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# MAPUA UNIVERSITY

## CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY 2

1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

## Experiment 4: Unsteady-state heat transfer

Combalicer, Mark Eugene A.1
1
Student, School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Mapa University, Manila, 1002, Philippine

## Results and Discussion

Under the same condition, the density of a
The phenomenon wherein the system material is always the same. Since the both the
temperature vary with time is called unsteady objects were made of steels, the density is also
state heat transfer or also known as transient heat constant. The difference in thermal diffusivity of
transfer. Using an unsteady state heat transfer the two steels will also not be affected.
experimental set-up, the factors affecting the
thermal diffusivity in a steel ball was determined. There is a change in temperature and difference
The thermal diffusivities of two steel balls of in length so the thermal conductivity is not
different sizes were quantified as unsteady-state constant. High thermal conductivity is the result
heat transfer in these materials was investigated of high temperature because the vibration
through quenching in this experiment. Quenching between molecules that promotes heat transfer
is the rapid cooling of metal done by immersing through conduction increases. Longer length also
the material in a water bath. There is a hole on the results to higher thermal conductivity since there
left, center and right of each steel ball for which will be larger volume which increases the number
the temperature changes were measured during of molecules present resulting to more molecular
the addition and removal of heat. vibrations promoting heat transfer through
conduction.
The ratio of thermal conductivity to heat capacity
is defined by thermal diffusivity which measures
the rate at which the heat diffuses through a
Table 1: Parameters for smaller steel ball
material.
Left Center Right

= equation 1 Radius(mm) 24.5 48 35
Temperature(oC) 51 50.5 50
Equation 1 is the mathematical definition of N 0.0926 0.7778 0.2963
thermal diffusivity () where k is the thermal Y 0.1282 0.1183 0.1085
conductivity, is the density of steel and Cp X 0.2745 0.1508 0.2778
is the heat capacity of the steel ball. 6.67x10 3.66x10 6.75x10-
- -
06 06 06
-06
The heat capacity in this experiment is constant ave 5.7x10
since both of the objects used are made of steel
thus the difference in thermal diffusivity of the
two steel balls will not be affected.

## CHE 151-1L|Group 3|August 19, 2017 Page 1 of 7

MAPUA UNIVERSITY
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY 2
1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

Table 2: Parameters for larger steel ball table 2 shows that the thermal diffusivity for the
larger steel ball is calculated to be 8.21x10-6 m2/s.
Left Center Right However, the calculated values deviate from the
Radius(mm) 49 47 31 principle that was mentioned earlier.
Temperature(oC) 63.2 68.4 69.5
N 0.3243 0.2703 0.1622 Quantitatively speaking, the diffusivity of the
Y 0.3848 0.4978 0.5217 material is the ratio the materials capacity to
X 0.18 0.16 0.2 conduct heat and its specific heat capacity, or the
ability to raise the temperature of a fluid. Since
8.21x10- 7.3x10- 9.13x10-
06 06 06 the distance from the center and the thermal
ave 8.21x10 -06 diffusivity have inverse properties, it can be
inferred that heat transfer slowly from left than
from the center. Unfortunately, the calculated
In this experiment, the unaccomplished change data deviate from this principle. The inverse
(Y) and relative position () were calculated relationship should show that the driving force to
using Equation 1 and 2, respectively. heat transfer within the steel ball increases with
Tf T decreasing difference in temperature. The
Y= equation 2
Tf Ti parameter m or the relative resistance was
r considered to be zero since it was assumed that
= equation 3 there is no thermal resistance present between the
r1
heating medium, water, and steel ball.
where T is the temperature at any point from
Additionally, the heat transfer rate is directly
center, Tf is the final temperature, Ti is the initial
proportional to the temperature difference across
temperature, r1 is the radius of steel ball, and r is
the surface of the steel ball, which is the driving
the distance from center.
force. Supposedly, according to the theory, the
rate of thermal diffusion should be faster from the
For smaller steel empirical formula shown in
center than any other position because of these
equation 3 was used since the values calculated
relationships but the gathered data deviate from
for X is greater than 0.2 and for Y is less than 0.3
this principle due to the errors encountered in the
Log Y = aX + b equation 4 experiment. From the center of the ball outwards,
the rate of heat transfer should increase.
where X is the relative time or Fourier number
while a and b are the constants. Further analysis of the experimental result show
that the smaller steel ball cools faster than the
Analysis on tables 1 and 2 reveals that the large one, mainly because of the relationships
distance from the center, r, is inversely between the distance and thermal diffusivity from
proportional to the thermal diffusivity of the steel the three positions tested for both balls. This is
ball. The calculated parameters for smaller steel also results at a lower thermal diffusivity for the
ball was shown in table 1 wherein the calculated smaller steel ball. The greater the temperature
average thermal diffusivity is 5.7x10-6 m2/s while difference temperature difference, the more heat

## CHE 151-1L|Group 3|August 19, 2017 Page 2 of 7

MAPUA UNIVERSITY
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY 2
1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

transfer is facilitated along the surface of the steel of the large and small steel ball was constant upon
ball. cooling. Based on the graph, there is inverse
relationship between the temperature and the
Larger steel ball temperature profile elapsed time since as the time increases, the
temperature decreases. It can be concluded that as
120
the time passes by, the object loses heat or
100 becomes cold.
Temparatre, oC

80
There are errors encountered in the experiment
60
and the possible sources are accuracy of the data
40
gathered including the measurement of the radius
20 y = -5E-08x4 + 1E-06x3 + 0.0056x2 - 1.0352x
steel balls and its temperature from time to time.
+ 98.836
0 The measuring equipment may also produce
0 50 100 150 200 inaccurate readings that affected the results of the
Time, sec experiment.

## Figure 1: Temperature profile for Larger steel

Conclusion:
Smaller steel ball temperature profile
The objectives of the experiment were met
120 including the evaluation of the factors affecting
100 the thermal diffusivity of the steel ball and the
Temperature, oC

## 80 interpretation of the temperature profile for

heated steel ball quenched in a water bath
60
40 Based on the mathematical definition of thermal
20 y = 5E-08x4 - 3E-05x3 + 0.0089x2 - 1.0341x diffusivity, the factors affecting it are thermal
0
+ 95.756 conductivity, heat capacity and density. It has
0 100 200 300 direct relationship with thermal conductivity and
Time,sec an inverse relationship with heat capacity and
density.

Figure 2: Temperature profile for smaller steel In the experiment, the density and heat capacity
are considered constant since both ball are made
The temperature-time profile for the large and of same material which is steel. Due to the
small steel ball measured at the center position difference in the final temperature and dimension
are shown in figure 1 and 2 respectively. It was of the steel ball, the thermal conductivity varies.
plotted in the Microsoft excel and curve was The time that the object will reach steady state is
fitted in polynomial relationship. It can be dependent on its size, shape and other physical
observed in that both the figure shows a decrease properties.
in temperature as time passes by. The temperature

## CHE 151-1L|Group 3|August 19, 2017 Page 3 of 7

MAPUA UNIVERSITY
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY 2
1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

Based on the results obtained, the rate of heat Bird, B. R., Stewart, W. E., & Lightfoot, E. N.
diffusion becomes slower as the temperature (2002). Transport Phenomena, Second Edition.
difference, which is the driving force, decrease New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
with time. So it can be concluded that, as the
distance between the point being measured from Gutierrez, C. L., & De Guzman, M. R. (n.d.).
the center is increasing, the thermal diffusivity Chemical Engineering Laboratory Manual Part 2.
will be decreasing. The size of the steel ball is Mapua Institute of Technology
another factor that affects the thermal diffusivity.
It was observed that the one with the larger
diameter obtained higher final temperature than
the smaller one and that is the result of a greater
thermal diffusivity due to a greater driving force.
It can be concluded that larger objects would
diffuse heat through the object more rapidly than
the smaller one. The relationship of the distance
from the center and thermal diffusivity was found
to have inverse proportionality.

## Based on the plotted graphs, it was found out that

for both the small and large steel balls, the
temperature and elapsed time have inverse
proportionality relationship since as the time
proceeds, the temperature decreases.

## The possible sources of errors are the accuracy of

the data gathered including the measurement of
the radius steel balls and its temperature from
time to time. The measuring equipment may also
produce inaccurate readings that affected the
results of the experiment.

References:

## Geankoplis, C. (2003). Principles of Transport

Processes an Separation Processes, 4, 51-53 New
Jersey, USA: Pearson Education.

## McCabe, W. L., Smith, J. C., & Harriott, P. (1993).

Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering.
McGraw-Hill Inc.

## CHE 151-1L|Group 3|August 19, 2017 Page 4 of 7

MAPUA UNIVERSITY
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY 2
1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

Appendix:

## Larger steel ball

o
Tf = 45.5 C r1 = 37 mm = 30 s
Left hole (L) Center hole (C) Right hole (R)
Ti 91.5 Ti 91.5 Ti 91.5
T 63.2 T 68.4 T 69.5
Y 0.3848 Y 0.4978 Y 0.5217
R 12 r 10 r 6
N 0.3243 n 0.2703 n 0.1622
X 0.18 X 0.16 X 0.20
0.000008214 0.000007301 0.000009127
ave 0.000008214

## Smaller steel ball

Tf = 44.5 oC r1 = 27 mm = 30 s
Left hole (L) Center hole (C) Right hole (R)
Ti 95.2 Ti 95.2 Ti 95.2
T 51 T 50.5 T 50
Y 0.1282 Y 0.1183 Y 0.1085
r 2.5 r 21 r 8
n 0.0926 n 0.7778 n 0.2963
a -4.183 a -4.370 a -4.221
b 0.2563 b -2.680 b 0.2082
X 0.2745 X 0.1508 X 0.2778
0.000006670 0.000003664 0.000006751
ave 0.000005695

## CHE 151-1L|Group 3|August 19, 2017 Page 5 of 7

MAPUA UNIVERSITY
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY 2
1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

## II. Gurney-Lurie chart for spherical geometry

Unsteady state heat conduction in a sphere. [From H. P. Gurney and J. Lurie, Ind. Eng.
Chem, 15, 1170 (1923)]

## III. Sample Computation

For big steel ball, left hole Using the Gurney- Lurie chart above, at Y=
Y (unaccomplished change): 0.3848 and n=0.3243, the value for relative time
Y= (Tf -T)/(Tf -Ti) X is 0.18.
Y = (45.5-63.2) oC /(45.5-91.5) oC
= 0.3848 (Thermal diffusivity):

= Xr12/
n (Relative position):
n = r/ri = (0.18)(37mm)2/30 s
n = 12 mm/37 mm
n= 0.3243 = 0.000008214 mm2/s

## CHE 151-1L|Group 3|August 19, 2017 Page 6 of 7

MAPUA UNIVERSITY
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY 2
1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

0.000009127) /3

## For the smaller steel ball, empirical formula

(equation 4) was used :

Solving for a:

n (left) 0.0926
n between 0.0 to 0.2 ; a is between -4.172 to -4.194
Interpolation
a (left) -4.183
a (center) -4.370
a (right) -4.221

Solving for b:
n left) 0.0926
n between 0.0 to 0.2 ; a is between 0.2666 to 0.2443
Interpolation
b (left) 0.2563
b (center) -0.2680
b (right) 0.2082

Solving for X :
Equation : log(Y) = aX + b