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23 visualizzazioni7 pagineUnsteadystateheattransfer chelab 2

Sep 15, 2017

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Unsteadystateheattransfer chelab 2

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Unsteadystateheattransfer chelab 2

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1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

Combalicer, Mark Eugene A.1

1

Student, School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Mapa University, Manila, 1002, Philippine

Under the same condition, the density of a

The phenomenon wherein the system material is always the same. Since the both the

temperature vary with time is called unsteady objects were made of steels, the density is also

state heat transfer or also known as transient heat constant. The difference in thermal diffusivity of

transfer. Using an unsteady state heat transfer the two steels will also not be affected.

experimental set-up, the factors affecting the

thermal diffusivity in a steel ball was determined. There is a change in temperature and difference

The thermal diffusivities of two steel balls of in length so the thermal conductivity is not

different sizes were quantified as unsteady-state constant. High thermal conductivity is the result

heat transfer in these materials was investigated of high temperature because the vibration

through quenching in this experiment. Quenching between molecules that promotes heat transfer

is the rapid cooling of metal done by immersing through conduction increases. Longer length also

the material in a water bath. There is a hole on the results to higher thermal conductivity since there

left, center and right of each steel ball for which will be larger volume which increases the number

the temperature changes were measured during of molecules present resulting to more molecular

the addition and removal of heat. vibrations promoting heat transfer through

conduction.

The ratio of thermal conductivity to heat capacity

is defined by thermal diffusivity which measures

the rate at which the heat diffuses through a

Table 1: Parameters for smaller steel ball

material.

Left Center Right

= equation 1 Radius(mm) 24.5 48 35

Temperature(oC) 51 50.5 50

Equation 1 is the mathematical definition of N 0.0926 0.7778 0.2963

thermal diffusivity () where k is the thermal Y 0.1282 0.1183 0.1085

conductivity, is the density of steel and Cp X 0.2745 0.1508 0.2778

is the heat capacity of the steel ball. 6.67x10 3.66x10 6.75x10-

- -

06 06 06

-06

The heat capacity in this experiment is constant ave 5.7x10

since both of the objects used are made of steel

thus the difference in thermal diffusivity of the

two steel balls will not be affected.

MAPUA UNIVERSITY

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY 2

1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

Table 2: Parameters for larger steel ball table 2 shows that the thermal diffusivity for the

larger steel ball is calculated to be 8.21x10-6 m2/s.

Left Center Right However, the calculated values deviate from the

Radius(mm) 49 47 31 principle that was mentioned earlier.

Temperature(oC) 63.2 68.4 69.5

N 0.3243 0.2703 0.1622 Quantitatively speaking, the diffusivity of the

Y 0.3848 0.4978 0.5217 material is the ratio the materials capacity to

X 0.18 0.16 0.2 conduct heat and its specific heat capacity, or the

ability to raise the temperature of a fluid. Since

8.21x10- 7.3x10- 9.13x10-

06 06 06 the distance from the center and the thermal

ave 8.21x10 -06 diffusivity have inverse properties, it can be

inferred that heat transfer slowly from left than

from the center. Unfortunately, the calculated

In this experiment, the unaccomplished change data deviate from this principle. The inverse

(Y) and relative position () were calculated relationship should show that the driving force to

using Equation 1 and 2, respectively. heat transfer within the steel ball increases with

Tf T decreasing difference in temperature. The

Y= equation 2

Tf Ti parameter m or the relative resistance was

r considered to be zero since it was assumed that

= equation 3 there is no thermal resistance present between the

r1

heating medium, water, and steel ball.

where T is the temperature at any point from

Additionally, the heat transfer rate is directly

center, Tf is the final temperature, Ti is the initial

proportional to the temperature difference across

temperature, r1 is the radius of steel ball, and r is

the surface of the steel ball, which is the driving

the distance from center.

force. Supposedly, according to the theory, the

rate of thermal diffusion should be faster from the

For smaller steel empirical formula shown in

center than any other position because of these

equation 3 was used since the values calculated

relationships but the gathered data deviate from

for X is greater than 0.2 and for Y is less than 0.3

this principle due to the errors encountered in the

Log Y = aX + b equation 4 experiment. From the center of the ball outwards,

the rate of heat transfer should increase.

where X is the relative time or Fourier number

while a and b are the constants. Further analysis of the experimental result show

that the smaller steel ball cools faster than the

Analysis on tables 1 and 2 reveals that the large one, mainly because of the relationships

distance from the center, r, is inversely between the distance and thermal diffusivity from

proportional to the thermal diffusivity of the steel the three positions tested for both balls. This is

ball. The calculated parameters for smaller steel also results at a lower thermal diffusivity for the

ball was shown in table 1 wherein the calculated smaller steel ball. The greater the temperature

average thermal diffusivity is 5.7x10-6 m2/s while difference temperature difference, the more heat

MAPUA UNIVERSITY

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY 2

1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

transfer is facilitated along the surface of the steel of the large and small steel ball was constant upon

ball. cooling. Based on the graph, there is inverse

relationship between the temperature and the

Larger steel ball temperature profile elapsed time since as the time increases, the

temperature decreases. It can be concluded that as

120

the time passes by, the object loses heat or

100 becomes cold.

Temparatre, oC

80

There are errors encountered in the experiment

60

and the possible sources are accuracy of the data

40

gathered including the measurement of the radius

20 y = -5E-08x4 + 1E-06x3 + 0.0056x2 - 1.0352x

steel balls and its temperature from time to time.

+ 98.836

0 The measuring equipment may also produce

0 50 100 150 200 inaccurate readings that affected the results of the

Time, sec experiment.

Conclusion:

Smaller steel ball temperature profile

The objectives of the experiment were met

120 including the evaluation of the factors affecting

100 the thermal diffusivity of the steel ball and the

Temperature, oC

heated steel ball quenched in a water bath

60

40 Based on the mathematical definition of thermal

20 y = 5E-08x4 - 3E-05x3 + 0.0089x2 - 1.0341x diffusivity, the factors affecting it are thermal

0

+ 95.756 conductivity, heat capacity and density. It has

0 100 200 300 direct relationship with thermal conductivity and

Time,sec an inverse relationship with heat capacity and

density.

Figure 2: Temperature profile for smaller steel In the experiment, the density and heat capacity

are considered constant since both ball are made

The temperature-time profile for the large and of same material which is steel. Due to the

small steel ball measured at the center position difference in the final temperature and dimension

are shown in figure 1 and 2 respectively. It was of the steel ball, the thermal conductivity varies.

plotted in the Microsoft excel and curve was The time that the object will reach steady state is

fitted in polynomial relationship. It can be dependent on its size, shape and other physical

observed in that both the figure shows a decrease properties.

in temperature as time passes by. The temperature

MAPUA UNIVERSITY

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY 2

1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

Based on the results obtained, the rate of heat Bird, B. R., Stewart, W. E., & Lightfoot, E. N.

diffusion becomes slower as the temperature (2002). Transport Phenomena, Second Edition.

difference, which is the driving force, decrease New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

with time. So it can be concluded that, as the

distance between the point being measured from Gutierrez, C. L., & De Guzman, M. R. (n.d.).

the center is increasing, the thermal diffusivity Chemical Engineering Laboratory Manual Part 2.

will be decreasing. The size of the steel ball is Mapua Institute of Technology

another factor that affects the thermal diffusivity.

It was observed that the one with the larger

diameter obtained higher final temperature than

the smaller one and that is the result of a greater

thermal diffusivity due to a greater driving force.

It can be concluded that larger objects would

diffuse heat through the object more rapidly than

the smaller one. The relationship of the distance

from the center and thermal diffusivity was found

to have inverse proportionality.

for both the small and large steel balls, the

temperature and elapsed time have inverse

proportionality relationship since as the time

proceeds, the temperature decreases.

the data gathered including the measurement of

the radius steel balls and its temperature from

time to time. The measuring equipment may also

produce inaccurate readings that affected the

results of the experiment.

References:

Processes an Separation Processes, 4, 51-53 New

Jersey, USA: Pearson Education.

Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering.

McGraw-Hill Inc.

MAPUA UNIVERSITY

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY 2

1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

Appendix:

o

Tf = 45.5 C r1 = 37 mm = 30 s

Left hole (L) Center hole (C) Right hole (R)

Ti 91.5 Ti 91.5 Ti 91.5

T 63.2 T 68.4 T 69.5

Y 0.3848 Y 0.4978 Y 0.5217

R 12 r 10 r 6

N 0.3243 n 0.2703 n 0.1622

X 0.18 X 0.16 X 0.20

0.000008214 0.000007301 0.000009127

ave 0.000008214

Tf = 44.5 oC r1 = 27 mm = 30 s

Left hole (L) Center hole (C) Right hole (R)

Ti 95.2 Ti 95.2 Ti 95.2

T 51 T 50.5 T 50

Y 0.1282 Y 0.1183 Y 0.1085

r 2.5 r 21 r 8

n 0.0926 n 0.7778 n 0.2963

a -4.183 a -4.370 a -4.221

b 0.2563 b -2.680 b 0.2082

X 0.2745 X 0.1508 X 0.2778

0.000006670 0.000003664 0.000006751

ave 0.000005695

MAPUA UNIVERSITY

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY 2

1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

Unsteady state heat conduction in a sphere. [From H. P. Gurney and J. Lurie, Ind. Eng.

Chem, 15, 1170 (1923)]

For big steel ball, left hole Using the Gurney- Lurie chart above, at Y=

Y (unaccomplished change): 0.3848 and n=0.3243, the value for relative time

Y= (Tf -T)/(Tf -Ti) X is 0.18.

Y = (45.5-63.2) oC /(45.5-91.5) oC

= 0.3848 (Thermal diffusivity):

= Xr12/

n (Relative position):

n = r/ri = (0.18)(37mm)2/30 s

n = 12 mm/37 mm

n= 0.3243 = 0.000008214 mm2/s

MAPUA UNIVERSITY

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY 2

1st Quarter SY 2017-2018

0.000009127) /3

(equation 4) was used :

Solving for a:

n (left) 0.0926

n between 0.0 to 0.2 ; a is between -4.172 to -4.194

Interpolation

a (left) -4.183

a (center) -4.370

a (right) -4.221

Solving for b:

n left) 0.0926

n between 0.0 to 0.2 ; a is between 0.2666 to 0.2443

Interpolation

b (left) 0.2563

b (center) -0.2680

b (right) 0.2082

Solving for X :

Equation : log(Y) = aX + b

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