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Lecture 1 Welcome to AER817: Systems Engineering by Krishna Dev Kumar (September 07, 2017) Department

Lecture 1

Welcome to AER817:

Systems Engineering

by

Krishna Dev Kumar

(September 07, 2017)

Department of Aerospace Engineering Ryerson University, Toronto

Presentation  Brief Introduction about Instructor  Brief Introduction about Students  Required & Reference

Presentation

Brief Introduction about Instructor

Brief Introduction about Students

Required & Reference Textbooks

Course Objectives

Course Overview

How will we complete the course

Course Evaluation

Systems Engineering Basics

Concluding Remarks

Course Instructor Dr. Krishna Kumar Ph.D.’1998 (IIT Kanpur, India) Positions: 1998: Scientist C, Defence Research

Course Instructor

Course Instructor Dr. Krishna Kumar Ph.D.’1998 (IIT Kanpur, India) Positions: 1998: Scientist C, Defence Research &

Dr. Krishna Kumar

Ph.D.’1998 (IIT Kanpur, India)

Positions:

1998: Scientist C, Defence Research & Development Lab., DRDO, Hyderabad, India 1999-2000: Science and Technology Agency Fellow, National Aerospace Lab., Japan

2001-2003: Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Fellow, Kyushu University, Japan 2003-2005: Assistant Professor, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, South Korea 2005-2012.: Associate Professor and Canada Research Chair in Space Systems, Ryerson University, Canada 2012-contd: Professor and Canada Research Chair in Space Systems, Ryerson University Publications:

199 papers (81 peer-reviewed journals, 111 reviewed conference papers); 4 textbooks; 4

US, European and Canadian patents.

(www.ryerson.ca/~kdkumar)

Brief Introduction of Students Department of Aerospace Engineering 4 AER 817: Systems Engineering (Fall 2017)

Brief Introduction of Students

Reference Textbooks  NASA Headquarters, “NASA Systems Engineering Handbook,” NASA/SP-2007–6105, Rev. 1, 2007

Reference Textbooks

NASA Headquarters, “NASA Systems Engineering Handbook,” NASA/SP-2007–6105, Rev. 1, 2007 (ISBN:

9781780391380).

A list of additional references will be posted on the Blackboard.

Project Department of Aerospace Engineering 6 AER 817: Systems Engineering (Fall 2017) Lecture

Project

Project Department of Aerospace Engineering 6 AER 817: Systems Engineering (Fall 2017) Lecture
Project Department of Aerospace Engineering 7 AER 817: Systems Engineering (Fall 2017) Lecture

Project

Project Department of Aerospace Engineering 7 AER 817: Systems Engineering (Fall 2017) Lecture
Course Objectives  Design  Communication  Team work Department of Aerospace Engineering 8 AER

Course Objectives

Design

Communication

Team work

Course Objectives  Design. Systems Engineering is a specialized discipline that grew out of the

Course Objectives

Design.

Systems

Engineering

is

a

specialized discipline that grew out of the need to manage the development of complex projects. These tools cover the fundamental design cycle of analysis, evaluation, and synthesis. In this course, we will critically discuss many of these techniques and apply them to our

projects.

Course Objectives  Communication. Many systems engineering practices are effectively tools for managing complexity

Course Objectives

Communication. Many systems engineering practices are effectively tools for managing complexity between cooperating teams. In this course we will refine oral and written technical communications skills with informal seminars, formal presentations, and written reports.

Course Objectives  Teamwork. The complex projects that are addressed by systems engineering methodologies,

Course Objectives

Teamwork. The complex projects that are addressed by systems engineering methodologies, necessitate coordination between many contributors. This is reflected in the course’s group projects.

Course Overview: Lecture  What is Systems Engineering? The systems approach. Systems Engineering formalisms: N2

Course Overview: Lecture

What is Systems Engineering? The systems approach. Systems Engineering formalisms: N2 diagrams; FFBDs; SBD and variants (electrical); Design reference missions; Budgets, TQM; Gant Charts Reviews and gates; Process models; Certifications

Requirements

Engineering.

specifications; Language; CA tools; Functional

allocation; Progressive refinement; Formal analysis.

Types

of

Course Overview: Lecture  Trade Studies: Qualitative vs. Quantitative; Performance, utility and cost; Economics and

Course Overview: Lecture

Trade Studies: Qualitative vs. Quantitative; Performance, utility and cost; Economics and cost modelling; simulation; optimization; statistical models; decision theory.

Safety and Reliability: Definitions; safety and reliability in engineered systems; risk assessment; hazard analysis; maintenance and repair

Course Overview: Tutorial  Each week the tutorials provide an opportunity to discuss and debate

Course Overview: Tutorial

Each week the tutorials provide an opportunity to discuss and debate aspects of systems engineering.

Roughly half of each tutorial will be spent in a student-led group discussion, the other half will be devoted to working on the group projects and discussing examples of material covered during lectures.

Course Overview: Tutorial  The course reading list provides a listing of articles, and book

Course Overview: Tutorial

The course reading list provides a listing of articles, and book excerpts covering various aspects of systems engineering. When possible these materials offer different viewpoints on the systems engineering process. The tutorials offer a chance to discuss this material in depth.

Each student is expected to read and reflect on this material and come to tutorial sessions prepared to discuss the weekly topics.

10% of your term grade will be allotted based on making positive contributions to these discussions.

Course Overview: Tutorial  Each student must lead also the take a turn acting as

Course Overview: Tutorial

Each

student

must

lead

also

the

take

a turn

acting

as a

facilitator in these discussions.

students will

represents the other 5% of your participation mark.

Each week, 2-3

discussion.

This

tutorial

These students must be very familiar with the assigned readings and are encouraged to find independent sources of information or contrasting opinions. Preparing a list of ‘talking points’ or questions is a good way to promote discussion.

An hour of the tutorial will be set aside for group project work. The TAs can assist the groups with their projects and are available to answer questions regarding progress and approach.

Prerequisite for the Course  Fundamentals of System Design, Dynamics, Control, and Manufacturing  Software:

Prerequisite for the Course

Fundamentals of System Design, Dynamics, Control, and Manufacturing

Software:

MATLAB,

Programming

CATIA,

Computer

AER 606: Component Design and Material Selection

MTH 410: Probability and Statistics

AER 715: Avionics and Systems

How will We complete the Course  Lecture: Thursday: 8:00 AM – 10:00 AM (KHS251

How will We complete the Course

Lecture:

Thursday:

8:00 AM – 10:00 AM

(KHS251 PT)

Tutorial (Reading):

< TA1 > Section 1

< TA2>

Section 2

< TA3>

Section 3

< TA4>

Section 4

- Day & Time & Location

- Day & Time & Location

- Day & Time & Location

- Day & Time & Location

Lecture Plan Department of Aerospace Engineering 19 AER 817: Systems Engineering (Fall 2017) Lecture

Lecture Plan

 Additional Info: Supplemental announcements and handouts will be available through the ‘Blackboard’ web system

Additional Info:

Supplemental announcements and handouts will be available through the ‘Blackboard’ web system at http://courses.ryerson.ca

Interaction between the Instructor and Students:

TBD

Course Evaulation  Course Project: Proposal 10% (Report) + 2% (Presentation) Sept. 21, 2017; Sept.

Course Evaulation

Course Project:

Proposal

10% (Report) + 2% (Presentation)

Sept. 21, 2017;

Sept. 21, 2017

Phase I

5% (Report) Oct. 11, 2017

Phase II

5% (Report) Nov. 1, 2017;

Phase III

10% (Report) + 3% (Presentation)

Nov. 28, 2017;

Nov. 29, 2017

Tutorial Participation:

In-Class Quiz:

Assignment:

Final Exam:

10%

10%

10%

35%

Industry Interaction  Bombardier Aerospace  Messier Dowty Inc.  United Technologies Corporation  Canadian

Industry Interaction

Bombardier Aerospace

Messier Dowty Inc.

United Technologies Corporation

Canadian Space Agency (CSA)

COM DEV

MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates Ltd. (MDA)

OPTECH

NEPTEC

Systems Engineering Basics Department of Aerospace Engineering 23 AER 817: Systems Engineering (Fall 2017) Lecture

Systems Engineering Basics

What is a System? Simply stated, a system is an integrated composite of people, products,

What is a System?

Simply stated, a system is an integrated composite of people, products, and processes that provide a capability to satisfy a stated need or objectives.

Hardware

capability to satisfy a stated need or objectives. Hardware What are examples of a system in

What are examples of a system in the aerospace industry?

Facilities

examples of a system in the aerospace industry? Facilities Processes Personnel Department of Aerospace Engineering 24

Processes

Personnel

in the aerospace industry? Facilities Processes Personnel Department of Aerospace Engineering 24 AER 817: Systems

Department of Aerospace Engineering

Processes Personnel Department of Aerospace Engineering 24 AER 817: Systems Engineering (Fall 2017) Lecture 2 4

24

AER 817: Systems Engineering (Fall 2017) Lecture

24

Examples of Systems  Space Shuttle Main Engine vs. a collection of parts  Space

Examples of Systems

Space Shuttle Main Engine vs. a collection of parts

Space Shuttle Orbiter with engines and avionics

Space Shuttle Orbiter with solid rocket boosters and external fuel tank

Space Transportation System (STS) with payload, launch pad, mission controllers, vehicle assembly facilities, trainers and simulators, solid rocket booster rescue ships…

“System of Systems”

STS + International Space Station + TDRSS communication satellites +…

Systems Thinkers … With thanks from: Astronomy Picture of the Day; Apollo 17: Last on

Systems Thinkers …

Systems Thinkers … With thanks from: Astronomy Picture of the Day; Apollo 17: Last on the

With thanks from: Astronomy Picture of the Day; Apollo 17: Last on the Moon Credit: Apollo 17, NASA; scanned by Kipp Teague

(http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap021212.html)

Systems Thinking Playbook, Sweeney and Meadows; 1995

See the whole picture

See the forest and the trees

View from different perspectives

Look for interdependencies

Understand different models

Think long term

“Go wide” in thinking about cause and effect relationships

Think about potential benefits (opportunities) as well as about unintended consequences (risks)

Focus on problem solving, not finding blame

Ref: http://spacese.spacegrant.org/index.php?page=modules

Systems Thinking – Hierarchy Why is it Important? “Never forget that the system being addressed

Systems Thinking – Hierarchy Why is it Important?

“Never forget that the system being addressed by one group of engineers is the subsystem of another group and the super-system of yet a third group.”*

* Dennis M. Buede, The Engineering Design of Systems, 2000, John Wiley & Sons.

As systems engineers we must consider products above, peer products, and subordinate products.

products above, peer products, and subordinate products. Ref: http://spacese.spacegrant.org/index.php?page=modules

Ref: http://spacese.spacegrant.org/index.php?page=modules

Example Ref: NASA Systems Engineering Handbook 2007 Department of Aerospace Engineering 28 AER 817: Systems

Example

Example Ref: NASA Systems Engineering Handbook 2007 Department of Aerospace Engineering 28 AER 817: Systems

Ref: NASA Systems Engineering Handbook 2007

The Need for Systems Thinking “Problems cannot be solved by the same level of thinking

The Need for Systems Thinking

“Problems cannot be solved by the same level of thinking that

created them.

Albert Einstein

Ref: http://spacese.spacegrant.org/index.php?page=modules

Aircraft Department of Aerospace Engineering 30 AER 817: Systems Engineering (Fall 2017) Lecture

Aircraft

Aircraft Department of Aerospace Engineering 30 AER 817: Systems Engineering (Fall 2017) Lecture
Systems Thinking – Why is it Important? “Problems cannot be solved by the same level

Systems Thinking – Why is it Important?

“Problems cannot be solved by the same level of thinking that created them.” Albert Einstein

To comprehend and manage the requirements, and to develop the solution, we have to understand how it fits into the larger system of which it is a part.

Regulations Impacts Customers Authorities System Life Cycle (Disposal)
Regulations
Impacts
Customers
Authorities
System
Life Cycle (Disposal)

When our response to opportunities and challenges is fragmented, the results are often insufficient or short sighted.

Ref: http://spacese.spacegrant.org/index.php?page=modules

Interview with NASA Administrator, M. Griffin on “The True Challenge of Project Management” • Dr.

Interview with NASA Administrator, M. Griffin on “The True Challenge of Project Management”

• Dr. Griffin continued that systems engineering and project management are opposite sides of the same coin. To talk about one without the other is flawed. The losses of Challenger and Columbia, the Hubble Space Telescope’s flawed optics, Mars Observer, Mars Climatology Observer ‘99, Mars Polar Lander, Genesis - all of these programs’ issues were due to failures in program management and systems engineering. They all must be looked at as learning experiences, to learn as much from them as possible so we can repeat as few of them as possible.

• So how do we teach the big picture concept? If all agree that the ability to operate at the big picture level is really important, how do we teach it? Dr. Griffin said we can identify the trait, see it in certain young engineers. If we conclude that it is a skill you can’t teach, look for those who have it and use them. I am reminded of the idea that you can learn to play the piano, but if you don’t have the innate skill it will always be forced, not natural. We need to play to our strengths and play up other’s strengths as well. It wasn’t so long ago that systems engineering wasn’t even considered a formal discipline. Today, there is a body of knowledge devoted to systems engineering and program management. They have been formalized and can be taught. You may not be able to teach how to see the big picture, but you can teach the tools and skills to people to facilitate seeing it.

• Dr. Griffin identified several things that are disquieting or in his words “scary” with respect to systems engineering and program management. Sometimes there is a failure to understand the systems engineering is the final gate of “the general ship of engineering.” If the lead systems engineer misses something, odds are that the program manager is not going to catch it, nor should it be his job to do so. Systems engineering cannot be only a set of tools and processes for ensuring that all the system interface requirements are met. They are components of it, but to lose sight of the big picture is a failure of systems engineering. Systems engineering is about asking the right questions, not so much having the answers to all the questions. It is about minimizing the unintended consequences of a

design.

Ref: http://spacese.spacegrant.org/index.php?page=modules

Proposal Department of Aerospace Engineering 33 AER 817: Systems Engineering (Fall 2017) Lecture

Proposal

Proposal Department of Aerospace Engineering 33 AER 817: Systems Engineering (Fall 2017) Lecture
Plan for Team Formation and Project Proposal  Team formation in the 1st Tutorial class.

Plan for Team Formation and Project Proposal

Team formation in the 1st Tutorial class. Each team should comprise of 5 to 6 students. Each team should have one Project Leader.

Each team will submit one proposal in the 2nd Tutorial class and present it in the Lecture class on September 21th.

Evaluation of Proposals will be done by Instructor, TAs and students.

Winning

Friday

proposals

nd

.

will

be

announced

on

September 22

Conclusions  I hope you all will take active part in the lecture and tutorials.

Conclusions

I hope you all will take active part in the lecture and tutorials.

Please do not hesitate to contact me if you need any help. (Ext. 4908 or email: kdkumar@ryerson.ca)

My best wishes to you all.