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Foreword

The national guideline on product carbon footprinting in this document is developed by the national
technical committee on product carbon footprinting under the collaborative project between Thailand
Greenhouse Gas Management Organisation (Public Company) or TGO, and National Metal and
Materials Technology Centre or MTEC, National Science and Technology Development Agency
(NSTDA). The project is aimed to develop guidance on how to conduct the product carbon footprinting
that is expected to be a mechanism to promote the development of environmentally-friendly products.

This guideline defines the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) assessment methodology based on the Life
Cycle Assessment (LCA) concept covering raw material acquisition, manufacture, use and final waste
disposal including related transport in all stages. The guideline can be used as the guidance how to use
carbon footprinting as a tool for assessing GHG emissions of product along its whole life cycle to
stimulate the product improvement to increase the energy use efficiency and emit less GHGs. Users of
this guideline could be academicians, industry, and other interested parties. The application of product
carbon footprint will enhance economic growth and promote sustainable development in Thailand.

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List of the national technical committee
Acknowledgement is given to the following committee members and other contributors for their
contributions to the development of the national guideline on product carbon footprinting.

List of the national technical committee on product carbon footprinting

(1) Dr. Pongvipa Lohsomboon (Chair)


Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization (Public Organization)

(2) Dr. Rungnapa Tongpool (Vice-chair)


National Metal and Materials Technology Center

(3) Dr. Kittinan Annanon


National Metal and Materials Technology Center

(4) Mr. Athiwatr Jirajariyavech


National Metal and Materials Technology Center

(5) Ms. Pornpimon Boonkum


National Metal and Materials Technology Center

(6) Mr. Sudkla Boonyanan


Thailand Environment Institute

(7) Dr. Akajate Apikajornsin


EcoDesign Consultant Company

(8) Mrs. Pornpen Meethongmoon


Federation of Thailand Industry

(9) Associate Professor Dr. Shabbir H. Gheewala


The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment

(10) Associate Professor Dr. Prasert Pavasant


Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University

(11) Dr. Rattanawan Mungkung


Centre of Excellence on enVironmental strategy for GREEN business, Faculty of Science,
Kasetsart University

(12) Dr. Patcharin Worathanakul


Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkuts University of
Technology North Bangkok

(13) Dr. Harnpon Phungrassami


Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Thammasart University

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(14) Assistant Professor Dr. Sate Sampattagul
Research Unit for Energy, Economic and Ecological Management: 3E Science and
Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University

(15) Ms. Phakamon Supappunt (Secretary)


Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization (Public Organization)

List of other contributors


(1) Associate Professor Dr. Thumrongrut Mungcharoen
National Metal and Materials Technology Center and Kasetsart University

(2) Mr. Naruetep Lecksiwilai


Thailand Environment Institute

(3) Dr. Porntip Wongsuchoto


National Excellence Centre of Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management

(4) Dr. Jitti Mungkalasiri


National Metal and Materials Technology Center

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Table of contents
Page
Introduction 1

Carbon footprinting methodology 2

1. Scope 2

2. Normative references 2

3. Terms and definitions 3

3.1 Carbon storage


3.2 Carbon offset
3.3 Allocation
3.4 Upstream emissions
3.5 Downstream emissions
3.6 System boundary
3.7 Product Category Rules
3.8 Primary data
3.9 Secondary data
3.10 Biomass
3.11 Carbon dioxide equivalent
3.12 Global Warming Potential
3.13 Biogenic carbon
3.14 Capital goods
3.15 Co-products
3.16 Functional unit
3.17 Material contribution
3.18 Cut-off rules

4. Types of carbon footprinting 4

5. Supporting data 4

6. Sources of GHG and Units of measurement 4

7. Methodological framework 6

7.1 Goal and scope


7.2 Data source and data quality requirement

8. Carbon footprint calculation 11

9. Display of results 12

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Introduction
GHG emissions are closely linked to human activities which are associated with energy consumption,
agriculture production, industrial production processing and their growth, transport, deforestation and
other forms of natural resource and environmental degradation. These activities cause global warming and
in consequence the adverse effects to humans as well as other organisms. The severity of global warming
problem is increasing. It is therefore the responsibility of all stakeholders including the industry and
agricultural sectors as producers, the service sector as the driver of activities and the public as consumers
should cooperate to reduce GHG emissions in Thailand and at the global scale.

The selection of products and services with lower GHG emissions is one way to participate and contribute
to the GHG management as a result of consumption patterns. The demand for products with lower GHG
emission will be a mechanism to stimulate producers to reduce GHG emissions of their products.
Informing consumers of products carbon footprint, i.e. GHG assessment of the product along its life
cycle, will provide the supporting data for their purchasing decisions.

Carbon footprinting and labelling have been implemented in many countries, namely the UK, France,
Switzerland, Germany, Canada, the US, Japan, Korea, etc. In this connection, the implementation of
carbon footprinting will also enhance the competitiveness of Thai products in global markets, in response
to the market requirements. More importantly, the implementation of carbon footprint in Thailand will
provide the supporting information for global meetings on climate change mitigation.

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Carbon footprinting methodology
1. Scope

This national guideline defines the product carbon footprinting methodology for life cycle GHG
emissions assessment based on the LCA technique. The life cycle approach in LCA covers the following
life cycle stages: raw material acquisition, manufacture, use and final waste disposal including related
transport in all stages. This guideline can be used for assessing the full carbon footprint (i.e. cradle-to-
grave covering all life cycle stages mentioned above) or partial carbon footprint (i.e. cradle-to-gate
covering only raw material acquisition and manufacture).

It should be noted here that carbon footprint indicates only the products global warming impact but not
other environmental impacts such as biodiversity, acidification, eutrophication, ecotoxicity, etc.

The carbon footprinting methodology described in this guideline can be applied to all products.
Nevertheless, it is necessary to develop Product Category Rules (PCR) for each product category for
consistency and comparability. For the products that PCR documents are not available yet, the PCRs of
ISO 14025 can be used.

2. Normative references

The following references are used for the development of this national guideline on product carbon
footprint:

IPCC 2006, Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. National Greenhouse Gas Inventories
Programme, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

ISO 14025:2006, Environmental labels and declarations -- Type III environmental declarations -
Principles and procedures.

ISO 14040:2006, Environmental management - Life cycle assessment -- Principles and framework.

ISO 14044:2006, Environmental management - Life cycle assessment -- Requirements and guidelines.

ISO 14064-1:2006, Greenhouse gases - Part 1: Specification with guidance at the organization level for
quantification and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and removals.

ISO/WD 14067-1, Carbon Footprint of Products - Part 1: Quantification.

Japanese Technical Specification General principles for the assessment and labeling of Carbon Footprint
of products, (Japan, 2009)

PAS 2050:2008, Specification for the assessment of the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of goods and
services.

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3. Terms and definitions

3.1 Carbon storage


retaining carbon of biogenic or atmospheric origin in a form other than as an atmospheric gas

3.2 Carbon offset


mechanism for claiming a reduction in GHG emissions associated with a process or product
through the removal of, or preventing the release of, GHG emissions in a process unrelated to the
life cycle of the product being assessed

3.3 Allocation
partitioning the input or output flows of a process or a product system between the product
system under study and one or more other product systems

3.4 Upstream emissions


GHG emissions associated with processes that occur in the life cycle of a product prior to the
processes owned, operated or controlled by the organization implementing carbon footprinting

3.5 Downstream emissions


GHG emissions associated with processes that occur in the life cycle of a product subsequent to
the processes owned or operated by the organization implementing carbon footprinting

3.6 System boundary


set of criteria specifying which unit processes are part of a product system

3.7 Product Category Rules


set of specific rules, requirements and guidelines for developing Type III environmental
declarations for one or more product categories

3.8 Primary data


quantitative measurement of activity from a products life cycle that, when multiplied by an
emission factor, determines the GHG emissions arising from a process

3.9 Secondary data


data obtained from sources other than direct measurement of the processes included in the life
cycle of the product

3.10 Biomass
material of biological origin, excluding material embedded in geological formations or
transformed to fossil

3.11 Carbon dioxide equivalent


unit for comparing the radiative forcing of a GHG to carbon dioxide

3.12 Global Warming Potential


factor describing the radiative forcing impact of one mass-based unit of a given greenhouse gas
relative to an equivalent unit of carbon dioxide over a given period of time

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3.13 Biogenic carbon
carbon emissions from biogenic sources

3.14 Capital goods


goods, such as machinery, equipment and buildings, used in the life cycle of products

3.15 Co-products
any of two or more products from the same unit process or product system

3.16 Functional unit


product unit used to define the scope of collecting input and output associated with product
system based on mass or sold unit

3.17 Material contribution


contribution from any one source of GHG emissions of more than 1% of the anticipated life cycle
GHG emissions associated with a product

3.18 Cut-off
emission from unit process that is not taken into the calculation of carbon footprint

4. Types of carbon footprinting

Carbon footprinting can be conducted by one of the following options:

Option 1: Business-to-Consumer (B2C)


The scope of B2C carbon footprinting covers raw material acquisition, manufacture, use and final waste
disposal including related transport in all stages.

Option 2: Business-to-Business (B2B)


The scope of B2B carbon footprinting covers raw material acquisition, manufacture, and distribution up
to the factory gate or distribution to another business organization depending on the specific product
PCR.

5. Supporting data

The data required for carbon footprinting consist of: product name and description, scope of carbon
footprinting, GHG emission factors, and others as indicated in this guideline. All data shall be recorded in
an appropriate format and kept for a minimum of two years or as long as the product is in the market
(whichever is longer).

6. Sources of GHG and Units of measurement

6.1 GHG types

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The six Kyoto gases shall be included in the carbon footprint calculation. The gases are carbon
dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorcarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs),
and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6).
6.2 Equivalency factors of global warming potential
The calculation of GHG emissions shall be in terms of mass of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e)
based on the transformation of other GHGs according to their respective equivalency factors for global
warming potential over 100 years as per the latest version of IPCC report. For instance, the equivalency
factor for global warming potential of methane over 100 years as compared to carbon dioxide is 25; this
means that 1 kg of methane has the potential to cause global warming equivalent to 25 kg of carbon
dioxide over 100 years. In other words, the emission of 1 kg methane is 25 kg carbon dioxide equivalent.

6.3 Time period for GHG emission assessment


The GHG emission assessment shall be calculated from the life cycle GHG emissions in terms of
carbon dioxide equivalent over the 100-year period following the formation of product.

When calculating the life cycle GHG emissions in all stages except for the final waste disposal
stage, it should be assumed that GHGs are emitted at a single time at the beginning of the 100-year
period.

The GHG calculation for the final waste disposal stage should be based on the delayed emission
within 100 years by multiplying the weighting factor of 0.76 with the year of emission (refer to PAS
2050:2008 clause 6.4.9.1 and Annex B).

6.4 Sources of GHG emissions


These following sources of GHG emissions shall be include in carbon footprinting:
Raw material acquisition;
Energy production;
Combustion processes;
Chemical reactions;
Leakage of refrigerants and other fugitive gases;
Operations;
All transport;
Livestock and agricultural production;
Waste and waste management

6.5 CO2 emissions from fossil fuel and biogenic sources


CO2 emissions from fossil fuel shall be included in carbon footprinting but not CO2 emissions
from biogenic sources.

6.6 Non-CO2 GHG emissions from fossil fuel and biogenic sources
Non-CO2 GHG emissions from fossil fuel as well as biogenic sources shall be included in carbon
footprinting.

6.7 Carbon storage


Carbon storage in products shall be included in carbon footprinting only if the life span of product
is at least 10 years.

6.8 Land use change

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At present, the information on land use change in Thailand is not sufficient for carbon footprint
calculation. As a consequence, land use change is not yet taken into account. In the future, when the
methodology is finalized and the land use change data are available, this aspect will be considered.
6.9 Unit of analysis
The unit of analysis shall be set as per unit of product such as per kg, per liter, per piece, etc.

6.10 Carbon offset


Carbon offset, both complusary1 and voluntary2, shall be excluded in carbon footprint calculation.

Note:
1
Carbon offset from Joint Implementation (JI) or Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) or
Emission Trading (ET)
2
Carbon offset from CDM/JI but not certified by the competent body of the country to which the
project belongs, or not registered with the UNFCCC management committee of CDM

7. Methodological framework

Carbon footprinting, i.e. the assessment of life cycle GHG emissions of product, shall be based on the
four phases of LCA phases (ISO 14040/44): Goal and scope definition, Inventory analysis, Impact
assessment, and Interpretation.

Note: The principles and methodology of LCA are defined in ISO14040 and ISO 14044.

7.1 Goal and scope definition


The goal and scope of carbon footprinting shall be clearly defined according to the objectives of
the application.

7.1.1 Goal
The goal should be defined according to the objective of result application such as the carbon
footprinting of product for assessment of GHG emissions over time, or for communicating
with consumers, or for other purposes depending on user requirement

7.1.2 Scope
This scope should define the following aspects:
Product
Unit of analysis
Scope
Data sources and data quality
Allocation
Assumptions, especially use profile
Supporting data
Limitations of study

(1) Unit of analysis


The unit of analysis should be based on ISO 14044 (i.e. the functional unit of product).
The result of carbon footprint should be expressed in terms of mass of carbon dioxide
equivalent per product unit.

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(2) Product system
The product system shall include: raw material acquisition, manufacture, use and final
waste disposal including related transport in all stages. In case of partial carbon
footprinting (B2B), the scope of study shall be clearly stated to facilitate the correct use
of B2B carbon footprint result.

(3) System boundary


The system boundary shall clearly provide the information about the scope of carbon
footprinting, product system, unit process including associated inputs and outputs. The
detailed information shall be collected particularly for the life cycle stages contributing
significantly to the total carbon footprint. Estimated values could be used for those life
cycle stages contributing not significantly. Unit processes that are not necessary to be
included should be clearly identified.

The scope definition shall be defined according to these requirements:

(3.1) Raw material acquisition


(3.1.1) Raw materials
The GHG emissions from all raw material production, energy consumption and
direct emissions of GHGs shall be included.

Note:
The GHG emissions from raw material include the emissions from
mining, extraction (solid, liquid, or gas forms, e.g. steel, oil, natural gas)
as well as wastes occurring during extraction activities and pre-treatment
of raw materials
The GHG emissions from agriculture include the emissions from
fertilizer application (nitrous oxide emission from N-fertilizer),
cultivation (e.g. methane from rice fields) and livestock (e.g. methane
from cattle and pigs)
The GHG emissions for unprocessed raw materials (resources in nature)
is zero, e.g. bauxite before extraction

(3.1.2) Energy
The GHG emissions from energy carrier production and energy use over
the life cycle of product shall be included.

Note:
GHG emissions from energy include: (1) Emissions at site of energy use
(e.g. coal and gas combustion); (2) Emission from energy carrier
acquisition which are: (2.1) Electricity and heat production (2.2) Fuel
used in transport, (2.3) Upstream GHG emissions (mining, transport of
fuel to electricity production site) including biomass acquisition for using
as fuel, and (2.4) Downstream emissions from waste treatmeant and
management from energy conversion

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(3.1.3) Capital goods
The GHG emissions from production of capital goods shall be excluded.

(3.1.4) Manufacturing and service provision


The GHG emissions from manufacturing and service provision associated
with the life cycle of product shall be included. The GHG emissions from production
of prototype of new product shall be allocated to the main product and co-products.

(3.1.5) Operation of premises


The GHG emissions from operation of premises (i.e. lighting, HVAC and
pollution control systems at the production site) shall be allocated in an appropriate
manner; for instance, the allocation procedure at warehouse (emissions from
production site, warehouse and distribution centre) should be based on the storage
time.

(3.1.6) Transport
The GHG emissions from transport shall be conducted by the following
methods in decreasing order of preference: (1) Fuel consumption multiplied with
GHG emission factors based on type of fuel used, (2) Average distance of transport
multiplied with the quantity of product and GHG emission factors based on type of
vehicle used for transport, (3) Scenario: Transportation by 22-wheel, 32-ton truck
over a distance of 700 km (estimated from the distance between Bangkok and Chiang
Mai) with empty return trip.

For the partial carbon footprinting (B2B), the system boundary includes
upstream emissions up to the factory gate. For the full carbon footprinting (B2C), the
system boundary includes upstream and downstream emissions (distribution up to
distribution centre or the main selling points).

(3.1.7) Packaging
The primary data of packaging shall be preferred unless such data are not
accessible in which case secondary data can be used. However, if the carbon footprint
of packaging alone is lesser than 5% of the total carbon footprint then the secondary
data can be used.

If the study product itself is the packaging, then the carbon footprint shall be
based on primary data only.

(3.2) Use
The GHG emissions from the use phase shall be included in the full carbon
footprinting (B2C) but excluded for the partial carbon footprinting (B2B).

(3.3) Final waste disposal


The GHG emissions from the final waste disposal phase shall be included in the
full carbon footprinting (B2C) but excluded for the partial carbon footprinting (B2B).

If the primary data cannot be collected, then the secondary data can be used
which shall be based on the waste disposal by landfill taken from the shallow landfill
reported in the IPCC Guideline for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Volume 5:

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Waste (see Table 1). For waste types other than those included in Table 1 and that have
carbon content, the GHG emission factor of 2.32 tCO2 per ton of waste shall be used. In
case of wastes with no carbon content, the GHG emissions shall be zero. For on-site
waste treatment, the GHG emissions shall be based on the actual practice of waste
disposal.

The transport of waste to landfill site shall based on the following scenario:
Transportation by 10-wheel, 16-ton truck through a distance of 40 km; 100% loading on
trip to landfill and empty return.

In case that the methane emitted from landfill is flared, the reduction of GHG
emissions must be taken into account.

Table 1: GHG emissions from the shallow landfill (IPCC, 2006)

Waste type GHG emissions


(tCO2e per ton of waste)
Paper 2.93
Fabric 2.00
Food 2.53
Wood 3.33
Garden wastes (i.e. leaves, grass) 3.27
Paper diaper 4.00
Rubber and leather 3.13

(4) System boundary exclusions


These following activities are excluded in the system boundary:
Human energy inputs to processes (e.g. picking fruits by hand)
Transport of consumers to and from retail/selling point
Transport of employees to and from work
Transport by animals

(5) Materiality and immateriality


The carbon footprint calculation shall be based on the life cycle GHG emissions of
product covering at least 95% of the anticipated GHG emissions. Activities having less
than 1% of the anticipated life cycle GHG emissions can be excluded; however, the total
cut-off can not be more than 5% of the anticipated GHG emissions. In case of cut-ff, the
assessed emissions shall be scaled up to represent 100% of the GHG emissions associated
with the product unit defined.

(6) Substitute data for GHG emission factors of inputs


In case that GHG emission factors of some inputs are not available, the emission factors
of substances having similar physical and chemical properties can be used as substitute. If
no such substitute data is available, the highest emission factor of the inputs in that life
cycle stage can be used as the substitute.

7.2 Data sources and data quality

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7.2.1 Data quality
These following aspects shall be taken into account in terms of data quality:

(a) Time-related coverage: consider data age and average data from annual production

(b) Geographical coverage: consider data collected from different geographical locations
according to the objective of carbon footprint study (for example, rubber cultivation
in Nakorn Sri Thammarat province in the South of Thailand)

(c) Technology coverage: specify whether specific or mixed technology

(d) Precision: consider variation in data depending of type of database, if available

(e) Completeness: completeness of inputs and outputs based on direct measurements or


estimation

(f) Representativeness: consider time, geography and technology based on the actual
situation with justification (for example, jasmine rice cultivation in the North-East
can be used as representative data for Thailand as the production volume from that
region is higher than others or oil palm cultivation in the South can be used as the
representative data as it is the main production hub)

(g) Consistency: perform qualitative assessment by considering if the database


development are similar or not, for instance, use similar system boundary and data
collection method for dark and light shades in dyeing;

(h) Reproducibility: enable the reproducibility of results by another person using similar
methods

(i) Source of data: demonstrate the source and reliability of data, both primary and
secondary

(j) Uncertainty: take into account the data uncertainty issues, e.g. allocation method, cut-
off, assumptions, etc.

7.2.2 Data type


The type of data used for carbon footprint calculation shall be based on these principles:

(1) Primary data


All direct activities under control of the organisation implementing carbon footprinting
shall be the primary data (e.g. energy and raw material use, transport of raw materials,
etc.)

(2) Secondary data


If the primary data are not accessible (e.g. upstream emissions, activities outside the
control of implementing organisation), then secondary data can then be used.

The sources of secondary data shall be based on these following sources in decreasing
order of preference:

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National LCI database
Peer-reviewed journal, technical report, or theses in the context of Thailand
Databases available in LCA software
Publications from international organisations (e.g. UN, FAO, etc.)

7.2.3 GHG emissions from fuel


The GHG emissions from fuels shall include the production of fuel and the emission
factor from fuel use (e.g. kgCO2e/kg fuel, kgCO2e/MJ electricity or heat) based on the
source of energy used.

7.2.4 On-site heat and electricity production


Where heat and/or electricity are produced on-site, the carbon footprint calculation shall
include the GHG emissions from combustion processes as well as upstream emissions.

7.2.5 Off-site heat and electricity production


Where electricity and/or heat are generated offsite, the emission factors used shall be
either:
a) For electricity and heat delivered by a stand-alone source (i.e. not part of larger energy
transmission system), the emission factor relevant to that source
b) For electricity and heat delivered via a larger energy transmission system, secondary
data that is as specific to the product system as possible (e.g. average GHG emissions of
the grid mix of that country).

8. Carbon footprint calculation

The calculation of carbon footprint shall be done by:

8.1 Converting the primary and secondary data of inputs/outputs to GHG emissions by
multiplying their loadings with the respective emission factors

8.2 Converting the GHG emissions into CO2e by multiplying the individual GHG emissions
figures by the relevant GWP

8.3 Deducting the impact of carbon storage associated with the product from the total calculated
at step 8.2

8.4 Finalising the carbon footprint result, expressed in terms of CO2e per product unit:
(1) Full carbon footprinting (B2C) The carbon footprint result of use phase should
indicate the assumptions/scenarios of use profile; other useful information for consumers should
be provided (such as instructions on waste management after use);
(2) Partial carbon footprinting (B2B) The carbon footprint result should be disclosed to
their clients with details of system boundary (i.e. another business organisation or another
producer in the same supply chain) but not to the final consumers to avoid confusion;
(3) Carbon footprinting other than B2B/B2C scope should be informed to consumers as
the additional information.

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9. Displaying the carbon footprint result

The carbon footprint result shall be displayed based on the rounding rules described in the Thai Industrial
Standards Institute (TISI) standard number 929-2522 with three significant digits such as 3.15 kg, 152 g,
etc.

The partial carbon footprint (B2B) result shall not be displayed on the packaging of product, but can be
publicized on website, brochure, report, etc.

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