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EXPERIMENT NO. 1

DETERMINATION OF DISCHARGE USING A VOLUMETRIC TANK

I. INTRODUCTION

Discharge or Flow rate is the volume of fluid flowing through a section at a

certain speed or may be defined as the mount of fluid passing through a

section per unit of time. This may be expressed as the following:

Mass flow rate, M= Q

Volume flow rate, Q=Av

Where:

is the unit weight of the flowing fluid

is the density of the flowing fluid

A is the cross sectional area where the flowing fluid pass

V is the velocity of fluid

There are different description in a flowing fluid, it may flow steady, uniform,

continuous, laminar or turbulent. The flow is said to be steady when there is a

constant time for a certain discharge, otherwise it is unsteady. Uniform flow

defines the flow of fluid in which there is a constant cross sectional area and

velocity, otherwise it flows non-uniform; and said to be continuous if at any

point, discharge is constant. The stream may be determine if it is either

2

the value is less than 2100 it is said to be laminar otherwise it is turbulent.

If the stream is flowing continuously, continuity equation below may be

consider

= 1 1 = 2 2 =

The above equation is applicable for incompressible fluids. And for

compressible fluids consider the following equation.

= 1 1 1 = 2 2 2 =

= 1 1 1 = 2 2 2 =

II. OBJECTIVE

To be able to understand the concept of discharge using a faucet and a water

vessel that we encounter in our daily lives.

5 Water Vessels (5L, 10L, 15L, 20L and 25L)

Timer

Figure 1Materials needed for the experiment Figure 2determining the time consume to

(timer, basin and source of flowing fluid). fill a 5L basin.

3

IV. PROCEDURE

1. Secure all the materials and apparatus needed which include five (5) water

vessels with a capacity of 5L, 10L, 15L, 20L and 25L and the timer.

2. Fill up the first vessel with water from the faucet.

3. Use the stopwatch to know the time that the vessel will be filled up.

4. Repeat procedure 2 and 3 for the rest of the vessel.

5. Compute for the discharge in each of the vessel.

TRIAL VOLUME (L) TIME (second) DISCHARGE (L/s)

VI. CONCLUSION

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

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4

VII. RECOMMENDATION

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

1. Compute for the discharge flowing from a faucet to a water vessel. The time to fill

the vessel is 60mins and the dimension of the vessel is 0.80m in height and 0.40m

in diameter.

2. Find the velocity of the water given hat the flow rate is 0.002cms and a cross-

sectional area of 0.02m.

3. How long will a rectangular tank b filled if the flow rate of water is 0.003cms

having a dimension of 5m x 4m x 2m?

5

EXPERIMENT NO. 2

DETERIMINATION OF DISCHARGE THRU A SIPHON

I. INTRODUCTION

different entity. It was defined as the volume of fluid flowing through a section at

a certain speed or the amount of fluid passing through a section per unit of time.

determine the flow of liquid. It is used to let the fluid flow from one vessel at a

higher elevation to another vessel at a lower elevation without the use of other

devices or machines like pumps. It works by applying suction pressure at one end

of the equipment. The liquid flows continually in the siphon because of reduced

pressure at the exit side. Gravity helps pulling down the liquid from the vessel

with higher elevation to the vessel placed in lower elevation. Because of gravity

and difference in pressure between the two ends of the tube, the instability of the

liquid happened.

II. OBJECTIVE

siphon.

Timer

Siphon

Water Vessel

Measuring Rule

6

Figure 3 Siphon transferring liquid from Figure 4 Actual procedure of the experiment.

the basin placed at a higher elevation to the

basin placed at lower elevation.

IV. PROCEDURE

1. Secure all the materials and apparatus needed which include siphon, water vessel,

timer and measuring rule.

2. Prepare the set up by having the siphon be filled with water with one end being

hold at the opening right into the water vessel and the other side being submerged

in water from the tank.

3. Measure the head from the water surface from the tank down to the siphon's end

directed through the water vessel.

4. Simultaneously release the water into the siphon's end being hold and start the

timer.

5. Watch the timer and record the duration until the water vessel is filed.

6. Compute for the discharge coefficients by calculating the actual and theoretical

discharge considering the data obtained from the experiment.

7

1

2

3

4

5

VI. CONCLUSION

_______________________________________________________________

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VII. RECOMMENDATION

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

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8

Refer to the given figure. Find

1. Pressure at point 1.

2. Velocity at point 2.

3. Pressure at point 2.

9

EXPERIMENT NO. 3

VENTURI METER

I. INTRODUCTION

pipe. It is a device consists of a converging tube that is connected to the main

pipe. From the figure shown, the minimum cross sectional area is called the

throat.

Like any other flow rate devices, weanalyse the venture meter from Ber-

noullis Equation and Continuity equation,in which the energy present at certain

points are analysed. See figure above. Suppose in point 1. The Energy consists of

kinetic energy and potential energy. Potential energy may be break down into ele-

10

vation and pressure head. Kinetic energy consists of velocity head. Point 2 has

same components, but they possess different magnitude. See equation below:

V is the velocity

P -pressure

Z-elevation

HL- head loss

Energy Grade Line (EGL) from the figure represents the transition of Po-

tential and Kinetic Energy while Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL) represents the tran-

sition of Potential Energy from one point to another.

There are coefficients considers for this kind of devices. Coefficients for

discharge and velocity, in which both of them may be obtain from the ratio of the

actual to its theoretical.

pressure between the venturi inlet and neck, in order to determine the flow rate.

The apparatus used on this experiment consists of series of straight tube

manometers that are equally spaced. These manometers are used to determine the

hydraulic grade line of the fluid as it passes through it.

II. OBJECTIVE

To understand the concept of discharge, velocity and pressure head using a

venturi meter.

11

III. APPARATUS

Venturi meter

Hydraulic bench

IV. PROCEDURE

1. Secure all the materials and apparatus needed which includes the assembling

of the venturi meter and the hydraulics bench.

2. Switch on the hydraulic bench and set the flow of the water at a constant rate.

3. Designate the points on the venturi meter as points 1 and 2 respectively.

Ensure that point 2 has smaller diameter than the diameter at point 1. NOTE:

The diameter is found at the venturi meter.

4. Record the result of the pressure head readings.

5. Repeat the experiment for four (4) more trials using the same diameters.

6. Compute for Velocity 1 and 2 and the Discharge for all five (5) trials.

12

h1 V1

1

h2 V2

h1 V1

2

h2 V2

h1 V1

3

h2 V2

h1 V1

4

h2 V2

h1 V1

5

h2 V2

VI. CONCLUSION

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

13

VII. RECCOMENDATION

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

1. Compute for the discharge of a venturi meter and velocities. If its pressure head

1 is equal to 7 meters and pressure head 2 equals to 4 meters. The diameters are

20 mm and 50 mm respectively.

2. A 300mm pipe delivers 500 L / min of water through a venturi meter. A2 is 1/5

of A1. Compute the velocity in A2 and A1.if the h1 is 10m, compute for h2.

3.) Determine the discharge if the diameter is 50 mm and velocity is 4 m/s.

14

EXPERIMENT NO. 4

FLOW METER

I. INTRODUCTION

Flow meters are device used to measure the flow of liquid passing through

them. It may be a measurement of discharge in a fixed period of time. It may

measure how fast the flow can be or just simply the measurement of volumetric of

fluid passing with it. It may be used to measure flow of fluids in closed conduits

or in open conduits.

quantify pressure in flowing fluid.

II. OBJECTIVE

III. APPARATUS

15

IV. PROCEDURE

2. Set a constant discharge (Q1) for every trial.

3. Record the height at the pressure head points A and B.

4. Calculate for the discharge (Q2) and velocity of the water.

1 h1 Q1 .

h2 Q2

2 h1 Q1

h2 Q2

3 h1 Q1

h2 Q2

4 h1 Q1

h2 Q2

5 h1 Q1

h2 Q2

VI. CONCLUSION

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

16

VII. RECOMMENDATION

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

1. Compute for the velocity of water through a 100mm diameter of a pipe with a

discharge of 8L/s.

2. A pipe system with a 800mm, 600mm, 400mm and 200mm has a flow rate of

0.28cms. Compute for the velocity in each pipe.

3. A water flowing from a 100m pipe gas a 500mm diameter in 10minutes. Compute

for the discharge.

17

EXPERIMENT NO. 5

HEADLOSS IN A PIPE SURCHARGE APPARATUS

I. INTRODUCTION

already presented, in which analysis of energy in two different points were

obtained. This principle shows the equilibrium of energy from two different points

were ideal. In this situation, the total head or can graphically represented as the

Energy grade line (EGL) is considered straight. During the actual transition of

flow of fluid from one point to another, some energy was loss, and this is what we

called head loss.

Headlossis a measure of the reduction in the total head of the liquid as it

moves through a system. The total head is the sum of the elevation head, velocity

head and pressure head. Headloss is inevitable; it is always present in all

hydraulic applications. The head loss for fluid flow is directly proportional to the

length of the pipe, as flow rate increases the pressure will drop.

The HEAD is the vertical distance, height or energy of water above a point.

II. OBJECTIVE

To be able to understand headloss using pipe surcharge apparatus.

18

III. APPARATUS

Hydraulic bench

Pipe Surcharge apparatus

Measuring tape

IV. PROCEDURE

1. Secure all the materials and apparatus needed which include hydraulic bench, pipe

surcharge, and measuring tape.

2. Measure the height of the tank.

3. Measurement the height of the water inside tank by getting the difference of the

height of the tank and the height from the top of the tank to the level of the water

surface.

4. Pull the lever on the pipe surcharge to stop the flow of water.

TRIAL H (ml) h (m) hl (m) Q (L/sec.)

1

2

3

4

5

19

VI. CONCLUSION

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

VII. RECOMMENDATION

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

Solve for hl and Q.

1. H = 0.6m h = 0.485m

2. H = 0.55m h = 0.393m

3. H = 0.72m h = 0.563m

20

EXPERIMENT NO. 5

ORIFICE

I. INTRODUCTION

fluid flows. Its main use is to measure the flow of water. Its shape is not limited

from being a circle in which in hydraulics, orifice with a circular shape is most

commonly used. Tubes or pipes can also be considered an orifice because of its

opening that we can use to determine the discharge of a fluid.

II. OBJECTIVE

To determine and describe the behaviour of fluids using an orifice.

III. APPARATUS

Orifice tank

Hydraulic bench

Measuring tape

Beaker

Extension wire

21

IV. PROCEDURE

1. Secure all the materials and apparatus needed which include 500ml beak-

er, steel tape, orifice and weir calibration apparatus.

2. Turn on the pump to allow the storage of water in the apparatus. Pump un-

til the height of water in the apparatus reaches at a certain level.

3. Determine the diameter of the orifice.

4. Measure the vertical and horizontal distance reached by the jet.

5. Get the discharge of the orifice by recording the time needed to fill up the

vessel at a certain volume.

1

2

3

4

5

VI. CONCLUSION

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

22

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

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_______________________________________________________________

1. An orifice is discharging under a head of 1.25 m of water. A pitot tube kept at its

center line at the vena contracta indicates a head of 1.20 m of water. Determine the

coefficient of velocity of the Orifice.

2. Compute for the head loss at an orifice (Cv =0.98) discharging under a head of

2.0m.

3. A cylindrical tank 1.5m in diameter and 3m high stands with its axis vertical. The

tank is full of water and has a 10cm diameter orifice (C = 0.60) located at the bottom.

Determine the time required to empty the tank of its contents through the orifice.

23

EXPERIMENT NO. 6

DETERMINATION OF DISCHARGE FLOW USING A CURRENT METER

I. INTRODUCTION

involves integration of the velocity distribution across the flow section using a

current meter. The current meter consists of an instrument with an impeller

mounted on a rod or cable. If a cable is used to suspend the meter in the flow there

must be streamlined weight at its lower end, below the current meter, of sufficient

magnitude to overcome the force of the stream, enabling the operator to place the

meter at any desired point in the vertical. Having taken sufficient point

measurements in a vertical to establish the average velocity, the operator moves to

a new vertical, by wading in small streams or by cable car or boat on large

streams.

engineers. It describes the flow in rivers, man-made channels and partially-full

pipes, as well as the behaviour of hydraulic structures such as weirs, spillways and

sluices.

operation of water-resource projects.

II. OBJECTIVES

To determine the computation of stream discharge based on current meter.

24

III. APPARATUS

Reservoir-Channel apparatus with no channel slope

Volumetric flow meter

Hook gage

Stopwatch

Current meter

IV. PROCEDURE

1. Turn on the apparatus.

2. Open the flow channel and adjust the flow until the stream achieves a

steady flow.

3. Measure the area of the flow channel.

4. Place the Current meter facing the streams current and record the data

gathered.

5. Compute the discharge by using the formula.

Q = AV

6. Change the area of the stream and repeat procedures 3-5 for the rest of the

trials.

25

VI. CONCLUSION

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

VII. RECOMMENDATION

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

26

1. Given a rectangular channel of 10ft x 4ft, calculate for the hydraulic radius (R) if

the discharge is 10 ft3/s.

2. A rectangular channel having a width of 8m carries a discharge of 18m3/s.

Determine the normal depth if S = 1/107.

3. Determine the normal discharge for a 200mm inside diameter of a common clay

drainage tile running half-full it the slope drops 1/1000.

27

EXPERIMENT NO. 8

DISCHARGE USING A WEIR

I. INTRODUCTION

A control structure can be defined as a change in the cross-section of the flow

whereby the regime of the flow is modified. At such a section, a definite stage-

discharge relationship exists, enabling it to be used for the purpose of flow

measurement. At a control structure like a Weir or a measuring flume, etc, the

flow changes from subcritical to supercritical state. Thus, the flow passes through

a critical section and flow is independent of the tail-water conditions. In such a

case, the flow can be measured by a single depth measurement upstream of the

critical section.

II. OBJECTIVES

To determine the relationship between the depth of water flowing over the weir

and the discharge through it.

III. APPARATUS

Hydraulic Bench

Weir apparatus

28

IV. PROCEDURE

2. Close valve A.

3. Open valve B (ie. let the water out of the tank).

4. Start pump.

5. Open valve A so that water level rises to lower tip of weir.

6. Set hook gauge at this level.

7. Continue opening valve A until some head h is optioned.

8. To obtain the flow rate:

a. Close valve B (ie. close outlet of weigh tank).

b. The weighing beam will rise from the lower position to the upper stop.

c. At the instant that the beam is in the horizontal position start the timer.

Then immediately place the selected mass on the weigh hanger.

d. The beam will start to rise again. When the beams is in the horizontal

position stop the timer and record the time interval, the mass on the hanger

and the head of water passing through the V-notch.

e. Open valve B (ie. let water out of weigh tank).

9. Repeat step (7) to (8) for various values of h.

1

2

3

4

5

29

_______________________________________________________________

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_______________________________________________________________

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_______________________________________________________________

1.The depth of flow over a rectangular broad-crested weir is measured to be

0.6 ft. What is the subcritical depth of flow upstream from the broad-crested

weir for this case if the weir has a height of 1.2 ft?

width is 2.5 ft?

3.

30

EXPERIMENT NO. 9

DISCHARGE USING AN OPEN CHANNEL CONSIDERING ITS SLOPE

I. INTRODUCTION

Dischargeis the volume rate ofwater flow, including any suspended solids,

dissolved chemical species and biologic material, which is transported through a

given cross-sectional area. The empirical, or also theoretical, relationship existing

between the water-surface stage and the simultaneous flow discharge in an open

channel is known as stage-discharge relation or rating curve, or also just rating.

These expressions are synonymous and they can be used interchangeably.

possible for a prismatic channel. A prismatic flow channel is one whose sides are

parallel to an axis in the direction of flow. Normal flow means there are no change

in the depth or velocity along the length of the channel and no changes over time.

II. OBJECTIVES

To deepen one's understanding about open channels and its relevance in

determining the rate of flow of a fluid.

III. APPARATUS

Open channel Apparatus

Stopwatch

Any material that will float on water

31

IV. PROCEDURE

1. Turn on the pump of the flow channel. Wait until the flow of water becomes steady.

2. Measure the cross sectional area and length of the stream.

3. Measure and record the slope of the flow channel.

4. Put your floating material in the open channel.

5. Record its time to reach the end of the open channel.

6. Compute for the discharge.

VI. CONCLUSION

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

32

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

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_______________________________________________________________

1.Calculate the velocity of flow for a 3.5m wide rectangular concrete channel on a 4%

slope. The water is flowing 1.3m deep.

2.A rectangular concrete channel 0.8m wide with n = 0.015, .06percent slope (S =

.0006), discharging 0.0043cms.

3.A trapezoidal channel with 2: l side slopes and a 2m bottom width, with n = 0.030,

0.2 percent slope (S = 0.002), discharging 3L/s.

33

EXPERIMENT NO. 10

DETERMINATION OF FRICTION FACTOR IN A FLOW CHANNEL

I. INTRODUCTION

Characteristics of flow over a smooth corrugated bed of an open channel can be

1 2 1

V = nR 3S 2

Where:

V = velocity, m/s

n = roughness coefficient (friction factor)

R = hydraulic raudius, m

= Area of the stream / Wetted perimeter

S = slope

II. OBJECTIVES

To determine the friction factor of the pipe and its effect to water flow.

III. APPARATUS

Flow Channel

Level

Current Meter

Measuring Rule

34

IV. PROCEDURE

1. Turn on the pump of the flow channel. Wait until the flow of water becomes

steady.

2. Measure the cross sectional area and length of the stream.

3. Measure and record the slope of the flow channel.

4. Put your floating material in the open channel.

5. Record its time to reach the end of the open channel.

6. Compute for the discharge.

7. Compute for the friction factor.

Trial

1

2

3

4

5

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

VII. RECOMMENDATION

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

35

_______________________________________________________________

VIII. EXERCISE PROBLEM

velocity of 3m/s, n = 0.0012.

2. REFER TO PROBLEM 1: Solve for the Slope of the open channel.

3. A rectangular open channel with a dimension of 4m x 5m has flow rate of

0.005cms. Solve for the velocity.

36

EXPERIMENT NO. 11

DETERMINATION OF MINOR HEADLOSSCOEFFICIENT IN PIPES

I. INTRODUCTION

Frictional or energy headlosses in pipe bends and fittings are classified as

minor headlosses. Most of the minor headlosses are due to sudden contraction

(hc), sudden enlargement (he), pipe bends (hb) and due to subcontractions (hu)

such as gate and valves in a pipe network.

device called Energy losses in bends apparatus. The data to be gathered will relate

the flow rate, loss coefficients (k), velocity an pressure drop across each device

governed by the equation:

2

= 2g

II. OBJECTIVES

To demonstrate the energy losses and characteristics of fluid flow through bends

and fitttings.

III. APPARATUS

Hydraulic bench

Losses in bends apparatus

Stop watch

Tapping Clamp

37

IV. PROCEDURE

1. Set up the Energy Losses in Bends Apparatus on the hydraulic bench. The bench

feed is connected to the inlet pipe and the outlet pipe runs into the volumetric tank.

2. Open the bend feed, gate and flow control valve to admit water into the apparatus.

3. Once the pipe network is filled with water, connect a short length of flexible

tubing and to the air connector close the flow control valve and carefully open the air

bleed screw until all tapping and manometer tubes are full of water. NOTE: In

operation, the levels in the manometer tubes can be adjusted by using the hand pump

attached to the air connector for raising, and the air bleed screw for lowering. The air

bleed screw opens and closes the air flow through the air valve, so when using the

hand pump, the bleed screw must be opened to retain the hand pump pressure in the

system the screw must be closed after pumping.

4. Open the flow control valve slightly, take readings of each manometer tube and

measure the flow of water. Record all the readings.

5. Adjust the control valve in stages, noting all readings as the procedure above for

each stage, until the valve is closed.

6. Now close the two tappings to the meter bend by means of a clamp.

7. Open the flow control valve fully and close the gate valve fittings. Record the

pressure gauge reading.

8. Open the gate valves in regular stages and list the pressure gauge reading and the

flow rate for each stage. Repeat this until the valve is fully closed.

38

Type of Pipe Line

Change of Area Bends

Tria Enlargemen Contractio

Long Short Elbow Mitre

l t n

h h h h

hL V K hL V K V K V K V K V K

L L L L

1

2

3

4

5

VI. CONCLUSION

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

VII. RECOMMENDATION

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

39

enlargement of pipe. What is its minor headloss? Ke = 0.91

2. Rachelle is about to design a water supply system in a certain barangay. The water

flowing from a certain pipe is subjected to a pipe contraction given that your discharge is

0.002cms with a pipe diameter of 0.025mm^2. Kc = 0.8

3. Harold is about to install a design or design a water supply system from the main

pipe to his newly built house. Given that the discharge of 0.001cms with a pipe diameter

of 0.0019mm. kc = 0.5. What is its headloss?

40

EXPERIMENT NO. 12

FORCE EXERTED BY A JET ON A FLAT PLATE

I. INTRODUCTION

Consider a jet of fluid striking a flat plate held perpendicularly to the path of

the jet. At point 1, a mass of fluid (M1) moves with an initial velocity (v1) and as

it strikes the plate at point 2 in a horizontal direction it becomes velocity (v2)

which is less than v1.

Force exerted by the plate to the liquid

=

2 1

= ( )

2 1

Since M = PV, then; = ( )

But =

Therefore = (2 1 )

F = -F

=

Where:

F = force (N)

P = density of fluid (kg/m3)

Q = quantity of fluid deflected by the plate (m3/s)

41

g = 9.82m/s2

II. OBJECTIVES

To determine the force exerted on flat plate with normal mass placed on it.

III. APPARATUS

Nozzle

Hydraulic bench

Weights

IV. PROCEDURE

1. Measure thee nozzle diameter and place the flat plate target on the rod attached to

the weight pan.

2. Assemble the apparatus with the inlet pipe connected to the bench and the

apparatus in the open channel.

3. Level the base of the apparatus with the top plate loosely assembled.

4. Screw down the plate to datum on the spint level.

5. Adjust the level gauge to suit the datum on the weight pan.

6. Place a nominal mass on the weight pan and allow water to flow by operating the

control valve on the bench.

42

7. The flow rate is adjusted until the weight pan is adjusted to level gauge. NOTE:

The weight pan should be oscillated to minimize the effect of friction.

8. Take note of the readings of volume and time to find the flow rate.

9. Record the mass on the weight pan.

1

2

3

4

5

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

VII. RECOMMENDATION

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

43

1. A jet of water 900mm in diameter strikes against a plate at right angles What is

the force exerted by the jet on the stationary plate when the discharges is 0.356cms.

2. Compute for the weight of the plate. Q = 50L/s and d = 100mm

3. A nozzle of 75mm in diameter delivers a stream of water at a velocity of 50m/s

perpendicular to a fixed plate. Compute the force on the plate.

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