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MMPI-2 Validity Scales: How to interpret your

personality test
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) is the most comprehensive personality test
currently available. Using 567 true or false questions, it rates the tester on 130 categories (validity scales
included). Once validity of the results are established, a profile is created employing the 10 Clinical Scales:
hypochondriasis (Hs), depression (D), hysteria (Hy), psychopathic deviate (Pd), masculinity/femininity (Mf),
paranoia (Pa), psychathenia (Pt), schizophrenia (Sc), hypomania (Ma), and social introversion (Si). Each of
these is in itself composed of various other sub-scales.

To take the MMPI-2 free of charge, click here.

Please note that the MMPI-2 produces T-Scores and Raw Scores. What you will be paying attention to are the
T-Scores, not the Raw Scores, unless otherwise specified. T-Scores are not percentages, but may be
translated into percentages. Usually, anything above a 75 T-Score denotes a very high ranking on that scale, that
is, within the top 1% of the population. Likewise, anything above a T-Score of 65 falls outside the normal range
(among the top 3 to 5% of the general population). On the lower bound, any T-Score below 35 would not be
considered normal. This general guideline notwithstanding, keep in mind that these point ranges do not apply
rigidly, that is, some scales accept certain T-Scores as normal while other scales consider the very same scores

Given this complexity, you may find the task of interpreting your own MMPI-2 results overwhelming. I have
written this instruction manual with the aim of being as exact, as exhaustive, yet also as simple as possible, such
that anyone can do it and fully understand what they are doing.

How to interpret your own MMPI-2 results?

Step 1: Verify that your results are valid, and identify what bias these contain, if any.
Step 2: Once determined valid, see how your profile compares to the rest of the population on the 10
Clinical Scales, and analyze your strengths and weaknesses on each scale by looking at its components.
Step 3: Pinpoint your dominant psychological defense mechanisms.
Step 4: Use the supplementary scales to better understand yourself and your current psychological

This article explores in-depth how to carry out Step 1, arguably the most important step because the accuracy of
all future steps depends directly on Step 1 being carried out correctly.

Step 1: Verifying Validity

Are your test results valid, and what do the validity scales say about you?

These are the Validity Scales in the order presented in the results:

? = Cannot Say
VRIN = Variable Response Inconsistency
TRIN = True Response Inconsistency
F = Infrequency
Fb = Backside F
Fp = Infrequency Psychopathology
L = Lie
K = Correction
S = Superlative Self-Presentation

Each of these is described below in detail. Nonetheless, the most important validity scales are F, L, and K.

If L and K score higher than F, it is likely that the test taker attempted to appear healthier than is really the case.
This is known as "Fake-Good". However, this pattern by itself does not make the profile invalid. It might be
that the pattern describes a moralistic conformist whose strong defenses allowed them to adapt successfully to
the world. Thus, the pattern must be supplemented with further information to determine whether "Fake-Good"
actually took place. How to do this is explained below, along with all the scales.

Probable "Fake-Good" slope.

The evaluating entity will treat
your results as overcompensations,
at best, or as outright misrepresentation,
at worst, thus relying on their own view.

On the opposite end of the spectrum, if F scores higher than L and K, it is possible that the subject tried to
appear worse than what they are, which is known as "Fake-Bad". Once again, more information is needed to
establish "Fake-Bad" behavior. It could be the case that this person described their current situation sincerely,
and perhaps needs professional help.

Probable "Fake-Bad" slope.

The interpreter is likely to believe
that you are acting to gain some benefit
and will treat your results as if they
were manipulative, relying on their own
perception of you for what is deemed true.

? = Cannot Say
This scale adds how many questions were left unanswered. A high amount of blank responses may signal
confusion, resistance to taking the test, or simply that they did not finish. More than 10 omitted answers
risks rendering invalid the totality of the results. If 6 or more questions weren't answered, it would be wise to
look at which items these were because there may be a pattern in the topics addressed that may reveal the
respondent's level of comfort with an issue or with a psychopathology that they may be unwilling or unable to

Some problematic combinations (if the scales listed have a T-Score above 60):

? + L = Person is trying to appear in a favorable light but uses a crude strategy to do so.
? + L + F + K = Suggests highly-generalized, intense negativism.
? + F = The profile is invalid, be it because of reading comprehension problems or mental confusion.
? + K = Test taker is very defensive.

VRIN = Variable Response Inconsistency

Measures the tendency to respond inconsistently. There are questions in the MMPI-2 that repeat using different
wording. This scale scores the consistency of the answers. On the one hand, an elevated VRIN and F indicate
that the person answered questions at random; thus, the profile is invalid. On the other hand, a normal VRIN
coupled with a high F suggests one of two scenarios: either the person has serious psychological issues that
probably require professional attention, or they are simply "Faking-Bad", that is, trying to appear worse
than what is actually true. Though a very low VRIN may be good and indicate outstanding memory and focus,
were those traits untrue such a score may suggest that the person is being very careful about lying or portraying
themselves as someone they are not. Given the length of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory,
some response inconsistency is bound to happen to anyone.

TRIN = True Response Inconsistency

Scores whether the respondent answered all true or all false at random. A T-Score above 65 is suspicious. A
TRIN T-Score of 80 or more indicates that the profile is invalid. This scale needs to be considered along with
other scales; it means little alone unless above a T-Score of 80.

F = Infrequency
This very important metric quantifies how much a person's responses deviate from the general population;
hence, how infrequent the answers are when compared to everyone else. In a non-clinical setting (if you are
taking the test at home under no supervision, you are in a non-clinical setting), a T-Score above 80 on this scale
probably evidences the existence of a severe psychopathology. To make sure that this is the fact, check that
the VRIN and TRIN scores are normal, and also compare the F T-Score with that of Fb for further
confirmation. If F and Fb aren't both elevated, it is almost certainly an instance of "Fake-Bad" behavior, that is,
of trying to appear worse than one is.

A 65 T-Score on F is not uncommon; furthermore, being involved in unusual religious, political, or social
groups can raise F as high as 75. Nonetheless, a score of 80 or above, once proven valid, is a clear indication
that the test taker is having unusual thoughts and experiences that most likely require professional attention. (In
clinical, outpatient settings, a score of 75 is already considered abnormal; in inpatient settings - i.e., in a
psychiatric institution - a score of 65 suffices as evidence of abnormality.) An F T-Score above 100 will elevate
all clinical scales (a.k.a., the profile) and is indicative that the person is reacting to everything because he or
she is unable to pinpoint a particular problem area, as would happen to a confused mind in the midst of a severe

On the flip side, a low F score denotes a person that is relatively free from stress or major psychological
issues, who is dependable, sincere, and may be considered conformist (unless the K and/or L scales suggest a
case of "Fake-Good"). Lastly, it should be noted that minorities tend to get higher scores on this scale, and also
that it is quite common for creative people to score within the 60-70 range without that entailing psychological
issues that must be addressed.

Some problematic combinations:

Moderately high L and K + really high F = Test may have been answered mostly at random; the profile
is likely invalid.
Similarly, high L + F + K = Responses recorded without considering the questions; profile is invalid.

Invalid profile. The elevations

of L, F, and K together go beyond
anything realistic. Interpretation of results
would be unnecessary and a waste of time.

High F + L = "Fake-Bad", that is, the person is attempting to appear worse off than what is true, making
the profile likely invalid.
High F + K = Individual contradicts himself by responding in a self-enhancing and self-deprecating
manner at the same time. Lack of insight, confusion, or difficulties understanding the nature of the test
may be to blame. The profile may be valid or invalid depending on which of the aforementioned
reasons is true.
High F + Sc (Schizophrenia) = Subject may have a tendency towards withdrawal. Profile is valid.
High F + Ma (Hypomania) = May have mania or be undergoing a manic episode. Profile is valid.

Fb = Backside F
This scale is the same as F except that it compiles information from the last third of the questions on the MMPI-
2. It is mostly used: 1) to confirm the validity of F by observing that Fb T-Scores match F more or less, and 2)
to detect test takers that answer at random because F and Fb will show significant disparity.

Fp = Infrequency Psychopathology
This scale was specifically constructed to identify people who are faking a severe psychopathology. A T-Score
above 100 on Fp almost certainly renders the profile invalid. Though not necessary, when such a score
is accompanied by a VRIN T-Score of 80 or more, the profile is invalid, no ifs or buts about it. The Fp Raw
Score (which is different from the T-Score but is listed alongside it in the results) ought to be 6 or less for an
optimal psychological profile to be constructed with the 10 Clinical Scales. This scale is composed of items
that not even people with severe psychopathology would assent to.

L = Lie
Lie measures whether an individual is trying to look good or rather is willing to own up to basic human
vulnerabilities. A high score means that the subject is claiming socially correct behavior the unreal nature of
which is common sense to everyone else. T-Scores above 60 are rarely seen on this scale. A T-Score of 55 or
more may suggest a presentation of moral righteousness. A high L may signify a naive nature, ill-prepared to
deal with difficulties or problems as these surface in real-time.

Profile indicative either of a hysteric

trying to look on the bright side
or of an individual whose psychological
defense mechanisms no longer work.

An elevated L with a moderately high Hy (Hysteria) suggests a character that looks to the bright side,
attempting not to think badly about themselves or about other people. Similarly, simultaneous elevated
readings on L, K, and Hy points to highly defensive people that may not even be aware of the anomalous
degree of their own defensiveness. A high L can be expected to be accompanied by lower readings on the 10
Clinical Scales profile of the MMPI-2, and, therefore, the results should be interpreted with that bias in mind. If,
however, the scores on the 10 Clinical Scales are not all consistently low or in the normal range, this indicates
that the person's preferred psychological defense mechanisms are not working well enough to keep a lid on their
problems. In contrast, low L scores are associated with higher levels of education, non-righteousness, and a
more relaxed mind.

K = Correction
This scale measures defensiveness in a much more subtle way than Lie. Correctly interpreting K scores isn't
easy as the background of the subject and the conditions under which he is taking the MMPI-2 must be taken
into account. College students, for example, typically display T-Scores between a 55 and 70, which signifies
that they are competent in managing their lives; if their score is a little higher, it may be that they are on guard
because they do not trust their professor or because the reason why they are taking the test wasn't fully or
convincingly explained to them. A drop from that scoring range implies that the student is undergoing a
stressful time in their lives. Outside of a well-educated population, high K scores indicate defensiveness. This is
true, for example, for job applicants forced to take the MMPI-2; as a result of that peculiar situation, applicants
attempt to appear as decent as possible, for obvious reasons, resulting in validity scale charts that typically
follow the pattern of the image below.

Typical slope of a job applicant

trying to look better than is actually true.
Though the profile is valid, K-corrections
ought to be applied in order to see what is
more likely the case. Employer should reject
the job applicant, regardless of the K-corrected scores.

In contrast, a low T-score of 45 or less hints that a psychopathology is probably present (and sometimes this is
the only hint that the interpreting psychologist gets when all the profile scales fall within normal bounds).
Interestingly, a really low K of 35 or less correlates with a poor prognosis because it signals that the test taker
does not have the tools or the psychological strength to respond well to traditional (no-drugs) therapies, most
likely lacking sufficient Ego-Strength (Es). On the flip side, a really high score also suggests a poor therapy
prognosis as the psychological defenses could be so strong that they prevent any internal change or therapeutic
progress. Thus, this scale measures how intact the existing psychological defenses are. A corollary of a high
score on K, therefore, is a marked fear of emotional intensity along with an avoidance of intimacy.

Some problematic combinations:

Elevated L + K + Hy (Hysteria) + R (Repression) = Too defensive to look at the bad in others or see the
problems in himself.
A high K is associated with the psychological defense mechanisms of repression and rationalization.
When very high Ks co-occur with high scores on one or more of the clinical, profile scales, it is all-too-
likely that these individuals will refuse to look at the problem, seeing themselves as having no problems
at all.
If both K and Es (Ego-Strength) record T-Scores of 45 or less, the person will tend not to feel good
about themselves and will feel that they lack the skills necessary to tackle their problems.
When K is below 45 yet F scores below 60, the individual often believes that life has been rough on
them because they didn't have the advantages that were available to others. This belief is probably true
as this combination usually occurs with people from impoverished or otherwise disadvantaged
Moderately elevated K + F + Hy (Hysteria) + Sc (Schizophrenia) = Conventional people overly
concerned with being liked and accepted into a group, unrealistically optimistic even when the facts do
not merit it, have difficulty expressing and receiving anger, and find themselves unable to make
decisions that would be unpopular within their group.
High K + Ma (Hypomania) = An organized, efficient person living with consistent hypomania.

Moderately high K + high F = People with longstanding psychological issues that have learned to cope
with them and adapt to the world successfully, resulting in validity charts patterns like the ones below.

Validity profile of individuals

with persistent psychopathologies
who have nevertheless learned
how to cope and live a normal life.

S = Superlative Self-Presentation
Highly correlated with K, this scale is defined by five characteristics: Belief in Human Goodness, Serenity,
Contentment with Life, Patience and Denial of Irritability and Anger, and Denial of Moral Flaws. A high score
on S is positively correlated with Ego-Strength (Es).

If the results appear normal and that of a fully-functional human being but S has a T-Score less than 65,
consider that the subject is "Faking Good"; thus, at worst the profile is possibly invalid and at best the profile
presents a significant bias that ought to be taken into account when interpreting the rest of the MMPI-2 results.


Congratulations! If you have read and applied the many rules and concepts described above, you ought to have
been able to not only verify the validity of your MMPI-2 results but also identify what biases, if any, permeate
the rest of your results so that you may compensate for these accordingly in your interpretation of the scores
that follow.

I know the task at hand has not been easy... far from it. But I have good news --- you are in luck! Step 1:
Verifying Validity is the most important of the steps; and it is also the hardest (and most technical) by far. If
you managed to complete this step successfully, the rest will be a breeze.