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EE311

Introduction to Semiconductor
Devices

L-2: Semiconductor Equations

B. Mazhari
B M h i
Professor, Dept. of EE
p
IIT Kanpur

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B. Mazhari, IITK
EE311 : Broad Syllabus
y

Basic Semiconductor Physics

Junctions (PN and M/S)

Bipolar
p Junction Transistor ((BJT))

Metal Oxide semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET)

Other semiconductor devices if time permits

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EE311: Introduction to Semiconductor Devices

EE311 Silicon

.........

Current vs.
vs Voltage Characteristics

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P N

1
Diode : 1N4001

0.01
Current (A)

1E-4

1E-6

1E-8

1E-10
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Voltage (V)

VD
I D I S {exp( ) 1}
n VT
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E

- - + +

P - - + + N
- - + +

- - + +

V(x) W
2 s 1 1
W ( ) Vbi
q N A ND
Vbi
x

k T N AND
Vbi lln 2
q i
n

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Transient Analysis

VO(t) IFR

VF t
VIN(t) R

-IIRR
VR RR

IF
RR ln(1 )
IR

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Circuit Model

CJ

IO
= ID

CD

C jo
dVD dI o VD Cj
I D Io C j VD
dt I o I S (e 1)
nVT m (1 )
dt Vj

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Design Tradeoffs

Maximum Forward current IF

The reverse leakage current IL

Breakdown voltage BV

Reverse recovery time R

I F (max.) BV 43
Constant
C
Cost

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EE311 Sili
Silicon

(PD PV LED )
(PD,PV,LED...) (HBT )
(HBT..) (MESFET HEMT )
(MESFET,HEMT....)

Where do we begin ?

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Silicon Unit cell

ao 5.43 Ao

1 3 4
N
(5.43 108 )3
5 1022 cm 3

11
NS
((5.43 108 )2
6.8 1024 cm 2

Di
Diamond
d structure
t t
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Charges and Current flow

Electrons (n)
(#/cm3)
Holes (p)

Impurity atoms

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Simplified Model of a semiconductor

impurity hole Electric field

electrons Scattering

~ 0.1ps l ~ 10 nm ~ kT 26meV

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Electric field = 0

Average velocity = 0
In the presence of field, there is a net motion of electron in a direction opposite to
the field giving rise to a non
non-zero
zero velocity termed as drift velocity

Average velocity
A l it i
in th
the
direction of field is non-zero

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Drift Velocity
vdn

vdn N E

mobility N 103 cm 2 V . s

E 102 V cm vdn 105 cm s

J JN JP Current density (A/cm2) 14


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Drift Current density

vd t

n= number of electrons /Volume

Q q n ( vd t )
J drift
q n vd
N
t t

vd N E J Ndrift qn N E J Pdrift qp P E

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Diffusion current density

Diffusion occurs whenever there is a concentration gradient

ddn
J diff
N ( q) ( Dn )
dx

Dn kT
Ei t i ' Relation
Einstein's R l ti 26mV
V att T=300K
T 300K
n q
dpp
J Pdiff q ( DP )
dx
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Current
J JN JP

n p
J N q (n N E DN ) J P q ( p P E DP )
x x

L
E
Example-1
l 1

n(x) = no
p(x) << no

Area = A
VA


J q no N E J q no N
x
L 0
1. Steady state Z J dx ( q no N ) d
0
2. IITK
B. Mazhari, Ideal contacts t 0 VA
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L

n(x) = no

p(x) << no J q no N
x
Area = A
VA

Z
1. Steady state 0 J cons.
2. Ideal contacts t

L 0
VA VA
J dx ( q no N ) d J q no N I A q no N
0 VA L L

VA L 1
I ;R ;
R A q N nO

q N nO
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