Sei sulla pagina 1di 3

Biology Bibliography

See also: History of genetics

This section contains a list of works on genetics, the science of genes, heredity, and variation
in living organisms.[25][26][27]

Mendel, Gregor (1866). "Versuche ber Pflanzen-Hybriden". Verhandlungen des

naturforschenden Vereins Brnn. Published in English as "Experiments on Plant
Hybridization". Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society. 26: 130. 1901. (Online

The result of years spent studying genetic traits in pea plants. Mendel compared seven
discrete traits. Through experimentation, Mendel discovered that one inheritable trait
would invariably be dominant to its recessive alternative. This model, later known as
Mendelian inheritance or Mendelian genetics, provided an alternative to blending
inheritance, which was the prevailing theory at the time.[28]

Fisher, Ronald (1918). The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of

Mendelian Inheritance. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of
Edinburgh. 52. pp. 399433. doi:10.1017/s0080456800012163.
Schrdinger, Erwin (1944). What is life? the physical aspects of the living cell (2001
reprint ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 0-521-42708-8.

Based on a series of public lectures delivered at Trinity College, Dublin.

Schrdinger's lecture focused on one important question: "how can the events in space
and time which take place within the spatial boundary of a living organism be
accounted for by physics and chemistry?"[29] He introduced the idea of an "aperiodic
crystal" that contained genetic information in its configuration of covalent chemical
bonds. In the 1950s, Schrdinger's idea of an aperiodic crystal stimulated enthusiasm
for discovering the genetic molecule. Francis Crick, co-discoverer of the structure of
DNA, credited Schrdinger's book with presenting an early theoretical description of
how the storage of genetic information would work, and acknowledged the book as a
source of inspiration for his initial research.[30]

Pauling, Linus; Harvey A. Itano; S. J. Singer; Ibert C. Wells (1949). "Sickle Cell
Anemia, a Molecular Disease". Science. 110 (2865): 543548.
Bibcode:1949Sci...110..543P. PMID 15395398. doi:10.1126/science.110.2865.543.
Crick, Francis; Watson, James D. (1953). "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A
Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid". Nature. 171 (4356): 737738.
Bibcode:1953Natur.171..737W. PMID 13054692. doi:10.1038/171737a0. (Online
version (Original text))[31]

This section contains a list of publications on microbiology.[32] Microbiology is the study of
microorganisms, which are defined as any microscopic organism that comprises either a
single cell (unicellular), cell clusters or no cell at all (acellular).[33]

Molecular biology
See also: History of molecular biology

This section contains a list of works on molecular biology,[34] the study of the molecular basis
of biological activity.

Crick, Francis; Watson, James D. (1953). "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A

Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid". Nature. 171 (4356): 737738.
Bibcode:1953Natur.171..737W. PMID 13054692. doi:10.1038/171737a0. (Online
version (Original text))

Described a molecular structure for DNA that was consistent with X-ray diffraction
data and had implications for the nature of ineritance.

This section contains a list of works on physiology, the science of the function of living
systems. This includes how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells and bio-molecules carry
out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system.[35]

Harvey, William (1628). Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in

Animalibus. English translation: Harvey, William (1993). On the motion of the heart
and blood in animals. Translated by Robert Willis. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books.
ISBN 978-0-87975-854-7.


Title page of the 10th edition of Systema natur by Carl Linnu.

This section contains a list of works on taxonomy, the practice and science of classification or
the result of it.[36]

Linnaeus, Carolus (17581759). Systema natur per regna tria natur, secundum
classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis
(two volumes) (in Latin). Online access (10th ed.). Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius.

Classified animals using a hierarchical system with 5 levels: Kingdom, class, order,
genus and species. The official starting point of zoological nomenclature.[37]

Linnaeus, Carolus (1753). Species Plantarum (The Species of Plants).

A two-volume work, going through many editions (ever expanding), listing all plants
then known, made accessible by an ordering in (artificial) classes and orders, and
giving every listed species a two-part name. With this book anybody, by counting the
male and female parts present in a flower, could get to a listing of the genera the plant
in question belongs to. The system of binomial nomenclature that bears his name
effectively began with this work.[38]

See also: History of zoology (through 1859) and History of zoology (since 1859)

This section contains a list of works on zoology,[39] the study of the animal kingdom,
including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all
animals, both living and extinct.[40]

Pliny. Naturalis Historia. (c. 77 79)

Encyclopedia of nature. It included many areas that are not considered to be part of
nature sciences today - from geography, botany, zoology to painting. The
encyclopedia was also novel with respect to its structure. It was the first to use
references, table of contents and tables of animal characteristics.

White, Gilbert (1813). The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne.

Observations on birds and many other aspects of the natural world that White
observed near where he lived.