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COLLOQUIUM

ROMANUM
ATT I DEL XII COLLOQUIO
INTERNAZIONALE DI MICE NOLOGIA

roma 20-25 febbraio 2006

s o tt o la l to p a t r o na to de l pr es i d en t e de l la r e p ub b l i c a

a cura di
a . s a c c o n i , m . d e l f r e o , l. go da rt, m . negri

II.

PASIPHAE II.

PIS A ROMA
FA B RIZ IO SERRA ED IT ORE
M MV I I I
PASIPHAE
RIVISTA DI FILOLOGIA
E ANTICHIT EGEE

direttori:
lo uis go da rt a n na sacc oni

segretario di redazione:
mauriz io del freo

II.
(2008)

PIS A ROMA
FA B RIZ IO SERRA ED IT ORE
MMVIII
PREMESSA

Nel 2001 decidemmo di creare una rivista internazionale di filologia e antichit egee
dal nome Pasiphae e di affiancare alla rivista stessa una collana intitolata Biblio-
teca di Pasiphae destinata ad accogliere monografie relative alle civilt egee.
La collana Biblioteca di Pasiphae si arricchita rapidamente di vari volumi: ne
sono gi apparsi sette e vari altri sono in preparazione.
Iniziamo ora la pubblicazione della rivista Pasiphae, che uscir con cadenza an-
nuale: i numeri I (2007) e II (2008) escono contemporaneamente e contengono gli
Atti del XII Colloquio Internazionale di Micenologia, svoltosi a Roma dal 20 al 25
febbraio 2006.

Roma, dicembre 2007.

Louis GODART Anna SACCONI


SOMMARIO

VOLUME I

SOMMARIO pag. IX
INTRODUZIONE XIII
ELENCO DELLE ABBREVIAZIONI XVII
PROGRAMMA XXIX
ELENCO DEI PARTECIPANTI XXXVII
ELENCO DEGLI UDITORI XLII

F. R. ADRADOS, La cultura micenea nella storia della Grecia 1


V. L. ARAVANTINOS, Le iscrizioni in lineare B rinvenute a Tebe in Beozia.
Osservazioni storico-topografiche sulle scoperte 9
V. L. ARAVANTINOS, L. GODART, A. SACCONI, La tavoletta TH Uq 434 23
F. AURA JORRO, About some Instrumenta in Mycenology 35
A. BARTONK, The Lexical Elements in the Mycenaean Compounds 53
L. M. BENDALL, How Much Makes a Feast ? Amounts of Banqueting Food-
stuffs in the Linear B Records of Pylos 77
J. BENNET, E. GRAMMATIKAKI, A. VASILAKIS, T. WHITELAW, The Knossos
Urban Landscape Project 2005. Preliminary Results 103
A. BERNAB, Some Thoughts on the Knossos Ra Series 111
P. CARLIER, Rflexions sur les relations internationales dans le monde My-
cnien : y -a-t-il eu des hgmonies? 121
M. CIVITILLO, Il sillabogramma *19: status quaestionis e proposte di lettura 131
C. CONSANI, Aspects and Problems in Mycenaean and Cypriot Syllabification 151
P. DE FIDIO, Miceneo ki-ti-ta e me-ta-ki-ti-ta 159
S. DEGER-JALKOTZY, A-mu-ta-wo, Ku-ru-me-no und Pu2-ke-qi-ri: drei my-
kenische Karrieren 179
M. DEL FREO, Rapport 2001-2005 sur les textes en criture hiroglyphique
crtoise, en linaire A et en linaire B 199
R. DUEV, Zeus and Dionysus in the Light of Linear B Records 223
Y. DUHOUX, Animaux ou humains ? Rflexions sur les tablettes Aravantinos
de Thbes 231
M. EGETMEYER, Epilukos / opilukos: un titolo greco di origine indoeuropea 251
G. FACCHETTI, La questione della scrittura geroglifica cretese dopo la re-
cente edizione del corpus dei testi 269
R. J. FIRTH, J. L. MELENA, The Knossos Linear B Tablets: Genesis of the
Listing of the Later Fragments 281
A. FRANCESCHETTI, Musici e strumenti musicali alle corti micenee 309
X SOMMARIO

J. L. GARCA RAMN, Mykenische Personennamen und griechische Dichtung


und Phraseologie: i-su-ku-wo-do-to und a-re-me-ne, a-re-i-me-ne 323
N. GUILLEUX, Archasmes et innovations en grec mycnien : une valuation
critique 337
J. GULIZIO, Mycenaean Religion at Knossos 351
E. HALLAGER, Some Unpublished Linear A Inscriptions 359
M. IODICE, Miceneo a-pu-wa 361
M. JANDA, Il nome miceneo *Aiguptos: linguistica e ricostruzione culturale 369
A. M. JASINK, The Scroll and Its varIants: from a Decorative Symbol to a
Writing Sign 377
A. KARNAVA, La minoicizzazione 395
N. N. KAZANSKY, Greek Poetry in the Mycenaean Time 407

VOLUME II

SOMMARIO IX

J. T. KILLEN, The Commodities on the Pylos Ma Tablets 431


E. KYRIAKIDIS, Whos Who: The Shepherds in the Cn Series at Pylos 449
M. LINDGREN, Use of the Cypriot Syllabary in a Multicultural Surrounding 461
S. LUPACK, The Northeast Building of Pylos and An 1281 467
M. MARAZZI, Il sistema Argolide: lorganizzazione territoriale del golfo
argolideo 485
M. MEIER-BRGGER, Une lecture en langue mycnienne des textes de la
srie Ta de Pylos 503
T. MEISSNER, Notes on Mycenaean Spelling 507
A. MICHAILIDOU, Late Bronze Age Economy: Copper / Bronze in Linear B
Script and Material Evidence 521
C. MILANI, Al di l delle varianti grafiche: la lingua di scribi tebani 541
D. NAKASSIS, Named Individuals and the Mycenaean State at Pylos 549
M. NEGRI, I criteri di distribuzione delle razioni nella Creta del II millennio 563
G. NIGHTINGALE, A-ko-so-ta and the Economy of Pylos 569
S. NIKOLOUDIS, The Role of the ra-wa-ke-ta. Insights from PY Un 718 587
M.-L. B. NOSCH, Administrative Practices in Mycenaean Palace
Administration and Economy 595
J.-P. OLIVIER, Les syllabaires chypriotes des deuxime et premier millnaires
avant notre re. tat des questions 605
R. PALMER, Wheat and Barley in Mycenaean Society 15 Years Later 621
O. PANAGL, Die etymologische Erforschung des mykenischen
Wortschatzes. Ein kritischer Rckblick 641
A. PANAYOTOU-TRIANTAPHYLLOPOULOU, Les critures chypriotes et la pr-
sence mycnienne a Chypre 651
SOMMARIO XI
M. PERNA, A proposito di alcuni documenti fiscali in lineare B 659
F. ROUGEMONT, Les enregistrements dhuile de la srie Fh de Cnossos. Essai
dinterprtation et de comparaison avec les donnes du bureau de lhuile
Mari 669
A. SACCONI, Riflessioni sul significato del termine o-pa nei testi micenei 691
E. SCAFA, Palace Politics and Social Results 707
S. SHARYPKIN, Irrelevant Phonetic Features and the Rules of the Linear B
Script 735
R. J. E. THOMPSON, Mycenaean Non-Assibilation and its Significance for the
Prehistory of the Greek Dialects 753
H. TOMAS, Comparing Linear A and Linear B Administrative Systems: The
Case of the Roundel and the Elongated Tablet 767
C. VARIAS GARCA, Observations on the Mycenaean Vocabulary of Furniture
and Vessels 775
F. WAANDERS, The Syntax and Co-occurrence of Case Functions in Myce-
naean Texts 795
J. WEILHARTNER, Zu den Opfertieren innerhalb der Linear B-Texte: Mgliche
Hinweise fr Brand- und Schlachtopfer 807
J. ZURBACH, Pylos, Tirynthe, Cnossos: problmes fonciers et diversit ad-
ministrative 825

RELAZIONI 839
Comit International Permanent des tudes Mycniennes (C.I.P.E.M.) 839
Comit sur les signes du linaire B et des autres critures gennes 839
Committee on Information Technology Applied to Mycenology 840
Comit pour les ditions et les instruments de travail 840

INDICI 843
Indice dei testi 845
Indice delle parole 867
CARLOS VARIAS GARCA

OBSERVATIONS ON THE MYCENAEAN


VOCABULARY OF FURNITURE AND VESSELS*

The Mycenaean terms concerning furniture and vessels have been the subject of a
big quantity of studies since the beginning of Mycenology, undoubtedly because the
group of tablets where most of them appear, the Pylos Ta series, has been profusely
dealt with. Since the pioneer article by Ventris,1 scholarship has deepened more and
more our understanding of the formation and interpretation of this vocabulary. From
a lexicological point of view, the most recent and comprehensive study is on vessel
terms by Anderson.2 Because of these precedents, it is not my intention to examine
again the whole dossier of this lexical field, which would largely be a repetition of
what has been published. My aim is to do an overall presentation of these terms,
while only discussing those whose interpretation is not clear. Therefore, I will not
discuss any term attested in the Pylos Ta series (except for pa-ko-to), which has
been analysed several times and also has been the subject of Meier-Brggers paper
in this colloquium,3 assuming the most accepted interpretation for them. I just
confine myself to the names of furniture, vessels and other cooking implements, to
their derivatives and to the terms which complement them.4
1. Furniture5
Table 1 gives the list of terms pertaining to the lexical field of furniture. Five
names of pieces of furniture are recorded on the Linear B tablets: ta-ra-nu:
footstool, to-no: chair, to-pe-za: table, a-sa-mi-to: bathtub6 and de-mi-ni-ja:

* This study has been produced with the support of the Departament d'Universitats, Recerca i
Societat de la Informaci of the Generalitat de Catalunya (Spain) and as part of Research Project
BFF2003-08132-C02-01, Direccin General de Investigacin, M.C.Y.T. (Spain). Once again, I am
much indebted to J. T. Killen, both for his significant comments and for correcting the English
version of this paper. All flaws in what I present here are mines.
1. M. VENTRIS, Mycenaean furniture on the Pylos tablets, Eranos 53 (1956), p. 109-124.
2. D. ANDERSON, Mycenaean Vessel Terms: Evaluating the IE Evidence, Minos 29-30 (1994-
1995 [1997]), p. 295-322, who confines herself to the examination of the names, without discussing
the terms related to them (adjectives, complements, derived personal names, etc.).
3. See p. 503-506.
4. With regard to the ideograms belonging to this lexical field, I only mention those which are also
written phonetically and leave aside those which only appear as ideograms, because we do not know
their names.
5. The Mycenaean furniture has been analysed by O. KRYSZKOWSKA, Furniture in the Aegean
Bronze Age, in The Furniture of Western Asia, Ancient and Traditional, Institute of Archaeology,
University College London, 28-30 June 1993, G. Hermann (ed.), Mainz 1996, p. 89-102, pl. 23.
Y. SAKELLARAKIS, Mycenaean footstools, ibid., p. 105-110, pl. 24-27, has made another analysis
only of the footstools.
6. F. VANDENABEELE and J-P. OLIVIER (IDA, p. 176f.) include a-sa-mi-to among the furniture,
while D. ANDERSON, Mycenaean Vessel Terms, cit., p. 299, places it among the vessels, but it is
evident that it is not a vessel, because of its size.
776 CARLOS VARIAS GARCA
7
bedsteads. There are also four compounds with names of furniture: to-no-e-ke-te-
ri-jo = perhaps *qornohelktrion: (festival) where the throne is pulled, to-ro-no-
wo-ko = *qrono#orgo: chair-makers, re-ke-(e-)to-ro-te-ri-jo = perhaps *leces-
/lecehei-strwtrion: (festival) where the couches are spread, and re-wo-to-ro-
ko-wo = *le#otroc#oi: bath pourers. It is interesting to note the two parallel
examples of double naming of a type of furniture: de-mi-ni-ja / re-ke-(e-)to-ro-te-ri-
jo for bed, couch, and a-sa-mi-to / re-wo-to-ro-ko-wo for bathtub.
There are nine occupational names, including to-ro-no-wo-ko and re-wo-to-ro-ko-
wo, of persons who are involved in the manufacture of furniture, what shows the
high degree of professional specialisation in the Mycenaean kingdoms.
A total of forty-four different words8 are adjectives or complements of the pieces
of furniture recorded on the tablets, most of them as ornamental motives. Almost all
are only attested in the Pylos Ta series, except for five terms, whose interpretation
is controversial. Three of them, a-pe-ti-ra2, i-ku-wo-i-pi and -te-mi, appear on tablet
KN V(2) 280, whose text reads as follows:
KN V(2) 280
.1 wo-de-wi-jo
.2-4 vacant
.5 to-pe-za , o-u-ki-te-mi X
.6-10 vacant
.11 a-pe-ti-ra2 / o-u-te-mi X
.12 o-u-te-mi X
.13 o-u-te-mi X
.14 o-u-te-mi X
.15 e-pi , i-ku-wo-i-pi
reliqua pars sine regulis
This page-shaped tablet comes from the Room of the Chariot Tablets, a place in the
Palace of Knossos where the oldest inscriptions in Linear B have been found, dating
around 1400 BC, and its author is not defined (scribe 124).9 The term which
heads the text, wo-de-wi-jo, is a name of month: wordewios, which appears in two
offering tablets of the Knossos Fp series, so some scholars interpret V(2) 280 in a
religious sense.10

7. De-mi-ni-ja could also be a pluralia tantum as is in later Greek (dmnia: bed), a suggestion
made by J. L. MELENA, 63 Joins and Quasi-joins of Fragments in the Linear B Tablets from Pylos,
Minos 35-36 (2000-2001 [2002]), p. 381, who thinks that the term de-mi-ni-jo, a hapax which
appears in the nodule PY Wr 1326., would refer to two beds in the dual (demnw), not to a single
bed (dmnion). There are other possible examples of dual forms in the Linear B nodules: e-qi-ti-
wo-e, in TH Wu 75.-, ke-ni-qe-te-we, in MY Wt 503.-, etc., although without certainty, because
these terms could also be plural.
8. That is, the terms which are merely morphological variants of another, with the same meaning,
like e-re-pa-te / e-re-pa-te-jo, qe-qi-no-me-no / qe-qi-no-to, to-qi-de / to-qi-de-jo etc., are not counted.
9. The palaeographical data of this tablet is given by J. DRIESSEN (Scribes RCT, p. 99), who also
discusses the chronology of the RCT (ibid., p. 217-232).
10. This is the interpretation proposed by L. R. PALMER (Interpretation, p. 422), which is most
recently followed by J. WEILHARTNER, Mykenische Opfergaben nach Aussage der Linear B-Texte,
Wien 2005, p. 70.
MYCENAEAN VOCABULARY OF FURNITURE AND VESSELS 777
11
On the contrary, Palaima considers this text similar to those of the Pylos Ta
series: an inventory of tables made in a certain month, interpretation which is more
plausible. According to him, a-pe-ti-ra2, on line 11, is an adjective of to-pe-za,
written on line 5, derived from mfi- and dw, describing a table at which one may
eat from two sides12 (the term must be understood in lines 12-14), while both o-u-
ki-te-mi and o-u-te-mi are two terms in scriptio continua with the same second
word: -te-mi = trmij: support element, and similar meaning in the first one, o-u-
ki- = okij: not any and o-u- = o: no, indicating the missing elements for
tables.
Palaima does not interpret the phrase which closes the tablet: e-pi i-ku-wo-i-pi.
E-pi = p is a preposition of dat.-loc. very rare in Linear B, in contrast to its variant
o-pi and to e-pi- acting as nominal or verbal prefix. At Knossos, it only appears
once again: on the textile tablet Lc 561.a, governing re-si, possibly a noun of
n-stem in the dat. pl.13 At Pylos, e-pi governs the noun king in the dat. sg., wa-na-
ka-te, on the famous tablet Un 2 (l. 1), to indicate the occasion of the banquet
recorded, and it may also govern datives on Eb 842.B (to-e) and on Ep 613.8
(to-me).
If e-pi is a preposition in this tablet, i-ku-wo-i-pi cannot be an instr. pl., but a dat.
pl.14 This term cannot be a variant spelling of i-qo because of morphological
reasons.15 Lejeune16 proposes that i-ku-wo-i-pi is a dual *ggu, a noun of oi-stem,
of the feminine noun ggh: guarantee (with dialectal closure of - to - before
dorsal nasal): p *ggu(#)ofi: under guarantee, but he interprets the tablet in a
religious sense which it does not seem to have. Another possibility is a variant
spelling of i-su-ku-wo-, which appears as the first member of a compound personal
name on KN Fh 348.1, with the stem sc- (perhaps among those which prevail,
referring to the tables?).
Given the fact that three of the four Mycenaean examples of the preposition e-pi
are written with the conjunction -qe: e-pi-qe, it is also possible that here e-pi is not a
preposition, but an adverb or a prefix of a compound term written with separate
spelling (of which there are some instances in Mycenaean: e-ne-wo , pe-za on PY
Ta 642.3; a-pi , to-ni-jo on PY Ta 716.1, etc.), that is, e-pi-ku-wo-i-pi, and in this
case it could be interpreted as a technical noun in the instr. pl. which complements
tables.

11. T. G. PALAIMA, Qmij in the Mycenaean Lexicon and the Etymology of the Place-Name *ti-
mi-to a-ko, Faventia 22 (2000), p. 13f., 18f., following the line of argument of Docs2, p. 475f.
12. This interpretation, as Palaima notes, is originally by C. J. RUIJGH (tudes, p. 116 n. 84).
13. J. T. KILLEN (per litteras 16-08-2006) suggests that re-si could also be nom. sg. of a name of
decoration, and e-pi an adverb, with the meaning: and there is re-si upon it for e-pi-qe re-si.
14. As R. THOMPSON, Instrumentals, Datives, Locatives and Ablatives: The -fi Case Form in
Mycenaean and Homer, PCPhS 44 (1998), p. 238ff., argues, stating that this term is an i-stem, /-oi(h)i-
phi/, with an unknown root. He prefers the religious interpretation for this tablet. Another instance of
loc. pl. with the same suffix is qe-to-ro-po-pi, governed by o-pi on PY Ae 27.a, 108, 134 and 489.a.
15. According to I. HAJNAL, Studien zum mykenischen Kasussystem, Berlin 1995, p. 58f., and
R. THOMPSON, Instrumentals, cit., p. 239 n. 37.
16. Mmoires I, p. 169.
778 CARLOS VARIAS GARCA

The other two terms, a-te-re-e-te-jo and re-wo-te-re-jo, appear on a Pylos tablet
which also records vessels, Tn 996, whose text runs as follows:
PY Tn 996
.1 ] , a-te-re-e-te-jo , re-wo-te-re-jo ALV 2[ ]vacat
.2 u-do-ro *212VAS 3 pi-a2-ra *219 VAS 2 [
VAS
.3 a-po-]re-we *209 2 ka-ti *206 VAS 1 a-te-we AES *205 VAS 7 AUR[
.4 ] *250 VAS 3 po-ka-ta-ma , AUR *208 VAS 1 AES *208 VAS 3 [
This is the only tablet coming from Room 20 of the Palace of Nestor, which was
part of a group of pantries in the north-west area, where the ordinary vessels of the
palace were kept; more than 6,000 vessels corresponding to twenty-three different
shapes have been found there. This tablet, in Class iii, is the only epigraphical
evidence of these stores.
Two baths are recorded on line 1 through ideogram ALV, whose name was
probably written at the beginning of the line, in the missing section. Two adjectives
are written before ALV: the first, a-te-re-e-te-jo, could be a derivative of the vessel
term a-ta-ra, attested at Mycenae, if we follow Ventris and Chadwicks suggestion
that it bears the root of ntloj, with the meaning drainable, which has to be bailed
out applied to the bathtubs.17 The second one has a clear Greek interpretation:
re-wo-te-re-jo = *le#otrew, derived from the same noun which is the first element
of the compound re-wo-to-ro-ko-wo, but its meaning: for bathing is tautological in
relation to ideogram ALV.18

2. Vessels

In her study of the Mycenaean vessel terms, Anderson19 gives a list of thirty certain
terms and eight possible terms attested in Linear B. For my part, I list thirty-two
certain and possible names, which are shown in Table 2. I have slightly modified
Andersons list by removing some terms (for instance, a-sa-mi-to, which is a piece
of furniture; a-ma, which is not a vessel20), and adding others (ka-pa and ka-pa-ra,
as possible terms). I only comment some names of vessels of uncertain
interpretation.

17. Docs, p. 338f. D. ANDERSON, Mycenaean Vessel Terms, cit., p. 300 n. 19, follows this
proposal and translates a-te-re-e-te-jo: provided with bailers, but this is a strange description for a
bathtub. For the vessel a-ta-ra see the next section.
18. Thus IDA, p. 178. Considering this, D. ANDERSON, Mycenaean Vessel Terms, cit., p. 306
n. 49, quotes a suggestion made by Palaima that re-wo-te-re-jo could be a nominalized adjective
from a noun *lewotreyon: a bathing thing, represented by the bathtub ideogram *225 , like the
vessels represented in the three following lines of the tablet. However, for want of a morphological
parallel in Mycenaean, it is better to suspend this idea, as Anderson does.
19. D. ANDERSON, Mycenaean Vessel Terms, cit., p. 297-308, who gives for each name its
grammatical case, the possible ideogram equivalent, its identification and description and its possible
later Greek continuant. Nonetheless, the total of certain terms in her list are twenty-nine, and there
are nine with a question mark.
20. J. T. KILLEN, a-ma e-pi-ke-re, Minos 29-30 (1994-1995 [1997]), p. 329-333, confirms the
interpretation of Docs, p. 387, that a-ma is the action noun /am/: harvest.
MYCENAEAN VOCABULARY OF FURNITURE AND VESSELS 779
A-ke-a2 is only once written phonetically in Linear B: on tablet PY Vn 130.2,
whose text is as follows:
PY Vn 130
.1 o-ze-to , ke-sa-do-ro , *34-to-pi ,
.2 a pa-ro
a-ke-a2 , me-ta-pa , pe-ri-te 1
.3 a-pi-no-e-wi-jo , pa-ro , e-ru-si-jo 1
.4 a-pi-no-e-wi-jo , pa-ro , a3-ki-e-we 4
.5 e-na-po-ro , pa-ro , wa-do-me-no 9
.6 sa-ri-no-te , pa-ro , o-wo-to 5
.7 pa-ki-ja-si , pa-ro , a-ta-no-re 4
.8 ka-ra-do-ro , pa-ro , to-ro-wo 1
.9 pa-ki-ja-si , pa-ro , e-ri-we-ro 3
.10 e-wi-te-wi-jo , pa-ro , wi-sa-to 1
.11 ]me-te-to , pa-ro , ko-do 3
.12 ro-]u-so 24
.13 ]me-te-to , pa-ro , e-u-qo-ne 3
This is a page-shaped tablet in Hand 1, coming from the Archives Room of the
Palace of Nestor, which records fifty-nine a-ke-a2 from twelve workshops (recorded
by the formula pa-ro plus personal name in the dat. sg. on lines 2-13, except for line
12) sited in nine towns of the kingdom of Pylos (me-ta-pa, a-pi-no-e-wi-jo, e-na-po-
ro, sa-ri-no-te, pa-ki-ja-si, ka-ra-do-ro, e-wi-te-wi-jo, me-te-to and ro-u-so) for the
collector ke-sa-do-ro. A-ke-a2 is interpreted as *ggeha, nom. neuter pl. of ggoj:
vessels, a generic designation.21 It is possible that the same term is also recorded
by the syllabogram A, acting as an ideogram, on tablet PY Un 1320 [+] 1442.6-9,
which is similar to Vn 130,22 and perhaps also on the the Mycenae tablet Ui 651
v.1.3.4.523 and on the Mycenae nodule Wt 712., whose text runs as follows:
24
MY Wt 712
. A supra sigillum
. a-pe-we-de
. vacat
Several vessel terms appear on the obverse of the Mycenae tablet Ue 611, whose
text is shown below:25

21. I follow the interpretation of this tablet and of the term a-ke-a2 given by I. HAJNAL, Studien,
cit., p. 191-195. J. L. MELENA (On the Structure of the Mycenaean Linear B Syllabary. I: The
Untransliterated Syllabograms, in Austin Colloquium [forthcoming]) offers another interpretation of
the first sentence of this inscription, but he does not change the meaning of a-ke-a2.
22. According to the interpretation proposed by J. L. MELENA, Notas de filologa micnica, II: Qu
se asienta en PY Un 1320 [+] 1442?, in Athlon. Satura grammatica in honorem F. R. Adrados, vol. II,
P. Bdenas, A. Martnez, M. E. Martnez-Fresneda, E. Rodrguez (ed.), Madrid 1987, p. 613-618.
23. For the interpretation of MY Ui 651, cf. C. VARIAS, Banqueting in Mycenae: The Textual
Evidence, in Austin Colloquium (forthcoming).
24. For the interpretation of this nodule, which was found in the Panagia Houses in 1965, but was
not read until 1995, cf. W. MLLER, J.-P. OLIVIER, I. PINI, Die Tonplomben aus Mykene, AA
(1998), p. 16f., 42f.
25. I have already discussed the interpretation of this tablet, written on both sides, in C. VARIAS,
Banqueting, cit.
780 CARLOS VARIAS GARCA

MY Ue 611
recto
.0 ] vacat
.1 ]pe-ra 4 a-po-re-we 2 pe-ri-ke 3
.2 ]ka-ra-te-ra 1 po-ro-ko-wo 4 a-ta-ra 10
.3 ]pa-ke-te-re 30 ka-na-to 5 qe-ti-ja 10
.4 ]qe-to 2 ti-ri-po-di-ko 8 ka-ra-ti-ri-jo 7
.5 ]vac.[
inf. mut.
It is an incomplete list of twelve types of vessels, of which five are hapax: ]pe-ra,
pe-ri-ke, ka-ra-te-ra, po-ro-ko-wo26 and ti-ri-po-di-ko. Only one of these, ]pe-ra,
has not clear identification. This term must be complete, because there is no room
for another sign in the broken left side, as the three vessels written on lines 2-4
prove, so the restoration [ku-?]pe-ra must be rejected.27 The most plausible
interpretation of pe-ra is pllai: bowls.
Four vessels written on Ue 611 are also recorded in the group of nodules Wt 501-
507, coming from the same building, the House of the Sphinxes: a-ta-ra, ka-na-to,
qe-ti-ja and ka-ra-ti-ri-jo.
A-ta-ra appears with e-ku-se-we in the same face of nodule MY Wt 501, whose
text reads as follows:

MY Wt 501
. sigillum
.1 a-ta-ra-qe
.2 e-ku-se-we-qe
. vacat

This connection shows a close link between both vessels as for their use. Given the
unanimous interpretation of e-ku-se-we as *gcus#e(j): funnels,28 a-ta-ra can be
interpreted as the nom. neuter pl. ntla: vessels to bail out (water),29 which
would go into the e-ku-se-we.
Ka-na-to also appears in two Mycenae nodules: Wt 502. and Wt 506., where it
is linked to another vessel, pa-ke-te-ri-ja. The text of the second nodule runs as
follows:

26. It is quite possible that ligature *211VAS+PO, which appears on tablet KN K(1) 873.1.2.3, is
equivalent to this term, whose probable interpretation is *prco#oi: jugs, although D. ANDERSON,
Mycenaean Vessel Terms, cit., p. 304, puts them in separate entries in her list. F. VANDENABEELE
and J.-P. OLIVIER (IDA, p. 205) are not sure of this correspondence because ideogram *211VAS
represents a pot, not a jug.
27. Pace D. ANDERSON, Mycenaean Vessel Terms, cit., p. 302f.
28. Original interpretation by J. CHADWICK, Inscribed sealings from Mycenae, Eranos 57
(1959), p. 3.
29. This is the interpretation proposed by E. RISCH, Un problme de morphologie grecque:
laccusatif pluriel des thmes consonantiques en mycnien, BSL 53 (1958), p. 98. However,
D. ANDERSON, Mycenaean Vessel Terms, cit., p. 299f., translates a-ta-ra (being equivalent to later
ntlon) as bucket or ladle.
MYCENAEAN VOCABULARY OF FURNITURE AND VESSELS 781
MY Wt 506
. ka-na-to
. pa-ke-te-ri-
. -ja supra sigillum

The most probable interpretation of ka-na-to is knasqon: wicker basket,30 al-


though there are other possible proposals.31 It is the only vessel which appears twice
on the Mycenae nodules, which, with its record on Ue 611.3, show that it is a
common vessel. This is confirmed by the new evidence of Thebes, on the leaf-
shaped tablet TH Ka 113, whose text is shown below:
TH Ka 113
.A ]20
.1.B ka-]na-to 40 a-po-re-we 8
.2 ]20
.3 ] vacat

This fragmented tablet is similar to the obverse of MY Ue 611 and more vessels
would have been written in the broken left part.32 The record of a-po-re-we =
*mfor#ej: amphorae, with the same spelling as at Pylos and at Mycenae,
confirms the significant alternation with the Knossian spelling a-pi-po-re-we =
*mfifor#ej, without haplology.
The record of pa-ke-te-ri-ja on MY Wt 506.- under ka-na-to has led to its pro-
bable correspondence with the term pa-ke-te-re, from which it derives as a di-
minutive, recorded immediately before ka-na-to on Ue 611.3.33 The interpretation
of both terms is doubtful. Pa-ke-te-re also appears on tablets PY Vn 46.6, 879.4 and
on nodule PY Wr 1415., where it is interpreted *paktrej: fixers, in the nom.
pl., from the root of pgnumi,34 but this sense does not fit for the list of MY Ue 611,
so there is a likely proposal that pa-ke-te-re in Mycenae is another word, a vessel
name: *paktrej: containers for cheeses35 or *sfaktrej: vessels which pick
up the blood of a sacrificed animal.36
It is quite possible that the root of pa-ke-te-re is the same as that of pa-ko-to, a
term which appears on the Pylos tablet Ta 709.1:

30. Hypothetical suggestion in Docs, p. 332, later given up.


31. O. PANAGL (Pa-ke-te-re und ka-na-to: zwei Gertetermini der mykenischen Milchwirtschaft,
ZAnt 22 [1972], p. 71-84) interprets ka-na-to as *knaqoj, a noun derived from the Semitic
loanword knna- with the suffix -aqoj, parallel to klaqoj: basket, but specifically designed for
keeping cheeses, as a synonym of Hom. tlaroj: basket, where Polyphemus keeps his cheeses.
32. According to the opinion of the editors of the tablet, V. L. ARAVANTINOS, L. GODART and
A. SACCONI (AGS 2001, p. 302).
33. Thus A. SACCONI, Quelques remarques sur les sries W- de textes en linaire B, in Floreant,
p. 545, and C. W. SHELMERDINE, A Comparative Look at Mycenaean Administration(s), ibid.,
p. 571, make this correspondence.
34. Interpretation proposed by J. CHADWICK, Inscribed, cit., p. 2, for the Mycenae nodule too.
35. O. PANAGL, Pa-ke-te-re, cit., p. 75ff.
36. J. TAILLARDAT, Correspondence to Nestor (1 March 1964), Nestor (March 1964), p. 313.
For other interpretations see DMic., vol. II, p.71.
782 CARLOS VARIAS GARCA

PY Ta 709
.1 pi-je-ra3 , to-qi-de-ja *200VAS 3 pa-ko-to , a-pe-te-me-ne *214VAS 2 po-ro-e-ke-te-ri-ja *228VAS 1 ko-te-ri-ja 6
.2 a -sa-qe 1
au-te 1 pu-ra-u-to-ro 2 qa-ra-to-ro 1 e-ka-ra , a-pi-qo-to , pe-de-we-sa 1 e-ka-ra , i-to-we-sa , pe-de-we-sa , so-we-ne-ja , au-de-we-
VAS VAS
.3 ti-ri-po, ke-re-si-jo , we-ke , *34-ke-u *201 1 ti-ri-po , ke-re-si-jo , we-ke , o-pi-ke-wi-ri-je-u *201 1

and on the Mycenae nodule Wt 505.:


MY Wt 505
. sigillum
. pa-ko-to
. vacat
One plausible interpretation of pa-ko-to is the feminine noun in the nom. dual
fktw of the word quoted by Hesychius: fktai: lhno, sipai, peloi, names
of large jars.37 However, Palaima38 has recently proposed another interpretation of
this term, at least in the Pylos tablet: given the fact that ideogram *214VAS, recorded
after pa-ko-to , a-pe-te-me-ne on PY Ta 709.1, is nearly identical with *214VAS+DI
on tablet KN K(1) 740.2, which is recorded after di-pa and stands for this vessel,39
and given the order of the first three texts of the Ta series (711-709-641 or 711-
641-709), Palaima interprets pa-ko-to as an adjective like a-pe-te-me-ne, describing
the vessels represented by *214VAS, which would be two di-pa: *pktj:
riveted.40
This interpretation of pa-ko-to comes up against the important difficulty that it
would be the only example in the Ta series of an entry of one ideogram, standing
for a piece of furniture or a vessel, with no mention of its name in the first term of
the entry (and there are twenty-seven ideograms), what would be certainly odd.
Furthermore, Palaima does not mention the evidence of the Mycenae nodule, where
pa-ko-to, the only recorded term, cannot be an adjective, because of the context of
the other nodules, but the name of a vessel. The apparent inconsistency that the
Knossian ligature is named di-pa is easily explained if we take into account the
interpretation given to pa-ko-to: large jar, which would be a vessel similar to
di-pa. At Knossos, both ideograms, *202VAS and *214VAS+DI, were named by the
same term, di-pa, but at Pylos Hand 2, who has written the Ta series, has taken care
to distinguish ideogram *202VAS, which is attested five times with the name di-pa,
from ideogram *214VAS, which is named pa-ko-to on its unique appearance.
On lines 2-4 of the Pylos tablet Tn 996 (see supra) six names of vessels are
written. Three of them are hapax and their interpretation is difficult: ka-ti (line 3),
a-te-we (line 3) and po-ka-ta-ma (line 4).
The ideogram named ka-ti, *206VAS, stands for a kind of jug archaeologically
known by the Greek classical name hydria; hence it is stated that ka-ti = *kqj,

37. Docs, p. 499. For other interpretations see DMic., vol. II, p. 75f.
38. T. G. PALAIMA, Syntax and Context as Tools for Interpreting Mycenaean Texts and Scribal
Processes: Un 718, Ta 709 and K(1) 740, in Festschrift Panagl, Band I, p. 275ff.
39. F. VANDENABEELE, J.-P. OLIVIER (IDA, p. 240) identify this ligature with ideogram *202VAS.
40. Palaima takes up again the first interpretation of this word by M. VENTRIS and J. CHADWICK
(Docs, p. 337).
MYCENAEAN VOCABULARY OF FURNITURE AND VESSELS 783
41
because of the Hesychius gloss: Arcadian kqidoi: drai. The ideogram named
a-te-we, *205VAS, stands for a jug with a narrow rim similar to qe-ra-na on the Ta
series.42 Undoubtedly, a-te-we is a noun in -ej in the nom. pl., but its root is
unknown. One hypothesis could be *ltej, because of the Hesychius gloss lto:
pol, lafrn, naming a jug lightweight. The ideogram *208VAS, named po-ka-
ta-ma on line 4, stands for a cup with no handle. Po-ka-ta-ma is the name of the cup
in the nom. pl., without Greek interpretation.43 The noun in singular can be a
feminine in -m or a neutral in -mon.
A name of vessel of difficult interpretation appears on the Knossos tablet K(1)
740, whose text reads as follows:
KN K(1) 740
sup. mut.
.1 ]vest. [
.2 di-pa AES *214VAS+DI 30[
.3 qe-ro2 AES *255 16
.4 ku-ru-su-*56 *207 VAS 1
.5 pi-ri-je ZE 1
.6 [ ] me-no-no[
inf. mut.
This peculiar page-shaped tablet lists several metal items: on line 2, thirty bronze
di-pa = *dpaj, large jars, and on line 5, one bronze comb or saw. On line 4, the
term ku-ru-su-*56 precedes the ideogram *207VAS, which depicts a squat amphora
on three legs, without archaeological correspondence.44 There is a proposal that
ku-ru-su-*56 is a Minoan name, related to a similar name attested on the Linear A
tablet HT 31,45 but, from this fact, Vandenabeele and Olivier46 have appealingly
suggested that it is an hybrid compound, whose first element, ku-ru-s-, would be the
root of Greek crusj: gold, naming the material of which the vessel is made, and
the second element, -su-*56, would be the Minoan name of the vessel.
There is in this tablet another problematic term: qe-ro2 on line 3. This word is
attested five times in the Knossos Sk series, which records pieces of armour, and six
times in the ligature TUN+QE in the Knossos Sc series, which records chariots,
horses and cuirasses. In these series, qe-ro2 has been generally interpreted
*skwlloj: breastplate, from the IE root *skwel-.47 However, this meaning seems

41. First proposed by M. VENTRIS and J. CHADWICK (Docs, p. 327 and 551), who are followed by
F. VANDENABEELE and J.-P. OLIVIER (IDA, p. 257f.), who describe this item.
42. F. VANDENABEELE and J.-P. OLIVIER describe this vessel (IDA, p. 252f.). M. VENTRIS and
J. CHADWICK (Docs, p. 535) suggest that it is a kind of ewer.
43. According to F. VANDENABEELE and J.-P. OLIVIER (IDA, p. 209), who criticise the proposal of
M. VENTRIS and J. CHADWICK (Docs, p. 339 and 552) to consider po-ka-ta-ma a descriptive
adjective of the vessel in question, which would contrast with the rest of the inscription.
44. Cf. IDA, p. 246. This ideogram only appears again on tablet KN K 8244 without any context.
45. Thus Docs, p. 327, followed by M. PERNA, Gli ideogrammi dei vasi in lineare A, BCH 122
(1998), p. 430.
46. IDA, p. 245. Also M. VENTRIS and J. CHADWICK tend to favour this possibility (Docs, p. 558).
47. Cf. DMic., vol. II, p. 199f.
784 CARLOS VARIAS GARCA

odd on K(1) 740.3, the only evidence of qe-ro2 out of the Sc and Sk series, because
it occurs between the record of two vessels, on lines 2 and 4, and any other armour
element does not appear. Greco48 has proposed that qe-ro2, on K(1) 740, is a
different word, homograph of that appearing on the Sk series, interpreted *gwlyoi
(later galon): platelets of bronze, which make (or repair) the vessels di-pa
recorded on line 2, but this proposal is uncertain too.49
The last two possible vessel terms which I shall comment on are not included in
Andersons corpus. The term ka-pa, attested in one tablet at Knossos and in three at
Pylos, has received new interest after its occurrence in eight fragmented leaf-shaped
tablets from the Thebes Ft series, all in hand 311. I list below all the texts where
ka-pa appears:
KN E(1) 71
ka-pa GRA[
PY Ua 9
.1 HORD 100 T 1 V 2 ka-pa[
.2 OLIV 88 T 7[

PY Un 47
.1 ro-u-so , ro-u-si-jo , a-ko-ro[
.2 NI T 9 V 3 i[
.3 CYP+O 3 T 4 V 1 VIN [
.4 HORD 41 T 1 V 4 ka[-pa
.5 OVISm 13 OVISf 8 WE[
PY Un 138
.1 pu-ro , qe-te-a2 , pa-ro , du-ni-jo
.2 HORD 18 T 5 po-qa OLIV 4 T 3 V 5
.3 VIN 13 OVISm 15 WE 8 OVISf 1 CAPm 13 SUS 12
.4 SUS+SI 1 BOSf 1 BOSm 2
.5 me-za-wo-ni HORD 4 T 8 V 1 ka-pa OLIV 7
TH Ft 141
.1 ka-pa OLIV T 2 V 4 [
.2 a-ko-da-mo V 4 ka-si V[
TH Ft 143
.1 ka-pa OLIV T[
.2 ka-si[

48. A. GRECO, qe-ro2: una proposta di lettura, in Patavina Orientalia Selecta (History of the
Ancient Near East / Monographs IV), E. Rova (ed.), Padova 2000, p. 201-204 and 212ff., after a
careful analysis of the whole dossier of qe-ro2. T. G. PALAIMA, Syntax, cit., p. 278, gives the same
interpretation, but without knowledge of Grecos article.
49. J. T. KILLEN, per litteras (16/08/2006), reminds me that there is a saw (pi-ri-je ZE 1) recorded
on line 5, so there is no objection to record also breastplates in the same tablet. In addition, he
questions that the shape of ideogram *255 can stand for a platelet. Therefore, it is quite possible that
the reason why different kinds of objects are recorded on K 740 is because all are made of bronze, as
J. L. MELENA, who also interprets qe-ro2 as *skwlloj: breastplate, says (cf. Textos, p. 54f.).
MYCENAEAN VOCABULARY OF FURNITURE AND VESSELS 785
TH Ft 151
.1 ka-pa OLIV T[
.2 ka-[
TH Ft 217
.1 ka-pa OLIV T 2 V 4 a-ko-da-mo V 4 [
.2 ka-no V 4 [
TH Ft 219
.1 ka-pa , si-to , ko-ro-qe[
.2 a-ko-da-mo V 2 ka-si[
TH Ft 220 [+] 248
.1 ka-pa / si-to OLIV T 3 V 4 // ko-ro T[ ]V 2
.2 a-ko-da-mo V 4 ka-si te-de-ne-o OLIV T 1
TH Ft 234
.1 ka-pa , ko-ro OLIV T 4 V[
.2 a-ko-da-mo V 4 ka-si T[
TH Ft 268
.1 ]ka-pa OLIV T 3 V 1 a-ko-da-mo[
.2 ka-si T 1 V 1 [

Before the finding of the Thebes tablets, ka-pa was generally considered a place-
name in KN E(1) 71 and a description of olives in the Pylos tablets, with two
interpretations for the latter: 1) in opposition to po-qa OLIV on PY Un 138,
interpreted as *forb_ in the dat. sg.: for eating, ka-pa has been interpreted as
*skfv_ in the dat. sg.: for trough, naming the olives used to be pressed, not to be
eaten;50 2) ka-pa would be a collective in the neuter pl.: karp, with the same
meaning as ka-po = karpov: fruits, which on KN F 841 refers to the fruits of the
olive.51 After the finding of the Thebes inscriptions, their editors have proposed
another interpretation for ka-pa: *skfv_, not as a kind of olives, because in three
tablets (Ft 219, 220 and 234) there is a term between ka-pa and OLIV, but as a
designation of an offering vessel for the divinity, including in this interpretation the
Knossos evidence, which refers to a cereal.52
From my point of view, an important fact of the Pylos evidence is confirmed by
the eight Thebes examples: ka-pa is linked to the ideogram OLIV. Indeed, only one
tablet of the Ft series, Ft 140, the only one in another hand, scribe 312, records
another ideogram besides OLIV: GRA; but in the fifteen fragmented texts written by
scribe 311, the ideogram OLIV is the only recorded. This fact leaves aside the term

50. Cf. Docs, p. 221; for other references see DMic., vol. I, p. 315.
51. This proposal has been most recently upheld by M. MEIER-BRGGER, Sprachliche
Beobachtungen, in Texte aus Theben, p. 116. The relation between ka-pa and ka-po already appears
in Docs, p. 550, but without any interpretation.
52. This line of argument has been set out first by A. SACCONI, I nuovi testi tebani ed il
significato del termine ka-pa, RCCM 40 (1998), p. 281-287, and is repeated in AGS 2001, p. 264 ff.,
in the context of the religious interpretation applied to the new Thebes texts.
786 CARLOS VARIAS GARCA

ka-pa written on KN E(1) 71, probably a place name because of the context of the
series.
In the eight Thebes instances, ka-pa is always recorded at the beginning of the
tablet, on line 1. Five tablets seem to have the same structure: on line 1, an amount
of ka-pa OLIV is followed by another quantity of olives, without the ideogram,
recorded after a-ko-da-mo, and, on line 2, a third amount of olives appears after
ka-si or ka-no (see Ft 141 here a-ko-da-mo is recorded on line 2 , 143, 151, 217
and 268). Because these two terms are in the dat. as recipients of the olives (ka-si in
the dat. pl. and ka-no in the dat. sg.), one could think that ka-pa is also the dat. sg.
of a recipient. However, the other three Theban texts get off this plan: on Ft 219.1,
two terms are written after ka-pa: si-to , ko-ro-qe[, before the break where most
probably OLIV was recorded; on Ft 220.1, si-to, written in small letters, follows
ka-pa, and on Ft 234.1, ka-pa is followed by ko-ro and the ideogram OLIV. We
know from Ft 220.1 that ko-ro is another recipient of olives in the dat. sg., so it is
very probably the same recipient on Ft 234.1, which precludes ka-pa as the name of
a recipient. On the other hand, on Ft 220.1 the term si-to has been added later, as an
afterthought,53 what corroborates the link ka-pa OLIV. From this point of view, it is
difficult to hold an interpretation of ka-pa as the generic designation of fruits
(karp) and it seems plausible, according to PY Un 138, to maintain its meaning
of a particular kind of olives, perhaps with the original interpretation by Ventris and
Chadwick: *skf: trough or bowl, naming a vessel.
Lastly, the term -ka-pa-ra appears in the scriptio continua with to-sa- = *tsa(i):
so much, before the ideogram VIN on the Pylos tablet Un 1321.2, whose text runs
as follows:
PY Un 1321
.1 ]-ta-ri-ja , a2-to , o-ra-qe-[
.2 ]-we , to-sa-ka-pa-ra VIN [
.3 ]ta-qe , a3-te , to-o , GRA [
.4 ]o-pa-ro-ze , ti-se , pa-ro[
.5 ] vacat [
This is one of the two tablets ascribed to Hand 34, and comes from Room 99 of the
Northeast Workshop. It is a record of wine and wheat, probably for consumption,
which must have been stored in the same room. Among the proposed interpretations
for ka-pa-ra, Palmer54 mentions two kapala, a word connected with traders, and
the most interesting based on the Hesychius gloss skfaloj: ntlhtr, name of
a vessel for drawing water.
The Mycenaean terms derived from or composed with names of vessels are few.
The main occupational name, as in the furnitures lexical field, is attested: ke-ra-
me-u: potter appears at Pylos and at Mycenae, but there are only other four
possible professional names in this field. O-pi-ka-pe-e-we(-qe) can be interpreted as

53. Thus AGS 2001, p. 87f.


54. R. PALMER (Wine in the Mycenaean Palace Economy, Lige Austin 1994 [Aegaeum, 10],
p. 115f.) briefly describes this singular tablet. For other interpretations of ka-pa-ra see DMic., vol. I,
p. 315.
MYCENAEAN VOCABULARY OF FURNITURE AND VESSELS 787
h
*piskafe #ej: overseers of the vessels, in the cultual sphere, but there are
other proposals too.55 O-pi-te-<u>-ke-e-u is usually interpreted as *piteucehej:
overseer of the manufactures, but we do not know whether any vessel is included
among these manufactures or not. U-do-no-o-i, because of the context of the tablet
where this term appears, PY Fn 187, seems to be an occupational name in the dat.
pl. designating some workers who have to do with water (u-do), but nothing else
can be said. The interpretation of ka-ru-ti-je-ja-o(-qe) as *kaluqieiwn: (women)
in charge of the little baskets is uncertain.
A total of thirty-three terms with different roots are adjectives or complements of
the vessels recorded on the tablets, twenty-one of which appear in the Pylos Ta
series. There are some others, like ko-no-ni-pi or ku-ru-so, which also occur as com-
plements of furniture in the Ta series. Of the remainder, I have already analysed the
term qe-ro2. I shall comment on four terms of uncertain interpretation, appearing on
three Knossian tablets of the K series. Tablet KN K(1) 877 records two of these
terms; its text is shown below:
KN K(1) 877 [+] 1052
a-tu-ko / de-ra[ ] , ma-te-u-pi , *212VAS+U[

This brief token, formed by two fragments not joined, is by an unknown scribe.
It records an unknown quantity of the vessel represented by the ligature
*212VAS+U, which is undoubtedly u-do-ro = droi: water containers, probably
made by or assigned to the man recorded with his name at the beginning of the
tablet: a-tu-ko. There are two terms in the middle: the incomplete de-ra[, which
must be an adjective or complement of ma-te-u-pi or of the ideogram, and ma-te-u-
pi, a noun in the instr. pl. (ending in -fi) referring to an ornamental motif of the
vessel, of uncertain meaning.56 It is quite probable that both terms are of Minoan
origin, and hence the difficulty of their interpretation.
The second Knossian tablet to be discussed reads as follows:
KN K 434
.1 ]sa , *221VAS 1 *229VAS 1
.2 ]de-wa-pi , ko-no-ni-pi , *217VAS 1
This tablet comes from a different place from the set K(1): it was found in the Room
of the Niche of the Palace of Knossos together with other five inscriptions, and is in
unknown hand. It records three valuable vessels:57 on line 1, one cup, represented
by the ideogram *221VAS, and one ladle, represented by *229VAS, and on line 2, one
bottle in an ostrichs egg shape, represented by *217VAS. Two terms precede the last
vessel: the second one, ko-no-ni-pi, which also appears as an ornament of a
footstool on tablet PY Ta 714.3, is interpreted as a noun in the instr. pl. *kononfi
(later Greek kanonj): with cross-bars;58 the first, ]de-wa-pi, is incomplete, but its

55. Cf. DMic., vol. II, p. 39f.


56. See this comment on the tablet in IDA, p. 191.
57. Here I summarise the comment of IDA, p. 241ff.
58. Cf. DMic., vol. I, p. 377f. The interpretation given by A. PANAYOTOU, Mycenaean ko-no-ni-
pi, Kadmos 24 (1985), p. 158f.: *koinwnpfi: with one join causes the morphological problem of
an instr. sg. in -fi, so it seems less probable.
788 CARLOS VARIAS GARCA

ending -pi = -fi shows that it is a feminine in the instr. pl., probably an adjective of
ko-no-ni-pi.59
A third tablet of the K series, in hand 102, has the following text:
KN K(1) 872
.1 ] , ke-ra-a , *227VAS [
.2 ]me-no , ne-qa-sa-pi , *227VAS 1
.3a ]-te-te , ku-ru-so , ku-ru-so
.3b ne-]qa-sa-pi , *218VAS 3
.4 inf. mut.
This fragmented tablet also records precious vessels: two rhytons in the shape of a
bull head, on lines 1 and 2, represented by the ideogram *227VAS, and three golden
(see ku-ru-so on line 3a) Vaphio cups on line 3, represented by *218VAS. Before
both kinds of vessels the same term ne-qa-sa-pi is written, on lines 2 and 3b. From
the evidence of the terms discussed above ]de-wa-pi, ko-no-ni-pi and ma-te-u-pi, it
is almost certain that ne-qa-sa-pi is a noun in the instr. pl. of an ornamental motif of
the recorded vessels, and it is quite plausible that it refers to the double line which
appears in each ideogram, with the meaning with double sides.60 This term would
also be of Minoan origin.

3. Other cooking implements

Ten terms, which name different cooking implements, or are used for preparing
banquets, and are neither vessels nor furniture, are attested in the Mycenaean
inscriptions, nine of them on the Pylos Ta series. The other, e-ku-se-we: funnels
has been discussed supra.

4. Conclusions

The large number of terms appearing in the Mycenaean inscriptions which belong
to this lexical field allows us to make out several features about their formation and
evolution.
First of all, significant differences between Knossos and Mainland Greece are
noticeable regarding the vessel terms. As Consani61 has pointed out in a careful
study, the designations of vessels through ligatures are attested in some tablets from
Knossos, while they are absent on the Mainland, which prefers the phonetic record
of the name of the term (see a-po-re-we, di-pa, ka-ra-re-we, po-ro-ko-wo, u-do-ro).
Similar ligatures appear on the Linear A tablets, so this fact can be interpreted either
as an influence of the Minoan tradition on the Knossos texts, or as a penetration of

59. On the problems of the interpretations proposed for ]de-wa-pi see DMic., vol. I, p. 169.
60. First suggested by F. VANDENABEELE and J.-P. OLIVIER with archaeological references (IDA,
p. 269ff.).
61. C. CONSANI, Nomi di vaso micenei e minoici; per unipotesi sui rapporti linguistici tra greco
miceneo ed area minoica, in Studi di linguistica minoico-micenea ed omerica, A. Quattordio
Moreschini, C. Consani, M. Benedetti (ed.), Pisa 1983, p. 17-39, esp. p. 19-21.
MYCENAEAN VOCABULARY OF FURNITURE AND VESSELS 789
the Greek words in the Minoan language. In any case, their absence in the My-
cenaean inscriptions from the Mainland, which are more recent than those of
Knossos, clearly reveals an evolution of the usus scriptorum, which is in parallel to
the phonetic area: thus, for instance, the haplology of the name of the amphora,
a-pi-po-re-we, is not attested at Knossos, but it is found at three Mainland sites
(a-po-re-we at Pylos, Thebes and Mycenae), a fact which cannot be due to chance.
On this subject, it is pertinent to investigate the IE or not IE origin of these words.
In her analysis of the vessel terms, Anderson62 concludes that between ten and
fourteen terms out of the thirty certain names of vessel attested in Mycenaean Greek
(that is, between 26% and 46%) are or can be of IE origin. This proportion does not
take into account other possible vessel terms, which Anderson herself counts in her
dossier and can reach fifty-six names, nor the related terms, adjectives and
complements, which have been discussed above. Nevertheless, this is an acceptable
piece of information, which shows the Minoan origin of many of these items, as
well as their descriptions. It is not odd that the non IE terms mainly appear in the
Knossos tablets (the vessel named ku-ru-su-*56, the complements ne-qa-sa-pi,
ma-te-u-pi, e-pi i-ku-wo-i-pi?) and, in contrast, six of the ten certain IE terms are
attested at Mycenae, where a relatively small corpus of tablets survives (a-po-re-
we, e-ku-se-we, ka-ra-te-ra, ke-ni-qe-te-we, po-ro-ko-wo and ti-ri-po-di-ko) and
other two only at Pylos (re-wo-to-ro- and ti-ri-po).
Nonetheless, the evolution of this vocabulary inside the Greek language shows a
long tradition at the time of the Mycenaean inscriptions. Two types of formation
stand out: the use more and more of the -ej suffix to create new terms from IE or
non-IE roots, a fact which has been well analysed by Leukart,63 and the creation of
compounds, so suitable to describe or designate the function of these implements.
The different formations of nominal composition which appear in Classical Greek
and are well attested in Mycenaean, i.e. possessive compounds, verbal governing
compounds, prepositional compounds and endocentrics (except for the iterative
compounds),64 have been found in this lexical area: i.e., ti-ri-po, e-ne-wo-pe-za;
to-ro-no-wo-ko, po-ro-ko-wo; o-pi-ke-ri-mi-ni-ja; to-no-e-ke-te-ri-jo, etc.
These formations had some degree of continuity in later Greek, although some
terms disappeared after Homer. Anderson65 has showed that of the thirty vessel
terms attested in Homer, fourteen certainly have Mycenaean ancestors, what is an
important percentage. This piece of information proves some cultural continuity
between the Mycenaean world and the Greek world of the first millennium BC.

62. D. ANDERSON, Mycenaean Vessel Terms, cit., p. 308-319 and p. 321f. for her conclusions.
63. A. LEUKART, Gtter, Feste und Gefe. Mykenisch -eus und -wios: Strukturen eines
Wortfeldes und sein Weiterleben im spteren Griechisch, in Res Mycenaeae, p. 234-252.
64. According to the comprehensive study by T. MEISSNER, O. TRIBULATO, Nominal Composition
in Mycenaean Greek, TPhS 100 (2002), p. 289-330. The Mycenaean compounds have also been
recently studied by O. PANAGL, More about Nominal Compounds in Mycenaean Greek, in Austin
Colloquium (forthcoming).
65. D. ANDERSON, Mycenaean Vessel Terms, cit., p. 319f.
790 CARLOS VARIAS GARCA

Table 1. Mycenaean vocabulary of furniture


Names:
1. a-sa-mi-to (KN Ws 8497.): sminqoj: bathtub
2. de-mi-ni-ja/-jo (PY Un 1482.4, Vn 851.1, Wr 1326.; MY V 659.1): dmnia:
bedsteads
3. ta-ra-nu (KN V[7] 1521.2.3.4.5, PY Ta series, Un 1482.[3], Vn 46.4.7): *qrnuj:
footstool; another meaning on PY Vn 46: beam
4. to-no (PY Ta series): *qrnoj: chair
5. to-pe-za (KN V[2] 280.5, PY Ta series): *trpeza: table
Compounds:
1. to-no-e-ke-te-ri-jo (PY Fr 1222): perhaps *qornohlkthrion?
2. to-ro-no-wo-ko (KN As[2] 1517.11): *qrono#orgo: chair-makers
3. re-ke-(e-)to-ro-te-ri-jo (PY Fr 343, 1217.2): perhaps *leces-/lecehei-strwtrion?
4. re-wo-to-ro-ko-wo (PY Aa 783, Ab 553.B, Ad 676): *le#otroc#oi: bath pourers
Other related occupational names:
1. a3-te (KN B[4] 101.1, PY Un 1321.3) / *34-te? (PY Aq 218.11): *atr: inlayer
2-3. ka-ke-we a-ke-te-re (PY Jn 832.1.9) *calk#ej *skhtrej: decorator
bronzesmiths
4. ko-wi-ro-wo-ko (KN B[4] 101.1): *ko#ilo#orgo: engravers?
5. ku-ru-so-wo-ko (PY An 207.10): *cruso#orgo: goldsmiths
6. ku-wa-no-wo-ko-i (MY Oi 701.7, 702.4, 703.2, 704.4): *kuano#orgohi: workers
of dark blue glass
7. te-ko-to (KN Am[2] 826.2, PY Es 650 v.5, TH Fq 247.3, Gp 112.1, 114.2, 175,
147.2): tktwn: carpenter
Adjectives and complements (44 lexical terms with different stems):
PY Ta series: 39 lexical lemmata: a-di-ri-ja-te, -a-pi; a-ja-me-no, -a; a-ka-ra-no;
a-pi-qo-to; a-to-ro-qo; a2-ro[ ]u-do-pi; au-de-pi; e-ka-ma-te, -a-pi; e-ne-wo-pe-za;
e-re-pa-te / e-re-pa-te-ja, -a-pi, -e-jo; i-qo; ka-ra-a-pi; ka-ru-we, -u-pi; ko-ki-re-ja;
ko-no-ni-pi; ko-ru-pi; ku-ru-so / ku-ru-sa-pi, -u-so; ku-te-so / ku-te-se-ja, -e-jo
(ku-te-ta-jo); ku-wa-no / ku-wa-ni-jo; me-no-e-ja; mi-ra2; o-ni-ti-ja-pi; o-pi-ke-ri-
mi-ni-ja, -a-pi; pa-ra-ku-we, -ke-we; pi-ti-ro2-we-sa; po-pi; po-ni-ke, -ki-pi; po-ro-e-
ke; po-ru-po-de; po-ti-pi; pu-ko-so e-ke-e; qe-qi-no-me-no, -a / qe-qi-no-to; ra-e-ja;
re-wo-pi / re-wo-te-jo; se-re-mo-ka-ra-o-re, -ra-a-pi; so-we-no; to-qi-de / to-qi-de-
jo; we-a2-re-ja, -e-jo; we-pe-za.
Other terms out of the Pylos Ta series:
1. a-pe-ti-ra2 (KN V[2] 280.11): *mfestra, adjective of to-pe-za: (table) at
which one may eat from two sides?
MYCENAEAN VOCABULARY OF FURNITURE AND VESSELS 791
2. a-te-re-e-te-jo (PY Tn 996.1): adjective of ALV bathtub: is it a derivative from
ntloj (cf. vessel term a-ta-ra) with the meaning drainable, which has to be
bailed out?
3. i-ku-wo-i-pi (KN V[2] 280.15): dat-loc. pl. of a noun which complements to-pe-
za governed by the preposition e-pi: p *ggu(#)ofi ejpi;: under guarantee? or
instr. pl. of a compound noun with e-pi, with separate spelling?
4. re-wo-te-re-jo (PY Tn 996.1): adjective of ALV in nom. dual: *le#otrew: for
bathing
5. -te-mi: a noun in the nom sg., applied to to-pe-za on KN V(2) 280.5 in the phrase
o-u-ki-te-mi: *okij trmij: not any support, and applied to a-pe-ti-ra2 on
KN V(2) 280.11-14 in the phrase o-u-te-mi: o termij: no support?

Table 2: Mycenaean vocabulary of vessels


Names:
1. a-ke-a2 (PY Vn 130.2) = A (PY Un 1320.6-9, MY Ui 651 v.1.3.4.5, Wt 712.):
*ggeha: vessels
2. a-pi-po-re-we (KN Uc 160 v.2, *209VAS+A on Gg 701, 703.1, 704.2, 711,
5007, 5548, Gg[2] 713, 995, 5184, 7372) / a-po-re-we (PY Tn 996.3, TH Ka
113.1B, MY Ue 611.1): *mfifor#ej / *amfor#e: amphorae
3. a-ta-ra (MY Ue 611.2, Wt 501.1): ntla: vessels to bail out (water)?
4. a-te-we (PY Tn 996.3): a kind of pitcher, perhaps *lt#ej? (cf. Hesych.
lto: pol, lafrn).
5. di-pa (KN K[1] 740.2, K[1] 875.1.2.3.4.5, PY Ta 641.2.3, *202VAS+DI on KN
K[1] 829.2.3, *214VAS+DI on K[1] 740.2): *dpaj (= dpaj), a big vessel, a
large jar.
6. i-po-no (KN Uc 160 v.3): pno: cooking bowls
7. ka-na-to (MY Ue 611.3, Wt 502., 506., TH Ka 113.1B): knasqon: wicker
basket
8. ka-pa (PY Ua 9.1, Un 47.4, 138.5, TH Ft[1] 141.1, 143.1, 151.1, 217.1, 219.1,
220.1, 234.1, 268.1): *skf: bowl? ka-pa on KN E(1) 71: place-name?
9. (to-sa-)ka-pa-ra (PY Un 1321.2): Hesych. skfaloj: ntlhtr, a vessel for
drawing water?
10. ka-ra-re-we (KN K 778.1, PY Fr 1184.3, *210VAS+KA on KN K 700.1.2):
*clar#ej: stirrup jars
11. ka-ra-te-ra (MY Ue 611.2): kratr: krater
12. ka-ra{-se}-ti-ri-jo (MY Ue 611.4, Wt 507.-): a diminutive of ka-ra-re-we?
13. ka-ra-to (MY Ge 603.1a, 605.1, 605.6A): klaqoj: basket
14. ka-ti (PY Tn 996.3): *kqj; cf. Hesych. kqidoi: drai: hydria
15. ke-ni-qa (KN Ws 8497.): *crnicwj: washbasin
16. ke-ni-qe-te-we (MY Wt 503.-, KN X 768.2): *cernigwt#ej: wash-hand-
basins
17. ku-ru-su-*56 (KN K(1) 740.4): a kind of globular vessel with three legs
792 CARLOS VARIAS GARCA

18. pa-ke-te-re (MY Ue 611.3; PY Vn 46.6, 879.4, Wr 1415.): at Pylos,


*paktrej: fixers; at Mycenae, *paktrej: containers for cheeses? or
*sfaktrej: vessels which pick up the blood of a sacrificed animal?
19. pa-ke-te-ri-ja (MY Wt 506.-): a diminutive of pa-ke-te-re: *pktria?
20. pa-ko-to (PY Ta 709.1, MY Wt 505.): *f_ktw: (two) large vessels
21. ]pe-ra (MY Ue 611.1): pllai: bowls
22. pe-ri-ke (MY Ue 611.1): plikej: shallow angular bowls
23. pi-a2-ra (PY Tn 996.2) / pi-je-ra3 (PY Ta 709.1): *fihlai / *fihlai:
boiling-pans
24. po-ka-ta-ma (PY Tn 996.4): a kind of cup with no handle
25. po-ro-ko-wo (MY Ue 611.2, *211VAS+PO en KN K[1] 873.1.2.3): *prco#oi:
pitchers
26. qe-ra-na (PY Ta 711.2.3): a kind of jug, derived from the root *gwel-: to drip
27. qe-ti-ja (MY Ue 611.3; Wt 504.): *kwqia: piriform jars, diminutive of qe-to
28. qe-to (MY Ue 611.4, PY Ta 641.2): *kwqoj: large storage jar (= pqoj)
29. sa-pi-de (PY Vn 19.1.2.3.4.6, MY Ge 602.3.4b, 605.[2A].6A): sarpdej: big
baskets
30. ti-ri-po (PY Ta 641.1, 709.3): *trpwj (= trpouj): tripod cauldrons
31. ti-ri-po-di-ko (MY Ue 611.4): tripodskoi: little tripod cauldrons
32. u-do-ro (KN Uc 160 v.4, PY Tn 996.2, *212VAS+U on KN K[2] 774, 775, 776,
1810, 5526, 7599, 9242, K[1] 877): *droi: water containers
Derivatives:
1. ke-ra-me-ja (KN Ap 639.7): *Kermeia, a womans name derived from ke-ra-
me-u.
2. ne-qa-sa-ta (PY Fn 324.6): a mans name perhaps with the same root as ne-qa-
sa-pi?
Related occupational names:
1. ka-ru-ti-je-ja-o(-qe) (PY Ad 671.A): *kaluqieiwn: (women) in charge of the
little baskets?
2. ke-ra-me-u (PY An 207.7, Cn 1287.4, En 467.5, Eo 371.A, MY Oe 125): keramej:
potter
3. o-pi-ka-pe-e-we(-qe) (PY Jn 829.2.2a): *piskafeh#ej: overseers of the
vessels?
4. o-pi-te-<u>-ke-e-u (PY An 39.4, Fn 41.14, Un 2.2): *piteucehej: overseer
of the manufactures?
5. u-do-no-o-i (PY Fn 187.13): *donhoihi: water-bearers (for the victim)?
Adjectives and complements (33 lexical terms with different stems):
PY Ta series: 21 lexical lemmata: a-mo-te-wi-ja; a-no-we (= a-no-wo-to: adjective
of di-pa on KN K[1] 875.1-6: *n#oton: without handles); a-pe-te-me-ne; a-pu;
a3-ke-u (= *34-ke-u?); e-me , po-de; ke-ka-u-me-no[; ke-re-a2; ke-re-si-jo we-ke;
ko-ki-re-ja; ko-ro-no-we-sa; ku-na-ja; me-wi-jo (also appearing on KN K[1]
MYCENAEAN VOCABULARY OF FURNITURE AND VESSELS 793
829.2.3); me-zo-e; o-pi-ke-wi-ri-je-u; o-wo-we; qe-to-ro-we; qo-u-ka-ra; ti-ri-jo-we;
to-qi-de-ja / to-qi-de-we-sa; wa-na-se-wi-ja.
Other terms out of the Pylos Ta series:
1. ]de-do-me-na (KN U[1] 7507): dedomna: which has been given, referring to
*256, a non identified archaeological ideogram, perhaps a vessel?
2. de-ra[ (KN K[1] 877): probable decoration element of *212VAS+U = u-do-ro
3. ]de-wa-pi (KN K 434.2): probable adjective of ko-no-ni-pi
4. ke-ra-a (KN K[1] 872.1): noun in the acc. pl. referring to the vessel *227VAS
(rhyton in the shape of a bull head): *kraha: horns
5. ko-no-ni-pi (KN K 434.2; PY Ta 714.3): noun in the instr. pl., an ornamental
motif of the vessel *217VAS: *kononfi (= kanonj, cf. hom. kann): with
cross-bars
6. ku-ru-so (KN K[1] 872.3a; PY Ta 714.2): adjective of *218VAS: *crssw:
golden
7. ma-te-u-pi (KN K[1] 877): noun in the instr. pl., an ornamental motif of
*212VAS+U
8. ne-qa-sa-pi (KN K[1] 872.2.3b): noun in the instr. pl., an ornamental motif of
*227VAS and *218VAS: perhaps with double sides?
9. qa-si-re-wi-ja (KN K[1] 875.1-6): noun in the nom., dat. or gen. sg.:
*gwasilh#, a group of men dependent on a qa-si-re-u.
10. qe-ro2 (KN K[1] 740.3): noun in the nom. pl.: *skwlloi: breastplates? or
*gwlyoi (later galon): platelets?
11. u-do (KN K[1] 873.1): noun in the nom. sg.: dwr: water
12. *34-to-pi (PY Vn 130.1): noun in the instr. pl., perhaps an ornamental motif of
a-ke-a2 (or aqoj: firelog, a complement of the verb (o-)ze-to: [thus] boiled?)

Table 3: Mycenaean vocabulary of other cooking (and banqueting) implements


Names:
1. au-te (PY Ta 709.2): *astr: kindler
2. e-ka-ra (PY Ta 709.2, Ea 102): scra: mobile hearth
3. e-ku-se-we (MY Wt 501.2): *gcus#ej: funnels
4. ko-te-ri-ja (PY Ta 709.1): *cwstria: shovels?
5. pa-sa-ro (PY Ta 716.1): *ylw: chains
6. po-ro-e-ke-te-ri-ja (PY Ta 709.1): *prohelktria?: ladles
7. pu-ra-u-to-ro (PY Ta 709.2): purastrw: fire dogs
8. qa-ra-to-ro (PY Ta 709.2): *skwlaqron: oven-rake
9. qi-si-pe-e (PY Ta 716.2): *kwsfehe: knives
10. wa-o (PY Ta 716.1): double axes, without Greek interpretation
Adjectives and complements: 7 (all in the PY Ta series): a-pi-qo-to; a-pi , to-ni-jo;
au-de-we-sa; i-to-we-sa; ku-ru-so; pe-de-we-sa; so-we-ne-ja.