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API 571 Damage Mechanisms

Graphitization Strain Aging Brittle Fracture

A change in the carbide phase of C/S The deformation and aging at an Rapid fracture under stress with little
and 0.5 Mo steels after long term intermediate temperature of older evidence of plastic deformation.
exposure to 800 F to 1100F C/S and C-0-5 Mo low alloy steels.
temperatures causing decomposition
into graphite nodules.
Short Term Softening
Thermal Shock
Overheating (Spheroidization)

Localized Occurs when high A change in the

overheating and non-uniform microstructure of
causing thermal stresses steels where the
deformation develop over a carbide phase
and/or rupture at short period of change from
low stress levels. time. If restrained, normal plate like
stresses above the forms to
yield strength can spheroidal in the
occur. temperature range
of 850F to 1400F
885 Creep/ Stress
Steam Blanketing
Embrittlement Rupture

A loss of At high A steam blanket

toughness in alloys temperatures inside a tube
containing a ferrite metals deform caused by a
phase (400 series under load below "departure from
SS, duplex SS, the yield stress. nucleate boiling"
wrought and cast that causes
SS, welds & localized
overlay) due to overheating and
exposure to 600F deformation
to 1000F. and/or rupture.
Erosion/ Erosion Temper Sigma Phase
Corrosion Embrittlement Embrittlement

The accelerated A reduction in Brittle phase in SS

removal of toughness in low due to high temp
material from alloy steel due to exposure of
impacts of solids, long term 1000F to 1750F.
liquids or vapors. exposure to 650F Increased
The erosion can be to 1100F. likelihood due to
increased when Equipment may higher ferrite,
corrosion removes fail during startup chromium, and
protective films or or shutdown. molybdenum
scales. content.
Thermal Dissimilar
Fatigue Metal Cracking

Thermal cycling Cracking in the Localized

resulting in ferritic side of a impact forces of
cracking from weld between a collapsing vapor
high stresses at 300 series SS bubbles causing
restrained areas and a ferritic erosion, usually
of equipment. material in pumps and
operating at downstream of
high orifices or
temperature. control valves.
Mechanical Vibration-Induced Refractory
Fatigue Fatigue Degradation

Cracking from Mechanical fatigue Mechanical

cyclical stresses from dynamic damage and
resulting from loading due to corrosion to
mechanical vibration, water refractory due to
loading or thermal hammer, or thermal shock,
cycling. unstable fluid flow expansion, and
initiating at stress oxidation,
risers or notches. sulfidation, and
high temperature
Gaseous Oxygen-Enhanced
Reheat Cracking
Ignition and Combustion

Cracking most often observed in Many metals are flammable in

heavy wall sections due to stress oxygen and enriched air (>25%
relaxation from PWHT and service oxygen) services even at low
at elevated temperatures. pressures, whereas they are non-
flammable in air. The spontaneous
ignition or combustion of metallic
and non-metallic components can
result in fires and explosions in
certain oxygen-enriched gaseous
environments if not properly
designed, operated and
maintained. Once ignited, metals
and non-metals burn more
vigorously with higher oxygen
purity, pressure and temperature.
API 571 Damage Mechanisms

Galvanic Atmospheric Corrosion Under
Corrosion Corrosion Insulation

Electrochemical Corrosion from Corrosion from

induced metal loss moist atmospheric water trapped
of dissimilar conditions, more under insulation
metals when severe in marine or fireproofing.
joined together in and industrial
a suitable environments.
electrolyte such as
a moist or
environment or
moist soil.
Boiler Water
Cooling Water
Condensate CO2 Corrosion

General or General corrosion Carbonic acid from

localized corrosion and pitting in CO2 in water
of C/S and other boilers and causing general or
metals caused by condensate return pitting corrosion
dissolved salts, piping from of C/S.
gases, organic dissolved oxygen
compounds or and CO2.
Flue Gas Dew- Microbiologically
Soil Corrosion
Point Corrosion Induced Corrosion

Sulfur and chlorine Corrosion from The deterioration

species in fuel gas bacteria, algae, or of metals exposed
with water vapor fungi in aqueous to soils related to
condense and environments temperature,
form sulfurous especially in moisture, and
acid, sulfuric acid, stagnant or low oxygen availability
and hydrochloric flow conditions. and other
acid, leading to variables.
Caustic Graphite
Corrosion Corrosion

Corrosion either Preferential Corrosion of the

local or general attack on one cast iron matrix
caused by or more alloy of cast iron
caustic or constituents leaving
alkaline salts, leaving a corrosion
usually in high dealloyed often products and
heat transfer porous porous
conditions or structure. graphite.
high solution
Oxidation Sulfidation Carburization

Oxygen Carbon Carbon

combined with absorbed into a absorbed into a
C/S and other material at material at
alloys at high elevated elevated
temperature temperature temperature
creating oxide while in contact while in contact
scales. with a with a
carbonaceous carbonaceous
material or material or
carburizing carburizing
environment. environment.
Decarburization Metal Dusting

The removal of Carburization Fatigue cracking

carbon from resulting in from cyclic
mainly carbon accelerated loading and
steel at high localized pitting corrosion
temperatures occurring from initiating from
resulting in low carburizing stress risers.
strength. gasses and
carbon and
Caustic Stress
Corrosion Fuel Ash
(Caustic Corrosion

Surface initiated cracking of metal High temperature wastage of metal A hard brittle surface layer on C/S,
surfaces exposed to caustic primarily surfaces of fired heaters, boilers, and low alloy, 300 & 400 series SS from
adjacent to non PWHT'ed welds. gas turbines from fuel gas high levels of N2 in ammonia and
contaminants like sulfur, sodium, cyanides particularly under reducing
potassium, and or vanadium. conditions.
Chloride Stress Ethanol Stress Sulfate Stress
Corrosion Corrosion Corrosion
Cracking Cracking Cracking

Surface cracks of Surface-initiated Surface initiated

300 SS and some cracks caused by cracks caused by
nickel alloys from environmental environmental
tensile stress, cracking of carbon cracking of copper
temperature, and steel under the alloys in sulfate
an aqueous combined action solutions over
chloride of tensile stress many years. Most
environment. and a fuel grade commonly found
ethanol in heat exchanger
tubes, primarily in
cooling water
Ammonia Stress
Liquid Metal Hydrogen
Embrittlement Embrittlement

Aqueous ammonia Cracking when Hydrogen charging

streams cause certain liquid of metals leading
cracking in some metal contacts to brittle cracking.
copper alloys. C/S specific alloys. Charging can come
cracks in from
anhydrous manufacturing,
ammonia. welding, or service
Bisulfide Corr. Hydrofluoric Acid
Amine Corrosion
(Alkaline Sour Corrosion

General or Alkaline sour HF acid causes

localized corrosion water corrosion in high rates of
principally on C/S hydro processing general or
in amine treating reactor effluent localized corrosion
processes. streams and in with hydrogen
alkaline sour water cracking,
streams. blistering, and/or
Naphthenic Hydrochloric
Acid Corrosion Acid (HCI)

High General or Aqueous HCL

temperature localized causing both
corrosion from corrosion general and
naphthenic acid occurring under localized
content, ammonium corrosion
temperature, chloride or aggressively
sulfur content, amine salt affects most
velocity and deposits, often materials.
alloy without free
composition. water.
High Temp Sulfuric Acid Aqueous Organic
H2/H2S Corrosion Corrosion Acid Corrosion

Hydrogen in H2S Sulfuric acid Organic

streams increases corrodes CS both compounds
high temperature generally and present in some
sulfide corrosion locally in HAZ's crude oils
above 500F with especially. Very decompose in the
uniform loss in sensitive to flow crude furnace to
thickness in hot rates and water form low
hydro processing concentration. molecular
circuits weight organic
acids which
condense in
distillation tower
overhead systems
Phenol (Carbonic Phosphoric Acid Sour Water
Acid) Corrosion Corrosion Corrosion

Acid solvent Phosphoric acid Corrosion of steel

corrodes C/S in can cause pitting due to acidic sour
phenol extraction and localized water (H2S)
of aromatics in corrosion of C/S between 4.5 and
lube oil feed depending on acid 7.0 ph.
stocks. concentration,
temperature, and
contaminants (free
water content).
Environment-Assisted Cracking
Amine Stress
Wet H2S Damage Hydrogen Stress
(Blistering) Cracking-HF

Cracking most Hydrogen Cracking of C/S

often found at non blistering, and low alloy
PWHT'ed carbon Hydrogen induced steels in weld
steel weldments in cracking, Stress metal and HAZ's
aqueous oriented hydrogen from exposure to
alkanolamine induced cracking, aqueous HF acid
service. and sulfide stress environments.
corrosion cracking
from hydrogen
permeation of
steel and low alloy
Polythlonic Acid
Carbonate Stress
Stress Corrosion
Corrosion Cracking

Cracking adjacent Cracking due to

to C/S welds from sulfide scale, air,
alkaline corrosion and moisture
and tensile stress. acting on sensitized
austenitic SS.
Other Damage Mechanisms
High Temp Hydrogen
Titanium Hydriding
Attack (HTHA)

Hydrogen at high Hydrogen diffusing into

temperatures reacts with titanium creates a brittle
carbides to form methane phase.
which cannot diffuse
through the steel and also
cause a loss of strength.