and traffic simulation. He teaches classes in Traffic
Engineering, Real-Time Computer Simulation, Simulation Applications to
Transportation, and Introduction to Transportation Engineering. He served
as an Engineering Officer in the US Navy, and has worked for several
consulting firms, including Deleuw Cather and OTR, Inc. He is currently a
board member and vice-president of The Image Society, a society for
Computer Imaging researchers and professionals. He is a member of the
Transportation Research Board and the Institute for Transportation
Engineers. Dr. Stoner has research experience in driver performance
studies using advanced simulation technologies, traffic control procedures,
driver information systems, automated highway systems, and driving
simulation, and travel demand modeling.

4.4. Disclosure

No member of the research team has any organizational relationships,


property rights, or interests that could in any way jeopardize an objective
approach to the research efforts.

42 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


5. ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE RESEARCH TEAM
Our research team brings together a wealth of expertise and knowledge in
the areas that are relevant for successful completion of the proposed
research. The project team consists of two engineers and two psychologists.
Below we briefly summarize our most salient previous project involvement:

5.1. Thomas Schnell, Principal Investigator


Currently Active Projects as PI (complete list in resume):

2001-Present, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, NCHRP 4-


29, Selection of Materials to Optimize Sign Performance

2001-Present, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA),


HID Headlight Glare Research

2002-Present, Minnesota DOT, How to More Safely Accommodate


Pedestrians Through an Intersection with Free Flow Legs

2002-Present, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA),


Synthetic Vision Displays: Optimal Display Characteristics

2002-Present: National Cooperative Highway Research Program, NCHRP 5-


18: Color Effectiveness of Yellow Pavement Markings

2002-2003: Pavement Marking Visibility under Dry, Wet, and Rainy


Conditions in the Field, 3M (Co-PI)

2003 Present, Rockwell Collins, Laboratory Evaluation of a Flight Display


Using Sensor Fusion

2003 Present, Rockwell Collins, Aviation Weather Information Display


Study (AWIDS)

2003 Present, US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway


Administration, Development of a Fixed Roadway Lighting Module
for the Target Visibility Predictor (TarVIP) Computer Model

5.2. Fuat Aktan, OPL, University of Iowa


Fuat Aktan developed the advanced pavement marking and diffusing
surface detection, and road sign legibility software TarVIP. The TarVIP
model is the most comprehensive pavement marking visibility and road sign
legibility model in existence. The model is being used by our peers and
practitioners. He has over five years of experience in pavement marking
retroreflectivity and visibility. He also has expertise on conventional and
HID headlamps and headlamp modeling. He designed, developed,

Other Commitments 43
conducted and numerous human factors experiments at the OPL. His
published papers and conference proceedings are available upon request.

Currently Active Projects (complete list in resume):

2001-Present, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, NCHRP 4-


29, Selection of Materials to Optimize Sign Performance

2001-Present, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA),


HID Headlight Glare Research

2002-Present, Minnesota DOT, How to More Safely Accommodate


Pedestrians Through an Intersection with Free Flow Legs

2002-Present: National Cooperative Highway Research Program, NCHRP 5-


18: Color Effectiveness of Yellow Pavement Markings

2002-2003: Pavement Marking Visibility under Dry, Wet, and Rainy


Conditions in the Field, 3M (Co-PI)

2003 Present, US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway


Administration, Development of a Fixed Roadway Lighting Module
for the Target Visibility Predictor (TarVIP) Computer Model

5.3. Pieter Poolman, OPL, University of Iowa

1996 1997: National Research Foundation (South Africa) Project: A new


standard for the design of both horizontal and vertical curves in
highway alignment is developed. The study was based on safety
aspects of both sight and stopping distances and principles of
microscopic simulation of traffic flow.

1998 1999: Texas Department of Transportation Research Project: A set of


concepts to improve operational flexibility of highway systems are
developed, based on accident analyses and cost/benefit studies.

2000 2002: Texas Department of Transportation/ Alabama Department of


Transportation Research Project: Pavement performance experiments
based on accelerated testing, multivariate analysis, and mathematical
modeling are conducted.

1999 2002: National Research Foundation (South Africa) Project:


Investigation into the application of novel strategies to model driver
behavior is conducted.

44 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


2003 Present: National Research Foundation (South Africa) Project:
Application of principles on brain imaging and modeling to probe the
cognitive and emotional processes of drivers.

6. OTHER COMMITMENTS

6.1. Thomas Schnell, Principal Investigator


Beginning March 2004 for 36 months, Dr. Schnell is budgeted for 15% of his
time for the proposed project. His other commitments during this time
frame are as follows:

25 % as assistant professor in the Department of Industrial


Engineering
20% NCHRP 4-29 (This project will be finalized by February of 2004,
thereby freeing the stated 20% time commitment)
5% NHTSA, HID Headlight Glare Research
5% Minnesota DOT
14% NCHRP 5-18
1% 3M
5% US Department of Transportation
5% Rockwell Collins
5% NASA

6.2. Fuat Aktan, Co-PI


Beginning March of 2004, for 36 months, Fuat Aktan will commit 30% of his
time on this research project. His other commitments as of now are as
follows:

- 25% NCHRP 4-29 Selection of Materials to Optimize Sign


Performance (This project is estimated to be finalized by
February of 2004, thereby freeing the 25% time commitment by
the estimated start date of this project)
- 25% FHWA Development of an Overhead Luminaire Module in
TarVIP
- 15% NCHRP 5-18 Color Effectiveness of Yellow Pavement
Markings
- 5% for TarVIP model development for Virginia Tech,
Enhancement of Night Visibility, Development of a Nighttime
Visibility Computer Model

Other Commitments 45
6.3. Pieter Poolman, Researcher
10% Minnesota DOT
15% NCHRP 5-18

6.4. Frank Schmidt, Researcher


50% as Professor in the Department of Management and
Organization in the Tippie College of Business
25% Consultant to U.S. Army Research Institute, 2003.

6.5. James Stoner, Researcher

25% as associate professor in the Department of Civil Engineering


25% as principal investigator in various projects at the Public Policy
Center, University of Iowa

6.6. David Forkenbrock, Researcher

25% as Professor in the Department of Civil Engineering, Urban and


Regional Planning
15% NCHRP, Methods for Environmental Justice Assessment
15% US DOT, A New Approach to Assessing Road User Charges

46 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


7. EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES

7.1. University of Iowa


The University of Iowa is one of three institutions governed by the Iowa
Board of Regents. The University has excellent research support facilities.
We are proud to be an institution whose top priorities are high-quality
education, world-class research, and deeply committed service. For over
150 years, we have been educating young people who have made positive
impacts in their communities--within Iowa and throughout the world.
Preparing our students for lives of cultural richness and good citizenship
are also important to our educational mission. Our graduate and
professional programs offer cutting-edge training in over 100 areas, such as
engineering, medicine, dentistry, law, education, business, the social
sciences, the physical and biological sciences, and the arts and humanities.
We don't even let the confines of the earth stop us! We have some of the
most advanced space research anywhere happening right here in Iowa City.

7.2. The College of Engineering, University of Iowa


The College of Engineering is one of ten Colleges that comprise The
University of Iowa. With educational courses dating back over 100 years,
the College today has an enrollment of about 1,600 students, 1,200 of whom
are undergraduates. About 70% of undergraduate enrollment comes from
the state of Iowa, with another 21% attending from contiguous states. The
College of Engineering excels nationally and internationally in several
specialty and interdisciplinary research areas. Students work very closely
with faculty on computer-aided design and simulation, human factors
research, hydraulics, environmental solutions, and biomedical research,
among many other fascinating areas. The college offers a state of the art
engineering research prototyping workshop that will be useful for designing
and building the equipment needed for the proposed field research.

7.3. The Operator Performance Laboratory


Professor Thomas Schnell directs the Operator Performance Laboratory in
the Center for Computer-Aided Design (CCAD) at the University of Iowa.
The lab conducts research in a number of areas of surface and air
transportation. Core areas of research include driver visibility and legibility,
workload and stress assessment, physiological measurement, pilot and
driver performance, display design and optimization, synthetic vision,
airborne crew performance research, traffic flow modeling, eye movement
measures, crew resource management research such as effective
communication for new team-members and decision-making during high
workload periods. The OPL has two divisions, one for ground transportation
research and one for air transportation research

Time Requirements 47
Surface Transportation Research, Fuat Aktan, Research Engineer

Current ground transportation projects include:

NCHRP 4-29, Selection of Materials to Optimize Sign Performance


(NCHRP)
NCHRP 5-18, Color Effectiveness of Yellow Pavement Markings
Headlight Glare Research (NHTSA)
Pedestrian Safety in Slip Lanes (MN DOT)
US DOT, FHWA TarVip Computer Model, Fixed Roadway Lighting
Module

Surface Transportation Research Facilities:

Booth with D45, D65, and Illuminant A illumination for color


comparison research
Heated and cooled space (4500 sq ft) in building H at the Iowa City
Airport, OPL area to work on Instrumented cars and aircraft
Electronics and mechanical prototyping shops (Carlton Richey, OPL
Research Engineer)
Dark Tunnel for Display legibility Research
Laboratory space in Seamans Center and Engineering Research
Facility

Simulators:
One share in a KQ Corp. fixed base, one channel driving simulator
operated by the Cognitive Systems Laboratory (CSL) under leadership
of Dr. John D. Lee.

Vehicles:
One half share in a 1996 Ford Taurus Instrumented car, operated by
the OPL under leadership of Tom Schnell and Fuat Aktan
1994 Dodge Minivan for crew transport

Other Equipment:

48 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


Hand held photometers and lux meters
Non-linear video editing systems
Computers, printers and other office support
Cambridge Research Systems Visual Stimulus generator and display.
Three complete IScan eye movement systems
Biopac Physiological Assessment Equipment (for Workload)

Aviation Human Factors Research, Frank Gutierrez, Research


Engineer

Current projects include:


NASA), Synthetic Vision Displays: Optimal Display Characteristics
Rockwell Collins, Laboratory Evaluation of a Flight Display Using
Sensor Fusion
Rockwell Collins, Aviation Weather Information Display Study
(AWIDS)

Aviation Research Facilities:


Research facility at KIOW, heated hangar, office space, aircraft,
General Aviation Flight Simulator, 737-800 Flight Simulator
Itemized Budget 49
Flight laboratory at the Engineering Research Facility, University of
Iowa.

Simulators:
Generic fixed-base wide-body (PC based 777 mockup) with functional
HDD and 140 photo-realistic forward field of view.
Fixed-base F15-E with functional HUD and infinity focus visual system
using collimated displays.
Fixed-base 737-800, with complete set of controls and displays.
Fixed base General Aviation

General Aviation Aircraft Available for Use:


Beech B-58 Baron
Bonanza F-35
Cessna 0-2A (under procurement from USAF)

Other Equipment:
Collimated Infinity-Focus Display Systems including a HUD
Biopac Physiological Assessment Equipment (for airborne workload
assessment)

50 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


Figure 3. Single Channel Fixed Base Hyperion Driving Simulator at the OPL

F-15 737-800 Full Flight deck

Generic Wide Body General Aviation


Figure 4. Flight Simulators at the OPL

A test road has been made available to the OPL by the Iowa Department
of Transportation. The test road (see Figure 5) is open to public traffic but
has an extremely small traffic volume. The road is 10 miles long, includes

Itemized Budget 51
horizontal and vertical curves, and long tangent level sections. The road can
be used to evaluate the effectiveness of traffic control devices. Removable
sign posts are an integral part of the test road to evaluate traffic signs
during daytime and at night.

A booth is available to conduct controlled visibility and color perception


experiments under highly controlled illumination conditions (see Figure 6).

Figure 5. Designated Traffic Control Device Test Road (G 26) Made


Available to OPL by the Iowa Department of Transportation

52 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


Figure 6. Photometrics and Colorimetrics Booth with D65, Illuminant A,
High Pressure and Low Pressure Sodium Lamp Illumination at the
OPL.
Three state of the art instrumented vehicles are available at the OPL.
One vehicle is a 1996 Ford Taurus LX Sedan. The vehicle is equipped with
six video cameras, a static forward looking scene camera, two lane tracking
cameras in both outside rearview mirrors, a foot pedal camera, a pupil
camera, and a head mounted scene camera (when head mounted system
used). Figure 7c shows the experimenter workstation situated on the
passenger side rear seat. All functions that can be accomplished with our
instrumented vehicle can be easily accessed from the comfortable
experimenter seating position in the rear driver side seat. The instrumented
car contains two computers, one for eye movement recording, and one for
vehicle dynamics acquisition and data storage. Both computers can be
operated from one keyboard and one trackball using an A-B switch. The
composite video image that is recorded on a digital MiniDV recorder is also
shown on a 9 black and white monitor. Figure 7d shows a view of the entire
instrumented vehicle.

a. Panel Mounted Mini Pan-Tilt Unit may be used b. Close-up Look at the
Mini Pan-Tilt Unit
instead of Ball Cap Mounted Optics

Itemized Budget 53
c. Experimenter Workstation on Rear Passenger Side d. Overall View of the
Instrumented Vehicle

Figure 7. Instrumented Vehicle Developed and Implemented by the


Operator Performance Laboratory (OPL).
OPL also has a dark tunnel shown in Figure 8, located in the
Basement of the Chemistry Building at the University of Iowa. The dark
tunnel is used to conduct nighttime visibility and legibility studies. The
ambient illumination level can be lowered to simulate very dark conditions.
We use a specially calibrated Visual Stimulus Generator (VSG) to display
any stimulus within the gamut of the display. The VSG software allows us to
display a stimulus with certain luminance, shape and chromaticity. A recent
legibility threshold contrast experiment was conducted in the OPL dark
tunnel with the VSG system using a clever two-projector back projection
approach that can generate very high luminances and contrasts. A traffic
sign stimulus seen against a busy city background is shown in Figure 9.

54 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


3M High Gain Rear Projection Screen

64 ft. Runway Marked at ft. Intervals

Figure 8. OPL Dark Tunnel (illuminated condition).

Figure 9. A Typical Traffic Sign Stimulus Seen in Different Letter Height


Configurations against a City Background with High Visual
Complexity.

For more information on the Operator Performance Laboratory, please visit


us on the Web at http://opl.ecn.uiowa.edu. We have some exciting
information at that site and we are very proud of the work we conduct at
the OPL.

Itemized Budget 55
8. TIME REQUIREMENTS

Requested Starting Date: March 2004


Proposed Completion Date: March 2007
Proposed Duration: 36 Months, including 3 months for NCHRP review of
the final report.

We are prepared to meet this time frame following the timeline presented
below.
Table 4. Gantt Chart of the Proposed Project NCHRP 17-28.

56 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


Time requirements in this proposal were estimated and summed up in a
specially designed spreadsheet using a very fine resolution of individual
subtasks for each member of the project team within each one of the project
tasks. This spreadsheet is very large and has not been reproduced in this
proposal. However, the spreadsheet is available to the panel upon request.
Thanks to this detailed estimation method, we are confident that the
required efforts given in the time line and budget are very close to what we
will actually incur during the study. We are confident that we can complete
the study as proposed with the resources specified in our budget.

Itemized Budget 57
9. ITEMIZED BUDGET

Table 5. Itemized Budget, University of Iowa, Phase I

Itemized Budget 59
Table 6. Itemized Budget, University of Iowa, Phase II

Itemized
60 Budget
Table 7. Level of Effort by Task (Phase I)

Itemized Budget 61
Table 8. Level of Effort by Task (Phase II)

62 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


10.COOPERATIVE FEATURES

We have a very good working relationship with Tom Welch from the Iowa
DOT. He is the State Transportation Safety Engineer and is heavily involved
in work aimed at improving the traffic environment. We have made Tom
Welch aware of the fact that we are proposing on NCHRP 17-28 and we
have obtained a letter of collaboration from him. Through Tom Welch, we
will be able to gain access to practitioners in the field, not just in the State
of Iowa, but in other states as well through his network of connections. Tom
will also be instrumental in providing support in terms of crash data and
engineering data.

All letters of support are found in the Support Letters section of the
Appendix at the very end of this proposal, starting on page 139.

Cooperative Features 63
64 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal
11.APPENDIX

11.1. Background Information

There is a relative small number of individuals in the United States that


have a thorough understanding of the various issues that affect pavement
marking and RPM visibility under various weather conditions,
driver/vehicle/headlamp geometries, headlamp characteristics, pavement
surface types, and how those factors are addressed by transportation
agencies. This section of the proposal is intended to demonstrate the
research teams depth of theoretical and practical knowledge of pavement
markings, pavement marking/RPM visibility, vehicle headlights, the effect of
weather conditions, and various studies that involve pavement marking and
RPM applications as they apply to driver safety and cost effectiveness. This
presentation of information is not intended to be all-inclusive.

11.1.1. History of Pavement Markings


The first practice of lane marking use dates back to 1911 or 1912, just
outside of an entrance park where many collisions were reported [27].
During the twentieth century, the national standards for traffic control
devices continuously evolved. The document for these national standards is
compiled into a manual known as the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control
Devices (MUTCD). The evolution of US traffic control device standards is
summarized in Table 9.

Table 9. Evolution of U.S. Traffic Control Device Standards. Adapted from


[28].

Appendix 65
11.1.2. Pavement Marking Retroreflectivity

Generally speaking, there are three types of reflection. Specular (mirror)


reflection, diffuse reflection, and retroreflection. Diffuse reflection is
defined as the process of reflection by which the incident flux is re-directed
over a range of reflection. Figure 10(a) illustrates the diffuse reflection
pattern. Specular (mirror) reflection is defined as the process by which
incident flux is redirected by the specular angle. Figure 10(b) illustrates the
specular reflection of light. Ideal retroreflection is defined as the process of
reflection of light in a direction close to that at which it is incident
regardless of the angle of incidence. Technically, an ideal retroreflector will
attempt to redirect the light exactly back to the headlamps. However, as
indicted in Figure 10(c), in a real retroreflector the light returns within a
cone of retroreflection rather than along a single beam. The observer eyes
in an automobile geometry are usually well within this cone.

Incoming Light
Beam C

Diffused Light

a. Diffuse Reflection

Reflected Light
Incoming Light Beam
Beam

b. Specular Reflection

66 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


In c o m in g L ig h t
B eam

R e tr o r e fle c te d C
L ig h t

c. Retroreflection
Figure 10. The Three Types of Light Reflection

11.1.3. Pavement Marking Visibility


Schnell conducted several studies within the last 10 year period [8][9]
[10][15][16][17][18][19] [20][21][22][23][24][25][29] investigating various
aspects of pavement marking visibility and reflectivity.

Schnell investigated the wet weather visibility of pavement markings


[25][29]. The objective of this research was to determine the nighttime
visibility of three types of pavement markings: the patterned tape, the wet
reflective tape, and the flat tape with regard to three types of weather
conditions: dry conditions, wet conditions (just after rainfall), and
continuous wet conditions (ongoing 1/hr rainfall) through analyses of
detection distances and fixation distances. This research was sponsored by
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. The
experiment was conducted at the 3M Transportation Center in Cottage
Grove, MN. This facility features a wet section of simulated rainfall allowing
for 1/hr of stimulated rain. It was hypothesized that the wet reflective tape
(3M 750) would be the material providing the longest detection distances in
dry, wet, and continuous wet conditions. It was hypothesized that the flat
tape would be the material providing the shortest detection distances.
Eleven female and 7 male participants, ranging in age from 55 to 74 years,
were involved in this study. The participants approached a gap in the
pavement markings in the experiment vehicle, and they were asked to state
the earliest point when they were able to see the end of the pavement
markings. Results from the detection distance analysis show that visual
performance was the best with the wet reflective tape, followed by the
patterned tape and then the flat tape. As for the three weather conditions,
the detection distances were longest with dry conditions, followed by wet
conditions and then continuous wet conditions. In the fixation distance
analysis, the fixation distances were longest with the wet reflective tape
followed by the patterned tape, and then the flat tape. As for weather
conditions, the fixation distances were longest with wet conditions, followed
by continuous wet conditions and then dry conditions. Further analyses
Appendix 67
included determining a reduction factor in detection distance that accounts
for the diminished visibility under continuous wet and wet weather
conditions versus dry weather conditions. In addition, this reduction factor
along with retroreflectance matrices of all materials has been incorporated
into the TarVIP computer model. The final report is available upon request.

Aktan also investigated the wet weather visibility of pavement markings


[26]. The nighttime visibility of three types of pavement markings, a large-
beaded permanent pavement marking, and two types of patterned
pavement marking tapes, one with high-index beads, and another with
mixed-high index beads were evaluated under dry, wet (just after rainfall),
and simulated rain conditions (ongoing 1/hr rainfall). The dependent
measures were the detection distance, and the pavement marking
retroreflectance. The research was sponsored by 3M Company. The
experiment was conducted at the 3M Transportation Research Center in
Cottage Grove, MN. This facility features a level and straight roadway
section where 1/hr rainfall can be simulated. Eighteen (18) subjects
between the ages of 55 and 75 years participated in the study. The
participants drove an experimental vehicle at roadway test sections with the
pavement marking treatments. The task of the participants was to state the
earliest point when they were able to see the end of the pavement
markings. The retroreflectance of each pavement marking material was also
measured with three handheld retroreflectometers under the three weather
conditions according to ASTM E-1710 (dry), ASTM E-2177 (wet recovery),
and ASTM E-2176 (continuous wetting). In terms of end detection distances,
the patterned tape with mixed-high index beads performed best under all of
the three weather conditions. The flat permanent markings with large beads
performed better than the patterned tape with high-index beads only under
the dry conditions. The detection distances seem to strongly correlate with
the standard retroreflectances, only if the retroreflectance data from
corresponding test method is used. The obtained correlation between the
visibility distances and the retroreflectivities measured at the corresponding
ASTM standard is given in Figure 11.

68 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


Figure 11. The Correlation between the Average Detection Distances under
the Three Weather Conditions and the Measured Retroreflectance
According to the Corresponding ASTM Test Method.

Schnell and Ohme studied the visibility benefits of wider pavement


markings and the effects of wear due to traffic and elements [12]. The older
population was hypothesized to benefit from wider pavement markings
especially at nighttime driving conditions. Figure 12 shows the
retroreflectivity coefficients for 30m ASTM standard geometry measured
under dry and wet conditions for pavement markings of the same type
obtained in this study. Figure 13 illustrates the measured coefficient of
retroreflectance for the pavement for dry and wet conditions, at the same
test site.

Zwahlen and Schnell et al. investigated the influence of pavement


marking angular systems on pavement marking visibility by means of
visibility models [15]. They used the Ohio University proprietary model
CARVE [16][17][18][19] developed by Schnell, to analyze the effects of
different angular systems.

Appendix 69
Zwahlen and Schnell [30] investigated the visibility of new pavement
markings at night under low beam illumination. Three independent field
studies were conducted. First study was conducted to obtain exploratory
pavement marking nighttime visibility field data for detecting the begin and
end of a continuous pavement marking line as a function of line width,
material color, and lateral position of the line. The results of the first study
was used primarily in the development of the pavement marking visibility
model CARVE for continuous lines. Study two was conducted to obtain
exploratory pavement marking nighttime visibility data under low-beam
conditions to determine the visibility distance to detect the onset of a left or
a right curve with a 244 meter (800-ft) radius along a tangent section
marked with a continuous white edge line placed at approximately 1.83
meter (6-ft) to the right of the car as a function of the line width. The
objective of the third study was to obtain the nighttime average detection
distances under low-beam illumination conditions for the begin and end of
various yellow centerline pavement marking tape configurations using
various widths.

100% White Edge Line, Dry,


Average= 299.9 mcd/m2/lx,
90% Stdev= 82.2 mcd/m2/lx, N=
80% 124 measurements
Cumulative Percentage [%]

White Edge Line, Wet,


70% Wet measurements Average= 38.5 mcd/m2/lx,
60% conducted with Stdev= 30.8 mcd/m2/lx, N=
recovery method, 10L 124 measurements
50% water, 0.5m drop height,
40% recover for 60 seconds

30%
20%
10%
0%
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
2
RL [mcd/m /lx] at Mirolux 30m Geometry

a. Normal White Paint and Beads, Wet vs. Dry

70 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


Yellow Center Line, Dry,
100% Average= 193.6 mcd/m2/lx,
90% Stdev= 61.5 mcd/m2/lx, N=
62 measurements
80%

Cumulative Percentage [%]


Yellow Center Line, Wet,
70% Average= 31.6 mcd/m2/lx,
60% Stdev= 25.7 mcd/m2/lx, N=
62 measurements
50%
40% Wet measurements
30% conducted with
recovery method, 10L
20% water, 0.5m drop height,
10% recover for 60 seconds
0%
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
2
RL [mcd/m /lx] at Mirolux 30m Geometry

b. Normal Yellow Paint and Beads, Wet vs. Dry


Figure 12. Cumulative Distribution of the Coefficient of Retro-Reflection on
Pavement Markings.

Note: Figure adapted from [12]

Pavement (Concrete), Dry,


100% Average= 23.5 mcd/m2/lx,
90% Stdev= 11.5 mcd/m2/lx, N=
62 measurements
80%
Cumulative Percentage [%]

Pavement (Concrete), Wet,


70% Average= 5.8 mcd/m2/lx,
60% Stdev= 8.5 mcd/m2/lx, N=
50% 62 measurements
40% Wet measurements
30% conducted with
recovery method, 10L
20%
water, 0.5m drop height,
10% recover for 60 seconds
0%
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
2
RL [mcd/m /lx] at Mirolux 30m Geometry

Figure 13. Cumulative Distribution of the Coefficient of Retro-Reflectivity


on Concrete Pavement.

Note: Figure adapted from [12].

Schnell developed the Ohio University proprietary pavement marking


visibility distance prediction model CARVE [16][17][18][19]. CARVE model
uses an extensive pavement marking retroreflectivity database and human

Appendix 71
performance module to assess the pavement marking detection distances
under various conditions.

Zwahlen and Schnell investigated driver-headlamp dimensions, driver


characteristics and vehicle environmental factors in pavement marking
visibility distance calculations [20].

Zwahlen and Schnell studied the evaluation of temporary pavement


markings for resurfacing zones [21]. This study was sponsored by Ohio DOT.

Schnell et al. investigated the eye scanning behavior of drivers as a


function of pavement marking retroreflectivity [23]. They found that the
fixations distances tend to increase by increasing retroreflectivity of
pavement markings during nighttime driving conditions.

Zwahlen and Schnell also investigated the driver eye-scanning


behaviors as a function of pavement marking configuration [24].

Schnell also studied the legibility distances and peripheral color


perception for fluorescent traffic signs [31].

Aktan developed the advanced pavement marking visibility model


TarVIP [7][8][9][10], for conventional and UV activated pavement marking
visibility observed under conventional and UV headlamp illumination. The
model was developed under FHWA sponsorship for Virginia Tech. The
TarVIP model is being updated with additional capabilities continuously for
the last three years and is available upon request. TarVIP model is currently
being enhanced to account for overhead luminaire luminance module,
functioning to calculate the observed pavement surface luminances for
various pavement surface bi-directional reflectivities. In addition to the
pavement marking visibility, TarVIP model features sign legibility and
diffusing target visibility modules, which can be used in conjunction with
the oncoming headlamp glare and fog veiling luminance modules.

Figure 14 and Figure 15 illustrate the coordinate systems and


representative angles and vectors used in TarVIP. Figure 19 illustrates the
entrance and observation angles for a typical right lane pavement marking,
a left side driver, and for the right vehicle headlamp. TarVIP does not have a
limit in terms of number of headlamps and their respective locations.

72 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


Figure 14. Geometric Representation of Automobile Headlamp Geometry.

D r i v e r 's e y e l o c a t i o n r e l a t i v e
Y to c a r o r ig i n Z
Headlamp Z

E ye
p o s it io n

H e a d la m p Y D r i v e r 's e y e l o c a ti o n r e l a tiv e to c a r o r i g in Y

C ar
Z X
O r ig in

Figure 15. Car Origin and the Car Orientation Vectors.

Appendix 73
O b s e r v a ti o n
A x is

E n tr a n c e
A n g le ( E A )

Ill u m i n a t i o n
A x is

O b s e r v a ti o n
A n g le ( O A ) P O I
Figure 16. Entrance and Observation Angles for the Passenger Side
Headlamp.

The visibility of pavement markings depends on both the pavement


marking and the immediate pavement surface luminances. Therefore,
pavement marking detection cannot be decoupled from the pavement
surface illumination and reflectance characteristics. Specifying a luminance
or a minimum retroreflectance for a pavement marking stripe is not solely
adequate in answering the visibility. There are numerous factors that needs
to considered simultaneously, such as the windshield transmission,
atmospheric transmissivity and weather conditions, driver-roadway-
headlamp geometry, headlamp spatial beam patterns and vertical and
horizontal headlamp misaim, pavement marking color, pavement surface
reflectivity characteristics, ambient lighting conditions, adaptation
luminance, driver age, and so on. An advanced model such as TarVIP, which
takes numerous such independent factors, is essential in inferential
decision-making about pavement marking and RPM visibility. TarVIP model
currently does not calculate RPM visibility, however, RPMs can be modeled
using the traffic sign module. TarVIP features the flexibility of sign rotation
and tilt, with which, certain angularity can be achieved, and the resulting
luminous intensity can be calculated for RPMs.

It is also important to remember that RPMs are modeled slightly


differently than other relatively bigger size reflectors, due to their smaller
sizes. They are treated as point sources, and their visibility is determined
using a point-source detection threshold database, such as those given by
Blackwell [32][33] and others [34][35].

74 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


Schnell and Merchant investigated the color regions for 13 standard US
highway sign colors [36]. This study was carried out using 100 surface color
chips. Ninety of those chips were selected uniformly from the 1976 UCS so
that the sample was evenly spaced from a perceptual point of view. An
additional 10 colors were cut out from common US traffic sign sheeting
materials. A total of twenty young subjects (10 males, 10 females) were
used in this study. All subjects had a normal visual acuity and showed no
color deficiencies. The color chips were shown under two lighting
conditions, D65 for the daytime and Illuminant A for the nighttime. The
study was carried out in the OPL color booth. For each presentation, the
subjects were asked to categorize the color chip into one of thirteen color
categories as specified by the MUTCD. Furthermore, after a given color
chip was categorized, the subjects were asked to rate the adequacy of this
color chip in being a representative of the color category the subject had
just selected. For example, a subject may have been torn between two
neighboring color categories such as yellow and orange, and finally
reluctantly selected the orange category. The rating factor could then be
used by the subject to express that his or her choice was forced, and that
the chip was not a good representative of the orange color category.

For each of the 100 surface colors, they obtained the probability that
a color was categorized into a given color category. For each of the thirteen
color categories, iso-percentage distribution curves (generated with Table
Curve 3D 3.0 by SPSS Science Software) were generated, showing the
percentage correctly identified. They indicate that the present US color
boxes appear to be too large to appropriately account for the absolute
human color classification performance. They mention the need for
additional research to establish more appropriate color boxes that are
based on human performance rather than on available sign sheeting
materials.

All of the aforementioned resources are available from the OPL upon
request of the NCHRP panel members.

11.1.4. Vehicle Headlamps

Automobile headlamps are quite often the only source of illumination of


pavement markings at night. The perceived color of pavement markings is a
function of the incident lights spectral power distribution (SPD) and the
responsivity of the surface. In todays traffic, the variety of headlamps is
constantly increasing as new types of headlamps are introduced into the
market. There is an increasing use of HID headlamps with various types of
optics. The OPL extends its area of expertise with a recently completed
research effort addressing the HID glare sponsored by NHTSA. The HID

Appendix 75
illumination is provided with a xenon arc, which provides light in higher
color temperatures compared to TH headlamps.

In the past, the number of headlamp types on the market was fairly
small. The majority of the cars in the US used some form of sealed beam
headlamps including the famous H6054. This lowbeam headlamp is actually
fairly bright and provides considerable illumination above the horizon.
Concerns about glaring oncoming vehicles with the H6054 and similar
broad lowbeam headlamps were voiced by some. The strongest push for
cutting off light above the horizon seemed to come from Europe, where
many of the disadvantaged traffic signs are internally or externally
illuminated.

The European H4 lowbeam headlamp has virtually no luminous intensity


in the upper left quadrant. This push to headlamp cutoff has lead to some
extent of harmonization between US and European headlamps. Newer US
headlamps seem to exhibit less light above the horizon than the H6054. An
example of two late model automobile headlamp iso-candela plots is given in
Figure 17.

a. 1999 BMW 525i HID Left Headlamp Low Beam Iso-Candela Plot.

76 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


b. 2001 Ford Explorer Left Headlamp Low Beam Iso-Candela Plot generated
by TarVIP.

Figure 17. Headlamp Beam Patterns of Two Recent Vehicle Models.

OPL also characterizes the headlamp beam patterns, luminous


intensities and radiometric headlamp measurements as a part of Virginia
Tech Enhanced Nighttime Visibility research effort. A recent measurement
yielded the spectral distribution given in Figure 18 for a 2000 Mercedes S-
Class Left Beam HID headlamp.

Appendix 77
Figure 18. Spectral Power Distribution of 2000 Mercedes S-Class HID Low
Beam Headlamp.

11.1.5. Pavement Marking Retroreflectivity Characteristics


Retroreflectivity characteristics of pavement markings depend on the
material type, exposure to elements, durability characteristics, and the
intrinsic optical system (refraction indices, sizes, and concentration of
beads, bead depth, etc). Most pavement markings employ beads to reflect
the light in a conical form back towards the direction of headlamps and in
part towards the driver. However, the amount of retroreflected light
depends on the retroreflectance of the material, entrance angle, observation
angle, and the amount of incident light. The observed luminance depends on
various other factors in addition to those listed above, such as the weather
conditions, atmospheric transmissivity, windshield transmission, and
ambient lighting conditions.

To obtain the visibility characteristics of a pavement marking, it is


necessary to measure the retroreflectance at a variety of entrance and
observation angle combinations. Such procedures are usually achieved by
means of goniometric ranges, similar to that shown in Figure 19. The
standard retroreflectance refers to the coefficient of retroreflectance
measured at a specific combination of entrance and observation angle
(1.050 observation angle , and 88.760 entrance angle ), which roughly
represents the angles formed by an average size vehicle at 30m (hence the
term 30m standard geometry).

78 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


To obtain ASTM 30m standard retroreflectance, there are a variety of
commercially available handheld pavement marking reflectometers, such as
Mirolux 30, LTL 2000, LTL 2000 Y, LTL X, etc. Of these handheld
instruments, LTL 2000 cannot be used under continuous wetting (ASTM E-
2176 standard practice) method, which typically correlates to the
retroreflectance under rainy conditions, due to design limitations.

Optronics
Spectro- Fluorescent Visible Light Handheld Photometer
Pavement Filtered Radiation towards Photometer (Pritchard 1980 A) used
radiometer
Optic Head Marking for cross-checking
Sample

Photoreceptor
on a sliding
surface in the
Xenon
same horizontal
plane with the
IL 1700 light source
Luxmeter
Photoreceptor Oriel Bandpass Photoreceptor
Head Filter Unit reading
measurements
(in Picoamps)
Radiometer, OL and sending it
IL 1700 to the Main
754 41.4
8

Luxmeter Computer
Monochromator
Measurements for Computer Main computer
each 2nm interval equipped with OL controlling the
Spectroradiometer goniometer and
Software the
photoreceptor,
collecting data

Figure 19. Components of a Typical Goniometric Photorange.

Since it is not possible to obtain an infinitesimal-resolution


retroreflectance matrices (for all angles), there is always a degree of error
margin due to the sparse nature of retroreflectance data. The required R L
values are therefore obtained from the relatively sparse data matrices by
means of two-dimensional linear interpolation. An illustration of the R L
values for a sample of a structured tape and wet weather tape pavement
marking materials are given in Figure 21.

Appendix 79
1.5 1.5

Coefficient of Retroreflection
Coefficient of Retroreflection
1.25 1.25

1 1

0.75 0.75

0.5 0.5

0.25 0.25

0 0
0.5 85
1 86
1.5 87
Ob 2 les
s er
vat 2.5 88 Ang
ion 3 ce
Ang 89 ran
les 3.5 Ent
4 90

Figure 20. Coefficient of Retroreflection for Structured Pavement Marking


Tape as a Function of Entrance and Observation Angles.

Coefficient of Retroreflection (RL) [cd/m2/lx]


1.7
1.6
Coefficient of Retroreflection (RL) [cd/m2/lx]

1.5
1.7 1.4
1.6 1.3
1.5 1.2
1.4 1.1
1.3 1
1.2 0.9
1.1 0.8
1 0.7
0.9 0.6
0.8 0.5
0.7 0.4
0.6 0.3
0.2
0.5 0.1
0.4 0
0.3 0.5 g]
0.2
1.5
1
s [de
0.1
0 2 g le
2.5 An
89 n
88 3 tio
87 3.5 rva
Entrance 86 4 s e
Angles [d 85 Ob
eg] 84

Figure 21. Coefficient of Retroreflection for a as a Function of Entrance


and Observation Angles for a Wet Weather Pavement Marking Tape.

Figure 22 illustrates the average degradation characteristics of different


pavement marking materials located at various sites over the US [5].

80 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


Figure 22. Average Retroreflectance Trends. Figure adapted from [5].

11.1.6. Pavement Markings and Markers, and Their Safety Impact


A major reason of crashes is the poor judgment of drivers regarding the
road geometry, speed, and maneuvers of other drivers in the vicinity, in
addition to inadequate signal transfer of roadway information to the driver,
and the lack of sufficient response time to secure effective and proper
avoidance maneuvers. Therefore, the selection and application of pavement
markings should be carefully calibrated for providing the drivers with
accurate and timely roadway delineation information, as well as accurate
and non-contradicting messages about the potential movements of other
vehicles in the traffic.
11.1.6.1. Cost of Crashes to the Society
Miller et al. [37] suggests the following dollar figures on average, for the
year 2000, for the crashes in the US:

Table 10. Cost of Crashes in the US.


Accident type Per person Per crash
Fatal 3,000,000 3,413,507
Personal injury 62,004 93,086
Property damage 2,326 6,005

11.1.6.2. Crash rate measurement


Crashes are rare occurrences. The occurrence of crashes is usually
assumed to be a random variable with certain distribution. Due to their rare
and undesired nature, several other measures are established to quantify

Appendix 81
the accident potential and proneness, usually in case of that controlled
field experiments. Simulators are widely used for such purposes, however,
the differences between the risks associated with simulator experiments
and the risks in the real world driving conditions make actual accident
measures hard to assess. Common measures mentioned in the literature
other than actual crash rates are the driver alertness and behavior changes
such as speed reduction, vehicle lateral placement, potentially hazardous
actions that may lead to crashes, conflicts, and erratic maneuvers.

Al-Masaeid [1] and Persaud [38] argued that the utilization of average
accident reduction factor might not be a proper measure for the
effectiveness of traffic control devices. Al-Masaeid defined accident
reduction factor as the percent reduction in number of accidents or
accident rates due to implementation of a specific countermeasure.
Similarly, it is defined as the proportion of change in the number of
accidents or accident rates from the before period to the after period when
a safety measure is implemented. One problem that may be recognized in
this approach is that the number of crashes cannot be analyzed independent
of the crash risks, which grow in parallel with the traffic volumes and AADT.
Therefore, we believe that number of crashes is not a meaningful measure
without an indication a relative risk measure, such as vehicle miles driven.

Persaud [38] further argued that the measure of safety effectiveness was
a function of the expected number of accident reduction factor, because the
accident reduction factor is a random variable. The accident reduction
factor for a given traffic control device improvement varies from one site to
another even if the improved sites have similar situations such as crash
experience, physical factors, and operational characteristics.
Al-Masaeid [1] used a Bayesian stochastic probabilistic model to
estimate the expected accident rate, expected accident reduction rate and
its ranges (confidence interval). The expected accident rate was normalized
so that a -distribution could be used to model the distribution of the
transformed accident reduction factor.

82 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


Figure 23. Observed and theoretical probability density functions of
transformed accident reduction factor (reproduced from [1]).
From undivided rural roads in Indiana, 100 1-mile sections with
pavement markings that were newly improved in 1987 were randomly
selected. At all the selected sites, the average daily traffic volume was less
than 4000 vehicles. The traffic accident data and average annual daily
traffic volume data were acquired from police records and from Indiana
Department of Highways, respectively.

By analyzing the data collected from all the selected sites, the expected
accident reduction rate was found to be 3.4% (a negative accident
reduction rate means an increase in the after period), on average, yet the
difference was not statistically significant between the before and after
conditions The 80% confidence interval was found to be [-0.369. 0.304]). A
follow-up work was carried out to analyze the hazardous sites included in
the study, which had expected accident rates higher than the average
accident rates in the before period. The analysis for the hazardous sites
revealed that there was a 13.5% reduction in the accident rate at the
hazardous sites after the pavement markings were improved (The 80%
confidence interval for the accident reduction rates was found to be [0.065,
0.215]).

Earlier research on cost-effectiveness of pavement markings in terms of


accident reduction rates suggests rather an inconsistent set of findings.

Migletz et al [2] conducted a before-and-after study sponsored by FHWA


to evaluate the effect of longer lasting, more retroreflective pavement

Appendix 83
markings on reducing traffic crashes. 55 sites were selected with 65% on
freeways, 15% on non-freeways with speeds of 45mph or more, and 18% on
non-freeways with speeds of 40 mph or less. Before the installation of the
experimental pavement markings, 48 sites had conventional solvent paint,
and 7 had epoxy. A total of 10,312 crashes were observed during the study.
The crashes that occurred between intersections under dry and wet
pavement conditions during daytime and nighttime were analyzed. One
statistically conclusive result from Migletzs study was that crash rate
achieved a significant decrease by 11% under nighttime dry pavement
condition due to the longer lasting and more retroreflective pavement
markings.

Cottrell et al. [3] conducted a study to determine the safety, motorist


opinion, and cost-effectiveness of pavement marking materials used by the
Virginia Department of Transportation and to develop guidelines as to when
each type of material should be used. Five types of pavement markings
(paint, thermoplastic, waffle tape, epoxy, and polyester) were used to
perform a before-and-after accident analysis in interstate and primary road
segments. The factors that affect pavement marking materials selection
included the type and condition of the pavement, ability to install markings
over the existing markings, level of service or quality of marking desired for
a given highway, geographic location, climatic conditions, and pavement
maintenance activities. These factors also influence the service life of the
markings.

Three components in the research were accident analysis, motorist


opinion, and cost-effectiveness. The approach of cost-effectiveness was to
combine cost, effectiveness, and service life to measure cost effectiveness.
Service life varied greatly depending on a number of variables including
geographic location, types, and number of vehicles using the roadway, road
geometrics, and snow plowing operations. Due to the high number of
factors to address, and the overwhelming magnitude of required analysis,
the researchers did not develop guidelines concerning the use of particular
pavement markings for particular situations. Instead, the researchers
developed a performance-based specification. In such a specification, for
example, the performance criterion could be that minimum retroreflectivity,
150 mcd, would be maintained for a given period, such as 3 years. Other
criteria such as color and durability (material intact) ratings could also be
considered. Such criteria would eliminate the need to consider many of the
previously mentioned factors in the decision-making process.

The results of a motorist survey indicated that the participants were


more satisfied with markings with retroreflectivity readings greater than
600 [mcd/m2/lux] than they were with markings with retroreflectivity
readings less than 300 [mcd/m2/lux]. Participating drivers over the age of 65

84 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


were generally less satisfied with the brightness of the pavement markings
than were participating drivers under the age of 65.

The large paint contract was the most cost-effective for two-lane
roads under most volume conditions and for four- and six-lane low-volume
roads. Polyurea and paint installed under a large-scale contract were the
most cost-effective for high-volume four-lane roads, and polyurea and waffle
tape were the most cost-effective for high-volume six-lane roads. For
durable markings, the ordering from most to least cost-effective was found
to be polyurea, thermoplastic, epoxy, and waffle tape for the low-volume
roads. For higher volume roads, the order of materials from most to least
cost-effective was found to be polyurea, waffle tape, thermoplastic, and
epoxy. When only the annualized installation costs are considered for a
study period of 6 years, the ordering from most to least cost effective
materials was thermoplastic, epoxy, polyurea, and waffle tape.

Researchers recommended the following: (1) Consider increasing the


use of large paint contracts and minimizing its use of small paint contracts
when possible. (2) For roads with higher volumes and higher levels of
service, use durable markings, and consider a performance-based
specification for durable markings. Any pavement marking policy should
consider performance-based criteria. (3) Continue consideration of a holistic
approach for pavement management and markings. (4) Re-evaluate its
pavement marking policy and consider the expected service life of the road
surface when determining the cost-effectiveness of pavement marking
materials. Factors to consider when selecting a pavement marking material
include type of pavement, ability to install markings over existing markings,
level of service or quality of marking desired for a given highway, and
pavement maintenance activities (such as overlays and surface treatments).
(5) Continue consideration of a holistic approach for pavement management
and markings. Replacement of pavement markings should be a part of the
preventive pavement management budget. (6) Conduct further analyses
when data become available to determine if any of the durable pavement
marking materials has a significantly greater, or lesser, impact on road
safety than the others.

Glennon [39] integrated and analyzed the data in a FHWA report edited
by Lee [40] and additional data from the states of Ohio and Missouri. When
centerline and no-passing zone markings were added on previously
unmarked roads, in general, the accident rate reduction effect was not
significant. At a further step, when data from each state were analyzed
independently, the results suggested mixed signals in terms of accident rate
reduction. Data from the state of Montana showed a significant increase in
accident rate after centerline and no-passing zone markings were
implemented on previously unmarked roads. In the state of Ohio, the results
were the total opposite of that seen in Montana, in that the accident rate

Appendix 85
was significantly reduced after the implementation of centerline and no-
passing zone markings. Data from other states yielded inconclusive results
(Missouri, North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia), in that the rate of
change in accidents was not statistically significant. The effect of adding
only dashed centerline markings to previously unmarked roads was
evaluated based on the date from the state of Missouri. The result showed a
statistically non-significant increase of 22% in accident rate. The effect of
adding no-passing zone markings on roads with dashed centerline markings
from Missouri data found significant accident rate decreases for roads with
traffic volumes greater than 500 vehicles per day (VPD). The study
concluded that dashed centerline pavement markings might be beneficial
with respect to traffic safety for roadway widths of 20 or more feet, and for
a traffic volume of 500 or more VPD.

Two FHWA studies [41] [42] reported accident reduction rates varying
from negative 13% to +30% due to the implementation of pavement
markings, for various average daily traffic volumes on rural roads and for
various lane widths.

Storm [43] reviewed previous research of the effectiveness of pavement


marking applications in three different roadway and vehicle operation
situations: horizontal curvature, turning movements, and pedestrian
crosswalks.

For accidents happened at horizontal curvatures, Storm [43] reported


the excessive speed as a predominant factor for both the incidents and the
severity thereof. He reviewed two studies that evaluated symbolic pavement
marking countermeasures such as left curve arrow and text and transverse
pavement markings, both of which reduced the mean vehicle speed at both
daytime and nighttime at the experimental sites.

For the turning movements, Storm [43] reviewed studies that


investigated the reduction of traffic conflicts and erratic maneuvers, by
means of standard through arrow accompanied by a right-turn arrow at
commercial driveway entrances and lane drop markings at freeway lane
drop exits. The research revealed that the investigated symbolic pavement
markings reduced traffic conflicts and erratic maneuvers significantly.

For pedestrian crosswalks, Storm [43] reviewed earlier research


investigating the effects of text pavement marking applications on
pedestrian safety in crosswalks. The results showed that the pavement
marking application lowered average traffic conflicts.

Zador et al. [44] conducted a study investigating the effects three types
of roadway delineation devices: chevrons, post-mounted delineators, and
raised pavement markers (RPM), on driver behavior change in terms of

86 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


speed and vehicle placement relative to the road centerline at curvatures on
two-lane rural highways. The RPMs were installed on both sides of the
double yellow centerline, the post-mounted delineators on metal posts, and
chevrons along the outside perimeter of the curves. For any of the three
types of delineators, at least three delineators were in the drivers field of
view at any time. Observations were carried out several weeks before,
several weeks after, and 6 months after the installation of the delineators at
the selected sites, 46 in Georgia and 5 in New Mexico. Vehicle speed and
lateral placement relative to the centerline were recorded using a traffic
data recorder. They found that vehicle paths shifted away from the
centerline for both left and right curves after the RPMs were installed.
Compared to the other two types of delineators, RPMs had the largest effect
on vehicle path shift away from the centerline. Interestingly enough, they
indicate that post-mounted delineators and RPMs seemed to cause speed
increase at nighttime. They argued that the speed increase may have
reflected the driver response to increased roadway condition information
and might therefore be advantageous. By comparing the data collected
several weeks after and 6 months after the installation, they found that the
effects of RPMs on driver behavior did not change over time.

Hammond and Frederick [45] tested the effect of RPMs of different


spacing configurations on daytime speed and opposite lane encroachment of
left turning vehicles at horizontal curves. Two rural minor arterial curve
sites were selected, and retroreflective RPMs were installed on both sides of
the roadway centerline, according to the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control
Devices (MUTCD) [46]. Each site was split into three zones separated by
four equally spaced (100 ft) standard speed marks. Vehicle speed was
obtained by using the standard speed marks, which activated a computer
program recording the time durations between the vehicle front wheel
making contacts with neighboring marks. Opposite lane encroachment was
recorded by videotaping a group of side-by-side longitudinal encroachment
marks, which were placed on the centerline and extended into the opposite
lane. The video was then frame-by-frame analyzed to obtain quantitative
encroachment data. Three conditions were tested: no RPMs, 40 feet spaced
RPMs, and 20 feet spaced RPMs.

The experiment results showed that vehicle-operating speed was not


significantly different between experiment conditions. Lane encroachment
was significantly moderate for RPM conditions than no RPM condition. 20
feet RPM spacing was found not beneficial in terms of reducing opposite
lane encroachment compared to 40 feet spacing.

Agent [47] investigated the effects of transverse pavement markings.


Transverse pavement markings were arranged in a series with a decreasing
spacing and stripe width, usually installed prior to a dangerous roadway
segment where slowing down is necessary for safe curve negotiation. They

Appendix 87
were designed to give the drivers an illusion of acceleration up to certain
deceleration rates. At the aimed safe speed, the markings appear equally
wide to the driver as the vehicle proceeds. The objective of applying
transverse pavement markings is to induce the drivers to decelerate to a
safe speed and negotiate a dangerous roadway segment. The slowing-down
distance was calculated as given below.
V 2 - V22
D 1
2d
where, D is the distance traveled in slowing down from V1 to V2, d is the
deceleration, V1 denotes the speed at beginning of markings, and V2 denotes
the speed at ending of markings (beginning of curve).

Agent [47] evaluated the before-and-after effect of transverse pavement


markings on daytime and nighttime speed and accident reduction in the
field. One curve site was chosen where excessive speed had been a major
contributing factor for accidents, and warning signs only didnt reduce
accidents significantly. The results showed that the transverse pavement
markings were significantly effective on average speed reduction and
percentage of decelerating actions. The long-term effect was also significant
although the average speed increased six months after the installation. The
reason might be that the familiar drivers of the test site became adapted to
the new device and adjusted their speeds based on previous experience.
Agent also analyzed average accident occurrences before and after the
installation of the transverse pavement markings. 48 accidents occurred at
the test site during the six years before the installation. Only 46 accidents,
in which east bound vehicles were at fault, were included and assumed due
to the non-existence of the transverse pavement markings. Agent found that
the average accidents dropped from between seven and eight per year
before the installation to three after the installation. Since accidents are
rare and random incidents, short-term evaluation does not possess high
statistical significance such as the three accidents in the year after the
installation reported in [47]. Of the 46 accidents, a high proportion of them
occurred under poor visibility conditions. 54% happened during nighttime,
and 28% happened under wet road conditions.

Based on the fact that teenage driver population is involved in traffic


crashes more often than any other driver group, Ford et al. [48] conducted a
survey study to investigate the accuracy of teenage drivers understanding
of guide and regulatory information conveyed by traffic control devices. The
survey results indicated that only 9 out of 53 surveyed traffic control
devices were understood by more than 80% of the subject group (260
teenage drivers without formal driver education on traffic control devices).
In the study, 7 types of pavement markings were included: two-way left-turn
directional yellow markings with and without symbols, broken white lane
markings, double solid white markings, the combination of broken and solid
yellow center markings, double solid yellow markings, and broken yellow

88 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


center markings. The results showed that the subject group had a good
understanding of the two-way left-turn markings. However, the white and
yellow markings included in the survey were problematic. For the broken
white lane markings, the correct response rate was 55%. The double solid
white markings had a correct response rate of less than 65%. The
combination of broken and solid yellow center markings had a 73% correct
response rate. The correct response rate for the double solid yellow
markings was 77%. And the correct response rate for the broken yellow
center markings was 64%. Based on the survey results, the authors
recommended that additional efforts on teenage driver education program
were necessary, and the driver education curriculum and drivers handbook
needed to be revised in terms of the problematic traffic control devices
identified in the study.

11.1.7. Surveys

OPL designed and implemented numerous online surveys [11][13][14] in


recent years. The most recent one was for the NCHRP project 5-18 entitled
Color Effectiveness of Yellow Pavement Markings, which was designed in
two parts, and is still partially under review. The survey investigates the
current practices in retroreflectivity and color measurement practices and
guidelines followed by the state agencies to ensure the effectiveness of
white and yellow pavement markings. Thus, we believe that this effort in
part overlaps with the tasks towards the initial project objectives of the
proposed NCHRP project No 17-28, and thereby ensure a more thorough
approach in the prospected survey tasks.

Zwahlen and Schnell [49] conducted a large field evaluation study for
the Ohio Rail Commission and the Ohio Department of Transportation. Two
new crossbuck designs for use at passive railroad-highway grade crossings
were evaluated. The Standard Improved and the Buckeye crossbuck were
evaluated in Ohio with respect to their potential to alter driver risk taking
behavior (part I), their accident reduction potential (part II), user
acceptance (part III), and with respect to their photometric performance at
night (part IV). A user acceptance survey indicated an overwhelming
preference of the Buckeye crossbuck among of the surveyed user groups.
Photometric crossbuck luminance measurements conducted under
automobile low-beam illumination at night indicate that thanks to their
increased reflectorization, both new designs provide superior visual stimuli
to an approaching driver at night. The Buckeye crossbuck provides by far
the strongest visual signal among the measured crossbucks at night.
Amendments to the National Standard for crossbucks at passive RRX in the
MUTCD are recommended. Post reflectorization (four-sided) is
recommended and the additional use of a striped, angled shield is
recommended in situations that require a maximum visual stimulus,

Appendix 89
assuring shortest possible perception reaction times, and in situations that
involve visual obstructions, frequent fog, or blinding snow.

Zwahlen and Schnell conducted a field evaluation of various delineation


schemes in resurfacing work zones [21]. A survey of the US. State DOT and
the ODOT District traffic engineers was conducted and has provided some
insight in the temporary pavement marking practices applied by the
highway agencies across the United States. A computerized, animated
driver comprehension survey was conducted and the results have shown
that the proposed Federal system and the fully restored center line system
generally did a better job in conveying the correct passing/no-passing
information than the current ODOT system. A subjective evaluation of
selected temporary pavement marking systems in the field involving 12
evaluators has indicated that the use of the center line to convey passing
information was more appreciated by the evaluators than the use traffic
signs. Zwahlen and Schnell [50] stated that highway-freeway interchanges
can be a source of confusion to unfamiliar drivers. They suggested that
advance located diagrammatic guide signs provide much needed guidance
information well in advance of the interchange entrance, thus giving drivers
more time to change lanes, if needed. Six highway-freeway interchanges
were selected in the Greater Columbus, Ohio, area to determine the
effectiveness of the diagrammatic signs in the field. ODOT/FHWA evaluators
visited the six interchange sites and provided their input and opinions as to
the use of diagrammatic signs. The vast majority of the evaluators fully
embraced the idea of diagrammatic signs.

Schnell [22] conducted a field evaluation study in Iowa to determine if


older drivers would benefit from wide pavement markings when driving at
night.This research focused on how age, weather, and road delineation
affect driver performance. To test several methods of improving road
delineation visibility, a two-lane rural road was divided into 16 different
sections for use as a test area. Older drivers produced shorter detection
distances than their younger counterparts. A total of ten Iowa DOT/FHWA
evaluators rated the adequacy of the sections in the field. All subjects who
participated in subjective evaluations using specially designed
questionnaires as well.

11.1.8. Visual Information Acquisition of Drivers

Driver eye scanning behavior has been found to reveal the true driver
needs in terms of visual information acquisition in curve driving. Schnell
and Zwahlen [23] determined driver needs when driving at night in terms of
driver preview behavior as a function of the pavement marking retro-
reflectivity. The study indicated, that drivers do in fact make use of the

90 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


additional preview distance that can be gained by increasing the retro-
reflectivity of pavement markings.

Zwahlen and Schnell [24] investigated the effects of temporary


pavement marking configuration in resurfacing zones on driver looking
behavior. It was found, that some of the minimal temporary pavement
markings (center line only, 36 gap, 4 stripe) provided preview distances
that are far shorter than those obtained with the full complement of
pavement markings. Drivers were found to overdrive their headlamps
under the temporary pavement marking condition, a situation which is
highly undesirable, especially on roads with horizontal alignment changes.

Cohen and Zwahlen [51] investigated the driver looking behavior in


curves and made recommendations for techniques to enhance driving in
curves.

Zwahlen [52] investigated driver looking behavior in tangent sections


and curve sections of rural two-lane roadway. In addition, a geometric
model was developed to determine the peripheral viewing angle from the
drivers direction of gaze to reflective targets along the road side. Based on
the geometric model and the eye fixation patterns, Zwahlen found that it is
well possible that reflective targets may appear, at least initially, at
peripheral viewing angles of as much as 15 degrees from the fovea.
Zwahlen then conducted a detection distance experiment that demonstrated
the reduction in detection distance for retro-reflective targets that are
viewed peripherally compared to the same targets viewed foveally.

A p p lic a tio n
Level

U s e r fr ie n d lin e s s

-N u m b e r o f
v a r ia b le s
(fa c to rs )
- D e g r e e o f d e ta il

R e s e a rc h
Level

Figure 24. Level of Complexity vs. User Friendliness

Appendix 91
11.2. References
[1] Al Maseid, H. R., Sinha, K. C., Analysis of Accident Reduction Potentials
of Pavement Markings, Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 120,
Sept/Oct 1994, p. 723-36.
[2] Migletz, J., J.L. Graham, D.W. Harwood, K.M. Bauer, and P.L. Sterner,
Evaluation of All-Weather Pavement Markings, Federal Highway
Administration, McLean, Va., October 2000.
[3] Cotrell, B. H., Hanson, R. A., Determining the Effects of Pavement
Marking Materials, Final Report, Virginia Transportation Research
Council, VTRC 09-R1, Charlottesville, VA, February 2001.
[4] Safety and congestion Management Research and Advanced
Technology Applications; Research Work Order Number 1, Technical
Assistance to the RPM Task Force, Final Report to the PADOT, Orth-
Rodgers Associates, Inc., Research, August 1998.
[5] Fish, J. K., Evaluation of All-Weather Pavement Markings: Report on
Two Years of Progress, Paper presented in 1996 Semisesquicentennial
Transportation Conference Proceedings, Ames, IA, May 1996.
[6] Hills, B.L., Vision, Visibility and Driving Perception, 9, 183-216, 1980.
[7] Aktan, F., The Development of a Nighttime Driver Visibility Model,
Master Thesis, Thomas Schnell, Advisor, Operator Performance
Laboratory, Department of Industrial Engineering, The University of
Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242-1527, Dec 2000.
[8] Aktan, F., Schnell, T., An Interactive Computer Model to determine the
Nighttime Visibility of Normal and UV Activated Pavement Markings
Under Normal and UV Headlamp Illumination, CIE Istanbul 2001
International Lighting Congress Vol. 1., p. 105-112, 12-14 September,
Istanbul, Turkey, 2001.
[9] Aktan, F., Schnell, T., TarVIP, A PC-Based Visibility Model for Normal
and Ultra-Violet Activated Pavement Markings, HFES 45th Annual
Meeting Proceedings, Minneapolis, Minnesota, October 8-12, 2001.
[10] Aktan, Fuat., Schnell, Thomas., The Development of a Nighttime Driver
Visibility Model for Ultra-Violet Activated Pavement Markings, PAL
2001 Conference Proceedings, Darmstadt University of Technology,
September 25/26, Darmstadt, Germany.
[11] NCHRP 4-29, Selection of Materials to Optimize Sign Performance,
working project, PI, Thomas Schnell, Expected Completion Date:
September 15, 2003.
[12] Schnell, T., Ohme, P. J., Evaluation of Various Strategies to Increase
Pavement Marking Visibility for Older Drivers, Proceedings of 81st
Annual Meeting of TRB, 13-17 January, 2002, Washington, D.C.
[13] Gates, T., Chrysler, S. T., Hawkins, H. G., Innovative Visibility-Based
Measures of Effectiveness for Wider Longitudinal Pavement Markings,
Proceedings of TRB Biennial Symposium on Visibility, Iowa City, IA, June
2-4, 2002.

92 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


[14] NCHRP 5-18, Color Effectiveness of Yellow Pavement Marking
Materials, working project, PI, Thomas Schnell, Expected Completion
Date: October 15, 2004.
[15] Zwahlen, H. T., Schnell, T., Donahue, T., Hodson, N., Johnson, N.,
Influence of Pavement Marking Angular Systems on Visibility
Predictions Using Computer Models, Transportation Research Record
1754, Transportation Research Board, National Academy of Sciences,
Washington, DC, 2001
[16] Schnell, T., and Zwahlen, H.T., Computer Based Modeling to
Determine the Visibility and Retroreflectivity of Pavement Markings",
79th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board,
Transportation Research Board, Preprint 001553, January 2000.
[17] Schnell, T., and Zwahlen, H. T., "Predicting the Visibility of Pavement
Markings with CARVE (Computer-Aided Road-Marking Visibility
Evaluator)", Proceedings of the Ohio Transportation Engineering
Conference, The Ohio State University, 1996.
[18] Schnell, T., "The Development of a PC Based Pavement Marking
Visibility Evaluation Model", 1994, Master Thesis, Department of
Industrial Engineering, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701-2979, 189
pages
[19] Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., "Modeling the Visibility of Pavement
Markings at Night Using the Contrast Based Computer Model CARVE",
Proceedings of the International Road Federation Asia-Pacific Regional
Meeting, International Road Federation IRF, Vol. 2, 1996, pp. 221-230.
[20] Zwahlen, H.T., and Schnell, T., Driver-Headlamp Dimensions, Driver
Characteristics, and Vehicle and Environmental Factors in
Retroreflective Target Visibility Calculations, Transportation Research
Record 1692, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC., 1999.
[21] Zwahlen, Helmut T. and Schnell, Thomas, "Evaluation of Temporary
Pavement Marking Systems for Resurfacing Zones," July 1996.
Prepared for Ohio Department of Transportation in Cooperation with US
DOT, FHWA, State Job No. 14523(0). Final Report, Report No.
FHWA/OH-96/015, 212 pages and Appendices.
[22] Schnell, T., Enhancing Pavement Markings for Older Drivers, Final
Project Report, Iowa Department of Transportation, Ames, Iowa, 2000
[23] Schnell, T., and Zwahlen, H.T., Driver Preview Distances at Night
Based on Driver Eye Scanning Recordings as a Function of Pavement
Marking Retroreflectivities, Transportation Research Record 1692,
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC., 1999.
[24] Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., Driver Eye Scanning Behavior at
Night as a Function of Pavement Marking Configuration,
Transportation Research Record, Number 1605 , 1997.
[25] Schnell, T., Aktan, F., Lee, Y. C., Nighttime Visibility and
Retroreflectance of Pavement Markings under Dry, Wet, and Rainy
Conditions, Paper presented at the TRB 82nd Annual Meeting, January
12-16, 2003.

Appendix 93
[26] Aktan, F., Schnell, T., Performance Evaluation of Pavement Markings
under Dry, Wet, and Rainy Conditions in the Field, Paper submitted for
Presentation at the 83rd Annual TRB Meeting, January 2004,
Washington, D.C.
[27] Goodrich, E.P., Traffic Engineering Reminiscences, Annual Meeting
Proceedings, ITE, Washington, D.C, 1971.
[28] Hawkins, H. Gene, Evolution of the US pavement Marking System,
Part of the Interim Report for the NCHRP 4-28: Feasibility Study for an
All-White Pavement Marking System, October 2000.
[29] Schnell, T., Aktan, F., Lee, Y. C., Wet-Weather Visibility of Pavement
Markings, Third Interim Report to the FHWA, March 2002.
[30] Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., Visibility of New Centerline and Edge
Line Pavement Markings, Transportation Research Record 1605,
Transportation Research Board, National Academy of Sciences,
Washington, DC., 1997.
[31] Schnell, T., Bentley, K., Hayes, E., and Rick, M., Legibility Distances of
Fluorescent Traffic Signs and Their Normal Color Counterparts,
Transportation Research Record 1754, Transportation Research Board,
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 2001.
[32] Blackwell, H.R., Contrast Thresholds of the Human Eye, Journal of the
Optical Society of America, 36(11): pg. 624-43, 1973.
[33] Blackwell, H.R., Blackwell, O.M., Individual Responses to Lighting
Parameters for a Population of 235 Observers of Varying Ages,
Illumination Engineering, 75, 1980.
[34] The International Commission on Illumination (CIE) Publication No. 95,
Technical Report Contrast and Visibility, 1992.
[35] The International Association of Lighthouse Authorities (IALA),
Recommendation for a Definition of the Nominal Daytime Range of
Maritime Signal Lights Intended for the Guidance of Shipping by Day,
April 1974.
[36] Schnell T., Merchant, S., Classification of Uniformly Spaced Surface
Colors into Thirteen US Traffic Sign Color Categories Under D65 and
Illuminant A Conditions, Paper Presented at the DfwG-Jahrestagung
2000, October 20, 2000, Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, Fachgebiet
Lichttechnik.
[37] Miller, T., J. Viner, S. Rossman, N. Pindus. W. Gellert, J. Douglass, A
Dillingham, and G. Blomquist, The Cost of Highway Crashes. Report
prepared by the Urban Institute for the Federal Highway
Administration, US DOT, Washington, DC, 1991.
[38] Persaud, B. N., Safety Migration, the Influence of Traffic Volumes, and
Other Issues in Evaluating Safety EffectivenessSome Findings on
Conversion of Intersection to Multiway Stop Control, Transportation
Research Record, 1068, pp. 108-114, 1986.
[39] Glennon, J. C., Accident Effects on Centerline Markings on Low-Volume
Rural Roads, Transportation Research Record, 1027, pp. 7-13, 1985.

94 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


[40] Lee, R. L., Effectiveness Evaluation of Pavement Markings at Night,
Federal Highway Administration, unpublished data, Sept. 1980.
[41] Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Highway Safety Stewardship
Report (1981), U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., 41-
58.
[42] Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Highway Safety Stewardship
Report (1982), U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., 39-
64.
[43] Richard Storm, Pavement Marking and Incident Reduction, Midwest
Transportation Consortium, Center for Transportation Research and
Education, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, pp. 115-122, 2000.
[44] Paul Zador, Howard S. Stein, Paul Wright, and Jerome Hall, Effects of
Chevrons, Post-Mounted Delineators, and Raised Pavement Markers on
Driver Behavior at Roadway Curves Transportation Research Record
No. 1114, pp. 1-10, 1987.
[45] Jeffrey L. Hammond, and Frederick J. Wegmann, Daytime Effects of
Raised Pavement Markers on Horizontal Curves, Institute of
Transportation Engineers Journal, August 2001.
[46] FHWA, Manual on Uniform Control Devices for Streets and Highways,
US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration,
Washington, DC, 1978.
[47] Agent, K. R., Transverse Pavement Markings for Speed Control and
Accident Reduction, Abridgement, Transportation Research Record
773, TRB, NRC, pp. 11-14, 1980.
[48] Garry L. Ford, and Dale L. Picha, Teenage Drivers Understanding of
Traffic Control Devices, Transportation Research Record No. 1708, pp.
1-11, 2000.
[49] Zwahlen, H.T., and Schnell, T., Evaluation of Two New Crossbuck
Designs for Passive Highway Railroad Grade Crossings, Transportation
Research Record 1692, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.,
1999.
[50] Zwahlen, H.T., Schnell, T., Effects of Diagrammatic Entrance Ramp
Approach Signs on Driver Behavior, Prepared for Ohio Department of
Transportation in Cooperation with US DOT, FHWA, Final Report
submitted for Review, 2000.
[51] Cohen, A.S. and Zwahlen, H.T., "Blicktechnik in Kurven," Monograph,
bfu - Report 13, published by bfu, Swiss Bureau for Accident Prevention,
Bern, Switzerland, Printed by Juris Druck & Verlag AG, Zurich, October
1989, ISBN 3 260 052461, 81 pages.
[52] Zwahlen, Helmut T., Conspicuity of Suprathreshold Reflective Targets in
a Driver's Peripheral Visual Field at Night, Paper presented at the 68th
Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, January 22-26
1989. Paper No. 880550 in Session 107 on Highway Visibility,
Washington, D.C., Published in Transportation Research Record 1213,
1989, pp 35-46.

Appendix 95
[53] ASTM Standard Specification D6628-01 Standard Specification for
Color of Pavement Marking Materials, ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA,
January 2001.
[54] Schnell, T.,"Legibility Optimization of Uppercase Alphanumeric Text
for Displaying Messages in Traffic Applications", 1998, Ph.D.
Dissertation, Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems
Engineering, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701-2979, 471 pages.
[55] Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., Visual Detection and Recognition of
Fluorescent Color Targets Versus Non-fluorescent Color Targets as a
Function of Peripheral Viewing Angle and Target Size, Transportation
Research Record 1605, Transportation Research Board, National
Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC., 1997.
[56] Poynter D., Contrast Sensitivity and English Letter Recognition,
Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting,
September 2-6, San Francisco, CA, 1991

96 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


11.3. Rsums
THOMAS SCHNELL, PH.D.
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR
Assistant Professor, Department of Industrial Engineering
4135 Engineering Building
University of Iowa
Iowa City, IA 52242-1527
Office phone: (319) 384 0811; Office FAX (319) 335 5424
E-mail: tschnell@engineering.uiowa.edu

EDUCATION
B.S. Electrical Engineering, Institute of Technology of the State of Bern, Bern,
Switzerland, 1992
M.S. Industrial and Systems Engineering, Ohio University, 1994
Ph.D. Integrated Engineering, Ohio University, 1998

CURRENT POSITION
Assistant Professor, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA
Director, Operator Performance Laboratory (OPL)

TEACHING AND RESEARCH INTERESTS


Pavement marking visibility,
Enhancing nighttime visibility for older drivers,
Pedestrian visibility and safety,
Nighttime visibility with ultraviolet automobile headlamps,
Synthetic Vision Systems for Commercial Flight Decks,
Traffic signal lamp life and reliability,
Workload assessment and reducing workload for pilots in commercial flight decks,
Unobtrusive measurement of driver characteristics,
Traffic flow modeling, driver headway selection behavior,
Driver situational awareness in urban navigation,
Visibility and legibility of fluorescent traffic signs when compared to their non-fluorescent
color counterparts,
Driver looking behavior in school zone approaches,
Visibility of pavement markings under wet weather conditions,
Effectiveness of new pavement marking strategies,
Acceptable color boundaries for traffic signs in the CIE 1976 LUV space,
Development of alternate control techniques for commercial pilots in modern flight decks,
Design of instrumented vehicles, and
Automated data collection methods.

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE
Assistant Professor, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Iowa, 1998
Present
Human Factors Consultant, Rockwell Collins, 6/01-Present
Research Engineer, Human Factors and Ergonomics Laboratory, Ohio University, 1994
1998
Research Associate, Human Factors and Ergonomics Laboratory, Ohio University, 1992
1993
Software consultant, APP Informatik AG, Bern, Switzerland, 19901992

Appendix 97
Software designer, ASCOM AG, Bern, Switzerland, 19881990

PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS
Chairman of the Roadsign Technical Committee (TC 4-38) of the International
Committee on Illumination (CIE) Division 4, Lighting and Signaling for Transport, 2/99
current
Member of the International Committee on Illumination (CIE) Division 1, Vision and
Color 12/98 - current
Member of the International Committee on Illumination (CIE) Division 4 Lighting and
Signaling for Transport, 12/98 current
Member of the Transportation Research Board Simulation and Measurement
Committee A3B06, 1997 present
Member of the Transportation Research Board Simulation and Measurement
Committee A3B06, 1997 present
Member of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 1992 present
Member of Iowa Traffic Control and Safety Association

AWARDS

1992 Ascom Prize, Award for the highest GPA and the best of class on 1992 in the
Department of Electrical Engineering of the Institute of Technology, Bern,
Switzerland, 1992
1999 Old Gold Summer Fellowship, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA
1999 3M Traffic Control Materials Division, Faculty Award
2001 Old Gold Summer Fellowship, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA
2002 Best paper of session and of Track, Authors: Sohel Merchant , Yongjin Kwon, Tom
Schnell, Tim Etherington, Tom Vogl, Evaluation Of Synthetic Vision Information
System (SVIS) Displays Based On Pilot Performance, In Proceedings of the 20th
Digital Avionics Systems Conference, October 14-18, Daytona Beach, 2001

CONSULTING
Airborne Human Factors Principal Investigator (PI) for Rockwell Collins during
NASA Test Flights in Boeing 757 Research Laboratory in Eagle Vail, Colorado, 2001
Design of an instrumented vehicle for Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701, 2000
Photometric Evaluation of a Tennis Court Lighting Installation in Iowa City, Dunlap
Court Residents, Iowa City, Iowa, 1999
Evaluation of the Influence of Car Following Glare on Driver Nighttime Visual
Performance with and without Night Driving Glasses, Prepared for SOLA
International Holdings Ltd., 1997

Modification of the IRPE visibility model to include 4D micro-prismatic, retro-


reflective sheeting materials, 3M Company, 1997

RESEARCH CONTRACTS

98 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


Start End Total
Sponsor Name Long Title Comments
Date Date Costs

Mar- Mar- $313,10 Ohio University Field Evaluation Of The 100% PI


99 01 6 Ctcls Series Traffic Signal
Load Switches
Apr- Mar- $3,000 3m Company Faculty Research Award 100% PI
99 00
Apr- Mar- $30,000 3m Company Human Factors And Driver 100% PI
99 01 Visual Performance
Apr- Feb-
$27,593 Virginia Polytechnic Enhanced Nighttime 100% PI
99 01 Institute Visibility
May- Apr-
$106,48 Iowa Department Of Enhancing Pavement 100% PI
99 01 3 Transportation Marking Visibility For Older
Drivers
May- Apr- $10,000 Iowa Department Of Enhancing Pavement 100% PI
99 01 Transportation Marking Visibility For Older
Drivers
Jun- Jun- $9,935 Ohio University Effects Of Diagrammatic 100% PI
99 00 Entrance Ramp Approach
Signs On Driver Behavior

Appendix 99
Start End
Total
Sponsor Name Long Title Comments
Date Date
Costs
Oct- Sep-
$25,000 Rockwell Collins, Basic Human Factors In 100% PI
99 00 Inc. Aviation Research
Feb- Jan-
$10,000 Iowa State Synthetic Vision 100% PI
00 01 University,
Isgc/Nasa
Jul- Jun- $49,833 Ohio Department Of Evaluation Of Traffic Flow 100% PI
00 01 Transportation Analysis Tools Applied To
Workzones Based On Flow
Data Collected In The Field
Nov- Feb- $30,000 Rockwell Collins, Assessing Pilot Performance 100% PI
00 01 Inc. In Flightdecks Equipped
With Synthetic Vision
Information Systems
Jan- Dec- $49,950 Honda Research & Fun And Stress In Driving 50% PI with
01 01 Development John Lee
Americas, Inc.
Feb- Jan- $30,000 Iowa State Assessing Pilot Performance 100% PI
01 02 University, In Flightdecks Equipped
Isgc/Nasa With Synthetic Vision
Information Systems
Feb- Jun- $105,94 Virginia Polytechnic Enhanced Nighttime 100% Pi
01 02 2 Institute Visibility

May- Sep- $300,00 National Academies Selection Of Materials To 100% Pi


01 03 0 Of Sciences Optimize Sign Performance

Jun- May- $50,000 Us Department Of Wet Weather Visibility Of 100% Pi


01 02 Transportation- Pavement Markings
Federal Highway
Administration
Oct- Apr- $237,04 Westat, Inc., NHTSA Headlight Glare Research 100% Pi
01 03 9

Dec- Jul- $34,498 Honda Research & Human Machine Interfaces 50% Pi With
01 02 Development In Automotive Applications John Lee
Americas, Inc.
Dec- Mar- $71,357 Minnesota How To More Safely 100% Pi
01 04 Department Of Accommodate Pedestrians
Transportation Through An Intersection
With Free Flow Legs
Feb- Dec- $30,000 Iowa State Terrain Sampling Density 100% Pi
02 02 University, And Texture Requirements
Isgc/Nasa Of Synthetic Vision Systems
(Svs)
Feb- Jan- $30,000 Iowa State Synthetic Vision 100% Pi
02 03 University,
Isgc/Nasa

10 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


0
Start End Total
Sponsor Name Long Title Comments
Date Date Costs
Apr- Dec- $74,000 Rockwell Collins, Terrain Sampling Density 100% Pi
02 02 Inc. And Texture Requirements
For Synthetic Vision
Systems (Svs)
Jun- Sept- $216,66 Us National Synthetic Vision Displays: 100% Pi
02 03 6 Aeronautics & Space Optimal Display
Administration Characteristics
Sept- Sept- $30,000 Rockwell Collins Proposal For The 100% Pi
02 03 Establishment Of The
Rockwell Collins Human
Centered Research Institute
At The University Of Iowa
Apr- Mar- $ 57,455 Ohio University Field Evaluation Of The 100% Pi
03 04 Ctcls Series Traffic Signal
Load Switches, Work To
Finish The Original Study
Sep- Feb- $145,71 US Department of Development of a "Fixed 50% PI with
03 05 8 Transportation, Roadway Lighting Module" Fuat Aktan,
Federal Highway for the Target Visibility grant approved,
Administration Predictor (TarVIP) contract
Computer Model pending
signature by
FHWA
Oct- Mar- $100,00 Rockwell Collins Laboratory Evaluation of a 100% PI, grant
03 05 0 Flight Display Using Sensor approved,
Fusion contract
pending
Oct- Jun- $69,618 Rockwell Collins Aviation Weather 100% PI, grant
03 04 Information Display Study approved,
(AWIDS) contract
pending
ARTICLES IN TECHNICAL JOURNALS WITH RIGOROUS REVIEW PROCEDURES

1. Schnell T., Kwon J., Merchant S., Etherington, T., Vogl, T., Improved Flight
Technical Performance in Flight Decks Equipped with Synthetic Vision
Information System Displays, In Press, International Journal of Aviation
Psychology, 2003
2. Schnell T., Aktan F., Lee Y., Nighttime Visibility and Retroreflectance of
Pavement Markings under Dry, Wet, and Rainy Conditions, In Press,
Transportation Research Record 1824, Transportation Research Board,
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 2003
3. Zwahlen, H.T., Russ A., Schnell T., Driver Eye Scanning Behavior While
Viewing Ground-Mounted Diagrammatic Guide Signs before Entrance Ramps
at Night, In Press, Transportation Research Record 1843, Transportation
Research Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 2003
4. Zwahlen, H.T., Russ A., Roth J., Schnell T., Evaluation of the Effectiveness of
Ground-Mounted Diagrammatic Advance Guide Signs For Freeway Entrance
Ramps, In Press, Transportation Research Record 1843, Transportation
Research Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 2003

Appendix 101
5. Schnell T., Lee Y., Etherington, T., Synthetic Vision Information Systems,
NASA Flight Tests at Eagle County Regional Airport, Submitted for review to
the International Journal of Aviation Psychology, August 2003
6. Schnell, T., Aktan, F., Lee, Y., "Driver Looking Behavior in, School Zones with
Fluorescent Yellow Green and Normal Yellow Signs", In review, Journal of
Safety Research, April, 2003.
7. Schnell, T., Aktan, F., Ohme, P. J., and Yang, S., "Various Strategies to Increase
Pavement Marking Visibility for Older Drivers", in review, Journal of Safety
Research, April, 2003.
8. Aktan, F., Schnell, T., "Performance Evaluation of Pavement Markings under
Dry, Wet, and Rainy Conditions in the Field", Paper submitted for Presentation
at the 83rd Annual TRB Meeting, January 2004, and for review for publication
in Transportation Research Record, Washington, D.C., 2004
9. Aktan, F., Schnell, T., "Performance Evaluation of Pavement Markings under
Dry, Wet, and Rainy Conditions in the Field", Paper submitted for Presentation
at the 83rd Annual TRB Meeting, January 2004, and for review for publication
in Transportation Research Record, Washington, D.C., 2004
10. Schnell, T., Aktan, F., Li, C., "Traffic Sign Luminance Requirements of
Nighttime Drivers for Symbolic Signs", Paper Submitted for Presentation at the
83rd Annual TRB Meeting, January 2004 and for review for publication in
Transportation Research Record, Washington, D.C.
11. Schnell T., Mohror, J., Aktan F., Evaluation Of Traffic Flow Analysis Tools
Applied To Work Zones Based On Flow Data Collected In The Field,
Transportation Research Record 1811, Transportation Research Board,
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 2002
12. Zwahlen, HT, Schnell, T, Donahue T, Hodson N, Johnson N, Influence of
Pavement Marking Angular Systems on Visibility Predictions Using Computer
Models, Transportation Research Record 1754, Transportation Research
Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 2001
13. Schnell, T., Bentley, K., Hayes, E., and Rick, M., Legibility Distances of
Fluorescent Traffic Signs and Their Normal Color Counterparts,
Transportation Research Record 1754, Transportation Research Board,
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 2001
14. Schnell, T., Aktan, F., McGehee, D.V., Dvorak, M., Hunt, J., Reyes, A., Sorak, D.,
Pedestrian Visibility under Automobile Lowbeam Headlight Illumination, with
and without Headlight Covers, Transportation Research Record 1773,
Transportation Research Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington,
DC, 2001
15. Schnell, T., and Zwahlen, H.T., Computer Based Modeling to Determine the
Visibility and Retroreflectivity of Pavement Markings", 79th Annual Meeting of
the Transportation Research Board, Transportation Research Board, National
Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, Transportation Research Record 1708,
2000
16. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., "Minimum In-Service Retroreflectivity of
Pavement Markings", 79th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research
Board, Transportation Research Board, National Academy of Sciences,
Washington, DC, Preprint 001479, Transportation Research Record 1715, 2000
17. Allen, R.W., Francher, P.S., Levison, W.H.., Machey, J., Mourant, R.R., Schnell,
T., Srinivasan, R., Simulation and Measurement of Driver and Vehicle
Performance, Transportation in the new Millennium, Research Board,
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC., 2000
18. Schnell, T., and Zwahlen, H.T., Driver Preview Distances at Night Based on
Driver Eye Scanning Recordings as a Function of Pavement Marking
Retroreflectivities, Transportation Research Record 1692, Transportation
Research Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC., 1999

10 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


2
19. Schnell, Thomas and Zwahlen Helmut T. 1999. Reflective Properties of
Selected Road Surfaces for Automobile Headlamp Geometry, Preprint
991510, Transportation Research Record 1657, Transportation Research
Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC., 1999
20. Zwahlen, H.T., and Schnell, T., Visual Target Detection Models for Civil
Twilight and Night Driving Conditions, Preprint 991545, Transportation
Research Record 1692, Transportation Research Board, National Academy of
Sciences, Washington, DC., 1999
21. Zwahlen, H.T., and Schnell, T., Evaluation of Two New Crossbuck Designs for
Passive Highway Railroad Grade Crossings, Preprint 991067, Transportation
Research Record 1692, Transportation Research Board, National Academy of
Sciences, Washington, DC., 1999
22. Zwahlen, H.T., and Schnell, T., Driver-Headlamp Dimensions, Driver
Characteristics, and Vehicle and Environmental Factors in Retroreflective
Target Visibility Calculations, Transportation Research Record 1692, National
Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC., 1999
23. Zwahlen, H.T., Schnell, T., and Miescher, S., Recognition Distances of
Different Pavement Arrow Designs During Daytime and Nighttime, Preprint
980284, Transportation Research Record 1692, Transportation Research
Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC., 1999
24. Zwahlen, H.T., and Schnell, T., Legibility of Traffic Sign Text and Symbols,
Transportation Research Record 1692, Transportation Research Board,
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC., 1999
25. Zwahlen, H.T., and Schnell, T., The Visibility of Road Markings as a Function
of Age and Retro-Reflectivity under Low-Beam and High-Beam Illumination at
Night, Preprint 980285, Transportation Research Record 1692,
Transportation Research Record, National Academy of Sciences, Washington,
DC., 1999
26. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., Visual Detection and Recognition of
Fluorescent Color Targets Versus Non-fluorescent Color Targets as a Function
of Peripheral Viewing Angle and Target Size, Transportation Research Record
1605, Transportation Research Board, National Academy of Sciences,
Washington, DC., 1997
27. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., Visibility of New Centerline and Edge Line
Pavement Markings, Preprint 971166, Transportation Research Record 1605,
Transportation Research Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington,
DC., 1997
28. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., Driver Eye Scanning Behavior at Night as a
Function of Pavement Marking Configuration, Preprint 971194,
Transportation Research Record 1605, Transportation Research Board,
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC., 1997
29. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., Visibility of New Dashed Yellow and White
Center Stripes as a Function of Material Retro-Reflectivity, Preprint 961268,
Transportation Research Record 1553, Transportation Research Board,
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 1996, pp. 74-81
30. Zwahlen, H. T., Hagiwara, T., and Schnell, T., Visibility of New Yellow Center
Stripes as a Function of Obliteration, Preprint 950933, Research Record
1495, Transportation Research Board, National Academy of Sciences,
Washington, DC, 1995, pp. 77-86
31. Zwahlen, H. T., Sunkara, M., and Schnell, T., A Review of Legibility
Relationships within the Context of Textual Information Presentation, Preprint
950888, Transportation Research Record 1485, Transportation Research
Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 1995, pp. 61-70
32. Zwahlen, H. T., Schnell, T., and Hagiwara, T., The Effects of Lateral Separation
Between Double Center Stripe Pavement Markings on Visibility Under

Appendix 103
Nighttime Driving Conditions, Preprint 950994, Transportation Research
Record 1495, Transportation Research Board, National Academy of Sciences,
Washington, DC, 1995
33. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., Loss of Visibility Distance Due to Automobile
Windshields at Night, Transportation Research Record 1495, Transportation
Research Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 1995, pp.
128-139
34. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., Visibility of New Pavement Markings at Night
Under Low Beam Illumination, Preprint 940840, Transportation Research
Record 1495, Transportation Research Board, National Academy of Sciences,
Washington, DC, 1995
35. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., A Knowledge Based, PC Software Package for
the Application and Placement of Curve Delineation Devices, Preprint 940789,
Transportation Research Record 1495, Transportation Research Board,
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 1995, pp. 107-116.

ARTICLES, CHAPTERS, ABSTRACTS, AND SUMMARIES IN RESEARCH


MONOGRAPHS, CONFERENCE/SYMPOSIUM/CONGRESS PROCEEDINGS,
HANDBOOKS, ETC.

1. Lemos K., Schnell T., Synthetic Vision Systems: Human Performance


Assessment of The Influence of Terrain Density And Texture, Prepared for
proceedings of 22nd Digital Avionics Systems Conference, Dawn of the 2nd
Century / Racing to Transform the Legacy, The Crowne Plaza, Indianapolis,
Indiana, 12-16 October 2003
2. Yang S, Schnell T., Lemos K., Spatial Image Content Bandwidth Requirements
for Synthetic Vision Displays, Prepared for proceedings of 22nd Digital
Avionics Systems Conference, Dawn of the 2nd Century / Racing to Transform
the Legacy, The Crowne Plaza, Indianapolis, Indiana, 12-16 October 2003
3. Keller B.M., Schnell T., Lemos K., Glaab L., Parrish R., Pilot Performance as a
Function of Display Resolution and Field of View in Simulated Flight Using
Synthetic Vision Systems, Prepared for proceedings of 22nd Digital Avionics
Systems Conference, Dawn of the 2nd Century / Racing to Transform the
Legacy, The Crowne Plaza, Indianapolis, Indiana, 12-16 October 2003
4. French G., Schnell T., Terrain Awareness & Pathway Guidance For Head-Up
Displays (Tapguide); A Simulator Study of Pilot Performance, Prepared for
proceedings of 22nd Digital Avionics Systems Conference, Dawn of the 2nd
Century / Racing to Transform the Legacy, The Crowne Plaza, Indianapolis,
Indiana, 12-16 October 2003
5. Schnell T., Etherington T., Vogl T., Postnikov A., Field Evaluation Of A Synthetic
Vision Information System Onboard The NASA Aries 757 At Eagle County
Regional Airport, In proceedings of 21st Digital Avionics Systems Conference,
Air Traffic Management for Commercial and Military Systems, Hyatt Regency,
Irvine, California, 27-31 October 2002
6. Lemos K., Schnell T., Etherington T., Gordon D. 'Bye-Bye Steam Gages, Welcome
Glass'; A Review of New Display Technology for General Aviation Aircraft, In
proceedings of 21st Digital Avionics Systems Conference, Air Traffic
Management for Commercial and Military Systems, Hyatt Regency, Irvine,
California, 27-31 October 2002
7. Aktan F., Schnell T., Li C., A Theoretical Approach For The Derivation Of
Legibility Threshold Luminance Contrast Data For Road Sign Applications, in
Proceedings of the 16th Biennial Symposium on Visibility and Simulation, June
2-4, 2002, Iowa City, Iowa
8. Aktan F., Schnell T., A Web-Based Legibility Threshold And Road Sign
Luminance Contrast Calculator For Nighttime Driving Conditions, in

10 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


4
Proceedings of the 16th Biennial Symposium on Visibility and Simulation, June
2-4, 2002, Iowa City, Iowa
9. Schnell T., Etherington T., Simulation And Field Testing Of A Synthetic Vision
Information System For Commercial Flight Decks, in Proceedings of the 16th
Biennial Symposium on Visibility and Simulation, June 2-4, 2002, Iowa City,
Iowa
10. Schnell T., Ohme P., Evaluation of Various Strategies to Increase Pavement
Marking Visibility for Older Drivers, In Proceedings of the 81st Annual
Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, National Academy of Sciences,
Washington, DC, 2002
11. Merchant S., Kwon Y., Schnell T., Etherington T., and Vogl T., Evaluation Of
Synthetic Vision Information System (SVIS) Displays Based On Pilot
Performance, In Proceedings of the 20th Digital Avionics Systems Conference,
October 14-18, Daytona Beach, 2001
12. Schnell, T., Ohme, P., Gulyuva, K.F., Donaubauer, C., Wiese, E., Derby, E., and
Noelting D., Driver Looking Behavior in School Zones with Fluorescent Yellow
Green and Normal Yellow Signs, In Proceedings of the 80th Annual Meeting of
the Transportation Research Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington,
DC, 2001
13. Aktan F., Schnell T., The Development Of A Nighttime Driver Visibility Model
For Ultra-Violet Activated Pavement Markings, In Proceedings of the 2001
Progress in Automotive Lighting (PAL), Darmstadt, Germany, 2001
14. Ohme P., Schnell T., Is Wider Better ? Enhancing Pavement Marking Visibility
for Older Drivers, In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics
Society 45th Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, October, 2001
15. Aktan F., Schnell T., TARVIP, A PC Based Visibility Model for Normal and UV-
Activated Pavement Markings, In Proceedings of the Human Factors and
Ergonomics Society 45th Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, October, 2001
16. Merchant S., Schnell, T., Kwon Y., Assessing Pilot Performance In Flightdecks
Equipped With Synthetic Vision Information System, in proceedings of the 11th
International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, March 2001.
17. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., "Detection of Negative Luminance Contrast
Targets During Day And At Night Under Lowbeam Illumination, Paper
presented at the 2000 Visibility Symposium, Transportation Research Board, in
Review, Washington, DC, 2000
18. Schnell, T., On the Effectiveness of Fluorescent Yellow Green School Zone
Signs, Paper presented and published in Proceedings of the International
Conference on Traffic and Transport Psychology, September 4-7, 2000, Bern,
Switzerland
19. Merchant, S., Schnell, T., Applying Eye Tracking as Alternative Approach for
Activation of Controls and Functions in Aircraft, In proceedings of the 19th
Digital Avionics Systems Conference, Entering the Second Century of Powered
Flight, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 7-13 October 2000
20. Schnell, T., Wu, T., Applying Eye Tracking As Alternative Approach For
Activation Of Controls And Functions In Aircraft, in Proceedings of the HICS
2000, Fifth Annual Symposium on Human Interaction with Complex Systems,
University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, April 30 May 2, 2000
21. Schnell, T., and Zwahlen, H.T., Legibility Threshold Contrast of Uppercase Text
Seen Against a Dark Background, in Proceedings of the Human Factors and
Ergonomics Society 43rd Annual Meeting, September 27 October 1, Houston,
TX, 1999, pp. 1338-42
22. Schnell, T., and Zwahlen, H.T., Visibility of Rectangular Targets as a Function of
Length and Width, in Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics
Society 43rd Annual Meeting, September 27 October 1, Houston, TX, 1999,
pp. 1367-71

Appendix 105
23. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., "Nighttime Photometric Measurements of
Different Crossbuck Reflectorization Designs under Automobile Illumination at
Night", Proceedings of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering, 1998 Annual
Conference,2nd Transportation Specialty Conference, Operation and Safety, 4c,
1998 , pp. 149-163.
24. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., "Driver Risk Taking Behavior at Passive Railroad
Highway Grade Crossings as a Function of Different Crossbuck Designs",
Proceedings of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering, 1998 Annual
Conference,2nd Transportation Specialty Conference, Operation and Safety, 4c,
1998 , pp. 133-147.
25. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., "Advances in Passive Railroad-Highway Grade
Crossing Protection: The Photometric Performance of the Buckeye Crossbuck",
Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Railroad-Highway Grade
Crossing Research and Safety, University of Tennessee Transportation Center
and Southeastern Transportation Center, 1998.
26. Wentz, C., and Schnell, T., "Human Factors Considerations of Aircraft Displays",
Proceedings of the Advances in Aviation Safety Conference, SAE Aerospace,
Society of Automotive Engineers, SAE Aerospace, 1, 1998.
27. Schnell, T., and Zwahlen, H. T., "Accident Trends at Railroad-Highway Grade
Crossings in Ohio", Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on
Railroad-Highway Grade Crossing Research and Safety, University of Tennessee
Transportation Center and Southeastern Transportation Center, 1998.
28. Schnell, T., and Zwahlen, H. T., "Driver Risk Taking Behavior Measurements at
Passive Railroad-Highway Grade Crossings Equipped With New Crossbuck
Designs", Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Railroad-
Highway Grade Crossing Research and Safety, University of Tennessee
Transportation Center and Southeastern Transportation Center, In print, 1998.
29. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., "Field Evaluation of Crossbuck Designs for
Passive Railroad Crossings using Violations and Near Collisions Recorded with
a Train Borne Video Recording System", Proceedings of the Fourth
International Symposium on Railroad Highway Grade Crossing Research and
Safety, University of Tennessee Transportation Center and Southeastern
Transportation Center, Vol. 1, 1997, pp. 297-319.
30. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., "Target Visibility During Civil Twilight",
Proceedings of the Symposium on Vision at Low Light Levels, Photopic,
Mesopic, and Scotopic Vision, EPRI Lighting Research Office, Vol. 1, 1997 , pp.
171-196.
31. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., "Superior Traffic Sign, Pedestrian, Bicycle and
Construction Worker Conspicuity Through the Use of Retro-Reflective
Fluorescent Color Materials", Proceedings of the 13th Triennial Congress of the
International Ergonomics Association, International Ergonomics Association,
Vol. 6, 1997.
32. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., "Visibility of Pavement Markings at Night",
Proceedings of the 13th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics
Association, Vol. 6, 1997, pp. 445-447.
33. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., "Superior Traffic Sign, Pedestrian, Bicycle and
Construction Worker Conspicuity Through the Use of Retro-Reflective
Fluorescent Color Materials", Proceedings of the Triennial Congress of the
International Ergonomics Association, 1997.
34. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., "Visibility of Yellow Center Line Pavement
Markings as a Function of Line Configuration and Line Width", Proceedings of
the 40th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Human
Factors and Ergonomics Society, Vol. 2, 1996, pp. 919-922.
35. Zwahlen, H. T., Pracharktam, T., and Schnell, T., "A Method to Assign Weights of
Importance to Design Requirements in Human-Machine Systems Design",

10 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


6
Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics
Society, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Vol. 2, 1996, pp. 1046-1050.
36. Schnell, T., and Zwahlen, H. T., "Predicting the Visibility of Pavement Markings
with CARVE (Computer-Aided Road-Marking Visibility Evaluator)", Proceedings
of the Ohio Transportation Engineering Conference, The Ohio State University,
1996.
37. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., "Evaluation of Pavement Marking Systems for
Resurfacing Zones", Proceedings of the Ohio Transportation Engineering
Conference, The Ohio State University, 1996.
38. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., "Curve Warning Systems and the Delineation of
Curves with Curve Delineation Devices", Proceedings of the International
Conference on Strategic Highway Research Program and Traffic Safety on Two
Continents, Conference Road Safety in Europe and Strategic Highway Research
Program (SHRP), Vol. 1, 1996, pp. 8-22.
39. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., "Evaluation of the Buckeye Crossbuck",
Proceedings of the Ohio Transportation Engineering Conference, The Ohio
State University, 1996.
40. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., "Conspicuity Advantage of Fluorescent Color
Targets in the Field", Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the Human
Factors and Ergonomics Society, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Vol. 2,
1996 , pp. 915-918.
41. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., "Modeling the Visibility of Pavement Markings at
Night Using the Contrast Based Computer Model CARVE", Proceedings of the
International Road Federation Asia-Pacific Regional Meeting, International
Road Federation IRF, Vol. 2, 1996, pp. 221-230.
42. Zwahlen, H. T., Schnell, T., and Fenk, J., "A Combined Age-Background
Luminance Contrast Multiplication Function to Adjust the Human Contrast
Threshold More Accurately in Visibility and Legibility Evaluations", Proceedings
of the PAL-Progress in Automobile Lighting-Symposium, Darmstadt Technical
University, Vol. 1, 1995 , pp. 240-247.
43. Zwahlen, H. T., Schnell, T., and Fenk, J., "Presenting Automobile Rear Lighting
and Braking Intensity Display Arrangements Using a Specially Developed PC
Animation Software Package", Proceedings of the PAL-Progress in Automobile
Lighting-Symposium, Darmstadt Technical University, Vol. 1, 1995 , pp. 248-
253.
44. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., "Driver Eye Scanning Behavior When Reading
Symbolic Warning Signs", Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on
Vision in Vehicles, University of Derby, Vol. 1, 1995.
45. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., "Visibility Through Tinted Automobile
Windshields at Night", Proceedings of the 12th Triennial Congress of the
International Ergonomics Association, International Ergonomics Association,
Vol. 1, 1994 , pp. 267-270.
46. Zwahlen, H. T., Schnell, T., and Pascal, D., "A Quantitative Evaluation of
Pushbutton Arrangements in New Automobiles", Proceedings of the 12th
Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, International
Ergonomics Association, Vol. 1, 1994 , pp. 185-188.
47. Schnell, T., Wissensbasiertes System fuer Serielle Kommuniktion (Knowledge
based System for Serial Communication), Infobit, Ingenieurschule Bern, HTL,
Vol. 3, 1992, pp. 12-17.

OTHER TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS

Appendix 107
1. Schnell, T., Lemos, K., Keller, M., Yang, S., Synthetic Vision Systems, Optimum
Display Characteristics, Final Report, NASA Langley Research Center, Aviation
Safety Program, Hampton, VA, 2003
2. Schnell T., Aktan F., Lee Yi-Ching, Wet Weather Visibility of Pavement
Markings, Final Report, FHWA Number Assignment Pending, Federal Highway
Administration, Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center, McLean, VA, 2003
3. Schnell, T., Lemos K., Terrain Sampling Density and Texture Requirements for
Synthetic Vision Systems, Final Report, Submitted to Rockwell Collins
Advanced Technology Center, 400 Collins Rd. NE, Cedar Rapids, IA 52498, 2003
4. Schnell, T., Aktan, F., Ohme, P., Hogsett, J. Enhancing Pavement Marking
Visibility for Older Drivers, Final Report submitted to the Iowa Department of
Transportation, 800 Lincoln Way, Ames, Iowa 50010, 2003
5. Rockwell Collins SVIS Team, Synthetic Vision Information System Report of
Test at Eagle County Regional Airport, NASA SVS Phase II final Report,
January 31, 2002, Rockwell Collins, Cedar Rapids, Iowa
6. Zwahlen, HT, Schnell, T, Evaluation Of Ground Mounted Diagrammatic
Entrance Ramp Approach Signs, FHWA/OH-2000/018, Final Technical Report,
Ohio Department of Transportation
7. Schnell T., Aktan F., Mohror J., Evaluation Of Traffic Flow Analysis Tools Applied
To Work Zones Based On Flow Data Collected In The Field, Final Report
FHWA/HWA-2001/08, Ohio Department of Transportation
8. Schnell T., Merchant S., Kwon, Y., Assessing Pilot Performance in Flight Decks
Equipped with Synthetic Vision Information Systems, Rockwell Collins
Advanced Technology Center Final Report, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 2001
9. Schnell, T., "Legibility Optimization of Uppercase Alphanumeric Text for
Displaying Messages in Traffic Applications", 1998, Ph.D. Dissertation,
Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Ohio
University, Athens, Ohio 45701-2979, 471 pages.
10. Zwahlen, H. T., and Schnell, T., "Evaluation of Temporary Pavement Marking
Systems for Resurfacing Zones", July 1996, Final Report FHWA/OH-96/015,
Prepared for Ohio Department of Transportation in Cooperation with US DOT,
Columbus, Ohio.
11. Schnell, T., "The Development of a PC Based Pavement Marking Visibility
Evaluation Model", 1994, Master Thesis, Department of Industrial Engineering,
Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701-2979, 189 pages.
12. Schnell, T., "Expertensystem fuer Serielle Kommunikation (Expert System for
Serial Communication)", 1992, Diploma Project, Department of Electrical
Engineering, Institute of Technology of the State of Bern, Bern, Switzerland,
225 pages.

10 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


8
FUAT AKTAN, PH.D.
Operator Performance Laboratory
Center for Computer Aided Design (CCAD)
234 ERF, University of Iowa
Iowa City, IA 52242
Office Phone: 319/384-0572; Office Fax: 319/384-0542
e-mail: fuat-aktan@uiowa.edu

EDUCATION
2000-2003 The University of Iowa Iowa City, IA
Ph.D., Industrial Engineering. (GPA: 3.90)
Dissertation Topic: Assessment of Modeling of the Glare Induced by Tungsten-Halogen
and High-Intensity Gas Discharge Headlamps.
1998-2000 The University of Iowa Iowa City, IA
M.S., Industrial Engineering. (GPA: 3.90)
Thesis Subject: A Nighttime Driver Visibility Model for Ultra-Violet Activated Pavement
Markings and Ultra-Violet Headlamps.
1997-1998 Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey
MBA, School of Business and Economics. - Suspended
1992-1997 Bogazici University Istanbul, Turkey
B.S., Industrial Engineering.
Honors Thesis: Image Processing and Object Recognition for Production Facility
Conveyor Belts using High Order Polynomial Approximations
1989-1992 Istanbul High School of Science Istanbul, Turkey
3-year high school education, emphasis on Mathematics and Physics.

AWARDS AND HONORS


1. 25th best from top in the highly competitive University Entrance Examination
among approximately 800,000 high school graduates in Turkey in 1992.
2. 13th from top in postgraduate education entrance exam (LES) among nearly
27,000 graduate engineers in Turkey in 1998.
3. Physics Olympics Team member of 1991 in Turkey, coordinated by the
Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), which is a
foundation of Turkish Government.
4. First best in the mathematics competition directed by the "Scientific and
Technical Research Council of Turkey" in Eastern Turkey in 1989.
5. Scholarships from Vehbi Koc Foundation for five years during the
undergraduate education due to the level of success in general "University
Entrance Exams".
6. Scholarships from three private institutes of university entrance exam
practicing agencies during the entire undergraduate education and for the last
two years in high school.
7. 156th best from top in the general "High School of Science" exam in Turkey in
1989 among nearly 100,000 candidates and qualified for entering the "Istanbul
Ataturk High School of Science".

RESEARCH CONTRACTS

Sept 02-May03, Pavement Marking Visibility Performance under Dry, Wet, and Rainy
Conditions in the Field, 3M, $15,000.

Sept 03-Feb 05, Development of a "Fixed Roadway Lighting Module" for the Target
Visibility Predictor (TarVIP) Computer Model $145,718, 50% PI with Thomas Schnell.

Appendix 109
SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES
Member of the Roadsigns Technical Committee (TC 4-38) of the International Committee on
Illumination (CIE) Division 4, Lighting and Signaling for Transport, 02/01
present.
Member of Transportation Research Board (TRB) Committee on Marking and Signing
Materials (A3C12), 01/02 present.
Member of Transportation Research Board (TRB) Committee on Vehicle User
Characteristics (A3B02), 2002 present.
Member of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 1999 present
1. Member of National Alpha-Pi-Mu Industrial Engineering Honor Society, 2000
present.

ARTICLES IN TECHNICAL JOURNALS WITH RIGOROUS REVIEW PROCEDURES

1. Schnell T., Aktan F., Lee Y., Nighttime Visibility and Retroreflectance of
Pavement Markings under Dry, Wet, and Rainy Conditions, In Press,
Transportation Research Record 1824, Transportation Research Board, National
Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 2003
2. Schnell, T., Aktan, F., Lee, Y., "Driver Looking Behavior in, School Zones with
Fluorescent Yellow Green and Normal Yellow Signs", In review, Journal of Safety
Research, April, 2003.
3. Schnell, T., Aktan, F., Ohme, P. J., and Yang, S., "Various Strategies to Increase
Pavement Marking Visibility for Older Drivers", in review, Journal of Safety
Research, April, 2003.
4. Aktan, F., Schnell, T., "Performance Evaluation of Pavement Markings under Dry,
Wet, and Rainy Conditions in the Field", Paper submitted for Presentation at the
83rd Annual TRB Meeting, January 2004, and for review for publication in
Transportation Research Record, Washington, D.C., 2004
5. Schnell, T., Aktan, F., Li, C., "Traffic Sign Luminance Requirements of Nighttime
Drivers for Symbolic Signs", Paper Submitted for Presentation at the 83rd
Annual TRB Meeting, January 2004 and for review for publication in
Transportation Research Record, Washington, D.C.
6. Schnell T., Mohror, J., Aktan F., Evaluation Of Traffic Flow Analysis Tools
Applied To Work Zones Based On Flow Data Collected In The Field,
Transportation Research Record 1811, Transportation Research Board, National
Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 2002
7. Schnell, T., Aktan, F., McGehee, D.V., Dvorak, M., Hunt, J., Reyes, A., Sorak, D.,
Pedestrian Visibility under Automobile Lowbeam Headlight Illumination, with
and without Headlight Covers, Transportation Research Record 1773,
Transportation Research Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC,
2001

ARTICLES, CHAPTERS, ABSTRACTS, AND SUMMARIES IN RESEARCH


MONOGRAPHS, CONFERENCE/SYMPOSIUM/CONGRESS PROCEEDINGS,
HANDBOOKS, ETC.

1. Aktan F., Schnell T., Li C., A Theoretical Approach For The Derivation Of
Legibility Threshold Luminance Contrast Data For Road Sign Applications, in
Proceedings of the 16th Biennial Symposium on Visibility and Simulation, June 2-4,
2002, Iowa City, Iowa
2. Aktan F., Schnell T., A Web-Based Legibility Threshold And Road Sign
Luminance Contrast Calculator For Nighttime Driving Conditions, in Proceedings

11 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


0
of the 16th Biennial Symposium on Visibility and Simulation, June 2-4, 2002, Iowa
City, Iowa
3. Aktan F., Schnell T., The Development Of A Nighttime Driver Visibility Model
For Ultra-Violet Activated Pavement Markings, In Proceedings of the 2001 Progress
in Automotive Lighting (PAL), Darmstadt, Germany, 2001
4. Aktan F., Schnell T., TARVIP, A PC Based Visibility Model for Normal and UV-
Activated Pavement Markings, In Proceedings of the Human Factors and
Ergonomics Society 45th Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, October, 2001.
5. An Interactive Computer Model to Determine the Nighttime Visibility of Normal
and UV Activated Pavement Markings Under Normal and UV Headlamp
Illumination, Proceedings of the CIE Istanbul 2001 International Lighting
Congress, 12-14 September, Istanbul, Turkey, 2001.
6. Aktan F., Schnell T., Glare Induced by Automobile Headlights; A Statistical
Analysis of Driver Eye Fixation Behavior, Proceedings of the Spring Research
Conference on Statistics in Industry and Technology, June 4-6, 2003, Dayton, OH.
7. Schnell, T, Ohme P., Aktan F., and Hogsett J., Enhancing Pavement Marking
Visibility for Older Drivers, Final Technical Report, Iowa Department of
Transportation, Ames, Iowa, 2001.

SELECTED PRESENTATIONS
1. Human Factors Research at the OPL, Driving Simulator Symposium,
SC, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, October 18, 2001.
2. Shedding Light on Visibility Models, TRB 81st Annual Meeting, W-8
Workshop, Washington DC, Jan 12, 2002.
3. Modeling the Visibility of Roadway Objects under Automobile Headlamp
Illumination and Glare, Graduate Seminar of Industrial and Mechanical
Engineering Department, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, March 14, 2002.

Appendix 111
PIETER POOLMAN, PH.D.
POST DOCTORAL RESEARCHER
Post Doctoral Researcher, Operator Performance Laboratory (OPL)
234 Engineering Research Facility
University of Iowa
Iowa City, IA 52242-1527
Office phone: (319) 384-0572; Office FAX (319) 335-5424
E-mail: ppoolman@ccad.uiowa.edu

EDUCATION
B.Eng Civil Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, 1996
M.Eng Traffic Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, 1998
Ph.D. Traffic Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, 2003

CURRENT POSITION
Post Doctoral Researcher, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Iowa

EXPERIENCE
Research Assistant, Institute of Transportation Technology, University of Stellenbosch ,
199706/1998
Research Engineer, Center of Transportation Research, University of Texas, 07/1998-1999
Research Engineer, Institute of Transportation Technology, University of Stellenbosch ,
20002002

AWARDS
1996 ECSA (Engineering Council of South Africa) Medal for Best B.Eng Graduand by
Merit at University of Stellenbosch
1996 ESCOM Prize for Best B.Eng Graduand by Merit in South Africa
1997 NRF (National Research Foundation South Africa) Fellowship for Master's studies
1998 H.L. Reitz Medal for Best Graduate Student in Civil Engineering at University of
Stellenbosch
1999 IRF (International Road Federation) Fellowship for Exchange Program at
University of Texas at Austin
1999 NRF (National Research Foundation South Africa) Fellowship for PhD studies
2003 NRF (National Research Foundation South Africa) Fellowship for Post Doctoral
studies

PUBLICATIONS
1. Poolman, P.; Bester, C.J. (2000). Towards a New Approach for the Design of the
Alignment of Highways and Railroads. Proceedings of the 2nd International
Symposium on Highway Geometric Design in Mainz, Germany.
2. Machemehl, R.B.; Rioux, T.W.; Tsyganov, A.; Poolman, P. (2001). Freeway
Operational Flexibility Concepts. Project Summary Report 1844-S, University of
Texas, Austin, TX.
3. Hugo, F.; Poolman, P. (2001). A Critical Analysis of WesTrack MMLS3 and Truck
Rut Data. Appendix A in FHWA/TX-01/2134-1, Texas Department of
Transportation, Austin, TX.

11 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


2
4. Hugo, F.; Poolman, P. (2001). A Critical Review of the Quantitative Analysis of
MMLS3 and Truck Rutting Performance at WesTrack. Appendix B in FHWA/TX-
01/2134-1, Texas Department of Transportation, Austin, TX.
5. Poolman, P.; Bester C.J. (2003). Towards an Experimental Platform for Future
Driver Behavior Research based on the Integration of Engineering and
Neuroscientific Know-How. Submitted and Accepted for Presentation at the
Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C.

Appendix 113
Frank L. Schmidt
Professor, Department of Management and Organizations
College of Business-University of Iowa
Iowa City, Iowa 52242
Office phone: (319) 335 0949; Office FAX: 319:335-1956
E-mail: frank-schmidt@uiowa.edu

EDUCATION

B. A. - Psychology, Bellarmine College, 1966


M. S. - Industrial Psychology, Purdue University, 1968
Ph.D. - Industrial Psychology, Purdue University, 1970

SPECIAL INTERESTS

Personnel testing, selection, and placement; relation of selection and other personnel
programs to workforce productivity and output; abilities, aptitudes and personality traits;
integrity testing; performance testing; statistical issues in validation research; validity
generalization in employment testing; statistical and other methods for integrating
research findings across studies; meta-analysis; test theory; racial problems and
differences in the workplace; sex differences in occupationally relevant traits; computer
simulation of psychometric problems; application of learning principles in industrial
settings; role of experience in job performance; causal models and theories of job
performance.

EXPERIENCE AND EMPLOYMENT: ACADEMIC

Ralph L. Sheets Professor of Human Resources, Department of Management and


Organizations, University of Iowa, fall 1985 to present.
Visiting Professor, Australian Graduate School of Management, Sydney, Australia, 1982.
Research Professor of Industrial Psychology, George Washington University, spring 1976 to
fall 1985.
Associate Professor of Industrial Psychology. Michigan State University, spring 1973 to fall
1974.
Assistant Professor of Industrial Psychology, Michigan State University, fall 1970 to spring
1973.
Instructor in psychology, Western Kentucky University, spring 1969.
Research and teaching assistant, Purdue University, 1966-1968.

EXPERIENCE AND EMPLOYMENT: NONACADEMIC

Consultant to U.S. Army Research Institute, 2003.


Member, Technical Advisory Board for ePredix, Inc., 1999 to present.
Member, Advisory Board for Gallup-SRI, Inc., 1993 to present.
Member, Advisory Board for Work Key Project, American College Testing, 1993 to present.
Member, National Advisory Committee of the Buros Institute of Mental Measurements,
1993 to 1999.
Technical advisor to the National Adult Literacy Survey (U.S. Department of Education),
1990-1993.
Expert witness on selection and psychometric questions in twelve Title VII court cases.
Two year research contract with U.S. Department of Labor.

11 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


4
Psychometric Advisor to National Task Force on Learning Disabilities (1983-84).
Member, Board of Technical Advisors, Richardson, Bellows & Henry, Inc. (now ePredix,
Inc.), Washington, D.C., 1981 to present.
Research psychologist, U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Washington, D.C., Fall 1974
to Fall 1985.
Staff Psychologist, Personnel Evaluation Section, General Motors Institute, Summer 1968.
Personnel Research for Henry Ford Hospital and Chrysler Corporation.
Consultant to Michigan State Police, Michigan Department of Civil
Service, Michigan Law Enforcement Officers Training Council, Interstate
Brands Corporation, Michigan State University Highway Traffic Safety
Research Center, American Telephone and Telegraph Company, and American
Petroleum Institute, Sears Roebuck, Almaden Wine Company, ARRO, General Motors,
Philadelphia Electric Company, Information Sciences, Inc., Psychological Services, Inc.,
Booz Allen and Hamilton, Ashland Oil Co., Central Intelligence Agency, Congressional
Office of Technology, Gallup Organization, and other organizations.

AWARDS and HONORS

Distinguished Career Achievement Award for Contributions to Research Methods, Academy


of Management, Research Methods Division, 2002.
Appointed to U.S. State Department Board of Examiners, 1995 to 2003. (Board established
by Congress to advise on selection of Foreign Service Officers.)
Heneman Distinguished Career Award for Research Contributions to Human Resources.
Academy of Management, Human Resources Division, 1995.
Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award (with John Hunter) from the Society for
Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1995.
Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award (with John Hunter) from the American
Psychological Association, 1995.
Directed three dissertations that won the S. Rains Wallace Best Dissertation Award from
Division 14
of APA (Kenneth Pearlman, 1983; Deniz Ones, 1994; C. Viswesvaran, 1995)
Elected President of Division 5 of the American Psychological Association. Division of
Evaluation, Measurement and Statistics. Term: 1993-1994.
Appointed to Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing. Term: 1986-1989.
Appointed Chair of the Committee, 1987-89. (Committee established by Congress)
Appointed to Advisory Board of the Test Validity Yearbook. 1988 to present.
Appointed to Liaison Advisory Group to the Committee on the General Aptitude Test
Battery of the National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, Washington,
D.C., 1986-89.
Advisor to APA-AERA-NCME Joint Committee to develop Technical Standards for
Educational and Psychological Tests, 1982-1984.
Invited (with John E. Hunter) to write Employment Testing article for October 1981 Special
Issue on Testing of The American Psychologist.
Elected Fellow of APA and Division 14, 1979; Fellow Div. 5, 1983.
Granted tenure in The Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, after only
three years.
1976 James McKeen Cattell Research Design Award (with John E. Hunter)
National Defense Education Act Fellow 1966-1969.
Earnest Myers Memorial Research Award, 1966. (Best undergraduate research study in
state of Kentucky) Woodrow Wilson Fellow, 1966.

PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS AND ACTIVITIES

Appendix 115
Member, Academy of Management, Heneman Career Award Committee, 2000-Present.
Member, American Psychological Association Awards Committee, 1997-1999; Chair 1999-
2000.
Science Liaison to the American Psychological Association for Division 5 of APA.
Member, Society for Multivariate Experimental Psychology. Elected to membership, 1995.
Member, James McKeen Cattell Fellow Award Committee, American Psychological Society,
1994-1995.
President, Division of Measurement, Statistics, and Evaluation (Division 5 of the American
Psychological Association), 1993-1994.
Secretary-Treasurer, Scientist-Practitioner Coalition of APA Council of
Representatives, 1984.
Division 14 Representative to APA Council of Representatives, 1983-1986.
Member, Division 14 ad hoc committee on Innovations in Methodology, 1979-1981.
Member, Division 14 Committee to revise Principles for Employee Selection,
1978-1980.
Member, Division 14 Executive Committee and Long Range Planning Committee, 1979-
1982.
Member, Division 14 Program Committee, 1977-1978 and 1978-1979.
Member, Division 14 Committee on Committees, 1976-1977.
Society for Organizational Behavior (1976-1983; 1986 to present); Member, Board of
Directors, 1992-1995.
President (1975), Midwestern Society of Multivariate Experimental Psychologists.
Academy of Management
American Psychological Association
Division 14 (Fellow)
Division 5 (Fellow)
American Psychological Society (Charter Fellow)
Sigma Xi

EDITORIAL BOARD MEMBERSHIPS

Journal of Applied Psychology (1974 - 2002)


Human Resource Management Review (6/91 to present)
Quantitative Series in the Social Sciences (Sage), (1994 to present)
International Journal of Selection and Assessment (2001 to present)
Organizational Behavior and Human Performance (8/74 to 4/84)
Academy of Management Journal (9/75 to 4/77)
Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (1973-1975)

RESEARCH GRANTS AND CONTRACTS

State of Iowa, Department of Personnel, $20,000, 1998-2001.


State of Iowa, Department of Personnel, $10,000, 1993-1994.
U.S. Office of Naval Research, $10,000, 1993-1994.
U.S. Office of Naval Research, $10,000, 1992-1993.
Naval Personnel Research and Development Center, San Diego, $20,000, 1987-1988.
U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Division, $150,000, 1972-1974.

RESEARCH STUDIES PUBLISHED OR IN PRESS

1. Ones, D.S., Viswesvaran, C., & Schmidt, F.L. (2003). Personality and absenteeism: A
meta-analysis. European Journal of Personality, 17, 19 38.
2. Schmidt, F.L., Le, H., & Ilies, R. (in press). Beyond Alpha: An empirical examination

11 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


6
of the effects of different sources of measurement error on reliability estimates for
measures of individual differences constructs. Psychological Methods.
3. Schmidt, F.L., & Hunter, J.E. (in press). SED banding as a test of intellectual honesty
in I/O psychology. To appear in H. Aguinis (Ed.), Test score banding in human
resource selection: Legal, technical, and societal issues. Quorum Books.
4. Schmidt, F.L., & Hunter, J.E. (2003). History, development, evolution, and impact of
validity generalization and meta-analytic methods, 1975 2002. In K.R. Murphy
(Ed.), Validity generalization: A critical review. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, pp. 31 66.
5. Orlitzky, M., Schmidt, F.L., & Rynes, S.L. (2003). Corporate social and financial
performance: A meta-analysis. Organizational Studies, 24, 403 441.
6. Schmidt, F.L., & Hunter, J.E. (in press). General mental ability in the world of work:
Occupational attainment and job performance. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology.
7. Collins, J.M., Schmidt, F.L., Sanchez-Ku, M., Thomas, L., McDaniel, M.A., & Le, H.
(2003). Can individual differences shed light on the construct meaning of
assessment centers. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 11, 17 29.
8. Harter, J.K., Schmidt, F.L., & Keyes, C.L. (2003). Well-being in the workplace and its
relationship to business outcomes: A review of the Gallup Studies. In C. L. Keyes & J.
Haidt (Eds.), Flourishing: Positive psychology and the life well-lived. Washington,
DC: American Psychological Association, pp. 205 224.
9. Yoon, K., Schmidt, F.L., & Ilies, R. (2002). Cross-cultural construct validity of the
Five-Factor Model of personality among Korean employees. Journal of Cross
Cultural Psychology, 33, 215 233.
10. Viswesvaran, C., Schmidt, F.L., & Ones, D.S. (2002). The moderating influence of job
performance dimensions on convergence of supervisory and peer ratings of job
performance: Unconfounding construct-level congruence and rating difficulty.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 345 354.
11. Schmidt, F.L., & Hunter, J.E. (2002). Are there benefits to null hypothesis
significance testing? American Psychologist, 57, 65 66.
12. Harter, J.K., Schmidt, F.L., & Hayes, T.L. (2002). Business unit level relationships
between employee satisfaction/engagement and business outcomes: A meta-
analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 268 279.
13. Schmidt, F.L. (2002). The role of general cognitive ability in job performance: Why
there cannot be a debate. Human Performance, 15, 187 210.
14. Campion, M.A., Outtz, J.L., Zedek, S., Schmidt, F.L., Kehoe, J.F., Murphy, K.R., &
Guion, R.M. (2001). The controversy over score banding in personnel selection:
Answers to 11 key questions. Personnel Psychology, 54, 149 185. (Author order
does not reflect relative contributions.)
15. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (2001). Meta-analysis in applied research. In D. S.
Ones, N. Anderson, H. K. Sinangil, & C. Viswesvaran (Eds.), Handbook of work,
industrial and organizational psychology. London: Sage. (pp. 51 71)
16. Schmidt, F.L., Viswesvaran, C., & Ones, D.S. (2000). Reliability is not validity and
validity is not reliability. Personnel Psychology, 53, 901-912.
17. Schmidt, F.L., & Hunter, J.E. (in press). Meta-Analysis. Chapter 21 in Comprehensive
Handbook of Psychology, Vol. 2: Research Methods in Psychology. John Schinka &
Wayne Velicer (Eds.), pp. 533 554.
18. Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (2000). Fixed vs. random effects meta-analysis
models: Implications for cumulative research knowledge. International Journal of
Selection and Assessment, 8, 275-292.
19. Hunter, J. E., Schmidt, F. L., Rauschenberger, J. M., & Jayne, M. E. (2000).
Intelligence, motivation, and job performance. Chapter in C. L. Cooper, & E. A. Locke
(Eds.), I/O psychology: Linking theory with practice. Malden, MA:Blackwell
Publishers, 278-303.
20. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (2000). Select on intelligence. Chapter in E. A. Locke
(Ed.), Handbook of principles of organizational behavior. Malden, MA: Blackwell

Appendix 117
Publishers, 3-14.
21. Judiesch, M. K., & Schmidt, F. L. (2000). Between worker variability in output under
piece-rate versus hourly pay systems. Journal of Business and Psychology, 14, 529-
552.
22. Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (2000). Racial and gender bias in ability and
achievement tests: Resolving the apparent paradox. Psychology, Public Policy, and
Law, 6, 151 158.
23. Gardner, S., Frantz, R. A., & Schmidt, F. L. (1999). The effect of electrical
stimulation on chronic wound healing: A meta-analysis. Nursing Research, 7, 495-
503.
24. Carlson, K. D., Scullen, S. E., Schmidt, F. L., Rothstein, H. R., & Erwin, F. (1999).
Generalizable biographical data validity: Is multi-organizational development and
keying necessary? Personnel Psychology, 52, 731-756.
25. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1999). Comparison of three meta-analysis methods
revisited: An analysis of Johnson, Mullen, and Salas (1995). Journal of Applied
Psychology, 84, 144-148.
26. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1999). Bias in standardized educational and
employment tests as justification for racial preferences in affirmative action
programs. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 17, 285-302.
27. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1999). Theory testing and measurement error.
Intelligence, 27, 183-198.
28. Schmidt, F. L., & Radar, M. (1999). Exploring the boundary conditions for interview
validity: Meta-analytic validity findings for a new interview type. Personnel
Psychology, 52, 445-464.
29. Carlson, K. D., & Schmidt, F. L. (1999). Impact of experimental design on effect size:
Findings from the research literature on training. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84,
851-862.
30. Schmidt, F. L. (1998). Validity generalization. In C. L. Cooper, & C. Argyris (Eds.),
Encyclopedia of management. London: Blackwell Publishers, 677-678.
31. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1998). The validity and utility of selection methods in
personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research
findings. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 262-274.
32. Collins, J. M., & Schmidt, F. L. (1997). Can suppressor variables enhance criterion-
related validity in the personality domain? Educational and Psychological
Measurement, 57, 924-936.
33. Schmidt, F.L., Viswesvaran, V., & Ones, D.S. (1997). Validity of integrity tests for
predicting drug and alcohol abuse. Research Monograph Series (National Institute
on Drug Abuse), 170, 69 96.
34. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J.E. (1997). Eight common but false objections to the
discontinuation of statistical significance testing. In L. Harlow, S. Mulaik, & J.
Steiger (Eds.), What if there were no signficance tests? Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates.
35. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1997). Measurable personnel characteristics:
Stability, variability, and validity for predicting future job performance and job
related learning. In M. Kleinmann, & Bernd Strauss (Eds.), Instruments for potential
assessment and personnel development. Gottingen, Germany: Hogrefe. (This
chapter is in German.)
36. Schmidt, F. L. (1997). Validity generalization. In L. Peters, L. Youngblood, & R. Greer
(Eds.), Dictionary of human resource management (pp. 381-382). Maldon, MA:
Blackwell Publishers.
37. Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1996). Intelligence and job performance: Economic
and social implications. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 2, 447-472.
38. Judiesch, M. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Mount, M. K. (1996). An improved method for
estimating selection utility. Journal of Human Resource Costing and Accounting, 1,
31-42.

11 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


8
39. Viswesvaran, C., Ones, D. S., & Schmidt, F. L. (1996). Comparative analysis of the
reliability of job performance ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 557-560.
40. Schmidt, F. L. (1996). Statistical significance testing and cumulative knowledge in
psychology: Implications for the training of researchers. Psychological Methods, 1,
115-129. (Reprinted in A. E. Kazdin (Ed.), Methodological issues and strategies in
clinical research. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.)
41. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1996). Measurement error in psychological research:
Lessons from 26 research scenarios. Psychological Methods, 1, 199-223.
42. Ones, D. S., Schmidt, F. L., & Viswesvaran, C. (1996). Controversies over integrity
testing: Two viewpoints. Journal of Business and Psychology, 10, 487-501.
43. Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1996). Cumulative research knowledge and social
policy formulation: The critical role of meta-analysis. Psychology, Public Policy, and
Law, 2, 324-347.
44. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1995). The impact of data analysis methods on
cumulative knowledge: Statistical significance testing, confidence intervals, and
meta-analysis. Evaluation and the Health Professions, 18, 408-427.
45. Schmidt, F. L. (1995). Co naprawde oznaczaja dane? Wyniki badawcze, meta-analiza
i wiedza Kumulatywna w psychologii. Czasopismo Psychologiczne, 1, 19-32. (Polish
translation and reprinting of article No. 90.)
46. Ones, D. S., & Schmidt, F. L. (1995). Integrity tests: Overlooked facts, resolved
issues, and remaining questions about predictive validity, construct validity, and in-
house research. American Psychologist, 50, 456-457.
47. Schmidt, F. L. (1995). Why all banding procedures in personnel selection are
logically flawed. Human Performance, 8, 165-178. (Reprinted from an earlier issue
of the same journal; see No. 84.)
48. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1995). The fatal internal contradiction in banding: Its
statistical rationale is logically inconsistent with its operational procedures. Human
Performance, 8, 203-214.
49. Law, K. S., Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1994). A test of two refinements in meta-
analysis procedures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 978-986.
50. Schmidt, F. L. (1994). The future of personnel selection in the U.S. Army. In R.
Rumsey, C. B. Walker, & J. H. Harris (Eds.), Personnel selection and classification.
Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates, 333-350.
51. McDaniel, M. A., Whetzel, D. L., Schmidt, F. L., & Mauer, S. (1994). The validity of
employment interviews: A comprehensive review and meta-analysis. Journal of
Applied Psychology, 79, 599-616.
52. Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1994). The estimation of sampling error variance in
meta-analysis of correlations: The homogeneous case. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 79, 171-177.
53. Law, K. S., Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1994). Nonlinearity of range corrections in
meta-analysis: A test of an improved procedure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79,
425-438.
54. Viswesvaran, C., & Schmidt, F. L. (1994). A meta-analytic method to detect clusters
of decision makers. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 58,
304-321.
55. Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1994). Correcting for sources of artifactual variation
across studies. In H. T. Cooper, & L. V. Hedges (Eds.), Handbook of research
synthesis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 323-336.
56. Schmidt, F. L., & Rothstein, H. R. (1994). Application of validity generalization
methods of meta-analysis to biographical data scores in employment selection. In G.
S. Stokes, M. D. Mumford, & W. A. Owens (Eds.), The biodata handbook: Theory,
research, and applications. Consulting Psychologists Press, 237-260.
57. Schmidt, F. L. (1993). Data, theory and meta-analysis: Response to Hoyle. American
Psychologist, 48, 1096.
58. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1993). Tacit knowledge, practical intelligence,

Appendix 119
general mental ability, and job knowledge. Current Directions in Psychological
Science, 2, 8-9.
59. Collins, J. M., & Schmidt, F. L. (1993). Personality, integrity, and white collar
criminality. Personnel Psychology, 46, 295-311.
60. Ones, D. S., Viswesvaran, C., & Schmidt, F. L. (1993). Meta-analysis of integrity test
validities: Findings and implications for personnel selection and theories of job
performance. Journal of Applied Psychology Monograph, 78, 679-703.
61. Schmidt, F. L., Law, K., Hunter, J. E., Rothstein, H. R., Pearlman, K., & McDaniel, M.
(1993). Refinements in validity generalization methods: Implications for the
situational specificity hypothesis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 3-13.
62. Judiesch, M. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1993). The judgment problem in
utility analysis remains unsolved. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 903-911.
63. Schmidt, F. L. (1993). Personnel psychology at the cutting edge. Chapter in N.
Schmitt, & W. Borman (Eds.), Personnel selection. San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 497-
515.
64. Judiesch, M. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Mount, M. K. (1992). Estimates of the dollar value
of job performance in utility analysis: An empirical test of two theories. Journal of
Applied Psychology, 77, 234-250.
65. Viswesvaran, C., & Schmidt, F. L. (1992). Meta-analytic comparisons of the
effectiveness of smoking cessation methods. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 554-
561.
66. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1992). Development of causal models of processes
determining job performance. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1, 89-92.
67. Schmidt, F. L. (1992). What do data really mean? Research findings, meta-analysis,
and cumulative knowledge in psychology. American Psychologist, 47, 1173-1181.
68. Schmidt, F. L., Ones, D., & Hunter, J. E. (1992). Personnel selection. Annual Review
of Psychology, 43, 627-670 (43 pages).
69. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1991). Employment testing: Old theories and new
research findings. In Cary L. Cooper (Ed.), Industrial and organizational psychology
- Volume I. Hants, England: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited. (Reprinted from
earlier journal article.)
70. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1991). Development of a general solution to the
problem of validity generalization. In Cary L. Cooper (Ed.), Industrial and
organizational psychology - Volume I. Hants, England: Edward Elgar Publishing
Limited. (Reprinted from earlier journal article.)
71. Schmidt, F. L., Hunter, J. E., McKenzie, R. C., & Muldrow, T. W. (1991). Impact of
valid selection procedures on work force productivity. In Cary L. Cooper (Ed.),
Industrial and organizational psychology - Volume I. Hants, England: Edward Elgar
Publishing Limited. (Reprinted from earlier journal article.)
72. Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1991). Fairness and bias in job testing. Issues in
Science and Technology, 7, 1, 27.
73. Schmidt, F. L. (1991). Why all banding procedures in personnel selection are
logically flawed. Human Performance, 4, 265-278.
74. Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1991). Meta-analysis. In R. K. Hambleton, & J. N. Zaal
(Eds.), Advances in educational and psychological testing: Theory and applications.
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
75. Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1990). Meta-analysis: Facts and theories. In M.
Smith, & I. Robertson (Eds.), Advances in personnel selection and assessment.
Chichester, England: Wiley (pp. 203-216).
76. Rothstein, H. R., Schmidt, F. L., Erwin, F. W., Owens, W. A., & Sparks, C. P. (1990).
Biographical data in employment selection: Can validities be made generalizable?
Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 175-184.
77. Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1990). Dichotomization of continuous variables: The
implications for meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 334-349.
78. Hunter, J. E., Schmidt, F. L., & Judiesch, M. K. (1990). Individual differences in

12 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


0
output variability as a function of job complexity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75,
28-42.
79. McDaniel, M. A., & Schmidt, F. L. (1989). Computer-assisted staffing systems: The
use of computers in implementing meta-analysis and utility research in personnel
selection. Public Personnel Management, 18, 75-85.
80. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1989). Interrater reliability coefficients cannot be
computed when only one stimulus is rated. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 368-
370.
81. Schmidt, F. L. (1988). The problem of group differences in ability scores in
employment selection. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 33, 272-292.
82. Schmidt, F. L. (1988). Validity generalization and the future of criterion-related
validity. In H. Wainer and H. I. Braun (Eds.), Test validity, pp. 173-190, Hillsdale, NJ:
Erlbaum.
83. McDaniel, M. A., Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1988). A meta-analysis of the
validity of methods for rating training and experience in personnel selection.
Personnel Psychology, 41, 283-314.
84. McDaniel, M. A., Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1988). Job experience correlates of
job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 327-330.
85. Hunter, J. E., Schmidt, F. L., & Coggin, T. D. (1988). Problems and pitfalls in using
capital budgeting and financial accounting techniques in assessing the utility of
personnel programs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 522-528.
86. Schmidt, F. L., Hunter, J. E., Outerbridge, A. N., & Goff, S. (1988). The joint relation
of experience and ability with job performance: A test of three hypotheses. Journal
of Applied Psychology, 73, 46-57.
87. Schmidt, F. L., Hunter, J. E., & Raju, N. S. (1988). Validity generalization and
situational specificity: A second look at the 75% rule and the Fisher Z
transformation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 665-672.
88. Rauschenberger, J., & Schmidt, F. L. (1987). Application of utility analysis to
personnel programs. Journal of Business and Psychology, 2, 50-59.
89. Hunter, J. E., Schmidt, F. L., & Jackson, G. B. (1987). Meta-analysis: Integrating
research findings across studies. In G. B. Biederman, & M. C. Smith (Eds.), Readings
in psychological research: Advances in experimental methodology and design.
Toronto: Canadian Scholarly Press. (Reprinted from earlier book.)
90. Hirsh, H. R., Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1986). Estimation of employment test
validities by less experienced judges. Personnel Psychology, 39, 337-344.
91. Schmidt, F. L., Hunter, J. E., & Outerbridge, A. N. (1986). The impact of job
experience and ability on job knowledge, work sample performance, and supervisory
ratings of job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 432-439.
92. Hirsh, H. R., Northroup, L., & Schmidt, F. L. (1986). Validity generalization results
for law enforcement occupations. Personnel Psychology, 39, 399-420.
93. McDaniel, M. A., Hirsh, H. R., Schmidt, F. L., Raju, N. S., & Hunter, J. E. (1986).
Interpreting the results of meta-analytic research: A comment on Schmitt, Gooding,
Noe, and Kirsch. Personnel Psychology, 39, 141-148.
94. Schmidt, F. L., Hunter, J. E., Outerbridge, A. M., & Trattner, M. H. (1986). The
economic impact of job selection methods on the size, productivity, and payroll costs
of the Federal work-force: An empirical demonstration. Personnel Psychology, 39, 1-
29.
95. Schmidt, F. L., Ocasio, B. P., Hillery, J. M., & Hunter, J. E. (1985). Further within
setting empirical tests of the situational specificity hypothesis in personnel
selection. Personnel Psychology, 38, 509-524.
96. Schmidt, F. L., Hunter, J. E., Pearlman, K., & Hirsh, H. R. (1985). Forty questions
about validity generalization and meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 38, 697-798.
97. Cornelius, E. T., Schmidt, F. L., & Carron, T. J. (1984). Job classification approaches
and the implementation of validity generalization results. Personnel Psychology, 37,
247-260.

Appendix 121
98. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1984). A within-setting test of the situational
specificity hypothesis in personnel selection. Personnel Psychology, 37, 317-326.
99. Schmidt, F. L., Mack, M. J., & Hunter, J. E. (1984). Selection utility in the occupation
of U.S. Park Ranger for three modes of test use. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69,
490-497.
100. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (in press). The impact of job selection methods on
workforce productivity: The firm and the economy. Chapter to appear in R. H.
Franke (Ed.), The science of productivity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc.
101. Hunter, J. E., Schmidt, F. L., & Rauschenberger, J. (1984). Methodological and
statistical issues in the study of bias in mental testing. In C. R. Reynolds, & R. T.
Brown (Eds.), Perspectives on bias in mental testing, New York: Plenum Press.
102. Schmidt, F. L., Hunter, J. E., Croll, P. R., & McKenzie, R. C. (1983). Estimation of
employment test validities by expert judgment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68,
590-601.
103. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1983). Individual differences in productivity: An
empirical test of estimates derived from studies of selection procedure utility.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 407-415.
104. Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1982). Quantifying the effects of psychological
interventions on employee job performance and work force productivity. American
Psychologist, 38, 473-478.
105. Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1982). Ability tests: Economic benefits versus the
issue of fairness. Industrial Relations, 21, (3), 293-308.
106. Hunter, J.E., Schmidt, F. L., & Pearlman, K. (1982). The history and accuracy of
validity generalization equations: A response to the Callender and Osburn reply.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 853-858.
107. Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt F. L. (1982). Fitting people to jobs: Implications of
personnel selection for national productivity. In E. A. Fleishman and M. D. Dunnette
(Eds.) Human performance and productivity. Volume I: Human capability
assessment (233-284). Hillsdale, NJ: Earlbaum.
108. Schmidt, F. L., Hunter, J. E., & Pearlman, K. (1982). Progress in validity
generalization: Comments on Callender and Osburn and further development.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 835-845.
109. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1982). Two pitfalls in assessing fairness of selection
tests using the regression model. Personnel Psychology, 35, 601-607.
110. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1982). The money test. Across the Board, The
Conference Board Magazine, 19, 7, 35-38. (Also in L. N. Jewell (Ed.), Industrial
organizational psychology for the eighties, West Publishing Co., in press.)
111. Schmidt, F. L., Hunter, J. E., & Pearlman, K. (1982). Assessing the economic impact
of personnel programs on workforce productivity. Personnel Psychology, 35, 333-
347. (Also in R. S. Schuler and S. A. Youngblood (Eds.), Personnel and human
resource management, New York: West Publishing Co., 1984).
112. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1981, Summer). New research findings in personnel
selection: Myths meet realities in the 1980's. Management Magazine, 23-27.
113. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1981). Employment testing: Old theories and new
research findings. American Psychologist, 36, 1128-1137. (Special Issue on Testing)
(Also in Readings in professional personnel assessment. Washington, D.C.: The
International Personnel Management Association, in press.; in Rynes & Milkovich
(Eds.), Readings in industrial relations, in press; and in C. E. Schneider, R. W. Beatty,
& G. M. McEvoy (Eds.), Personnel/human resource management today, 2nd Ed.
Addison-Wesley Co., in press).
114. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1981). New research findings in personnel selection:
Myths meet realities in the 1980's. Public personnel administration: Policies and
procedures for personnel (431-434). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. (Also in R.
S. Schuler and S. A. Youngblood (Eds.), Personnel and human resource
management, New York: West Publishing Co., 1984.)

12 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


2
115. Schmidt, F. L., Hunter, J. E., & Caplan, J. R. (1981). Validity generalization results for
two job groups in the petroleum industry. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 261-
273.
116. King, L. M., Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1980). Halo in a multidimensional forced
choice performance evaluation scale. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 507-516.
117. Schmidt, F. L., Pearlman, K., & Hunter, J. E. (1980). The validity and fairness of
employment and educational tests for Hispanic Americans: A review and analysis.
Personnel Psychology, 33, 705-724.
118. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1980). The future of criterion-related validity.
Personnel Psychology, 33, 41-60.
119. Schmidt, F. L., Hunter, J. E., & Pearlman, K. (1981). Task difference and validity of
aptitude tests in selection: A red herring. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 166-
185.
120. Pearlman, K., Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1980). Validity generalization results
for tests used to predict job proficiency and training criteria in clerical occupations.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 373-407.
121. Schmidt, F. L., Gast-Rosenberg, I. F., & Hunter, J. E. (1980). Validity generalization
results for computer programmers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 643-661.
122. Schmidt, F. L., Hunter, J. E., Pearlman, K., & Shane, G. S. (1979). Further tests of the
Schmidt-Hunter Bayesian Validity Generalization Model. Personnel Psychology, 32,
257-281.
123. Schmidt, F. L., Hunter, J. E., McKenzie, R. C., & Muldrow, T. W. (1979). The impact
of valid selection procedures on work-force productivity. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 64, 609-626.
124. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1979). Poor selection procedures lower productivity.
Civil Service Journal, 19, 9.
125. Hunter, J. E., Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, R. (1979). Differential validity of employment
tests by race: A comprehensive review and analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 721-
735.
126. Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1978). Bias in defining test bias: A reply to
Darlington. Psychological Bulletin, 85, 675-676.
127. Schmidt, F. L., Johnson, R. H., & Gugel, J. F. (1978). Estimation of the utility of policy
capturing as an approach to graduate admissions decision making. Applied
Psychological Measurement, 2, 347-359.
128. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1978). Moderator research and the law of small
numbers. Personnel Psychology, 31, 215-232.
129. Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1978). Differential and single group validity of
employment tests by race: A critical analysis of three recent studies. Journal of
Applied Psychology, 63, 1-11.
130. Schmidt, F. L., Urry, V. W., & Gugel, J. F. (1978). Computer assisted tailored testing:
Examinee reactions and evaluations. Educational and Psychological Measurement,
38, 265-273.
131. Schmidt, F. L. (1977). Are employment tests appropriate for minority group
members? A new look at the research evidence. Civil Service Journal, 18, 10-11.
132. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1977). The future of criterion-related validity studies
in Title VII court cases. Personnel Administrator, 22, 7, 39-44.
133. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1977). Development of a general solution to the
problem of validity generalization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 529-540.
134. Schmidt, F. L., Greenthal, A. L., Hunter, J. E., Berner, J. G., & Seaton, F. W. (1977).
Job sample vs. paper-and-pencil trades and technical tests: Adverse impact and
examinee attitudes. Personnel Psychology, 30, 187-197.
135. Schmidt, F. L. (1977). The Urry method of approximating the item parameters of
latent trait theory. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 37, 613-620.
136. Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1977). A critical analysis of the statistical and ethical
implications of various definitions of test fairness. Psychological Bulletin, 83, 1053-

Appendix 123
1071.
137. Hunter, J. E., Schmidt, F. L., & Raushenberger, J. (1977). Fairness of psychological
tests: Implications of three definitions for selection utility and minority hiring.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 245-260.
138. Hansen, E. A., Schmidt, F. L., & Hansen, J. C. (1976). A model for the correction for
guessing on multiple choice tests. SIGSOC Bulletin, 7, 24-28.
139. Schmidt, F. L., Hunter, J. E., & Urry, V. W. (1976). Statistical power in criterion-
related validation studies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 61, 473-485.
140. Schmidt, F. L., & Wilson, T. (1975). Expectancy-value models of attitude
measurement: A problem. Journal of Marketing Research, 12, 366-368.
141. Forbes, T. W., Schmidt, F. L., Nolan, R. O., & Vanosdall, F. E. (1975). Driver
performance measurement based on dynamic driver behavior patterns in rural,
urban, suburban, and freeway traffic. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 7, 257-280.
142. Forbes, T. W., Schmidt, F. L., Nolan, R. O., & Vanosdall, F. E. (1974, Winter). Driver
performance measurement research. Transportation Research News, 57, 16-17.
143. Schmidt, F. L., Marshall, R. L., & Johnson, R. H. (1974). Policy capturing as an
approach to graduate admissions decision making: Gains in utility from
subgrouping, utility estimation, and an unexpected technical problem. Journal
Supplement Abstract Service, 4, 92. (Abstract only; full paper available from JSAS.)
144. Schmidt, F. L. (1974). Probability and utility assumptions underlying use of the
Strong Vocational Interest Blank. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, 456-464.
145. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1974). Ethnic and racial bias in psychological tests:
Divergent implications of two definitions of test bias. American Psychologist, 29, 1-8.
146. Schmidt, F. L., & Crano, W. D. (1974). A test of the theory of fluid and crystallized
intelligence in middle and low SES school children. Journal of Educational
Psychology, 66, 255-261.
147. Schmidt, F. L. (1973). Implications of a measurement problem for expectancy theory
research. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 10, 243-251.
148. Schmidt, F. L., Berner, J. G., & Hunter, J. E. (1973). Racial differences in validity of
employment tests: Reality or illusion? Journal of Applied Psychology, 58, 5-9. (Also
in D. L. Ford (Ed.), Readings in minority group relations, University Associates,
1974.)
149. Schmidt, F. L., & Hoffman, B. (1973). An empirical comparison of three methods of
assessing the utility of a selection device. Journal of Industrial and Organizational
Psychology, 1, 14-23. (Also in W. C. Hamner & F. L. Schmidt (Eds.), Contemporary
problems in personnel, St. Clair Press, 1974.)
150. Schmidt, F. L., & Johnson, R. H. (1973). The effect of race on peer ratings in an
industrial situation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 57, 237-241. (Also in D. L. Ford
(Ed.), Readings in minority group relations, University Associates, 1974.)
151. Schmidt, F. L. (1972). The reliability of differences between linear regression
weights in applied differential psychology. Educational and Psychological
Measurement, 32, 879-886.
152. Schmidt, F. L. (1971). The relative efficiency of regression and simple unit predictor
weights in applied differential psychology. Educational and Psychological
Measurement, 31, 699-714.
153. Schmidt, F. L., & Kaplan, L. B. (1971, Fall). Composite vs. multiple criteria: A review
and resolution of the controversy. Personnel Psychology, 24, 419-434. (Also in A.
Bass & E. Fleishman (Eds.), Studies in industrial and organizational psychology,
Dorsey, 1974; and in K. M. Wexley & G. A. Yukl (Eds.), Readings in organizational
and industrial psychology, Oxford University Press, 1974.)
154. Schmidt, F. L., Owens, W. A., & Tiffin, J. (1971). Correlates of student attendance at
cultural events. Journal of College Student Personnel, 52, 41-43.
155. Schmidt, F. L., & Tiffin, J. (1969). Distortion of drivers' estimates of automobile
speed as a function of speed adaptation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 53, 536-539.

12 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


4
BOOKS

1. Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1990). Methods of Meta-analysis: Correcting error


and bias in research findings. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
2. Pearlman, K., Schmidt, F. L., & Hammer, W. C. (1983). Contemporary problems in
personnel. New York: Wiley (Third Edition).
3. Hunter, J. E., Schmidt, F. L., & Jackson, G. B. (1982). Meta-analysis: Cumulating
research findings across studies. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
4. Hammer, W. C., & Schmidt, F. L. (1977). Contemporary problems in personnel.
Chicago: St. Clair Press (Second Edition).
5. Hammer, W. C., & Schmidt, F. L. (1974). Contemporary problems in personnel.
Chicago: St. Clair Press (First Edition).

HR TOPIC AREAS TO WHICH PSYCHOMETRIC META-ANALYSIS HAS BEEN


APPLIED

1. Job satisfaction and absenteeism (2 meta-analyses).


2. Job satisfaction and job performance (4 meta-analyses).
3. Job performance and turnover
4. Correlates of role conflict & role ambiguity
5. Effects of productivity improvement programs on employee output.
6. Effects of realistic job previews on employee turnover.
7. Accuracy of self-ratings of ability and skill.
8. Gender differences in perceptions of sexual harassment
9. Validity of situational judgment tests.
10. Organizational justice and employee satisfaction
11. Differences between managers and entrepreneurs in risk taking.
12. The Pygmalion effect in the workplace
13. Goal setting and goal commitment
14. Effects of flexible and compressed workweek schedules.
15. Relation between task and contextual performance in management jobs.
16. Effects of practice on learning of work skills.
17. Effects of employee participation in performance appraisal.
18. Determinants of success of salespeople.
19. Goal commitment, goal difficulty, and job performance.
20. Racial differences in interview scores.
21. Work-family conflict and life satisfaction.
22. Gender differences in business ethics.
23. Evaluation of leader-member exchange theory.
24. Correlates of employee lateness.
25. Personality and job performance in Europe.
26. Expectancy theory and work performance.
27. Reliability of supervisory ratings of job performance (2 meta-analyses).
28. Relation between college grades and later job performance.
29. Impact of intelligence on ones interview evaluations.
30. Leadership and employee attitudes.
31. Social desirability in applicant responses to personality selection tests.
32. Correlates of job burnout.
33. Impact of age discrimination on hiring decisions.
34. The reliability of evaluations made in interviews.
35. Evaluation of Fiedlers leadership theory.
36. The validity of employment interviews (4 studies).
37. Effects of mental practice on job performance.
38. The validity of integrity tests in employment.
39. Relation between absence and turnover.

Appendix 125
40. Effectiveness of smoking cessation methods.
41. Effects of met expectations on newcomer attitudes.
42. Rater-ratee race effects on performance evaluation.
43. Comparison of different job satisfaction scales.
44. Impact of management by objectives on organizational productivity.
45. Job and life satisfaction.
46. Gender differences in occupational stress.
47. Work sample tests of trainability.
48. Employee age and job performance.
49. Unemployment, job satisfaction, and employee turnover.
50. The validity of assessment centers.
51. Task complexity as a moderator of goal effects.
52. The effects of goal setting on work performance.
53. Relation between personality traits and leadership perceptions.
54. Effectiveness of managerial training methods.
55. Turnover and communication networks.
56. Evaluation of realistic job previews.
57. Evaluation of methods of reducing job turnover.
58. Relation of job characteristics and turnover.
59. Relation between behavioral intentions and employee turnover.
60. Back pain and absence from work.
61. The value of corporate-wide training.
62. Predictors on organizational citizenship behavior.
63. Relation between objective and subjective measures of job performance.
64. Relation between work experience and job performance (3 studies).
65. Age and job turnover.
66. Validity of isometric strength tests.
67. Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intentions, and turnover.
68. Personality traits and job performance (4 studies).
69. Effects of OD interventions on job satisfaction.
70. Validity of evaluations of training and experience.
71. Relations among supervisory, peer, and self ratings of job performance (3 studies).
72. Evaluation of the Job Characteristics Model.
73. Effects of feedback on job performance.
74. Correlates of job involvement.
75. Equivalence of computerized and paper-and-pencil employment tests.
76. Correlates of organizational commitment.
77. Relation between negative mood and employee helping behavior.
78. Validity of alternative predictors of job performance.

ADDRESSES AND PAPER PRESENTATIONS

Dr. Schmidt has 273 addresses and paper presentations.

12 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


6
DAVID J. FORKENBROCK
Director, Public Policy Center
Professor, Graduate Program in Urban and Regional Planning
and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Iowa
Iowa City, Iowa 52242

EDUCATION
B.A. Architecture, University of Minnesota, 1965
M.U.P. Urban Planning, Wayne State University, 1973
Ph.D. Urban and Regional Planning, University of Michigan, 1977

CURRENT POSITION
Director, Public Policy Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, July 1987present
Professor, Graduate Program in Urban and Regional Planning, and Department of Civil
and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, July 1986present
(University of Iowa faculty member since January 1978)

TEACHING AND RESEARCH INTERESTS


Transportation Planning and Policy Analysis
Facility Investment Analysis
Infrastructure Finance
Economic Development

PUBLICATIONS AND PRESENTATIONS


32 Refereed Articles
30 Research Reports and Monographs
106 Conference Presentations
33 Major Research Projects

TRANSPORTATION ASSOCIATIONS
University of Iowa representative to the Transportation Research Board, National Research
Council, 1995present.
Chair, Transportation Research Board Committee on Transportation Economics, 19982004
(member, 19932004).
Member, Task Force on Environmental Justice in Transportation, 20012004.
Member, Task Force to Review the Highway Economic Requirements System (HERS)
Model, Federal Highway Administration, 1999.
Cochair, Steering Committee for Conference on Information Requirements for
Transportation Economic Analysis, Transportation Research Board and Federal
Highway Administration, 19981999.
Chair, Federal Highway Cost Allocation Study Review Committee, Transportation Research
Board, National Research Council, for the Federal Highway Administration, 199598.
Chair, Transportation Research Board Committee on Transportation and Economic
Development, 199495 (Committee member 19942002).
Member, Policy Analysis and System Monitoring Group, National Research and Technology
Partnership Forum. An on-going research collaboration sponsored by the American

Appendix 127
Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, the Federal Highway
Administration, and the Transportation Research Board, 2000present.
Chair, Transportation Research Board Committee on Local Transportation Finance, 1988
94 (Committee member 198294).
Member, Transportation Research Board Committee on Taxation and Finance, 19842006.
Member, Transportation Research Board Committee on Transportation Planning Needs and
Requirements in Small- and Medium-Sized Communities, 198190.
Member, National Cooperative Highway Research Program review panel for project on
Private Financing of Public Highway Improvements, Transportation Research Board,
198586.
Vice Chair, American Planning Association, Transportation Division, 198688.
Member, Transportation Research Board Committee on Public Transportation Planning and
Development, 198190.
Chair, American Institute of Certified Planners national competitions for student awards in
transportation research, 198083.
Member, Review Panel for Federal Highway Administration and Urban Mass Transportation
Administration study on Transportation Financial Forecasting, 198586.
Member, Advisory Committee for Federal Highway Administration staff study on Social and
Economic Concerns in Highway Development and Improvement, 1981.

AWARDS AND HONORS


Elected to the College of Fellows, American Institute of Certified Planners, 2002.
Profiled in TRNews, Transportation Research Board, March/April 2002
Selected National Associate, National Academy of Sciences, 2001.
Presented the Mid-Continent Award for Transportation Excellence, Iowa Department of
Transportation and Iowa State University, 2000.
Received the Michael J. Brody Award for Excellence in Faculty Service to the University and
the State, University of Iowa, 1996.

SELECTED PUBLICATIONS ON TRANSPORTATION POLICY


Forkenbrock, David J., and Paul F. Hanley. Fatal Crash Involvement by Multiple-Trailer
Trucks Transportation Research, Vol. 37A, No. 5 (June 2003): 419433.
Forkenbrock, David J. Transportation Investments and Urban Form. Transportation
Research Record 1805 (2002): 153160.
Forkenbrock, David J., and Jon G. Kuhl. A New Approach to Assessing Road User Charges.
Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa, Public Policy Center, for the Federal Highway
Administration and a pooled funding consortium of 15 states, 2002.
Forkenbrock, David J. Policy Strategies for Iowa in Making Major Road Investments. Iowa
City, IA: University of Iowa, Public Policy Center, for the Iowa Department of
Transportation, 2002.
Forkenbrock, David J., and Paul F. Hanley. Safety Policy Considerations in Truck and Rail
Freight Transportation. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa, Public Policy Center, for the
U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of the Secretary, 2002.

12 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


8
Forkenbrock, David J., and Glen E. Weisbrod. Guidebook for Estimating the Social and
Economic Effects of Transportation Projects. National Cooperative Highway
Research Program Report 456. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001. Also
available at http://trb.org/trb/
publications/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_456-a.pdf
Forkenbrock, David J. Sondip K. Mathur, and Lisa A. Schweitzer. Transportation Investment
Policy and Urban Land Use Patterns. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa, Public Policy
Center, for the Iowa Department of Transportation, 2001.
Forkenbrock, David J. Comparison of the External Costs of Rail and Truck Freight
Transportation. Transportation Research, Vol. 35A, No. 4 (May 2001): 321337.
Forkenbrock, David J. External Costs of Intercity Truck Freight Transportation.
Transportation Research, Vol. 33A, No. 7/8 (September/November 1999): 504526.
Chakraborty, Jayajit, Lisa A. Schweitzer, and David J. Forkenbrock. Using GIS to Assess the
Environmental Justice Consequences of Transportation System Changes.
Transactions in GIS, Vol. 3, No. 3 (June 1999): 239258.
Forkenbrock, David J. and Lisa A. Schweitzer. Environmental Justice in Transportation
Planning, Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 65, No.1 (Winter 1999):
96-111.
Forkenbrock, David J. External Costs of Truck and Rail Freight Transportation. Iowa City,
IA: University of Iowa, Public Policy Center, for the U.S. Department of
Transportation, 1998.
Schweitzer, Lisa A., David J. Forkenbrock, H. Michael Zhang, and Michael R. Crum.
Highway Performance and Time-Sensitive Industries. Iowa City, IA: University of
Iowa, Public Policy Center, for the Iowa Department of Transportation, 1998.
Forkenbrock, David J. and Lisa A. Schweitzer. Environmental Justice and Transportation
Investment. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa, Public Policy Center, for the U.S.
Department of Transportation, Iowa Department of Transportation, and Minnesota
Department of Transportation, 1997.
Forkenbrock, David J. and Lisa A. Schweitzer. Intelligent Transportation Systems and
Highway Finance in the 21st Century. In Transportation Finance for the 21st
Century: Proceedings of a Conference. Washington, DC: National Academy Press,
1997: 7382.
Forkenbrock, David J. and Norman S. J. Foster. Accident Cost Saving and Highway
Attributes. Transportation, Vol. 24, No. 1 (February 1997): 79100.
Forkenbrock, David J. and Norman S. J. Foster. Highways and Business Location
Decisions. Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 10, No. 3 (August 1996): 239248.
Reprinted in Japanese in Expressways and Automobile, Vol. 40, No. 8 (August 1997):
4246, and Vol. 40, No. 9 (September 1997): 6266.
Forkenbrock, David J. and Lisa A. Schweitzer. Distributing State Road Use Tax Funds to
Counties. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa, Public Policy Center, for the Iowa
Highway Research Board, 1996.
Forkenbrock, David J., Norman S. J. Foster, and Thomas F. Pogue. Safety and Highway
Investment. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa, Public Policy Center, for the U.S.
Department of Transportation, 1994.
Allen, Benjamin J., C. Phillip Baumel, and David J. Forkenbrock. Expanding the Set of
Efficiency Gains of a Highway Investment. Transportation Journal, Vol. 34, No. 1 (Fall
1994): 3947.

Appendix 129
Forkenbrock, David J. and Norman S. J. Foster. The National Highway System as a Means
for Increasing Competitiveness. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa, Public Policy Center,
for the Federal Highway Administration, 1993.
Forkenbrock, David J., Norman S. J. Foster, and Michael R. Crum. Transportation and
Iowas Economic Future. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa, Public Policy Center, for the
U.S. Department of Transportation, Iowa Business Council, Iowa Department of
Transportation, and Northwest Area Foundation, 1993.
Foster, Norman S. J., David J. Forkenbrock, and Thomas F. Pogue. Evaluation of a State-
Level Road Program to Promote Local Economic Development. Transportation
Quarterly, Vol. 45, No. 4 (October 1991): 493515.
Forkenbrock, David J. Putting Transportation and Economic Development in Perspective.
Transportation Research Record 1274 (1991): 311.
Forkenbrock, David J. and Norman S. J. Foster. Economic Benefits of a Corridor Highway
Investment. Transportation Research, Vol. 24A, No. 4 (July 1990): 303312.
Forkenbrock, David J., Thomas F. Pogue, David J. Finnegan, and Norman S. J. Foster.
Transportation Investment to Promote Economic Development. In Infrastructure
Investment and Economic Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of
Agriculture, 1990: 1942.
Barnard, Jerald, David J. Forkenbrock, and Thomas F. Pogue (Equal authors). Directions for
Iowas Economic Future: Strategic Planning Recommendations for Economic
Development. Des Moines, IA: Iowa Department of Economic Development, 1987.
Forkenbrock, David J. and David J. Plazak. Economic Development and State-Level
Transportation Policy. Transportation Quarterly, Vol. 40, No. 2 (April l986): 143158.
Forkenbrock, David J. Highway Revenues and Expenditures: Some Emerging Policy
Directions at the State Level. Innovative Financing for Transportation: Practical
Solutions and Experiences. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, 1986:
87102.
Forkenbrock, David J. and David J. Plazak. State Transportation Programs to Foster
Economic Development. RISE Technical Report II. Ames, IA: Iowa Department of
Transportation, 1986.

SELECTED EXTERNAL FUNDING


Principal Investigator, Measuring the Costs of the Nations Freight Transportation Systems.
Contract with the Office of the Secretary, U.S. Department of Transportation. 2001
2002 ($75,000).
Co-principal Investigator, Effective Methods for Environmental Justice Assessment.
Contract with the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), National
Research Council, 20012003 ($500,000).
Principal Investigator, A New Approach to Assessing Road User Charges. Pooled funding
contract with the Minnesota Department of Transportation, 11 other state DOTs, and
the Federal Highway Administration, 20002003 ($361,916).
Principal Investigator, Evaluation of Methods, Tools, and Techniques to Assess the Social
and Economic Effects of Transportation Projects. Contract with the National
Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), National Research Council, 1999
2000 ($199,998).
Principal Investigator. Transportation Strategies and Land Development Patterns. Contract
with the Iowa Department of Transportation, 19982000 ($148,957).

13 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


0
Principal Investigator. Freight Cost Savings in Benefit-Cost Analysis. Contract with the
Iowa Department of Transportation, 19971998 ($115,842).
Principal Investigator. Environmental Justice and Transportation Investment Policy.
Contract with the U.S. Department of Transportation, Minnesota Department of
Transportation, and the Iowa Department of Transportation, 19961997 ($125,881).
Principal Investigator. New Approach to Distributing Road Use Tax Funds Among Iowas
Counties. Contract with the Iowa Highway Research Board, 19951996 ($114,495).
Principal Investigator. Strategies for Fostering Modal Competition in the Midwest. Contract
with the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Iowa Department of
Transportation, 19931995 ($164,672).
Principal Investigator. Involving Public and Private Decision Makers in Defining the
National Highway System. Office of Policy Development, Federal Highway
Administration, 1993 ($25,000).
Co-Principal Investigator. Establishment of a University Transportation Research Center.
Grant from the U.S. Department of Transportation, 19881994 ($1,000,000 per year
for seven years).
Principal Investigator. An Improved Methodology for Considering Safety in Road
Investment Decisions. Contract with the U.S. Department of Transportation and the
Iowa Department of Transportation, 19921993 ($127,271).
Principal Investigator. New Models for Federal, State, and Local Cooperation in
Infrastructure Investment. Subcontract with the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of
Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, funded by the Federal Highway
Administration, 19921993 ($50,000).
Principal Investigator. Interactive Public Policy Analysis in a Region Experiencing Major
Transition. Grant from the Northwest Area Foundation, 19881992 ($346,024).
Principal Investigator. Transportation and Iowas Economic Future. Contract with the U.S.
Department of Transportation, Iowa Department of Transportation, and Iowa
Business Council, 19901992 ($289,806).
Principal Investigator. Financing Highways to Foster Economic Development in a Time of
Economic and Social Change. Contract with the U.S. Department of Transportation
and the Iowa Department of Transportation, 19881990 ($196,430).
Investigator. Feasibility Analysis of Avenue of the Saints highway connecting St. Paul and
St. Louis. Contract with Wilbur Smith Associates with funding from U.S. Department
of Transportation, 19891990 ($15,000 subcontract).
Principal Investigator. Transit-Related Joint Development for Economic Growth in Rural
and Small Urban Areas. Contract with the U.S. Department of Transportation, 1988
1989 ($51,625).
Co-Principal Investigator. The Welfare System and Barriers to Employment in Iowa.
Contract with the Iowa Business Council, 19881989 ($54,989).
Co-Principal Investigator. Strategic Plan for the Iowa Department of Economic
Development. Contract with the Iowa Department of Economic Development, 1986
1987 ($57,909).
Principal Investigator. Local Transit Financing Options: A Comprehensive Analysis. Grant
from the U.S. Urban Mass Transportation Administration and contract with the City
of Grand Rapids, MI, l986 ($11,967).

Appendix 131
EDITORIAL BOARDS
Member, Editorial Board, Public Works Management & Policy, Sage Publications, Inc.,
1995present.
Member, Editorial Board, Journal of Public Transportation, 1995present.
Member, Editorial Board, Journal of the American Planning Association, 199498. Chair,
Committee to Select the Best Article for Volume 59 (1993).
Member, Editorial Board, Transportation Research, Pergamon Press, 1990present.
Member, Editorial Advisory Committee, Journal of Planning Education and Research,
Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning, 1981present.
Member, Editorial Board, Journal of Planning Literature, Sage Publication, Inc., 1996
present.

13 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


2
JAMES W. STONER, PH.D.
Researcher

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

PERSONNEL INFORMATION

Office Address: 1138 Engineering Building Office Phone: 319-335-5664


202 South Quad 319-335-6780
Home Address: 1212 Oakes Drive Home Phone: 319-337-2248
Iowa City, Iowa 52240

Special Fields of Knowledge: Transportation Planning, real-time Computer Simulation, Traffic


Engineering, and Project Management.

ACADEMIC BACKGROUND

Institution Dates Attended Major Degree Date Awarded


Iowa State University 1961-1966 Construction B.S. Feb., 1966
Engineering
University of Iowa 1970-1972 Urban & M.S. July, 1972
Regional Planning
Northwestern 1972-1977 Civil Ph.D. June, 1977
University Engineering

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

Academic
University Position Dates
Univ. of Iowa Director, Center for Urban Transportation 1977-1990
Studies
Assoc. Prof., Program in Urban and 1982-present
Regional Planning
Associate Prof. Civil & Environmental 1981-present
Engineering
Industrial
Company Position Dates
US. Navy Main Propulsion Asst. 1966-1967
Liquid Cargo Officer 1967-1968
Engineering Officer 1968-1969
Other
Company, Firm, Agency Position Dates
OTR Transportation Partner/Project 1973-1976
Planning Inc. Manager
Deleuw-Cather Consultant/Project Manager 1975-1976

Appendix 133
PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES

Scientific and Professional Societies

Transportation Research Board, Member, 1972-present


Committee on Travel Behavior & Values, Member, 1976-1978
International Committee on Value of Time, Vice Chair, 1977-1981
Institute of Transportation Engineers, Member, 1978-present
ITE Committee on Cost Efficient Design Procedures, Chair, 1979-1982
Transit Advisory Committee, Iowa Department of Transportation, 1984-1988
American Planning Association, Transportation Division, Member, 1986-present
Chi Epsilon, Member, 1985-present
Image Society Member, 1990-present
Computer Imaging Society, Board Member, 1994 - 1997
Image Society, Vice President - 1996 - 1998
Transportation Research Board, Committee on User Information Systems, A3B08,
Member, 1996 - present.
Transportation Research Board, Committee on Simulation and Measurement of
Vehicle and Operator Performance, Associate 1997 - present.

Consulting

Department of Environment, Great Britain, 1975


Schacht-Johnson, Chicago, 1977
Midwest Planning Associates, 1980-1986
U. S. Congress, 1982-1983
Iowa Department of Transportation, 1983
Department of Transportation, Great Britain, 1985
United States Agency for International Development, Jordan, 1987
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1991
U.S. Department of Transportation, 1991
TAC Australia, 1992
Allergan Medical Products, 1993
Pharmacia, 1994
Mid American Energy Corporation, 1991-1999
Johnson Controls Incorporated, 1996-97
Hyperion Technologies, Inc, 1997-99

RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

Active research fields

Travel Demand Modeling


Vehicle Simulation
Traffic Engineering
Vehicle/Pavement Interaction

13 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


4
Principal investigator on contracts and/or grants

Contract Annual Starting and


or Grant Title Funding Rate Expiration Date

UMTA Time Series Forecasting $82,218 8/1/1983-Feb... 1985

Public Transportation (LEAG) $ 5,800 10/1/1985-12/31/1985

US. Department of Transportation


Vehicle/Pavement Interaction
(first year of four year grant) $140,910 12/1/88-12/1/89
Second year of study $151,000 12/1/89-12/1/90
Third Year of study $208,000 9/1/89-3/1/90

NADS Feasibility, NSF & FHWA $ 48,000 12/1/90-3/1/92

Centers for Disease Control, $48,468 8/90 - 8/91


Simulation Lab and Injury
Prevention (Year 1 of 5 year
grant)

Simulation Facility Construction $1,198,000 3/1/90 - 3/1/91

NADS study activity $100,000 1/1/90 - 12/30/90

Ford Motor Corporation $40,000 1/1/91 - present

Toyota Motor Corporation $77,000 7/1/91 - 7/1/1995

Centers for Disease Control, $50,050 10/1/91 - present


Simulation Lab and Injury
Prevention (Year 5 of 5 year
grant)

USDOT, Commercial Vehicle


Networks and LCV Configurations $108,000 10/1/91 - 10/1/93

Federal Highway Admin., Iowa $150,000 12/4/91 - 6/1/93


Driving Simulator Capabilities
Study

Human Factors Design for $1,300,000 10/1/92 - 10/1/95


Automated Highway Systems

An Austere One Year Project $941,000 4/1/92-4/1/93


in Soldier-in-the-loop Vehicle
Simulation

CALTRANS/PATH $100,000 4/1/92 - 6/30/93

Toyota Simulator Development $47,000 12/1/94- 12/31/94

Contract Annual Starting and

Appendix 135
or Grant Title Funding Rate Expiration Date

Allergan Multifocal Lens Evaluation $390,000 11/1/93 -


12/31/94

Ford Database Development $25,000 11/1/92 - 12/31/94

Evans and Sutherland Equipment


Gift $859,800 12/1/1993

Center For Disease Control, Injury


Prevention Center,
Simulation Component $36,500 9/1/93-9/1/96

Federal Highway Administration/ $314,000 6/1/93 - 9/1/95


Raised Pavement Marker

Automotive Centers of $72,000 10/94-10/96


Excellence 2.6 and 2.7/ARPA

Injury Prevention Center, CDC $91,040 10/95-10/97

Development and Validation $88,952 10/97 10/98


of Pavement Performance
Simulation, MinnDOT

Injury Prevention Center, CDC $125,890 10/98 10/00

An Informational Series for $18.881 4/99 4/00


Traffic Safety, Iowa DOT

SELECTED PUBLICATIONS

Haug, E.J., Kim, S.S., and Stoner, J.W., "Conceptual Design of a National Advanced
Driving Simulator", Requested paper, Transportation Research Board, 1991.

Stoner, J.W., Romano, R., "Real Time Vehicle Dynamics Simulation: Enabling Tool
for Fundamental Human Factors Research", Vehicle Dynamics and Electronic
Controlled Suspensions, SAE SP-861, Society of Automotive Engineers, pp 71-83,
February 1991

Haug, E.J., J.G. Kuhl, and J.W. Stoner, Virtual Prototyping for Military Vehicle
Development, SAE Technical Paper Series, 930848, March, 1993

Bhatti, A and Stoner, J.W., Simulation of Dynamic Loads from Different Vehicle
Configurations, International Journal of Vehicle Design, Vol. I, No. 4, pp 396-416,
1994.

Stoner, J.W., Human Factors Applications of Driving Simulation, Fatigue and


Driving, Taylor and Francis Publishers, pp 207-219.

Bhatti, A., J.A. Barlow, and J.W. Stoner, Modeling Damage to Rigid Pavements
Caused by Sub-grade Pumping, Journal of Transportation Engineering, ASCE, Vol.
122, No. 1, pp 12 - 22, Jan/Feb 1996.

13 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal


6
Bhatti, M.A. Lin, Baizhong, and Stoner, J.W. Dynamic Simulation Based Pavement
Consumption Model: ASCE Special Publication on Infrastructure Condition
Assessment: Art, Science, and Practice, (Editor:Mitsuru Saito) pp 161-170, 1997.

Bhatti, M.A. and Stoner, J.W. Nonlinear Pavement Distress Model Using Dynamic
Vehicle Loads, ASCE Journal of InfrastructureSystems, June 98.

Selected Articles in conference proceedings

Stoner, J.W., "The Specification of a National Advanced Driving Simulator",


Western ITE Conference Proceedings, Boise, Idaho, 1990, pp. 27-39.

Evans, D.E. and Stoner, J., Correlated Database Generation for Driving
Simulators,, IMAGE Conference Proceedings, July 15, 1992.

J.G. Kuhl, E.J. Haug, and J.W. Stoner, Operator in the Loop Simulation for Virtual
Prototyping of Ground Vehicles, Proceedings of the Summer Computer Simulation
Conference, Boston, MA, July, 1993.

Stoner, James W., Driving Human Factors Research Using High Fidelity
Simulation, Proceedings of the Driver Impairment, Fatigue, and Driving
Simulation Conference, Fremantle, Western Australia, 16-17 September, 1993, pp
1100 - 1150.

Stoner, James W., Ground vehicle Simulator fidelity and selection of appropriate
applications, Proceedings of the Real Time Systems Conference, Paris, France,
January 11-14, 1993.

Stoner, James W. and Richard Romano, Configurations for High Fidelity Driving
Simulation Research, Transportation Research Circular, National Academy of
Sciences, January 1994.

Stoner, James W. and D.F. Evans, Database Development for Real Time Driving
Simulation, IPC-8, Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, pp 7-12, November
1995.

Stoner, James W. and D.F. Evans, Virtual Environments for Evaluating ITS Systems,
Proceedings of the Second World Congress on Intelligent Transportation Systems,
Yokohama, Japan, November 1995.

Stoner, James W., Specifying Simulation Requirements for Real Time Driver
Evaluation, Proceedings of the International Aerospace Symposium 96 Nagoya,
Nagoya, Japan, November 1996.

Keith Knapp, Welsh, T., and Stoner J., Statewide Engineering Information Series,
Mid Continent Transportation Symposium Proceedings, Nov. 1999

Appendix 137
13 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal
8
11.4. Support Letters

Appendix 139
14 NCHRP Project 17-28 Proposal
0
11.5. Certifications

Appendix 141