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Attitudes of Science Majors in the Leyte Normal University Towards

ICT Integration in Teaching and Learning Science

A Research Paper
Presented to
The Faculty of the Science Unit
Leyte Normal University
Tacloban City

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of
Bachelor of Science Education
Major in Biological Sciences

Olmedo, Jhane Eyre Marie G.


Roldan, Jean Anne B.
Pillejera, Marjorie S.
Gaot, Donna Mae I.
Daaco, Zyrell B.

September 20, 2017


ii

Table of Contents

Title Page I

Table of Contents ii

Chapter I

THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

Rationale 1

Background of the Study 2

Statement of the Problem 6

Hypotheses 6

Theoretical Background 7

Conceptual Framework 8

Significance of the Study 9

Scope and Limitations of the Study 11

Definition of Terms 11

Chapter II 12

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Chapter III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Design 33

Research Participants 38

Research Locale 39

Research Instrument 40

Data Collection Procedure 40


iii

Treatment of Data 42

Bibliography iii

Appendices v
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CHAPTER I

THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

Rationale

If there is a technological advancement without social advancement, there is,

almost automatically, an increase in human misery (Harrington, 2011 p. 1). Over the past

century, technology has advanced greatly, without a doubt. In education, ICT integration

has recently been applied by countries around the world. The Information and

Communication Technology (ICT) Test Bed evaluation (Underwood, 2006), for example,

provides evidence that many teachers use ICT to support innovative pedagogy. It states:

New technologies that provide a good fit with existing practices, such as interactive

whiteboards are first to be embedded, but others like video conferencing, digital video

and virtual learning environments are now being incorporated, providing evidence of

ongoing learning by the workforce (p. 9) Technology is the main support for the students

learning development nowadays (Whiteside, 2011). The term ICT integration connotes

a range of learning environments from a stand-alone LLO05120 5 computer in a

classroom to a situation where the teaching is done by the computer through pre-

packaged teacher-proof courseware (Laferrire, 1999, p. 3).

The researchers chose this study for several reasons but ultimately for the

betterment of education in the Philippines and to promote ICT integration by revealing the

attitudes of future Science teachers for the next generation. This study is conducted to

determine the attitudes of students specializing in Science on the use of ICT in teaching

Science. It is conducted in consideration of the newly emerging instructional materials,


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commonly using computers, claimed to improve instruction and have received positive

feedback from some teachers. The proponents of this research wanted to describe the

attitudes of the students toward ICT integration and identify their general comments and

impressions in order to suggest improvements to this new trend. This study will also

assess the level of awareness of future educators on computers and how comfortable

they are with its usage and describe how students benefit from this.

The Leyte Normal University is an institution once regarded as the center for

teaching excellence and is well-known for its high passing percentage in the Licensure

Examination for Teachers (LET). It also produces topnotchers of the LET. LNU has

recently adapted the use of technology in instruction and is currently being observed. The

researchers aim to contribute to this growing body of knowledge on the evaluation of ICT

through conducting this research study.

Background of the Study

The integration of ICT into education has been assumed as the potential of the

new technological tools to revolutionize an outmoded educational system (Albrini, 2006).

In the last 20 years, initiatives, projects and implications related to use of ICT into

education motivate teachers to gain necessary knowledge and skills in using ICT in their

instruction. The use of ICT is acknowledged as being critical to the sustainable

development of every sector of the economy of all nations. It is a tool that can be used to

enhance good governance practices (World Bank, 2009). These new demands towards

the educative centers, at the same time, have brought about an increasing interest in ICT

teacher training because they enable the acquisition of specific abilities, knowledge and
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experiences for the teaching profession (Crosson et al., 2008). According to the study

conducted by Jamsandekar, Mahat & Nalavade, 2012, effective ICT use in education

increases teachers training and professional development needs. For that adequate time

must be allowed for teachers to develop new skills, explore their integration into their

existing teaching practices and curriculum, and undertake necessary additional lesson

planning, if ICTs are to be used effectively. However, ICTs can be important tools to help

meet such increased needs, by helping to provide access to more and better educational

content, aid in routine administrative tasks, provide models and simulations of effective

teaching practices, and enable learner support networks, both in face to face and distance

learning environments, and in real time or asynchronously.

In this 21st century, the term technology is an important issue in many fields

including education. This is because technology has become the knowledge transfer

highway in most countries. ICT is not only a thing. It also provides a space that can link

a wide community of learners and thinkers, where our capacities can advance through

the intersection of peoples social and individual inclinations. (National Research Council,

2006). Technology integration nowadays has gone through innovations and transformed

our societies that has totally changed the way people think, work and live (Grabe, 2007).

As part of this, schools and other educational institutions which are supposed to prepare

students to live in a knowledge society need to consider ICT integration in their

curriculum (Ghavifekr, Afshari & Amla Salleh, 2012). ICT can be used in various ways

where it helps both teachers and students to learn about their respective subject areas.

A technology- based teaching and learning offers various interesting ways which includes

educational videos, stimulation, storage of data, the usage of databases, mind-mapping,


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guided discovery, brainstorming, music, internet that will make the learning process more

fulfilling and meaningful (Finger & Trinidad, 2002). On the other hand, students will benefit

from ICT integration where they are not bounded to the limited curriculum and resources,

instead hands-on activities in a technology-based course is designed to help them to

stimulate their understanding about the subject. It also helps teachers to design their

lesson plans in an effective, creative and interesting approach that would result in

students active learning.

Today, in the millennial generation, ICTs infiltrate classrooms around the world at

an exceedingly rapid pace. In the wake of this influx, educators face growing challenges

as they teach a very wiredand more and more wirelessgeneration of students

using technology that is evolving every day. The classroom has changed since millennials

began moving through todays school systems. Curricula evolve, and new teaching

methodologies are developed to reach this generation, which spends as much time

stimulated by digital media as it does in school. As teachers work to engage and educate

this generation of students, they face many challenges. To effectively engage and teach

millennial students, school systems must be outfitted with a prerequisite of ICT resources,

and curricula must be designed to promote a collaborative learner-centered environment

to which students will relate and respond. As ICT is integrated into classrooms, educators

must have professional development and certification of computing skills. Students must

also be taught ICT skills relevant to their entry into the workforce. (International Education

Advisory Board, 2008). Due to this new type of students, ICT-literate teachers are in

demand.
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Indeed literature has proved that when used appropriately by teachers, ICTs can

have positive impact on the way teachers teach and the way learners learn thus improving

pedagogy (Hennessey, Harrison & Wamakote, 2010). A majority of teachers perceive ICT

to offer advantages to classroom learning but many also struggle to see specific benefits

and methods for use. A number of studies have identified these contrasting perceptions

from teachers (Korte & Hsing, 2007). Successful implementation of ICT policies depends

on educators, who eventually determine how they are used in the classroom (Albirini,

2006). However, educators' use of ICT has been less than optimal, and in spite of its

potential educational benefits, teachers in developing countries may not, for various

reasons (for example lack of training, resistance to change, among others), have positive

attitudes towards their use (Haji, 2015). Many research works have been conducted

towards the use of new technologies in the classroom. The results show very positive

attitudes and the common acceptance that their use will be soon completely expanded

among schools (Foley & Ojeda., 2008). It seems to be that an early age is a highly

relevant factor for the teachers who have a positive attitude towards the incorporation of

ICT (Shaunessy, 2007) because those who are young have more teaching experience

with ICT and therefore, they feel more involved with their use than older teachers

(Crosson et al., 2008).

Statement of the Problem


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This study aims to identify the attitudes of the Science majors towards ICT

integration in Teaching Science.

Specifically, the researchers aim to answer the following questions:

1. Do science majors have positive or negative attitudes towards the use of ICT?

2. Why do science majors have a positive or negative attitude towards ICT?

3. What challenges do Science majors face with ICT Integration?

4. What are the possible solutions to these challenges?

Hypotheses

1. Most of the attitudes of the students toward ICT integration are negative.

2. There are no specific reasons behind the attitudes of Science majors.

3. Science majors face no challenge with ICT Integration.

4. No solution can be done to solve the challenges in ICT Integration.

Theoretical Framework

This study is supported by the Functionalist Theory by Daniel Katz. He views

attitudes as determined by the functions they serve for the students. Everyone holds

different attitudes because these help in achieving basic goals. Attitudes acquired in the

interest of the need to know are elicited by a stimulus associated with the attitude. (Katz,

1960, p. 190). This fact can be related to ICT integration in teaching and learning Science

because learners different learning styles are being considered in an ICT integrated

classroom.
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ICT-integrated medium, such as educational softwares, are being utilized by the

teachers to deliver the various content of the lessons for a better presentation and

understanding, especially those topics that cannot be presented properly in a lecture

method of instruction. Because of this, Science majors as learners develop attitudes,

whether positive or negative, throughout the teaching and learning process depending on

the function of ICT integration served in the classroom.

Conceptual Framework

This study is represented by using this conceptual framework in which the attitudes

of the respondents towards ICT integration is determined by using data triangulation,

employing interview, questionnaire, and the academic performance. The grades of the

respondents in School Year (S.Y.) 2016-2017 will be used to determine if their attitudes

toward ICT Integration affects their academic performance.

Attitudes

Questionnaire Interview

Academic Performance
8

Significance of the Study

Communication of ideas and concepts is an important area of teaching and

learning science hence, can be enhanced by the use of ICT. Based on the

aforementioned benefits of integrating ICT in teaching and learning science, the

researchers came up with an idea of studying the Science majors' attitude towards ICT

integration learning Science. The researchers believe that this study will not only be

beneficial for them but also to the following:

The Teacher. They will be able to know the student's attitude towards ICT integration in

teaching Science. Through this study, they will be able to assess themselves as to how

they use ICT in their instruction. The purpose of using ICT in science is to raise the

standards of the students' achievement and the quality of learning. In order to realize the

potential of ICT to extend and enhance learning, science teachers need to be competent

users of the computer system typically found in schools.

The Students. They will be able to identify their attitudes towards ICT integration in

teaching and learning Science. They will be able to know the effects of their attitudes

towards ICT integration on their academic performance. Moreover, they could think of

ways on how to improve their view on ICT integration, which is a must in this generation,

as student and as a future educator.

The Curriculum Developers. Through the attitudes of the students towards ICT

integration in learning Science, they will be able to reorganize a curriculum that will

support ICT in the classroom and fulfill the needs of those students who are

uncomfortable with ICT usage. ICT could be fully implemented in the instruction without
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barriers such as lack of computer illiteracy, financial support and availability of computers

in schools.

The Administrators. They will be able to formulate programs that will develop the

students' ICT competency as well as the teachers to fully achieve the aim of ICT

integration in Science. They will be able to fill the gap between ICT Integration and the

students by implementing program that will promote ICT usage.

The Future Educators/ Science Majors. They will know their attitudes on ICT integration

and convert it to a more positive one. Through this study, they will be able to think of ways

on how to improve the integration of ICT for the students to have a meaningful learning

experience in Science. As future teachers, they will be able to grasp the importance of

ICT in teaching especially in this generation ran by technology and apply their learned

knowledge to provide better instruction to their future students.

Scope and Limitations of the Study

The focus of this study is on the entire third year Science majors in LNU who has

taken an ICT subject. This was designed to determine the students' attitudes toward ICT

integration in teaching and learning Science. This research will determine the attitudes of

the students in the use of ICT and how their attitudes affect their academic performance.

The researchers chose to take all the Science majors to truly find out the general attitudes

of the future Science teachers from LNU and to get a comprehensive overall data for the

study. The study is focused on the following variables: 1) attitudes of the students on ICT

integration; 2) their academic performance.


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Definition of Terms

Academic Performance. Refers to the grades of the respondents in ICT, taken Second

Year, Second Semester S.Y. 2016-2017.

Attitudes. These are the mindsets, opinions, thoughts, and feelings of the respondents

towards ICT integration in teaching Science.

Data Triangulation. A process uses at least three sources of data collection to identify

the attitudes of the respondents.

ICT Integration. A teaching technique with the aid or help of computers, gadgets, and

other technological products.

ICT. A course in where basic concepts and applications of technology is taught.

Students. They are those who are third year education students taking up science as

their major, including both Biological and Physical Sciences, in the Leyte Normal

University S.Y. 2017-2018.


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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter includes the review of the related literature and studies on the

variables, namely: the attitudes of the students on the concept of ICT and its integration

to teaching-learning Science and academic performance.

The 21st century is considered as the period of the advancement of information

technology all over the world. In just a few seconds, using the tip of your fingers, current

information and facts are collected and gathered through the use of highly advanced

facilities and machines (Casiano, 2007).

The advancement of Information Communication Technology (ICT) has greatly

affected the lives of many people in most parts of the world. Technological innovations as

manifested in the use of computers, cellular phones, the internet and Wireless Application

Protocol (WAP) are one of the realities that have telling and profound impact on all facts

of life of the twenty-first century man (Casiano,2007).

The Concept of ICT

In literature, while there are many definitions of ICT, the term can be generally

defined as technologies that facilitate, by electronic means, the acquisition, storage,

processing, transmission and disseminating of information in all forms including voice,

text, data, graphics and video (Michiels and Van Crowder, 2001, De Alcantara, 2001).

The National Council of the Accreditation of Teacher Education (2002) defines ICT

as Computer hardware and software; voice, data, network, satellite, and other
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telecommunications technologies and multimedia and application development tools;

which are used for the input, storage, processing and communication of information (p.

54).

Elston (2007) defines ICT as technology to manage information and

communication but Blurton (2002) broadens this to ICT as a diverse set of technological

tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, disseminate, store and manage

information.

According to Techterms (2017), ICT refers to technologies that provide access to

information through telecommunications. It is similar to Information Technology (IT) but

focuses primarily on communication technologies. This includes the internet, wireless

networks, cell phones and other communication mediums.

In the past few decades, ICTs have provided society with a vast array of new

communication capabilities. Modern ICTs have created a global village in which people

can communicate with others across the world as if they were living next door. For this

reason, ICT is often studied in the context of how modern communication technologies

affect society (Techterms, 2017).

Development of ICT in the Philippines

The Philippine government has for the past decades given some considerable

recognition to ICT as the cutting-edge to pole vault into a newly industrialized country

and to economic development. The development of ICT here in the Philippines is based

on the Philippine Constitution as provided in Article II and Article XVI, which states:
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The State recognized the vital role of communication and information

in nation-building (Section 24, Article II)

The State shall provide the policy environment for the full

development of Filipino capability and the emergence of

communication structures suitable to the needs and aspirations of the

nation and the balanced flow of information into, out, of and across the

country, in accordance with a policy that respects the freedom of

speech and of the press (Section 10, Article XVI)

According to Felipe (1997) as cited in the book of Casiano (2007), it was only in

the 1990s that ICT started to strongly and actively take part in the Philippines. The biggest

support came from President Fidel V. Ramos when he approved the 1996 National

Information Technology Plan (NITP), which is also known as the The National

Information System Plan that was subsequently revised in October 1997 and became

known as IT 21. The ultimate goal of this plan is to make the Philippines as the

Knowledge Center for Asia.

According to Carague (1998) as cited in the book of Casiano (2007), the NITP

advocates the following objectives: educate government, business and private sectors

specially the leaders on the uses of ICT in enterprise and nation-building; expand ICT

awareness among the general public; promote the Philippines as an alternative center for

ICT education; build a capacity for self-reliance in the countrys educational and training

institutions in the area of ICT education, research and development; upgrade ICT training
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and educational institutions; and produce a critical mass of ICT workers of good quality

and number of industry and government.

ICT in Education

ICT is now taking center stage in Philippine education because of its integration in

the curriculum. The integration of ICT into education has been assumed as the potential

of the new technological tools to revolutionize an outmodel educational system (Albrini,

2006).

Pelgrum (2001) as cited in the study of Cavas, et al (2009), he noted that ICT is

not only the backbone of the Information Age, but also an important catalyst and tool for

inducing educational reforms that change our students into productive knowledge

workers (p. 2).

ICT has very strong effect in education and it provides enormous tools for

enhancing teaching and learning. There have been many studies that have highlighted

the various ways that ICT may support teaching and learning process in a range of

disciplinary fields such as the construction of new opportunities for interaction between

students and knowledge, and accessing information. ICT also offers the potential to meet

the learning needs of individual students, to promote equal opportunity, to offer learning

material and also to promote interdependence of learning among learners (Leach,

Ahmed, Makalima & Power, 2005 as cited in the study of Cavas, et al., 2009).

The need for ICT integration in education is crucial because with the help of

technology, teaching and learning is not only happening in the school environment but

can also happen even if teachers and students are physically distant from each other.
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However, ICT integration is not a one-step learning process but it is a continual process

of learning that provides proactive teaching-learning environment (Young, 2003 as cited

in the study of Gravifekr & Rosdy, 2015).

In schools, ICTs can be used as pedagogical tools to enhance learning outcomes,

provide skills and competence, opportunities for lifelong learning, vocational education,

prepare for work or create opportunities for work, and can enhance productivity. But the

decision and policy makers, implementers and beneficiaries must be convinced of the

value of technologies, be comfortable with them, and be skilled to use them. Unless these

elements are comprehensively and holistically addressed, ICT interventions have limited

impact (Swart, 2012).

The use of ICT in education may contribute to the changing nature of both the

teaching and learning process, creating more independent and self-motivated learners

and encouraging the use of multiple teaching methods (Bamblett, et al., 2003 as cited in

the study of Al-Sulaimani, 2010).

From a constructivist perspective, there are roles of technology in education:

(Jonassen, et al., 1999 as cited in the book of Corpuz & Lucido, 2008) Technology as

tools to support knowledge construction. It is used for representing learners ideas,

understandings and beliefs and for producing organized, multimedia knowledge bases by

learners. Technology as information vehicles for exploring knowledge to support learning-

by-constructing. It is used for accessing needed information and for comparing

perspectives, beliefs and world views. Technology as context to support learning-by-

doing. It is used for representing and simulating meaningful real-world problems,


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situations and contexts, for representing beliefs, perspectives, arguments and stories of

others and for defining a safe, controllable problem space for student thinking.

Technology as a social medium to support learning by conversing. It is used for

collaborating with others, for discussing, arguing and building consensus among

members of a community and for supporting discourse among knowledge-building

communities. Technology as an intellectual partner to support learning-by-reflecting. It is

used for helping learners to articulate and represent what they know, for reflecting on

what they have learned and how they came to know it. It is also used for supporting

learners internal negotiations and meaning making, for constructing personal

representations of meaning and for supporting mindful thinking.

According to Elmo (2012) here are also three main advantages of ICT in education,

namely: 1) Through ICT, images can easily be used in teaching and improving the

retentive memory of students, 2) Through ICT, teachers can easily explain complex

instructions and ensure students comprehension; and 3) Through ICT, teachers are able

to create interactive classes and make the lessons more enjoyable which could improve

student attendance and concentration.

The use of computers in Science education becomes popular all over the world.

Owing to the fact that Science has many theoretical and abstract concepts that are difficult

to understand by students and need visual and other materials to learn them. There are

a lot of important reasons to use technology in Science education. They can provide text,

graph, audio, video, picture, animation and simulation (Akpinar and Ergin, 2007).
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With the advent of a Science revolution in Asia, Science teaching should be

revisited with regard to some contributory factors or elements that can be enriched,

reprogrammed and instantly energized (Salandanan, et al., 2006). The factors or the

elements include the different types of instructional materials and tools used in teaching

and the three (3) factors of the teaching-learning process (Acero, et al., 2010).

The different types of instructional materials and tools used in teaching include the.

(See Appendix D)

The three factors of the teaching-learning process should also be taken into

account- the teacher, learner and the learning environment.

To start with, teachers must be knowledgeable, skilled in a variety of teaching

methodologies and imbued with worthwhile values and attitudes. Since todays students

were born in the Technological Age, it is incumbent on teachers at least to understand

what a computer is, be familiar with the fundamental computer vocabulary and know how

to use stored programs in a computer (Cruz, et al.,1988). Teachers are also expected to

be ICT leaders, role models of appropriate use of emerging types of ICT and integrate a

variety of ICT into the curriculum effectively (Ozogul,2002).

Roblyer and Edwards (2000) as cited in the study of Cavas, et al.,2009 suggested

that there are five (5) important reasons for teachers to use technology in education

namely: (1) motivation; (2) distinctive instructional abilities; (3) higher productivity of

teachers; (4) essential skills for the Information Age; and (5) support for new teaching

techniques.
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The learners must possess mental maturity to understand why the teachers are

using technology in their instruction. They must also have the positive personal traits,

coupled with interests, special talents and aspirations (Corpus, et al., 2006)

The learning environment must be orderly, comfortable and conducive to learning

(Corpuz, et al., 2006).

Challenges on ICT

Despite the increase widespread adoption of technologies in every aspect of education,

significant challenges prevent its effective implementation. According to researchers, though

some of those challenges are systemic and some related to the technologies themselves,

teachers and education leaders share in the blame as well (Nagel, 2013).

There are some challenges proposed by Nagel (2013). One of these is professional

development. The major challenge is the lack of adequate, ongoing professional development

for teachers who are required to integrate new technologies into their instructions yet who are

unprepared or unable to understand new technologies. Another challenge is the resistance to

change. One of the key resistance challenges identified in the report is "comfort with the status

quo." According to the researchers, teachers and school leaders often see technological

experimentation as outside the scope of their job descriptions. Then, the delivery of informal

learning. Opportunities for such informal learning can be found in non-traditional classroom

models, such as flipped classrooms, which allow for a blending of formal and informal learning.

Also, the failures of personalized learning. There is a gap between the vision of delivering

personalized, differentiated instruction and the technologies available to make this possible. So

while K-12 teachers seem to see the need for personalized learning, they aren't being given the
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tools they need to accomplish it, or adequate tools simply don't exist. Lastly, Failure to use

technology to deliver effective formative assessments. There is an assessment gap in how

changes in curricula and new skill demands are implemented in education; schools do not

always make necessary adjustments in assessment practices as a consequence of these

changes.

Mungai (2011) supported some challenges proposed by Nagel (2013) in his online

article entitled 12 Challenges Facing Computer Education in Kenyan Schools. There

are 12 challenges proposed by Mungai (2011). First, the lack of qualified teachers to

teach ICT in schools. The demand for ICT learning has been tremendous and the number

of teachers who were trained to teach ICT cannot meet the demand. Second, the lack of

computers. Computers are still very expensive and despite spirited efforts by the

government agencies, NGO, corporate organizations and individuals to donate

computers to as many schools as possible, there is still a big percentage of the schools

unable to purchase computers for use by their pupils. Third, the lack of electricity. Many

schools are still not yet connected to electricity. Consequently those schools that fall

under such areas are left handicapped and may not be able to offer computer studies.

Forth, computers are still expensive in Kenya. In a country with a GDP of $1600, majority

of the individuals and schools cannot afford to buy a computer and consider it as a luxury

item. Fifth, broken down computer. While a good number of schools have benefited from

donated used computers, they have not been adequately equipped with the same on

maintenance and repair, hence its very common to see a schools computer laboratories

full of broken down computers, some repairable and some not. Sixth, burglary. The fact

that computers are still very expensive in Kenya, makes them a target for thieves who
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usually have ready markets to another party at a much less figure. Seventh, fear by the

administration. There is still a strong perception especially by the older generation that

computers require highly skilled personnel to operate them, while this may not be the

case, some school administrators also fear that their students will be exposed to adult

sites and other undesired sites, through the use of the internet. Some also fear the

infection of viruses to their computers leading to data loss. Eighth, fear by the teacher.

The teacher may fear being rendered irrelevant by the introduction of computers in his/her

class. The feel that the teacher still remains an authority and a know it all in class is

something that most teachers cherish, and anything that makes them otherwise is

deemed an enemy of the classroom. Ninth, the lack of internet or slow connectivity. Most

schools are not able to connect to the World Wide Web, due to the high costs involved in

the connectivity. Tenth, the lack of initiative by the community leaders. The community

leaders who are charged with looking at the interests of a given community do not see

the need to purchase and subsequent installations of computers to their schools as a

priority. Eleventh, obsolete computers. Lower the morale of both the teacher and the

student; it is very common to find some schools using very old computers running on

win98 or win 95. Lastly, the increased moral degradation. Internet pornography, cyber

bullying and other anti-social behaviors is a worrying emerging problem.

Mikre (2011) identifies the following major problems associated with the ICT use

in education as related to students learning, namely: 1) Over-reliance on ICT limits

students critical thinking and analytical skills, 2) Students often have only a superficial

understanding of the information they download, 3) Students may be easily distracted

from their learning and may visit unwanted sites, 4) Students tend to neglect learning
21

resources other than the computer and the Internet, 5) Students tend to focus on

superficial presentations and copy from the Internet, 6) Students may have less

opportunity to use oral skills and hand writing, 7) Use of ICT may be difficult for weaker

students, because they may have problems with working independently and may need

more support from the teacher.

In a recent study by Kiptalam et.al (2010), observed that access to ICT facilities is

a major challenge facing most African countries, with a ratio of one computer to 150

students against the ratio of 1:15 students in the developed countries.

Solutions

Swart (2012) indicate that much can be done to significantly improve the quality of

education. Some of the strategies include: 1) by improving the effectiveness of teachers

using ICTs that can be employed when teachers are absent to ensure that learners still

receive quality instruction and integrate ICTs that can ensure improved learners

participation and attention, 2) by hiring teachers who are well-trained in the methodologies

of reading, writing and numeracy who can also devise easy to use materials and programs

for students delivered through the use of ICT,3) by improving the schools environment,

not just the physical aspect but also the recruitment and promotion criteria for school

managers that can provide simple and easy to use software.

According to Goktas, et al. (2012), here are some solutions to overcome current

ICT integration problems, namely: 1) more budget should be allocated to ICT, 2) The

course content should be redesigned to acquire more benefit from ICT, 3) for the public

use of ICT tools and materials, ICT centers should be constructed in school districts and
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the existing ones should be improved, 4) the course load of the teachers should be

decreased.

Possible effective usage of ICT can be applied in teaching and learning, which will

eventually lead to the improvement of educational programs (Salehi & Salehi, 2012).

Other Related Studies

Jamsandekar, Mahat & Nalavade, (2012) conducted a study about the teachers

attitude towards ICT teaching process. The experienced teachers under the 30 to 40 age

group of the Computer Science Department of Smt. Kasturbai Walchand College, Sangli

were the participants of this study. This study focused on the relationship between

teacher's attitude towards ICT teaching, student engagement in the class and teaching

time. Computer literacy becomes vital in higher education and is important especially for

the Faculty of Computer Sciences. New educational systems seek to prepare teachers

and students for the world of work. There was a high and negative correlation between

teachers attitude towards ICT teaching and teaching time in the class. Therefore, ICT

decreases time required for teaching. The highly positive correlation between the attitude

toward ICT teaching in the class and student engagement in the class shows that there

is an increase on the student engagement in the class. This study recommends training

of teachers in ICT since it became an important issue that must be taken careful

consideration in conducting Bachelor of Computer Science (BCS) courses. In conclusion,

the effective use of ICT teaching methods increases the student engagement in the class

and reduces teaching time.

In addition, Sanchez et al. (2012) conducted a study on teacher's attitudes towards

the use of ICT in the classroom. Those who participated in this study were the in-service
23

teachers from kindergarten to high school which is one hundred seventy in summation.

With the purpose of deepening into teachers major motivations and beliefs, the

researchers carried out 11 semi-structured interviews. The results show that the use of

ICT in class is scarce and is subjected to innovate processes but the teachers attitudes

towards ICT are highly positive and there were no significant differences after instruction.

This study suggests that new ways of teacher training need to be developed.

Mustafina (2016) conducted a study about the teachers attitudes toward

technology integration in a Kazakhstani Secondary School. Many scholarly papers show

that the success of the educational reform paper is not only about the ability of the

government to supply schools with ICT but also on the ability to make teachers have a

positive attitude towards ICT integration. There are four factors that influence the attitudes

of teachers toward technology. These are the self-confidence, knowledge, gender and

age. Gender and age do not seem to have direct influence on the attitudes, knowledge

or confidence. Rather it is the basis towards age and gender that obstructs the integration

of technology in the school. Moreover, the statistical analysis demonstrates that the

teachers attitudes towards ICT influence the academic motivation of students.

The study of teachers attitudes towards the use of new technologies in the

classroom was brought out by many researchers and results exhibit very positive attitudes

and the use of this will be soon comprehensively expanded among teachers (Foley &

Ojeda, 2008). The teachers who have a positive attitude towards the incorporation of ICT

were mostly in their early age and it seems to be a highly relevant factor (Shaunessy,

2007) because those who are young are more proficient in teaching with the integration
24

of ICT, thus they feel more involved when ICT is integrated in the classroom than older

teachers (Crosson et al., 2008).

Ndibalema (2014) study concerns on the teachers attitudes towards the use of

ICT as a pedagogical tool in secondary schools in Tanzania was influenced by various

concerns of educational stakeholders on the level of teachers competence on the use of

ICT as a pedagogical tool and provides a better understanding of ICT as a pedagogical

tool. Results showed that teachers did not integrate ICT in their teaching effectively

however they have positive attitudes towards the use of ICT as a pedagogical tool. In

addition, problem in low familiarity with ICT use as a pedagogical tool among teachers

was found out and it seems to be a critical situation among teachers. The findings of this

study are seen to be of particular relevance to both teachers and the educational policy-

makers in Tanzania. Further, in-depth investigation on teachers willingness, confidence,

motivation, feeling, thinking, belief and the actual practices through classroom

observations is recommended by this study.

Moreover, Mohd-Ayub et al. (2015) studied on the factors predicting teachers

attitudes towards the use of ICT in teaching and learning. Technology is important in

schools cannot be ignored and it has revolutionized in the field of education. This study

aimed to focus on the factors that influence the attitudes of mathematics teachers in the

integration of ICT in the teaching and learning process. Teachers technology

competence, school culture, access to ICT, school support, and years of classroom

teaching experience were the five factors that were postulated to impact teachers

attitudes towards the integration of ICT in their lessons. The findings showed that there

was a positive correlation between the teachers attitudes towards ICT integration in
25

teaching and learning process and the examined four out of five factors, namely: teachers

technology competence, school culture, school support and access to ICT resources.

However, a negative relationship existed between years of teaching and attitudes

towards using ICT in teaching and learning process. A 29.1% of the variation in teachers

attitudes towards using ICT in the classroom was explained by the variation in teachers

technology competence, school support and school culture, with the effects of teaching

experience and ICT resource access being negligible with the use of multiple regression

analysis.

Most of the studies were focused on the teachers attitudes toward ICT Integration

and several of these provided a positive remark. However, this study will focus on the

attitudes of Science majors/students toward ICT Integration. Since they will be the

teachers of the next generation and would probably teach in a technology-driven

classroom, their attitudes should be taken into a greater consideration. Their attitudes will

either cause them or prevent them to integrate ICT in teaching and learning. If the latter

happens, studies prove that the students they will be teaching would learn less than an

students taught by an ICT-oriented teacher.


26

Chapter III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This section presents the research design that will be used in the study, the

research methods, the research locale, and the respondents of the study, the data

gathering technique, the instrument to be used and the statistical treatment that will be

performed on the gathered data.

Research Design

The researchers will follow a qualitative research design in this study. It is used to

gain an understanding of underlying reasons, opinions, and motivations. It provides

insights into the problem or helps to develop ideas or hypotheses for potential quantitative

research. Qualitative Research is also used to uncover trends in thought and opinions,

and dive deeper into the problem. Some common methods include focus groups (group

discussions), individual interviews, and participation/observations (Wyse, 2011). This

study is designed in such a way that it will be able to describe the attitude of the Science

majors towards the use of ICT as well as the reasons behind them. The effect of their

attitudes on their academic performance will also be determined. It will also identify the

challenges faced by Science majors and its possible solutions.

Research Participants

The respondents of this study will be the 3rd year Bachelor of Secondary

Education students Major in Biological and Physical Sciences in the Leyte Normal
27

University (LNU). A total of 120 respondents will be participating in the study, which is

composed of 60 Physical Science majors (2 sections) and 60 Biological Science majors

(2 sections).

The third year students will be considered in the study since they have already

taken ICT in their Second year in the Second semester S.Y. 2016-2017, considering that

one of the objectives of the study is to determine the effect of their attitudes on ICT toward

their grades.

Research Locale

The research will be conducted at Leyte Normal University which is located at

Paterno St., Tacloban City. The Leyte Normal University is a public university in

the Philippines. It is mandated to provide higher professional and special instructions for

special purposes and to promote research and extension services, advanced studies and

progressive leadership in education and other related fields. Its main campus is

in Tacloban City. The school consists of three computer laboratories and each laboratory

has 50 computers. The ratio of computer-student use is one is to one, thus, there is an

assurance that each student is equipped and can use the computers. LNU offers a subject

ICT to second year students. Lastly, Leyte Normal University employs the usage of

computers and other technological gadgets in instruction. Based on the aforementioned

qualifications of the school, the researchers chose this as the specific area to be studied

since it is favorable to the researchers' study considering its location wherein the

researchers will be able to collect sufficient data for the study without spending too much

money in transportation.
28

Research Instrument

This study will use a researcher-made instrument. The researcher-made

questionnaire is based from the study conducted by Gonzalez et al. (2012), Haji (2015)

and Oldfield (2010). The instrument is used to identify the attitude of the respondents

towards ICT integration. The questionnaire is composed of 22 items using a 5 Point-Likert

scale. Each item requires the student to check the corresponding answer according to

the intensities of their agreement or disagreement to the statement on each item. An

interview to gather qualitative data from the Science majors will also be conducted and

analyzed through Content Analysis based from the study of Haji (2015). The grades of

the respondents on ICT will also be used as an instrument in this study. The researchers

will retrieve the grades of the respondents on ICT from the records of the respondents in

the LNU-MIS.

Data Collection Procedure

The major purpose of this study is to identify the attitudes on ICT Integration of

Science majors. In order to come up with a valid result, a sampling technique which is

stratified is secured. The researchers will manage the fielding and retrieval of the survey

questionnaire. Fielding the survey questionnaire to the respondents will be done in three

days. After conducting a survey, interviews will be done to further determine their

attitudes, challenges faced and possible solutions.

Treatment of Data
29

This study will be using frequency and percentage to get the frequency distribution

of the respondents among the different ranges, i.e. categories.

Furthermore, the technique of content analysis will be used to analyze the open-

ended items on the questionnaire. Categories for the analysis of the open-ended

questionnaire items were derived from the review of related literature


References

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ed.). Sampaloc, Manilar, Philippines: Rex Book Store, Inc. pp. 80-83.
Al-Sulaimani, A. (2010). The importance of teachers in integrating ICT into science
teaching in intermediate schools in Saudi Arabia: A mixed methods study. pp. 27-
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Mustafina, A (2016). Teachers attitudes towards technology integration in a Kazakhstan
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iv

Ndibalema, P. (2014). Teachers attitudes towards the use of information communication


technology (ICT) as a pedagogical tool in secondary schools in Tanzania: The
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Oldfield, A. (2010). A summary of teacher attitudes to ICT use in schools. Futurelab
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v

APPENDICES

Appendix A
Letter of Communication/Protocol
vi

Appendix B
Survey-Questionnaire

Appendix C
Interview Questions
vii

Appendix D

1. Sound and Visual Resources. Video technology has made available several

video systems that allow audio-visual experiences to be stored, retrieved

and produced as needed.

a. Video Tapes. When applied to instruction, they are used to

demonstrate, explain, record and replay data. These can be

made available in the classrooms, libraries, resource centers and

even at home.

b. Video Cassettes. Easier to use since they are lighter. They can

be used to collect, store and reuse.

c. Videodiscs. Recordings can also be done through videodiscs.

They resemble long-playing records but they have a larger

storage capacity.

d. Video games. Make use of a microcomputer to respond to a

players move, thus interactive. Educational material using this

format is considered as an effective instructional tool in so far as

acquiring teaching-learning skills and solving Math and Science

problems are concerned.

e. Microcomputers. Computers have been integrated into

instructional methods to build a sense of inquiry among learners,

to explore and to improve thinking skills.

f. Pictures and Pictorial representation. Two-dimensional materials

are visuals appearing to have height and width such as flat


viii

pictures which are sometimes referred to as a universal language

since everybody can read pictures.

g. Projectors, Viewers, Players, Recorders.

These are instructional materials enlarged on a viewing screen using

a machine that throws image.

a. Projectors. Project images of transparencies on a screen

wall or chalkboard. Transparency is placed on the glass or

top of the projectors.

b. Players and Recorders. These are auditory materials used

to provide learning experiences through pure listening.

c. Player. A playback device intended to reproduce images

and sound.

d. Recorder. Registers sound or visual images in some

permanent form as a phonograph disc or magnetic tape.

h. Media Resources.

a. Electronic Media. Information exchange is made possible

by electronic media which include television, radio,

telephone and cellular phones.

b. Print Media. Include all available materials/ articles

published in newspaper, journals and magazines.

c. Broadcast Media. Information derived from radio

broadcast and television programs. There are two types of

television programming namely: 1) Educational television


ix

uses brief, engaging episodes, lessons learned from

commercials, 2) Instructional television programs for

special teaching purposes