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Review of Related Literature

All around the world, there is a worsening problem regarding the inadequate

provision for proper waste management. To contribute to the effort of solving this

problem, this paper will discuss the following: the arising concerns and issues of

garbages and wastes, how it affects human development, the waste management

system of developing countries and how theyve dealt with the issues regarding

garbages,to assess the waste management system of Philippines and the laws and

ordinances implemented whether continued until in the present and also, to evaluate the

waste management system of Cebu city down to barangay Paknaan in Mandaue City.

According to merriam webster dictionary, waste is defined as a damaged,

defective by a manufacturing process: such as -- material rejected during a textile

manufacturing process; fragments of discarded or leftover food; an unwanted by-

product of a manufacturing process, chemical laboratory, or nuclear reactor. It is a

refuse from places of human or animal habitation. Wastes can be classified into two:

biodegradable wastes -- wastes that can be decomposed by the natural processes and

converted into the elemental form such as kitchen garbage, animal dung, etc; non-

biodegradable wastes -- wastes that cannot be decomposed and remain as such in the

environment, which are persistent and cause various problems such as plastics, nuclear

wastes, glass, etc.


The amount of solid waste produced globally is high and it is continuing to grow.

According to a recent study by Hoornweg and Bhada-Tata (2012), approximately 1.3

billion tonnes of solid waste is generated every year by 3 billion urban residents (1.2

kilogrammes per capita per day). The study also expects that as urban population

increases to an estimate of 4.3 billion residents by 2025, the global solid waste

generation rate will also increase to about 2.2 billion tonnes every year (1.42

kilogrammes per capita per day). The conditions, issues and problems of waste

management and developing worlds are different. Though the developed countries

generate larger amount of wastes, they have developed adequate facilities, competent

government institutions and bureaucracies to manage their wastes. According to Phillips

(1998), across the United States, modern, well-designed landfills and waste-to-energy

plants have replaced open dumps and polluting incinerators. He added that recycling

has become an integral part of solid waste management in communities and the nation

as a whole is committed to safer, more environmentally responsible management of

solid waste. On the other hand, developing countries are still in the transition towards

better waste management but they currently have insufficient collection and improper

disposal of wastes. Clear government policies and competent bureaucracies for

management of solid wastes are needed urgently especially in countries where there is

rapid population growth through urbanization into peri-urban areas. There are arising

trends in waste generation. According to United Nations Environment Programme

(UNEP), cities are facing an increasing growth in population, and shares in GDP growth,

resulting in and among other things -- increasing quantities of waste being generated. In

addition to this, UNEP said that due to changing lifestyle and consumption patterns, the
quantity of waste being generated with quality and composition of waste becoming more

varied and changing. This trend will be continued because as Soubbotina(2004) said

that countries consumption were seen as overconsumption as meeting peoples

competitive wants rather than that their real needs. Industrialization and economic

growth has produced more amount of waste, including hazardous and toxic wastes.

According to Schumacher (1973), the most striking about modern industry is that it

requires so much and accomplishes so little (p.78). In industrialization, it requires so

much resources and the wastes produced are as many resources it requires and such

wastes are non-recyclable which leads to a dead end.Diaz (2011) mentioned key issues

of solid waste are lack of legislation and policies for realistic and long-term planning,

inadequate storage and limited collection, lack of proper disposal, use of inappropriate

technology and equipment and mostly, the insufficient knowledge of basic principles.

Diaz also discussed further of these -- a) the lack of legislation and policies: developing

countries lack of trainings and methods in collecting reliable data, and existing plans

were inappropriate such that plans written by people unfamiliar with area, plans with

unrealistic in terms of infrastructure, equipment, financial and human resources; b)

inadequate storage and limited collection: developing countries have inappropriate

storage of waste, the urban poor receive minimal, if any, waste collection service; c)

lack of proper disposal: such countries are using uncontrolled dump sites and

developing countries have only few sanitary landfills such that there are only limited

access to properly operated landfills. From Bartone (as cited by Ogawa here are

proposals and projects concerning solid waste management projects that have been
carried out in developing countries in the last 20 years with the help of external support

agencies. Some projects were successful in produci