Sei sulla pagina 1di 20

1. accentuate /əkˈsen.tju.eɪt/ :nhấn cái đặc điểm (the feature).

Her dress was tightly belted, accentuating the slimness of her waist.
The new policy only serves to accentuate the inadequacy of provision for the homeless.

2. alliteration /əˌlɪt.əˈreɪ.ʃ ə n/ (n): (in poetry) lối chơi chữ phụ âm đầu.
Ex: 'Round the rugged rocks the ragged rascal ran' uses alliteration.

Compare: assonance /ˈæs. ə n. ə n t  s/ noun [ U ] SPECIALIZED

the similarity in sound between two syllables that are close together, created either by the same
consonants and different vowels (e.g. 'hit' and 'heart') or by the same vowels but different consonants (e.g.
'back' and 'hat')

3. analogy /əˈnæl.ə.dʒi/ noun [ C or U ]

a comparison between things which have similar features, often used to help explain a principle or
idea :sự so sánh tương đồng.
He drew an analogy between the brain and a vast computer.
It is sometimes easier to illustrate an abstract concept by analogy with (= by comparing it
with) something concrete.

4. antibody /ˈæn.tiˌbɒd.i/ /-t ̬iˌbɑː.di/ noun [ C ]

a protein produced in the blood which fights diseases by attacking and killing harmful bacteria : sức
đề kháng.
Antibodies found in breast milk protect newborn babies against infection.

5. aspire /əˈspaɪə r / /-ˈspaɪr/ verb

aspire to sth phrasal verb
to have a strong want or hope to do or have something :tham vọng
Few people who aspire to fame ever achieve it.
[ + to infinitive ] As a child, he aspired to be a great writer.

6. bamboozle /bæmˈbuː.zl ̩/ verb [ T ] INFORMAL

to trick or deceive someone, often by confusing them :lừa gạt.
She was bamboozled into tell ing them her credit card number.

7. bizarre /bɪˈzɑː r / /-ˈzɑːr/ adjective

very strange and unusual :khác thường.
a bizarre situation
bizarre behaviour

8. boisterous /ˈbɔɪ.st ə r.əs/ /-stɚ-/ adjective

noisy, energetic and rough :quậy phá,hiếu động.
boisterous children
a boisterous game
9. boycott /ˈbɔɪ.kɒt/ /-kɑːt/ verb [ T ]
to refuse to buy a product or take part in an activity as a way of expressing strong disapproval :tẩy
People were urged to boycott the country's products.
The union called on its members to boycott the meeting.

10. camouflage /ˈkæm.ə.flɑːʒ/ noun

1. [ U ] the use of leaves, branches, paints and clothes for hiding soldiers or military equipment so
that they look part of what surrounds them :nguỵ trang bằng lá cây. (lính)
a camouflage jacket
2. [ S or U ] the way that the colour or shape of an animal or plant appears to mix with its natural
environment to prevent it from being seen by attackers :nguỵ trang.
The lizard's light brown skin acts as (a) camouflage in the desert sand.
3. [ S or U ] something that is meant to hide something, or behaviour that is intended to hide the
truth :nguỵ trang. (nghĩa bóng),giả tạo.
Using smoke as (a) camouflage, the army advanced up the hill.
He believed that her kindness was merely a camouflage for her real intentions.

11. chronology /krəˈnɒl.ə.dʒi/ /-ˈnɑː.lə-/ noun [ C or U ]

the order in which a series of events happened, or a list or explanation of these events in the order in
which they happened theo trình tự.
I'm not sure of the chronology of events.
chronological /ˌkrɒn.əˈlɒdʒ.ɪ.k ə l/ /-ˈlɑː.dʒɪ-/ adjective
Give me the dates in chronological order .
chronologically /ˌkrɒn.əˈlɒdʒ.ɪ.kli/ /-ˈlɑː.dʒɪ-/ adverb

12. commemorate /kəˈmem.ə.reɪt/ verb [ T ]

to remember officially and give respect to a great person or event, especially by a public ceremony or
by making a statue or special building : tưởng niệm,tưởng nhớ.
Gathered all together in this church, we commemorate those who lost their lives in the great war.
A statue has been built to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the poet's birthday.
commemoration /kəˌmem.əˈreɪ.ʃ ə n/ noun [ C or U ]
something which is done to remember officially and give respect to a great person or event
A set of stamps has been commissioned in commemoration of Independence Day.
Thousands of veterans will take part in a commemoration of the battle.
commemorative /kəˈmem. ə r.ə.tɪv/ /-ɚ.ə.t ̬ɪv/ adjective
a commemorative statue/stamp/service/plaque

13. cower /ˈkaʊ.ə r / /ˈkaʊ.ɚ/ verb [ I ]

to lower your head or body in fear, often while moving backwards :gục đầu và bước lùi vì sợ.
Stop cowering! I'm not going to hit you.
14. decorum /dɪˈkɔː.rəm/ /-ˈkɔːr.əm/ noun [ U ] FORMAL
behaviour that is controlled, calm and polite :tính tình ít nói nhã nhặn lịch sự.
As young ladies we were expected to act/behave with proper decorum.

15. deduction /dɪˈdʌk.ʃ ə n/ noun [ C or U ] THINKING

1. when a decision or answer is reached by thinking about the known facts, or the decision that is
Through a process of deduction, the detectives discovered the identity of the killer.
All we can do is make deductions from (= form answers by thinking carefully about) the available
deduction /dɪˈdʌk.ʃ ə n/ noun [ C or U ] TAKING AWAY
2. when an amount or a part of something is taken away from a total, or the amount that is taken
The interest I receive on my savings account is paid after the deduction of tax.
After deductions (= expenses on which tax does not have to be paid) , his taxable income is $30,000.
stoppage /ˈstɒp.ɪdʒ/ /ˈstɑː.pɪdʒ/ noun [ C ] MONEY
2. UK ( US AND AUSTRALIAN deduction ) an amount which is subtracted from the money that
you are paid before you officially receive it
Stoppages include things like tax, pension contributions and national insurance.

16. deign /deɪn/ verb DISAPPROVING

deign to do sth
to do something unwillingly and in a way that shows that you think you are too important to do it
:miễn cưỡng( vì k thích làm)
If she deigns to reply to my letter, I'll be extremely surprised.

17. despondent /dɪˈspɒn.d ə nt/ /-ˈspɑːn-/ adjective

unhappy and with no hope or enthusiasm because you feel you are in a difficult situation :tuyệt vọng.
He became/grew increasingly despondent when she failed to return his phone calls.
She started to feel despondent about ever finding a job.

18. dialogue , US ALSO dialog /ˈdaɪ.ə.lɒg/ /-lɑːg/ noun [ C or U ] cuộc đối thoại.
1. (a) conversation which is written for a book, play or film
The play contained some very snappy/witty dialogue.
Act Two begins with a short dialogue between father and son.
2. formal talks between opposing countries, political groups, etc.
The rebel leaders stated that they are willing to enter into dialogue with the government.
The two sides have at last begun to engage in a constructive dialogue.

19. divulge /d a  ɪˈvʌldʒ/ verb [ T ]

to make something secret known :giữ bí mật.
Journalists do not divulge their sources.
[ + question word ] The managing director refused to divulge how much she earned.
20. eclectic /ɪˈklek.tɪk/ adjective FORMAL
Methods, beliefs, ideas, etc. that are eclectic combine whatever seem the best or most useful things
from many different areas or systems, rather than following a single system :kết hợp những thứ j đó tinh tuý
an eclectic style /approach
an eclectic taste in literature

21. ellipse /ɪˈlɪps/ noun [ C ]

an oval; a flattened circle: hình oval

22. embargo /ɪmˈbɑː.gəʊ/ /-goʊ/ noun [ C ] plural embargoes

an order to temporarily stop something, especially trading or giving information :sự cấm vận.
They have put an embargo on imports of clothing.
The police asked for a news embargo while they tried to find the kidnapper.
embargo /ɪmˈbɑː.gəʊ/ /-goʊ/ verb [ T ]
to officially stop trading with another country : cấm vận.
They are planning to embargo oil imports.

23. enthusiastic ɪnˌθjuː.ziˈæs.tɪk/ /-ˌθuː-/ adjective

showing enthusiasm :nhiệt huyết ,nhiệt tình.
You don't seem very enthusiastic about the party - don't you want to go tonight?
enthusiasm /ɪnˈθjuː.zi.æz. ə m/ /-ˈθuː-/ noun
1. [ U ] a feeling of energetic interest in a particular subject or activity and an eagerness to be
involved in it
One of the good things about teaching young children is their enthusiasm.
After the accident he lost his enthusiasm for the sport.
I just can't work up (= start to feel) any enthusiasm for the whole project.
2. [ C ] a subject or activity that interests you very much
One of his greatest enthusiasms was yoga.

24. exponent /ɪkˈspəʊ.nənt/ /-ˈspoʊ-/ noun [ C ] PERSON

1. a person who supports an idea or belief or performs an activity :ng đưa ra 1 ý tưởng,ng đề xuất ý
Adam Smith was an exponent of free trade.
Jacqueline du Pré was a leading exponent of cello-playing.

25. exult /ɪgˈzʌlt/ verb [ I ] FORMAL

to express great pleasure or happiness, especially at someone else's defeat or failure : hân hoan đắc thắng.
They exulted at/over their victory.
She seems to exult in her power.
26. fallacy /ˈfæl.ə.si/ noun [ C ] FORMAL
an idea that a lot of people think is true but which is false :tư tưởng sai lầm.
[ + that ] It is a common fallacy that women are worse drivers than men.

27. flourish /ˈflʌr.ɪʃ/ /ˈflɝː-/ verb SUCCEED

1. [ I ] to grow or develop successfully
My tomatoes are flourishing this summer - it must be the warm weather.
Watercolour painting began to flourish in Britain around 1750.
flourish /ˈflʌr.ɪʃ/ /ˈflɝː-/ verb WAVE
2. [ T ] to move something in your hand in order to make people look at it
She came in smiling, flourishing her exam results.
flourish /ˈflʌr.ɪʃ/ /ˈflɝː-/ noun
with a flourish
If you do something with a flourish, you do it with one big, noticeable movement
The waiter handed me the menu with a flourish.
He took off his hat with a flourish.
flourishing /ˈflʌr.ɪ.ʃɪŋ/ /ˈflɝː-/ adjective
growing or developing successfully
There's a flourishing trade in second-hand video machines.

28. formidable /fɔːˈmɪ.də.bl ̩/ /fɔːr-/ adjective

causing you to have fear or respect for something or someone because they are large, powerful or
a formidable obstacle/task
a formidable adversary/enemy/opponent
a formidable intellect
DISAPPROVING the director and his formidable wife

29. gargoyle /ˈgɑː.gɔɪl/ /ˈgɑːr-/ noun [ C ]

an ugly creature or head cut from stone and fixed to the roof of an old church, etc., often with an
open mouth through which rain water flows away

30. guerrilla /gəˈrɪl.ə/ noun [ C ]

a member of an unofficial military group that is trying to change the government by making sudden,
unexpected attacks on the official army forces
A small band of guerrillas has blown up a train in the mountains.
guerrilla warfare
guerrilla ( ALSO guerilla ) /gəˈrɪl.ə/ adjective
using unusual methods to get attention for your ideas, products, etc
guerrilla marketing

31. guru /ˈgʊr.uː/ noun [ C ]

1. a religious leader or teacher in the Hindu or Sikh religion
2. INFORMAL a person skilled in something who gives advice
a management guru
a lifestyle guru

32. heritage /ˈher.ɪ.tɪdʒ/ /-t ̬ɪdʒ/ noun [ U ]

features belonging to the culture of a particular society, such as traditions, languages or buildings,
which still exist from the past and which have a historical importance
These monuments are a vital part of the cultural heritage of South America.

33. hieroglyphics /ˌhaɪə.rəˈglɪf.ɪks/ /-roʊ-/ plural noun

a system of writing which uses pictures instead of words, especially as used in ancient Egypt

34. hologram /ˈhɒl.ə.græm/ /ˈhɑː.lə-/ noun [ C ]

a special type of photograph or image made with a laser in which the objects shown look solid, as if
they are real, rather than flat

35. hypocrisy /hɪˈpɒk.rɪ.si/ /-ˈpɑː.krə-/ noun [ U ] DISAPPROVING

when someone pretends to believe something that they do not really believe or that is the opposite of
what they do or say at another time :đạo đức giả.
There's one rule for her and another rule for everyone else and it's sheer hypocrisy.
hypocrite /ˈhɪp.ə.krɪt/ noun [ C ] DISAPPROVING
someone who says they have particular moral beliefs but behaves in way which shows these are not
sincere :kẻ đạo đức giả.
He's a hypocrite - he's always lecturing other people on the environment but he drives around in a
huge great car.
hypocritical /ˌhɪp.ə ʊ  ˈkrɪt.ɪ.k ə l/ /-əˈkrɪt ̬-/ adjective DISAPPROVING
saying that you have particular moral beliefs but behaving in a way that shows these are not sincere
Their accusations of corruption are hypocritical - they have been just as corrupt themselves.

36. immune /ɪˈmjuːn/ adjective

1. protected against a particular disease by particular substances in the blood :ngăn ngừa,miễn
Most people who've had chicken pox once are immune to it for the rest of their lives.
He seems to be immune to colds - he just never gets them.
2. [ after verb ] not affected or upset by a particular type of behaviour or emotion
The press had criticised her so often that in the end she had become immune ( to it).
3. [ after verb ] not able to be punished or damaged by something
Journalists, he insisted, must be immune (= protected) from prosecution (khởi tố).

37. impertinent /ɪmˈpɜː.tɪ.nənt/ /-ˈpɝː.t ̬ ə n. ə nt/ adjective

rude and not respectful, especially towards someone older or in a higher position than you : bất kính.
I hope he didn't think me impertinent when I asked him about his private life.
an impertinent remark/question
impertinently /ɪmˈpɜː.tɪ.nə /-ˈpɝː.t ̬ ə n. ə nt-/ adverb
impertinence /ɪmˈpɜː.tɪ.nən t  s/ /-ˈpɝː.t ̬ ə n. ə nts/ noun [ C or U ]
She even had the impertinence to lecture Loretta on the importance of hygiene ( vệ sinh).

38. inference /ˈɪn.f ə r. ə n t  s/ /-fɚ-/ noun [ C or U ] FORMAL

when you guess that something is true or form an opinion because of the information that you have:
rút ra từ…
They were warned to expect a heavy air attack and by inference many casualties (nhiều ng chết/ảnh
hưởng xấu).
His change of mind was recent and sudden, the inference being that someone had persuaded him.

39. introspection /ˌɪn.trəˈspek.ʃ ə n/ noun [ U ]

examination of and attention to your own ideas, thoughts and feelings
His defeat in the world championship led to a long period of gloomy introspection.
introspective /ˌɪn.trəˈspek.tɪv/ adjective
examining and considering your own ideas, thoughts and feelings, instead of talking to other people
about them
She is famous for her introspective songs about failed relationships.

40. jaunty ˈdʒɔːn.ti/ /ˈdʒɑːn.t ̬i/ adjective

showing that you are happy and confident
a jaunty grin/step.
When he came back his hat was at a jaunty angle and he was smiling.
jauntily /ˈdʒɔːn.tɪ.li/ /ˈdʒɑːn.t ̬ɪ-/ adverb
jauntiness /ˈdʒɔːn.tɪ.nəs/ /ˈdʒɑːn.t ̬ɪ-/ noun [ U ]

41. jovial /ˈdʒəʊ.vi.əl/ /ˈdʒoʊ-/ adjective

(of a person) friendly and in a good mood, or (of a situation) enjoyable because of being friendly and
He seemed a very jovial chap.
a jovial time/evening/chat
jovially /ˈdʒəʊ.vi.ə.li/ /ˈdʒoʊ-/ adverb
joviality /ˌdʒəʊ.viˈæl.ə.ti/ /ˌdʒoʊ.viˈæl.ə.t ̬i/ noun [ U ]

42. kilometer US kilometer /ˈkɪl.əˌmiː.tə r / /kɪˈlɑː.mə.t ̬ɚ/ noun [ C ] ( WRITTEN ABBREVIATION km )

a unit of measurement equal to 1000 metres : đơn vị đo lường cùa 1000m.

43. labyrinth /ˈlæb.ə.rɪnθ/ noun [ C ] LITERARY

1. a confusing set of connecting passages or paths in which it is easy to get lost

Finally, through a labyrinth of corridors she found his office.
2. something which is very confusing
He was no stranger to the labyrinth of love.
labyrinthine /ˌlæb.əˈrɪn.θaɪn/ adjective LITERARY
describes something that has a lot of parts and is therefore confusing
Beneath the city lies a labyrinthine network of tunnels.
It takes a fair amount of concentration to follow the film's labyrinthine plot.

44. laconic /ləˈkɒn.ɪk/ /-ˈkɑː.nɪk/ adjective FORMAL

using very few words to express what you mean
She had a laconic wit.
laconically /ləˈkɒn.ɪ.kli/ /-ˈkɑː.nɪ-/ adverb

45. lichen /ˈlaɪ.kən/ , /ˈlɪtʃ.ən/ noun [ C or U ]

a grey, green or yellow plant-like organism that grows especially on rocks, walls and trees

46. light-year noun [ C ]

the distance that light travels in one year (about 9 500 000 000 000 kilometres)
light years away
an extremely long time from now in the past or future
It all happened when I was at college, which seems light years away now that I'm over fifty.

47. maneuver US maneuver /məˈnuː.və r / /-vɚ/ noun MOVEMENT

1. [ C ] a movement or set of movements needing skill and care
Reversing round a corner is one of the manoeuvres you are required to perform in a driving test.
3. [ C ] a cleverly planned action which is intended to get an advantage
A series of impressive manoeuvres by the chairman had secured a lucrative contract for the
room for manoeuvre
the opportunity to change your plans or choose between different ways of doing something
The law in this area is very strict and doesn't allow us much room for manoeuvre.
manoeuvre UK , US maneuver /məˈnuː.və r / /-vɚ/ verb MOVE
1. [ I or T ] to turn and direct an object
Loaded supermarket trolleys are often difficult to manoeuvre.
This car manoeuvres well at high speed.
2. [ T ] to try to make someone act in a particular way
The other directors are trying to manoeuvre her into resigning.
manoeuvring UK , US maneuvering /məˈnuː.v ə r.ɪŋ/ /-vɚ-/ noun CLEVER ACTION
1. [ C or U ] when you cleverly plan something to get an advantage
The directors managed to secure a good deal for the company with a bit of subtle manoeuvring.
He claimed he knew nothing about the political manoeuvrings which had got him into power.
2. [ U ] when you move or move something with skill and care
With some careful manoeuvring, I was able to get the car into the narrow space.

48. marsupial /mɑːˈsuː.pi.əl/ /mɑːr-/ noun [ C ]

a type of mammal from Australasia or South or Central America which is not completely developed
when it is born and is carried around in a pocket on the mother's body where it is fed and protected until it is
completely developed
Marsupials include koalas, possums and kangaroos.
49. metaphor /ˈmet.ə.fɔː r / /ˈmet ̬.ə.fɔːr/ noun [ C or U ]
an expression which describes a person or object in a literary way by referring to something that is
considered to have similar characteristics to the person or object you are trying to describe
'The mind is an ocean' and 'the city is a jungle' are both metaphors.
Metaphor and simile are the most commonly used figures of speech in everyday language.
a metaphor for sth
a symbol which represents a particular thing
The author uses disease as a metaphor for the corruption in society.
In the film, the city is a metaphor for confusion and loneliness.
metaphorical /ˌmet.əˈfɒr.ɪ.k ə l/ /ˌmet ̬.əˈfɑːr-/ adjective ( ALSO metaphoric )
1. describes language which contains metaphors
Her second novel is written in a very metaphorical style.
2. not having real existence but symbolic and showing some truth about a situation or other subject
A metaphorical ocean (= extremely large area of disagreement) lies between the two groups.
There is a danger that America's metaphoric 'war on drugs' may turn into a bloody reality.
metaphorically /ˌmet.əˈfɒr.ɪ.kli/ /ˌmet ̬.əˈfɑːr-/ adverb
The phrase 'born again' is used metaphorically to mean that someone has suddenly become very religious.
By leaving school without any qualifications, she has, metaphorically speaking , shot herself in the
foot (= harmed her chances of success) .

50. mosaic /mə ʊ  ˈzeɪ.ɪk/ /moʊ-/ noun [ C ]

a pattern or picture made using many small pieces of coloured stone or glass : 1 bức tranh được ghép
bằng nh miếng đá hay kính nhỏ.
a beautiful 10th century mosaic
FIGURATIVE The country is now a cultural and social mosaic (= mixture) due to the influx of different
ethnic groups.

51. mutation mjuːˈteɪ.ʃ ə n/ noun

1. [ U ] the way in which genes change and produce permanent differences : đột biến gene.
It is well known that radiation can cause mutation.
2. [ C ] a permanent change in an organism, or the changed organism itself
Environmental pressures encourage genes with certain mutations to persist and others to die out.
These plants carry the mutation for red flowers.

52. nebula /ˈneb.jʊ.lə/ noun [ C ] plural nebulae or nebulas SPECIALIZED

a cloud of gas or dust in space, appearing either bright or dark

nebular /ˈneb.jʊ.lə r / /-lɚ/ adjective
nebulous /ˈneb.jʊ.ləs/ adjective
(especially of ideas) not clear and having no form
She has a few nebulous ideas about what she might like to do in the future, but nothing definite.
nebulousness /ˈneb.jʊ.lə.snəs/ noun [ U ]

53. nocturnal /nɒkˈtɜː.nəl/ /nɑːkˈtɝː-/ adjective FORMAL

happening in or active during the night, or relating to the night
nocturnal wanderings
nocturnal light
Most bats are nocturnal.
Compare diurnal /ˌdaɪˈɜː.nəl/ /-ˈɝː-/ adjective SPECIALIZED
happening over a period of a day, or being active or happening during the day rather than at night
Compare nocturnal
diurnally /ˌdaɪˈɜː.nə.li/ /-ˈɝː-/ adverb

nocturnally /nɒkˈtɜː.nə.li/ /nɑːkˈtɝː-/ adverb

54. nuisance /ˈnjuː.s ə n t  s/ /ˈnuː-/ noun [ C or U ]

1. something or someone that annoys you or causes trouble for you
I've forgotten my umbrella - what a nuisance!
[ + -ing verb ] It 's such a nuisance hav ing to rewrite those letters.
I hate to be a nuisance, but could you help me?
Local residents claimed that the noise was causing a public nuisance.
2. make a nuisance of yourself
to cause trouble or to annoy other people

55. omnivore /ˈɒm.nɪ.vɔː r / /ˈɑːm.nɪ.vɔːr/ noun [ C ]

an animal that is naturally able to eat both plants and meat
Compare carnivore /ˈkɑː.nɪ.vɔː r / /ˈkɑːr.nɪ.vɔːr/ noun [ C ]
an animal that eats meat
Lions and tigers are carnivores.
, herbivore /ˈhɜː.bɪ.vɔː r / /ˈhɝː.bə.vɔːr/ noun [ C ]
an animal that eats only plants
Cows and sheep are herbivores.

omnivorous /ɒmˈnɪv. ə r.əs/ /ɑːmˈnɪv.ɚ-/ adjective

1. naturally able to eat both plants and meat
Pigs are omnivorous animals.
Compare carnivorous , herbivorous
2. enthusiastic and interested in many different areas of a subject
an omnivorous reader

56. outrageous /ˌaʊtˈreɪ.dʒəs/ adjective

1. shocking and morally unacceptable
The judge criticized the "outrageous greed" of some of the lawyers.
[ + that ] It is outrageous that these buildings remain empty while thousands of people have no
These prices are just outrageous (= much too high) .
2. describes something or someone that is shocking because they are unusual or strange
outrageous clothes/behaviour
an outrageous character
outrageously /ˌaʊtˈreɪ.dʒə.sli/ adverb
outrageously high prices

57. ozone /ˈəʊ.zəʊn/ /ˈoʊ.zoʊn/ noun [ U ]

1. a poisonous form of oxygen
2. UK INFORMAL air that is clean and pleasant to breathe, especially near the sea
ozone-friendly /ˌəʊ.zəʊnˈ /ˌoʊ.zoʊn-/ adjective
describes a product which does not produce gases that are harmful to the ozone layer
ozone-friendly packaging
an ozone-friendly refrigerator
the ˈ ozone ˌ layer noun [ S ]
a layer of air high above the Earth, which contains a lot of ozone, and which prevents harmful
ultraviolet (tia cực tím) light from the sun from reaching the Earth :tầng o zôn

58. parasite /ˈpær.ə.saɪt/ /ˈper-/ noun [ C ]

1. an animal or plant that lives on or in another animal or plant of a different type and feeds from it
The older drugs didn't deal effectively with the malaria parasite.
2. DISAPPROVING a person who is lazy and lives by other people working, giving them money, etc
Financial speculators are parasites upon the national economy.
parasitic /ˌpær.əˈsɪt.ɪk/ /ˌper.əˈsɪt ̬-/ adjective ( ALSO parasitical )
caused by or connected with a parasite
a parasitic disease
parasitic insects
parasitism /ˈpær.ə.s a  ɪ.tɪ.z ə m/ noun [ U ]

59. participle /pɑːˈtɪs.ɪ.pl ̩/ /ˈpɑːr.tɪ.sɪ-/ noun [ C ]

the form of a verb that usually ends in 'ed' or 'ing' and is used to form some tenses and as an
In the sentences 'He's sleeping' and 'I've already eaten', the words 'sleeping' and 'eaten' are both

60. phloem /ˈfləʊ.em/ /ˈfloʊ.em/ noun [ U ] SPECIALIZED

the type of plant tissue that transports food from the leaves to the other parts of the plant
Compare xylem /ˈzaɪ.ləm/ noun [ U ] SPECIALIZED
the type of plant tissue that carries water and minerals from the roots to the leaves and gives support
to the stem or trunk

61. plateau /ˈplæt.əʊ/ /plætˈoʊ/ noun [ C ] plural UK plateaux or US ALSO plateaus FLAT LAND
1. a large flat area of land that is high above sea level
plateau /ˈplæt.əʊ/ /plætˈoʊ/ noun [ C ] plural UK plateaux or US ALSO plateaus NO CHANGE
2. a period during which there are no large changes
The US death rate reached a plateau in the 1960s, before declining suddenly.
plateau /ˈplæt.əʊ/ /plætˈoʊ/ verb [ I ]
to reach a particular level and then stay the same
I'd been losing about a pound a week on my diet, but recently I've plateaued and haven't lost an
The economic slowdown has caused our sales to plateau.

62. polygon /ˈpɒl.ɪ.gɒn/ /ˈpɑː.lɪ.gɑːn/ noun [ C ] SPECIALIZED

a flat shape with three or more straight sides : đa giác.

Triangles and squares are polygons.
polygraph /ˈpɒl.ɪ.grɑːf/ /ˈpɑː.lɪ.græf/ noun [ C ] SPECIALIZED
a lie detector :máy phát hiện nói dối.

63. protagonist /prəˈtæg. ə n.ɪst/ noun [ C ] SUPPORTER

1. an important supporter of an idea or political system : linh hồn của 1 tổ chức chính trị
Key protagonists of the revolution were hunted down and executed.
protagonist /prəˈtæg. ə n.ɪst/ noun [ C ] CHARACTER
2. FORMAL one of the main characters in a story or a play : nhân vật chính trong 1 tác phẩm.

Compare antagonist /ænˈtæg.ə.nɪst/ noun [ C ] FORMAL

a person who is strongly opposed to something or someone : kẻ chống đối

The antagonists in this dispute are quite unwilling to compromise.
antagonistic /ænˌtæg.əˈnɪs.tɪk/ adjective
actively opposing or showing unfriendliness towards something or someone
He's extremely antagonistic towards all critics.
antagonize , UK USUALLY antagonise /ænˈtæg.ə.naɪz/ verb [ T ]
to make someone dislike you or feel opposed to you
It's a very delicate situation and I've no wish to antagonize him.
opponent /əˈpəʊ.nənt/ /-ˈpoʊ-/ noun [ C ]
1. a person who disagrees with something and speaks against it or tries to change it : kẻ phản đối
chống đối.
a political opponent
Leading opponents of the proposed cuts in defence spending will meet later today.
2. a person being competed against in a sports event : đối thủ.
In the second game, her opponent hurt her leg and had to retire
proponent /prəˈpəʊ.nənt/ /-ˈpoʊ-/ noun [ C ]
a person who speaks publicly in support of a particular idea or plan of action : ng ủng hộ.
He is one of the leading proponents of capital punishment.

64. pulverize UK USUALLY pulverise /ˈpʌl.v ə r.aɪz/ /-və.raɪz/ verb [ T ]

1. to press or crush something until it becomes powder or a soft mass :nghiền nạt,tán thành bột mịn.
pulverized coal/bones
2. INFORMAL to defeat someone easily
pulverization , UK USUALLY pulverisation /ˌpʌl.v ə r. a  ɪˈzeɪ.ʃ ə n/ /-vɚ.ɪ-/ noun [ U ]
65. quandary /ˈkwɒn.dri/ /ˈkwɑːn-/ noun [ C usually singular ]
a state of not being able to decide what to do about a situation in which you are involved
I've had two job offers, and I'm in a real quandary about/over which one to accept.

66. quarantine /ˈkwɒr. ə n.tiːn/ /ˈkwɔːr-/ noun [ U ]

a period of time during which an animal or person that might have a disease is kept away from other
people or animals so that the disease cannot spread :thời gian cách ly.
The horse had to spend several months in quarantine when it reached Britain.
quarantine /ˈkwɒr. ə n.tiːn/ /ˈkwɔːr-/ verb [ T ]
to put an animal or person in quarantine : cách ly.

67. quota /ˈkwəʊ.tə/ /ˈkwoʊ.t ̬ə/ noun [ C ]

a fixed, limited amount or number that is officially allowed : hạn ngạch.
The country now has a quota on immigration.
FIGURATIVE The class contains the usual quota (= number) of troublemakers (kẻ phiền toái,kẻ gây
rối,ng tố cáo tiêu cực).
Troubleshooter:ng gỡ rối,ng hoà giải,điều giải.

68. rainforest rain forest /ˈreɪn.fɒr.ɪst/ /-fɔːr-/ noun [ C or U ]

a forest in a tropical area which receives a lot of rain :rừng nhiệt đới.
a tropical (nhiệt đới) rainforest

69. random /ˈræn.dəm/ adjective

1. happening, done or chosen by chance rather than according to a plan :ngẫu nhiên bất kỳ
random checks/tests /attacks
We asked a random sample/selection of people what they thought.
2. INFORMAL strange or unusual : lạ thường,eccentric. /ekˈsen.trɪk/
I just saw Billy wearing a top hat - he's so random!
3. at random
without choosing intentionally; by chance :tình cờ.
The winning entry will be the first correct answer drawn at random.
randomly /ˈræn.d ə adverb
The books were randomly arranged on the shelves.

70. recede rɪˈsiːd/ verb [ I ]

to move further away into the distance, or to become less clear or less bright
As the boat picked up speed, the coastline receded into the distance until finally it became invisible.
The painful memories gradually receded in her mind.
re ˌ ceding ˈ hairline noun [ C usually singular ]
If a man has a receding hairline, he is losing the hair from the front of his head.

71. renaissance /rəˈneɪ.s ə n t  s/ /ˈren.ə.sɑːn t  s/ noun [ S ]

a new growth of activity or interest in something, especially art, literature or music
Opera in Britain is enjoying a long-awaited renaissance.
the Renaissance /ðə.rəˈneɪ.s ə n t  s/ /ðəˈren.ə.sɑːn t  s/ noun [ S ]
the period of new growth of interest and activity in the areas of art, literature and ideas in Europe,
especially northern Italy, during the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries
Renaissance adjective [ before noun ]
Renaissance art/painting/architecture
Re ˌ naissance ˈ man noun [ C usually singular ] MAINLY HUMOROUS
a man who does many different things very well
He's a writer, politician, musician and athlete - a real Renaissance man.

72. renegade /ˈren.ɪ.geɪd/ noun [ C ] FORMAL DISAPPROVING

a person who has changed their feelings of support and duty from one political, religious, national,
etc. group to a new one
A band of renegades had captured the prince and were holding him to ransom.
renegade adjective [ before noun ]
a renegade soldier/priest

73. repose /rɪˈpəʊz/ /-ˈpoʊz/ verb [ I usually + adv/prep ] FORMAL

to rest or lie :thư giãn

She reposed on the sofa.
repose trust/confidence/hope in sb/sth
to place your trust or hopes in someone or something
We repose a lot of hope in this project.
repose /rɪˈpəʊz/ /-ˈpoʊz/ noun [ U ] FORMAL
when someone is resting or lying down
Your face is so beautiful in repose.

74. sacrifice /ˈsæk.rɪ.faɪs/ verb GIVE UP

1. [ T ] to give up something that is valuable to you in order to help another person
Many women sacrifice interesting careers for their family.
sacrifice /ˈsæk.rɪ.faɪs/ verb KILL
2. [ I or T ] to kill an animal or a person and offer them to a god or gods
be sacrificed on the altar of sth LITERARY
to be destroyed by an activity, system or belief that is bad but more important or more powerful
Service and quality have been sacrificed on the altar of profit.
sacrifice /ˈsæk.rɪ.faɪs/ noun [ C or U ] GIVING UP
1. when you give up something that is valuable to you in order to help someone else
We had to make sacrifices in order to pay for our children's education.
They cared for their disabled son for 27 years, at great personal sacrifice.
sacrifice /ˈsæk.rɪ.faɪs/ noun [ C or U ] KILLING
2. the act of killing an animal or person and offering them to a god or gods, or the animal, etc. that is
The people offered a lamb on the altar as a sacrifice for their sins.
make the ultimate/supreme sacrifice FORMAL
to die while fighting for a principle
sacrificial /ˌsæk.rɪˈfɪʃ. ə l/ adjective
offered as a sacrifice
The priest held up the head of the sacrificial goat.
sacrificially /ˌsæk.rɪˈfɪʃ. ə l.i/ adverb

75. silhouette /ˌsɪl.uˈet/ noun [ C or U ]

a dark shape seen against a light surface
The silhouette of the bare tree on the hill was clear against the winter sky.
silhouetted /ˌsɪl.uˈet.ɪd/ /-et ̬-/ adjective
forming a silhouette
The goats high up on the mountain were silhouetted against the snow.

76. solstice /ˈsɒl.stɪs/ /ˈsɑːl-/ noun [ C ]

either of the two occasions in the year when the sun is directly above either the furthest point north
or the furthest point south of the equator that it ever reaches. These are the times in the year, in the middle of
the summer or winter, when there are the longest hours of day or night
the summer/winter solstice
Compare equinox /ˈek.wɪ.nɒks/ /-nɑːks/ noun [ C ]
either of the two occasions in the year when day and night are of equal length
the vernal/autumn equinox

77. spectrum /ˈspek.trəm/ noun [ C ] plural spectra or spectrums COLOURS

1. the set of colours into which a beam of light can be separated, or a range of waves, such as light
waves or radio waves
The colours of the spectrum - red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet - can be seen in a
spectrum /ˈspek.trəm/ noun [ C ] plural spectra or spectrums RANGE
2. a range of opinions, feelings, etc.
He has support from across the whole political spectrum.
The group includes students from both ends of the social spectrum (= range of social classes) .
A wide spectrum of opinion was represented at the meeting.

78. stereotype /ˈster.i.ə.taɪp/ noun [ C ] DISAPPROVING

a fixed idea that people have about what someone or something is like, especially an idea that is
racial/sexual stereotypes
He doesn't conform to/fit/fill the national stereotype of a Frenchman.
The characters in the book are just stereotypes.
stereotype /ˈster.i.ə.taɪp/ verb [ T ] DISAPPROVING
to have a fixed idea about what a particular type of person is like, especially an idea that is wrong
:rập khuôn.
The study claims that British advertising stereotypes women.
We tried not to give the children sexually stereotyped toys.
stereotypical /ˌster.i.əˈtɪp.ɪ.k ə l/ adjective DISAPPROVING
having the qualities that you expect a particular type of person to have
Customers are tired of the stereotypical, fast-talking salesperson.
stereotypically /ˌster.i.əˈtɪp.ɪ.kli/ adverb

79. strategy /ˈstræt.ə.dʒi/ /ˈstræ-/ noun [ C or U ]

a detailed plan for achieving success in situations such as war, politics, business, industry or sport, or
the skill of planning for such situations :chiến lược.-tactic:chiến thuật.
The president held an emergency meeting to discuss military strategy with his defence commanders
Their marketing strategy for the product involves obtaining as much free publicity as possible.
[ + to infinitive ] We're working on new strategies to improve our share of the market.
ˈ exit ˌ strategy noun [ C ]
a plan of how someone will end something such as a business deal or a military operation

80. suffrage /ˈsʌf.rɪdʒ/ noun [ U ]

the right to vote in an election, especially for representatives in a parliament or similar organization
universal (toàn cầu) suffrage (= the right of all adults to vote)
suffragette /ˌsʌf.rəˈdʒet/ noun [ C ]
a woman in Britain, Australia and the United States in the early 20th century who was a member of a
group that demanded the right of women to vote and that increased knowledge of the subject with a series
of public protests
suffragist /ˈsʌf.rə.dʒɪst/ noun [ C ]
someone who supports suffrage, especially a supporter of the right of women to vote in the early 20th

81. symbiosis /ˌsɪm.baɪˈəʊ.sɪs/ /-ˈoʊ-/ noun [ U ]

1. SPECIALIZED a relationship between two types of animal or plant in which each provides for the
other the conditions necessary for its continued existence :hiện tượng cộng sinh.
2. a relationship between people or organizations that depend on each other equally : đời sống cộng
symbiotic /ˌsɪm.baɪˈɒt.ɪk/ /-ˈɑː.t ̬ɪk/ adjective SPECIALIZED
a symbiotic relationship
symbiotically /ˌsɪm.baɪˈɒt.ɪ.kli/ /-ɑː.t ̬ɪ-/ adverb SPECIALIZED

82. tariff /ˈtær.ɪf/ noun [ C ]

a charge or list of charges either for services or on goods entering a country :thuế quan,biểu thuế
quan. Tiền thuế là duty,customs duty.

83. technique /tekˈniːk/ noun [ C or U ]

a way of doing an activity which needs skill :kỹ thuật
We have developed a new technique for detecting errors in the manufacturing process.
She's a wonderfully creative dancer but she doesn't have the technique of a truly great performer.

84. tempo /ˈtem.pəʊ/ /-poʊ/ noun plural tempos or SPECIALIZED tempi

1. [ C ] the speed at which an event happens
We're going to have to up the tempo (= work faster) if we're to finish on time.
2. [ C or U ] SPECIALIZED the speed at which a piece of music is played
a change in tempo

85. toxin /ˈtɒk.sɪn/ /ˈtɑːk-/ noun [ C ]

a poisonous substance, especially one which is produced by bacteria and which causes disease

86. tranquility /træŋˈkwɪl.ɪ.ti/ /trænˈkwɪl.ə.t ̬i/ noun [ U ]

a peaceful calm state, without noise, violence, worry, etc.; the quality of being tranquil
living in peace and tranquillity
I love the tranquillity of the countryside.
tranquillize , US USUALLY tranquilize , UK USUALLY tranquillise /ˈtræŋ.kwɪ.laɪz/ /ˈtræn-/ verb [ T ]
to make an animal or person become unconscious or calm, especially with a drug
a tranquillizing drug
The dogs were tranquillized with a dart gun and taken to a shelter.
tranquillizer , US USUALLY tranquilizer , UK USUALLY tranquilliser /ˈtræŋ.kwɪ.laɪ.zə r / /ˈtræn.kwɪ.laɪ.zɚ/
noun [ C ]
a drug used to make a person or animal calmer
She was on tranquillizers for a long time after her son died.

87. tumult /ˈtjuː.mʌlt/ /ˈtuː-/ noun [ C or U ] FORMAL

a loud noise, especially that produced by an excited crowd, or a state of confusion, change or
You couldn't hear her speak over the tumult from the screaming fans.
From every direction, people were running and shouting and falling over each other in a tumult of
The financial markets are in tumult.
tumultuous /tjuːˈmʌl.tjʊəs/ /tuː-/ adjective FORMAL
very loud, or full of confusion, change or uncertainty
Dame Joan appeared to tumultuous applause and a standing ovation.
After the tumultuous events of 1990, Eastern Europe was completely transformed.
tumultuously /tjuːˈmʌl.tjʊə.sli/ /tuː-/ adverb

88. tundra /ˈtʌn.drə/ noun [ U ]

(part of) the very large area of land in Northern Asia, North America and Northern Europe where,
because it is cold, trees do not grow and ground below the surface is permanently frozen
Reindeer roam the tundra in large herds.
Few plants grow in tundra regions.

89. ultraviolet /ˌʌl.trəˈvaɪə.lət/ adjective ( ABBREVIATION UV )

describes light that has a wavelength which is after the violet (= light purple) end of the range of
colours that can be seen by humans. Light of this type causes the skin to become darker in the sun.

90. unanimous juːˈnæn.ɪ.məs/ adjective

If a group of people are unanimous, they all agree about one particular matter or vote the same way,
and if a decision or judgment is unanimous, it is formed or supported by everyone in a group :nhất trí
The jury returned a unanimous verdict of guilty after a short deliberation.
After a lengthy discussion we reached a unanimous decision on the proposal.
The new format has unanimous support and could be introduced next season.
unanimously /juːˈnæn.ɪ.mə.sli/ adverb
All four proposals to the committee were unanimously approved.

91. undulate /ˈʌn.djʊ.leɪt/ verb [ I ]

undulating /ˈʌn.djʊ.leɪ.tɪŋ/ /-t ̬ɪŋ/ adjective FORMAL
1. describing or having small hills and slopes that look like waves
undulating roads
I love the gently undulating hills of the Dales.
2. moving gently up and down
undulating waves

92. vaccine /ˈvæk.siːn/ noun [ C or U ]

a substance which contains a form that is not harmful of a virus or bacterium (= extremely small
organism) and which is given to a person or animal to prevent them from getting the disease which the virus
or bacterium causes
This vaccine protects against some kinds of the bacteria.
See picture health 2

93. vacillate /ˈvæs.ɪ.leɪt/ verb [ I ] DISAPPROVING

to be uncertain what to do, or to change often between two opinions
Her mood vacillated between hope and despair.
vacillation /ˌvæs.ɪˈleɪ.ʃ ə n/ noun [ C or U ]

94. vertebrate /ˈvɜː.tɪ.brət/ /ˈvɝː.t ̬ə-/ adjective SPECIALIZED

having a spine (= back bone)
vertebrate /ˈvɜː.tɪ.brət/ /ˈvɝː.t ̬ə-/ noun [ C ] SPECIALIZED
an animal that has a spine
Birds, fish, mammals, amphibians and reptiles are all vertebrates.
Compare invertebrate

95. virtuoso /ˌvɜː.tjuˈəʊ.səʊ/ /ˌvɝː.tʃuˈoʊ.soʊ/ noun [ C ] plural virtuosos or virtuosi

a person who is extremely skilled at something, especially at playing an instrument or performing
Famous mainly for his wonderful voice, Cole was also a virtuoso on the piano.
virtuoso /ˌvɜː.tjuˈəʊ.səʊ/ /ˌvɝː.tʃuˈoʊ.soʊ/ adjective [ before noun ]
extremely skilled
The Times critic described her dancing as 'a virtuoso performance of quite dazzling
virtuosity /ˌvɜː.tjuˈɒs.ɪ.ti/ /ˌvɝː.tʃuˈɑː.sə.t ̬i/ noun [ U ] FORMAL
virtuous /ˈvɜː.tju.əs/ /ˈvɝː-/ adjective
1. having good moral qualities and behaviour
He described them as a virtuous and hard-working people.
2. DISAPPROVING describes a person who thinks himself or herself morally better than other people
I'm convinced he only does that charity work so he can feel virtuous.
virtue /ˈvɜː.tjuː/ /ˈvɝː-/ noun GOOD MORALS
1. [ C or U ] a good moral quality in a person, or the general quality of goodness in people
Patience is a virtue.
Compare vice
virtue /ˈvɜː.tjuː/ /ˈvɝː-/ noun ADVANTAGE
2. [ C or U ] (an) advantage or good thing
It always looks odd to see an actress on TV extolling (= praising) the virtues of washing-up liquid.
Would there be any virtue in taking an earlier train?
virtue /ˈvɜː.tjuː/ /ˈvɝː-/ noun BECAUSE OF
3. by virtue of FORMAL
because of; as a result of
She succeeded by virtue of her tenacity rather than her talent.
make a virtue (out) of sth
to use something, especially a bad situation, to your advantage
I had a couple of months to spare between jobs so I thought I'd make a virtue of necessity by
acquiring a few new skills.

96. voracious /vəˈreɪ.ʃəs/ adjective

very eager for something, especially a lot of food
He has a voracious appetite (= he eats a lot) .
He's a voracious reader of historical novels (= He reads a lot of them eagerly and quickly) .
voraciously /vəˈreɪ.ʃə.sli/ adverb
voraciousness /vəˈreɪ.ʃə.snəs/ noun [ U ]

97. wretched /ˈretʃ.ɪd/ adjective

1. unhappy, unpleasant or of low quality : đáng buồn.
a wretched childhood
The house was in a wretched state.
2. used to express anger : dùng để bộc lộ sự giận dữ.
My wretched car's broken down again.
3. very ill or very unhappy :phát ốm.
I think I must be coming down with flu - I've been feeling wretched all day.
98. xylem /ˈzaɪ.ləm/ noun [ U ] SPECIALIZED
the type of plant tissue that carries water and minerals from the roots to the leaves and gives support
to the stem or trunk
Compare phloem : /ˈfləʊ.em/ /ˈfloʊ.em/ noun [ U ] SPECIALIZED
the type of plant tissue that transports food from the leaves to the other parts of the plant

99. yacht jɒt/ /jɑːt/ noun [ C ]

a boat with sails and sometimes an engine, used for either racing or travelling on for pleasure : du
a luxury yacht
the yacht club

100. zoology /zuːˈɒl.ə.dʒi/ , /zəʊ-/ /zoʊˈɑː.lə-/ noun [ U ]

the scientific study of animals, especially their structure :động vật học.