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BEHAVIOR GRID

Green Dot Behavior


If you want someone to do a new behavior just one time, you are seeking a Green Dot
Behavior.

Examples include:

o Health: Eat quinoa for the first time.


o Environment: Install solar panels on a home.
o Commerce: Register online for a new car insurance policy.

Green Dot behaviors are often used in the beginning stages of complex behavior inductions.
For example, if a company is interested in creating a loyal, repeat customer, they might
start off with a small introductory offer. This can then lead to more extensive, prolonged
relations and, eventually, habitual purchasing behavior.

The main challenge that we face while triggering a Green Dot behavior is a lack of ability.
Since Dot behaviors occur only once, the subject must have enough knowledge to
successfully complete the action on the first attempt. Otherwise, frustration, and quitting,
may occur.

To achieve a Green Dot Behavior, three elements must come together at once. As the Fogg
Behavior Model describes, you must Trigger the behavior when the person is
both Motivated and Able to perform it. If any of these three elements is missing, the
behavior will not occur.

1. Couple the trigger with a motivational or facilitative element.


2. Increase the ability of the subject by explaining the novel behavior in terms of one
that is familiar.
3. Increase the motivation of the subject by explicitly highlighting the benefits of the
action.
Green Span Behavior
If you want someone to commit to a behavior for a period of time, you are seeking a
Green Span Behavior.

Examples include:

o Health: Commit to use new toothpaste for a week.


o Environment: Agree to carpool with co-workers for a month.
o Commerce: Sign up for a six-month DVD subscription service.

To achieve a Green Span Behavior, three elements must come together at once. As
the Fogg Behavior Model describes, you must Trigger the behavior when the person is
both Motivated and Able to make the commitment. If any of these three elements is
missing, the behavior will not occur.

Specifically, to succeed you should make sure these things happen:

1. Boost motivation, while downplaying factors that de-motivate.


2. Increase the ability to make the commitment.
3. Deliver the trigger (request to commit) when motivation and ability are high.

In this case, the trigger is a request to commit to a do something for a fixed period of
time. The first challenge is in framing the new behavior in a way that reduces costs (money,
effort, time, etc.) and increases benefits. The second challenge is timing the trigger so it
comes at the optimal moment, a concept called kairos in ancient Greece.

Fear is the primary reason people resist Green Span Behaviors (again, this means agreeing
to do something for a period of time) comes mostly from fear (negative expectations). Will
this new activity take up too much time? How much effort does the ongoing behavior
require? And, what if I change my mind?

Savvy persuaders will downplay these fears.

More often that not, a new habit is hardly internalized in the first attempt. As mentioned in
the sections on Blue and Green habits, the transition from a new habit to a familiar habit is
not automatic and often not very predictable. We gave the example of Vibram five fingered
shoes which might be hard for Alice to get used to, but really easy for Bob. For the same
reason, we can never pre-determine when Green Span ends and Blue Span begins.

More often than not, Green Span habits in their original form fail to get the target audience
across the chasm of familiarity. The main reason is too much too fast. We discussed how
complex or relatively hard Green habits could be broken down into simpler smaller Green
habits that are easier to perform. For Green Span, in addition to breaking it down to simpler
habits, stacking them on top of each other one at a time until the whole habit becomes
automatic as we near the end of the established duration is the way to go. This would have
a shade of Purple Span in it, where we increase the intensity of the habit.

Let us take an example to illustrate this strategy at work. Bob suffers from high cholesterol
levels and has been advised by his physician to replace substitute eggs with Tofu for the
next month. If Bob has never consciously consumed Tofu before, he is very likely not to
take an immediate liking to Tofu. If he is accustomed to having eggs two times a day, he
would do well to consume Tofu in place of eggs for just one of those two daily instances
during the first couple of weeks. After he has acquired a taste for Tofu, he could replace the
second instance with Tofu as well. The end result is that Bob has got used to a Green habit
of eating Tofu during the four week duration.

As we see in the example above, we allow the motivation and ability for Green Span to
build up more gradually. We might also disguise the Green Habit as a pseudo-Blue Habit.
Additional triggers are introduced only when the target audience is ready for it. As with all
Green habits, looping triggers for Green Span with other habits that the target audience
might have increases the odds of success.
Green Path Behavior
If you want someone to commit to a new behavior for the long term, you are seeking a
Green Path Behavior.

Examples include:

o Health: Agree to consume flax seed oil each morning, from now on.
o Environment: Resolve to always use fluorescent light bulbs.
o Commerce: Decide to buy a new brand of toothpaste from now on.
o Relationships: Get married.

Green Path Behaviors imply a life change. The change can be big, like marriage. Or it can
be small, like deciding to bring your own bags to grocery store. Either way, Green Path
Behaviors have two challenges: commitment (agreeing to the change) and fulfillment
(behaving in new ways).

In our view, the fulfillment part is much like a Blue Path Behavior (because the behavior
will soon become familiar). So here we focus on the unique aspect of Green Path
Behaviors: Getting people to commit to a lifelong change.

As with the 14 other behavior change types. Green Path Behaviors are the result of three
elements: Motivation, Ability, and Triggers. As the Fogg Behavior Model describes, you
must Trigger the behavior when the person is both Motivated and Able to perform it.

The specific steps

1. Boost motivation (if needed)


2. Enhance ability by making the commitment act simple
3. Issue the trigger when #1 and #2 are in optimal states.

For example,

1. Couple the trigger with an existing habit


2. Increase the perceived ability (self-efficacy) by making the behavior easier to do
3. Reduce demotivation by making the behavior more familiar

The challenge is in influencing the target audience to perform the behavior and then getting
them to repeat it, from today onward. Green Path relates to forming new habits.

Example: Daily visit to a new website

If youve created a new website and want people to visit it each day from now on, you are
seeking a Green Path behavior from your audience. This is the goal of many websites, but
few succeed.
A look at how the new website Blippy.com succeeded in creating daily habits can be
instructive: http://www.slideshare.net/yinyinwu/blippy-as-a-habit (analysis by Yin Yin Wu
@ Stanford University)

Example: Daily consumption of flax seed oil

Green Path behaviors can be difficult to achieve. But they are not impossible. One key is to
simplify the behavior. Consider the goal of influencing people to consume flax seed oil
each day. For most people, this is a Green Behavior. That means it has unknowns. Most
people will not know how to find flax seed oil in the market, or how to consume it once
they have some.

You can make the behavior easier to do by explaining where flax seed oil is kept in the
grocery store (its in the refrigerated section!) and by giving suggestions how to use this oil
(pour one teaspoon over a serving of cooked vegetables). Instructions and simplification are
vital for most Green Path Behaviors.

Most new habits are not achieved in one step or one intervention. They require a sequence
of behaviors. Mapping out this sequence of behaviors is not so difficult. For example, in the
flax seed example, one sequence might be this:

1. Write down buy flax seed on a shopping list


2. Buy flax seed at grocery
3. Store oil in fridge at home
4. Put 1 tsp oil on next serving of cooked vegetables

From this sequence it becomes clear that one early step is influencing people to buy flax
seed oil. This sequence also gives a key insight: cooking vegetables can be the trigger for
consuming flax seed oil. Note that you can form this new habit by building this connection
into ones minds Cooking vegetables leads to removing the flax seed oil from the fridge,
in preparation to apply it.

Other areas of intervention might include a wider range of how to use flax seed oil, either in
video recipes or simple suggestions that come via SMS.

Beyond making the behavior simple to do, the key to Green Path Behaviors is triggering
the behavior. Note that at least in this case, the key is not increasing motivation.

To review: The challenge to achieving most Green Path Behaviors is making the behavior
simple to do and finding a way to trigger it.
Blue Dot Behavior
If you want someone to perform a familiar behavior just one time, you are seeking a Blue
Dot Behavior.

Examples include:

o Health: Go on a run.
o Environment: Plant a tree.
o Commerce: Buy a book on Amazon.

Blue Dot Behaviors are among the easiest to achieve. Thats because the person, by
definition, is already familiar with the behavior. They know how to perform it (such as
exercise, plant a tree, buy a book). In addition, they already have a sense of the costs and
benefits for the behavior.

To achieve a Blue Dot Behavior, three elements must come together at once. As the Fogg
Behavior Model describes, you must Trigger the behavior when the person is
both Motivated and Able to perform it. If any of these three elements is missing, the
behavior will not occur.

1. Trigger: A prompt must tell a person to do this behavior now. Triggers can take
many forms, ranging from links in email (click here) to internal signals from our
body, like a grumbling stomach (eat now).
2. Motivation: A person must have sufficient Motivation when the Trigger occurs.
Three core motivators exist: Sensation (pleasure/pain), Anticipation (hope/fear),
and Belonging (acceptance/rejection)
3. Ability: The person must have the Ability to perform the behavior when the Trigger
occurs.

With Blue Dot Behaviors, people do not require reassurance (enhancing motivation) or
step-by-step instructions (increasing ability). Instead, the challenge is on timing: One must
find a way to deliver a Trigger at a moment when the person is already Motivated and Able.
This timing issue is well know: Timing is everything. The Ancient Greeks called this
timing issue Kairos. In todays world, technology is getting better at timing such Triggers,
as we outline in the Resource Guide.
Blue Span Behavior
If you want someone to perform a familiar behavior not forever but for a period of
time, you are seeking a Blue Span Behavior.

Examples include:

o Health: Eat vegetables at dinner for two weeks.


o Environment: Bike to work each day for two months.
o Commerce: Log into Farmville each day for the next six months.

To achieve a Blue Span Behavior, three elements must come together at once over a period
of time. As the Fogg Behavior Model describes, you must Trigger the behavior when the
person is both Motivated and Able to perform it.

1. Trigger: A prompt must tell a person to do this behavior now. Triggers can take
many forms, ranging from links in email (click here) to internal signals from our
body, like a grumbling stomach (eat now).
2. Motivation: A person must have sufficient Motivation when the Trigger occurs.
Three core motivators exist: Sensation (pleasure/pain), Anticipation (hope/fear),
and Belonging (acceptance/rejection)
3. Ability: The person must have the Ability to perform the behavior when the Trigger
occurs.

Since success itself is motivating, it is most important to design the motivation-inducing


elements of the BlueSpan strategy into the initial part of the intervention. Over time, as
Blue Path Behaviors are created, people do not require reassurance (enhancing motivation)
or step-by-step instructions (increasing ability).

Once the behavior has been performed at least once, it is necessary to remind the subject to
perform the action to Trigger the behavior throughout the desired periods duration.
The challenge here is not motivation or ability but in timing: One must find a way to
deliver a Trigger consistently at a moment when the person is already Motivated and Able.
This timing issue is well know: Timing is everything. The Ancient Greeks called this
timing issue Kairos. In todays world, technology is getting better at timing such Triggers,
as we outline in the Resource Guide. In fact, technology solutions are often ideal for
achieving Blue Span Behaviors.

Our Resource Guide for Blue Span Behaviors covers specific strategies, case studies, and
existing solutions. For now, know that any intervention for Blue Span Behaviors must
focus on motivating the subject and then delivering the Triggers, appropriate reminders at
the appropriate times.
Blue Path Behavior
If you want someone to perform a familiar behavior for the long term, you are seeking a
Blue Path Behavior.

Examples include:

o Health: Drink two bottles of water each day from now on.
o Environment: Take public transportation around San Francisco from now on.
o Commerce: Buy Apple computers from now on.

BluePath designates a familiar behavior that is done from now on.

All of us have developed many BluePath behaviors in our lives: brushing teeth, checking
email, shopping for food, reading the newspaper, and so on. These lifelong habits are Blue
Path Behaviors.

BluePath Behaviors are the most valuable of all 15 behavior types. Health, happiness, and
wealth come from the right set of BluePath Behaviors.

On the commercial side, any company that can create a BluePath Behavior in their
customers will most likely profit.

Example: Using the iPhone

Consider how effective Apple has been in getting people to carry about their iPhone device
and use it daily. The value of such a BluePath behavior is enormous, and (we think) only
partially shown in the surge in Apples stock price.

The real value for Apple will continue to play out for decades to come, because BluePath
behaviors are not easily broken. Do you know anyone who has stopped using their iPhone?
We dont. A Blue Path behavior (like carrying the iPhone) that has a deep investment will
endure more than thoses with a small investment.

Example: Search with Google

Most Internet users today use Google when they search the Internet. This is a BluePath
Behavior. Google won this leading position by offering a simple experience that gave good
results. People got hooked on Google because their search box offered the easiest way to
get what they wanted big benefits at low cost. This position is now being challenged by
Bing. Who will win? Google must maintain the BluePath behavior. Bings challenge is
greater: Because they are new to people, they are seeking a GreenPath Behavior, and thats
harder to achieve.

Example: Use Facebook every day


The most amazing example of BluePath Behavior in todays world is Facebook. Hundreds
of millions now log into this service on a regular basis. It has become part of our lives, part
of our culture all in a few short years.

If you want to learn how to create a BluePath Behavior in your customers or yourself, learn
from what Facebook has done.

You can find an analysis of Facebooks system for creating BluePath Behavior
here: http://www.slideshare.net/mcatsouphes/how-the-facebook-habit-happens

Routes to Blue Path Behaviors

Whats clear with Blue Path Behaviors is that they dont happen suddenly. In most cases,
theres a sequence of steps, or a route, that people take on their way to Blue Path.
Sequencing is vital to understand for those creating interventions. If the intervention
focuses on a single step, its likely to fail. The best Blue Path programs start with a simpler
goal.

Example: Nutrisystems for the rest of your life

The business goal of Nutrisystems is to get people to eat the Nutrisystem food for the rest
of their lives. You can imagine how profitable this Blue Path Behavior can be. But the
company smartly doesnt push for this first thing. The winning route for Nutrisystems starts
with a Green Dot Behavior. The next step is Green Span. And the final step is Blue Path.

Stanfords Laura Shact has analyzed the route for making Nutrisystems a Blue Path
Behavior: http://www.slideshare.net/lshact/nutrisystem-proven-steps-to-getting-people-to-
eat-packaged-foods

Example: Getting addicted to FourSquare

One of the hottest location-based services to date is FourSquare. The company has
succeeded in creating Blue Path Behaviors in many people. Checking in at a location has
become as routine for some as checking email. While the social element and incentive
structure (badges and titles) boost motivation, the key to FourSquares success is in the
careful sequencing of the experience, moving users from trial phase (Green Behaviors) to
addiction (Blue Path).

Stanfords James Mao analyzes the route users take as FourSquare (aka 4sq) becomes an
integral part of their daily lives. http://www.slideshare.net/377v/4sq-habit

Example: How coffee becomes a habit


Kristy Allenby, from Stanfords GSB, outlines how coffee becomes a habit, noting how
this sequence can also apply to forming other Blue Path
Behaviors: http://www.slideshare.net/kristyallenby/test-4076614

Example: Day-by-day steps toward Blue Path

Stanfords Stephanie Carter maps out how a Blue Path Behavior gets formed, day by day,
using Acne.org as the example. The entire slide set is interesting, and the last four slides are
brilliant with insight. Dont miss out. http://www.slideshare.net/StephanieJCarter/the-
sequence-of-habit-formation-for-acneorgs-regimen

To achieve a Blue Path Behavior, three elements must come together at once. As the Fogg
Behavior Model describes, you must Trigger the behavior when the person is
both Motivated and Able to perform it. This combination must happen over and over, as
the habit gets created or strengthened.

1. Trigger: A prompt must tell a person to do this behavior now. Triggers can take
many forms, ranging from links in email (click here) to internal signals from our
body, like a grumbling stomach (eat now).
2. Motivation: A person must have sufficient Motivation when the Trigger occurs.
Three core motivators exist: Sensation (pleasure/pain), Anticipation (hope/fear),
and Belonging (acceptance/rejection)
3. Ability: The person must have the Ability to perform the behavior when the Trigger
occurs.

As Blue Path Behaviors are created, people do not require reassurance (enhancing
motivation) or step-by-step instructions (increasing ability). Instead, the challenge is on
timing: One must find a way to deliver a Trigger at a moment when the person is already
Motivated and Able. This timing issue is well know: Timing is everything. The Ancient
Greeks called this timing issue Kairos. In todays world, technology is getting better at
timing such Triggers, as we outline in the Resource Guide.
Purple Dot Behavior
If you want someone to increase the intensity or duration of a behavior not
forever but just one time, you are seeking a Purple Dot Behavior.

Examples include:

o Health: Exercise for 30 minutes longer for today only.


o Environment: Buy more produce at the store today, instead of meat.
o Commerce: Put 50% of your paycheck into savings, just for this one paycheck.

Purple Dot Behaviors can stretch people. And thats often the point. By pushing limits
people can get insight and confidence into increased performance in exercise, savings, diet,
or other areas. In some ways, the purpose of a Purple Dot Behavior is to help people
eventually increase the target behavior for a longer period of time. In other cases, these
more extreme behaviors can focus our attention on an issue, cause, or opportunity.

Purple Dot Behaviors as cultural tradition

Some of our most celebrated holidays encourage Purple Dot Behaviors. On Christmas Day,
for example, people are more charitable. On Valentines Day, people are more expressive
of love. On Thanksgiving, we emphasize our gratitude. The emphasis during these holidays
is no accident. These holidays help us all learn to perform the more extreme behaviors.
Thats a good thing. Ideally, the increased intensity in charity, love, and gratitude will carry
with us to the other days of the year. In this way, we can see that holidays are cultural
interventions that make society better. From this perspective it seems that some holidays
are all about behavior change.

Purple Dot Behaviors also play a role in self-improvement programs, as well as charitable
events and commercial endeavors.

Purple Dot Behaviors for charity

Purple Dot Behaviors can take us to the extremes, and this gets peoples attention. Charity
programs have tapped into this fact. Notable interventions that invite ordinary people to go
to extremes for a good cause include:

o Race for a Cure: http://ww5.komen.org/findarace.aspx


o AIDS Walk: http://www.aidswalk.net/
o Relay for Life by American Cancer Society: http://www.relayforlife.org/relay/
o More general classes of Purple Dot Behaviors for good causes include:
o Walkathons http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walkathon
o Telethons http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telethon
o Charity auctions (where we pay far more than real value)
o Special days of recognition (cancer survivors, equal rights, etc.)

Purple Dot Behaviors for business

Businesses have long used Purple Dot Behaviors for profit. And in todays high tech world,
the possibilities continue to expand.

To achieve a Purple Dot Behavior, it is necessary to alter at least one element from the
Fogg Behavior Model:

1. Couple the trigger leading to the desired behavior with a motivational element.
2. Increase ability to perform the behavior (make it easier to do)
3. Strengthen motivation for doing the behavior with appropriate intrinsic or extrinsic
awards.
Purple Span Behavior
If you want someone to increase the intensity or duration of a behavior not forever but
for a period of time, you are seeking a Purple Span Behavior.

Examples include:

o Health: Increase mindfulness over the next month.


o Environment: Increase days spent walking to work this month.
o Commerce: Increase number of cold-calls made this week.

This type of behavior is typical in campaigns, bootcamps, contests, retreats, crash


courses, and interventions. The name Purple Span indicates two distinctive aspects of
behavior change. A Purple behavior is one familiar to your audience. The audience
know this behavior; theyve done it before. There are no surprises in performing a Purple
Behavior. People know the costs (in time, money, effort, and so on). They also have a sense
of the outcomes (either benefits or not). Whats new with Purple Behaviors is doing the
behavior more intensely. This may mean with more effort, longer, or more focus. In other
words, Purple is about taking an existing behavior (a Blue one) and intensifying it.

The Span part of Purple Span indicates the behavior lasts for a fixed period of time. It
is not a one-time behavior (a Dot); it is not done for the rest of someones life (a Path).
A Span Behavior can be for a week, a month, or a year. The length doesnt matter. What
matters is that the audience knows this behavior in this case the intensifying of the
behavior wont last forever. There is an end point. And that means getting people to
commit to a Purple Span is easier than a Purple Path. And adherence is also likely to be
better. To be clear, the fixed period of time goes more than one day. Span does not refer to
working out for 30 minutes just one day. Instead, it would be working out, repeated for 14
days.

To achieve a Purple Span Behavior, it is necessary to alter at least one element from the
Fogg Behavior Model:

1. Increase the number of triggers leading to the desirable behavior.


2. Enhance ability to perform the behavior (make it easier to do)
3. Amplify motivation for doing the behavior with intrinsic and extrinsic motivators.
Purple Path Behavior
If you want someone to increase the intensity or duration of a behavior forever, you are
seeking a Purple Path Behavior.

Examples include:

o Health: Exercise 10 minutes more each day, from now on.


o Environment: Eat more fruits and vegetables each day into the future.
o Commerce: Save 10% more of your paycheck each month forever.

Many people seek Purple Path behaviors. They are already doing something good, like
exercising, and they are ready to take it to the next level. This increased intensity or
duration of a familiar behavior (like exercise) is what Purple Path is all about.

To achieve a Purple Path Behavior, it is necessary to alter at least one element from the
Fogg Behavior Model:

1. Increase the number of triggers leading to the desirable behavior.


2. Enhance ability to perform the behavior (make it easier to do)
3. Amplify motivation for doing the behavior with intrinsic and extrinsic motivators.

Our Resource Guide for Purple Path Behaviors explains specific techniques and tools for
achieving increasing the intensity of a behavior one-time. It also highlights successful
programs and online systems that exist for this purpose.

Gray Dot

If you want someone to reduce a behavior not forever but just one time, you are seeking a
Gray Dot Behavior.

Examples include:

o Health: Eat less food at dinner, just this one time


o Environment: Take a shorter shower, just this morning
o Commerce: Spend less on clothes during this one shopping trip

Gray Dot Behaviors are often an early step toward permanent behavior change. For
example, spending less during one shopping trip can help people see how to spend less on
all future shopping trips.

As you might expect, people are more successful in achieving Gray Dot Behaviors than
making the permanent change of Gray Path Behaviors. Creating successes with Gray Dot
Behaviors have been shown to matter in achieving a behavior of longer duration. In other
words, a small step can lead to a more enduring behavior change.
To achieve a Gray Dot Behavior, all successful interventions work by altering at least one
element from the Fogg Behavior Model:

1. Remove the trigger that leads to the undesirable behavior


2. Reduce ability to perform the behavior (make it harder to do)
3. Replace motivation for doing the behavior with de-motivators: pain, fear, or social
rejection
Gray Span Behavior
If you want someone to reduce a behavior for a period of time, you are seeking a Gray
Span Behavior.

Examples include:

o Health: Eat fewer foods with corn syrup during 40-day program.
o Environment: Drive a car less often this month.
o Commerce: Spend less on lunch this week.

Gray Span Behaviors are common in interventions for health (eat less), environment
(consume less), and personal financial security (spend less).

In a typical case, the behavior being reduced is not desirable. A reduction program for a
fixed term (such as 14 days or a month) helps people see how a long term change might be
possible. In other words, Gray Span can be a step to Gray Path (where the behavior
reduction is meant to be permanent).

To achieve a Gray Span Behavior, all successful interventions work by altering at least one
element from the Fogg Behavior Model:

1. Remove the trigger that leads to the undesirable behavior


2. Reduce ability to perform the behavior (make it harder to do)
3. Replace motivation for doing the behavior with de-motivators: pain, fear, or social
rejection
Gray Path Behavior
If you want someone to reduce a behavior for the long term, you are seeking a Gray Path
Behavior.

Examples include:

o Health: Eat less often at restaurants.


o Environment: Use less water when showering from now on.
o Commerce: Stock up on fewer products to reduce waste.

Gray Path Behaviors are common in interventions for health (eat less), environment
(consume less), and personal financial security (spend less).

In a typical case, the behavior being reduced is not desirable, but stopping the behavior
completely may not be practical or possible. Thats when Gray Path is the appropriate
target behavior.

To achieve a Gray Path Behavior, all successful interventions work by altering at least one
element from the Fogg Behavior Model:

1. Remove the trigger that leads to the undesirable behavior


2. Reduce ability to perform the behavior (make it harder to do)
3. Replace motivation for doing the behavior with de-motivators: pain, fear, or social
rejection
Black Dot Behavior
If you want someone to stop a behavior just one time, you are seeking a Black Dot
Behavior.

Examples include:

o Health: Dont eat dessert this evening.


o Environment: Turn off the air conditioning for today.
o Commerce: Dont renew your mobile phone contract.

Black Dot Behaviors are often an early step toward permanent behavior cessation (which is
called Black Path). For example, not smoking at a party just one time can help people see
how to make this change in the long term.

As you might expect, people are more successful in achieving Black Dot Behaviors than
making the permanent change of Black Path Behaviors. These successes of Black Dot, even
though small, have been shown to matter in programs for alcoholism and other addictions.
A small step is part of a successful process.

To achieve a Black Dot Behavior, all successful interventions work by altering at least one
element from the Fogg Behavior Model:

1. Remove the trigger that leads to the undesirable behavior


2. Reduce ability to perform the behavior (make it harder to do)
3. Replace motivation for doing the behavior with de-motivators: pain, fear, or social
rejection
Black Span Behavior
If you want someone to stop a behavior not forever but for a period of time, you are
seeking a Black Span Behavior.

Examples include:

o Health: Dont eat dessert this week.


o Environment: Dont use the bathtub in the next month.
o Commerce: Dont buy anything in Farmville for 40 days.

A Black Span is a prolonged cessation of a behavior. The duration can be short, four hours,
or long, 5 weeks. However, the Black Span is defined by its continuity. The Black DOT
only occurs once, but the Black Span happens over a definite period of time.

The Black Span behavior is the stepping stone to the Black Path behavior, which is the
desired location of countless public health projects, addiction interventions, and company
initiatives.

Because the behaviors being stopped are often negative, and sometimes addictive, the
Black Span is one of the most challenging behaviors to induce.

To achieve a Black Span Behavior, we must remove or diminish one of the variables in
the Fogg Behavior Model.

1. Remove the trigger: If the prompt telling the subject to do this behavior now is
missing, it will not occur. Triggers can take many forms, ranging from links in
email (click here) to internal signals from our body, like a grumbling stomach (eat
now).
2. Reduce the Motivation: A person must have sufficient Motivation when the
Trigger occurs. If they are not motivated, the behavior will not occur. Three core
motivators exist: Sensation (pleasure/pain), Anticipation (hope/fear), and Belonging
(acceptance/rejection)
3. Reduce the Ability: The person must have the Ability to perform the behavior
when the Trigger occurs. If the task is made harder to perform, or interfered with in
some other manner, it is less likely to occur.
Black Path Behavior
If you want someone to stop a behavior for the long term, you are seeking a Black Path
Behavior.

Examples include:

o Health: Stop smoking permanently.


o Environment: Never throw trash out the car window.
o Commerce: Dont buy anything at Walmart ever again.

A Black Path is the permanent cessation of a behavior. This is the holy grail of public
health, as effective anti-smoking and anti-fast-food initiatives have the potential to change
the health of entire nations.

Because the behaviors being stopped are usually negative, and often addictive, the Black
Path is one of, if not the, hardest behavior types to induce.

To achieve a Black Path Behavior, we must remove or diminish one of the variables in
the Fogg Behavior Model.

1. Remove the trigger: If the prompt telling the subject to do this behavior now is
missing, it will not occur. Triggers can take many forms, ranging from links in
email (click here) to internal signals from our body, like a grumbling stomach (eat
now).
2. Reduce the Motivation: A person must have sufficient Motivation when the
Trigger occurs. If they are not motivated, the behavior will not occur. Three core
motivators exist: Sensation (pleasure/pain), Anticipation (hope/fear), and Belonging
(acceptance/rejection)
3. Reduce the Ability: The person must have the Ability to perform the behavior
when the Trigger occurs. If the task is made harder to perform, or interfered with in
some other manner, it is less likely to occur.