Sei sulla pagina 1di 214

Binomial and Maclaurin Series (Solutions)

1

 

1

1

1

2

2

 
 

(i)

2 4 x 4
2
4 x
4

1

2

1

1

x

4

1

2

2

1

3

4

2

x

2

2!

4

2

x

2

 

1

2

1

2

x

8

3

128

x

4

 

11

x

2

3

4

x

2

16

256

(ii)

x

1

2 4 x
2
4
x

x

1

x

1

1

2 4 x
2
4
x

11

3

xx

2

4

 

2

16

256

11

1

xx

2

1

3

x

2

2

16

16

(iii)

 
2 x 4
2
x
4

1

 

x

2

4

2

x

2

2

 

2

1

x

2

2

x

1

 

(i)

1 x

2 x

1

1

x

2

1

x

2

1

 

2

 

1

2!

2

x

2

2

 

1

2

1

2

2

x

x

x

2

x

2

2

2

x x

1

1

1

x

2

24

1

2

1

 

2

1

1

x

x

24

2

xx

2

x

2

1 59 x

1

x

2

 

2

 

24

1

5

(ii) equation of tangent is

y

2

4

x

(iii)

x 2
x
2

12

x

2

3 4 1 2 1 1 7 x x 2 1 i) 17 x 4
3
4
1
2
1
1
7 x
x
2
1
i)
17
x
4
2
1
2
x
2
2
1
1
11
x
2
1
2
x
2
=
1
7
x
2
4
12
2
2
1
7
2
=
1
x
1
x x
2
4
24
1
x
2
=
1
2 x
2
2
1
2
=
1 x x
2
4
ii) For expansion to be valid,
x
2
7 x
1
and
1
2
1
x
and
x
2
7
1
x
7
1
1
x
7
7
1
iii) Put
x
.
3
7
4
1
9
111
7
2
12
9
3
2
133
19 7
3
36
3
108
108
216
3
2
;
p 216,
q 133
133
133
2
3
133
133
or
3
;
p 133,
q 72
3
108
72
4
1
1
2
x
1
2
2
x
1
1
3
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
x
x
2
2!
2
4
3
x
x
1
2
8
d 1 1 Since sin x , so d x 2 1 x 1 1
d
1
1
Since
sin
x
, so
d
x
2
1 x
1
1
sin
x
d
x
2
1 x
2
4
3
x
1
x
d x
.
2
8
3
5
3
x
x
x
cc
, where
is an arbitrary constant.
6
40
3
5
3
x
3
1
1
When x 0 ,
c
sin
0
0
. Hence
sin
x
x
x
where
a
.
6
40
40
5
q
2 px
q
px
q
2
1
2
px
q
2
1
q
2
pqx
q
2
1
2
1
x
4
1
q
2
---(1) &
12 p
1 ---(2)
4
42
q
2,
p
4
2
2
4 x
1
2
1
2 x
4
1
23
234
2
3
1
2
2
xx
2
2
x
4
2!
3!
x
n coefficient
2
3
4
n
1
n
1
2
4
n
!
1
n
n
1
n
12
n
n 2
1
n
12
4
6
1
tan
2 x
y e
Differentiate w.r.t.
x
,
d
y
2
1
tan
2 x
e
2
d
x
1
4 x
d
y
2
14
x
2
y
d
x
Differentiate w.r.t. x again, 2 d y dd yy 2 2 8 x 14 x
Differentiate w.r.t.
x
again,
2
d
y
dd
yy 2
2
8
x
14
x
2
d
x
d
x
d
x
2
d
y
d
y
2
1
4
x
2 1
4
x
(shown)
2
d
x
d
x
When x = 0,
1
tan
0
y
e
1
d
y
2
d
x
2
d
y
22
4
2
d
x
2
x
the Maclaurin's series of
y
is
1
2
x
4
2
2
1
2
x
2
x
1
tan
2 x
1
e
1
1
x
tan
2 x
e
1
(2
x
)
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
x
2
x
1
x x
2
24
2
1
2
2
1
2
xx
2
x x
x
2
24
13
5
2
x
x
24
8
7
y
= ln (1+2x) --- (1)
dy
2
dx
1
2
x
dy
(1
2
x
)
2
(Shown)
--- (2)
dx
Differentiate (2) with respect to x again:
2
dy
d
y
2
(1
2
x
)
0
--- (3)
2
dx
dx
Differentiate (3) with respect to x again:
22
3
dy
dy
dy
2
2
(1
2
x
)
0
22
3
dx
dx
dx
2
3
dy
dy
4
(1
2
x
)
0
--- (4)
2
3
dx
dx
Substitute x = 0 into (1), (2), (3) and (4):
2
3
dy
d
y
d
y
y
= 0,
2,
4,
16
2
3
dx
dx
dx
2 3 x x ln(1+ 2x) 2x – 4( ) + 16( ) 2! 3!
2
3
x
x
ln(1+ 2x) 2x – 4(
) + 16(
)
2!
3!
8
3
=2x – 2x 2 +
(Ans)
3 x
12
x
1
)
[ln(1
2
x
)
ln(1
2
x
)]
ln (
12
x
2
8
8
3
3
= 1 2 [(2x – 2x 2 +
) – (-2x – 2x 2 -
)]
3 x
3 x
8
3
= 2x +
.
3 x
8
p = 2, q =
(Ans)
3
x
1
Solving 12
7 , we have x=
12
x
3
5 .
7
7
ln(
)
2ln
(
)
3
3
1
3
2[ 2(
)
81 ()
]
5
35
= 0.843 (3 sig figs) (Ans)
8
Differentiate with respect to x,
1
dy
2
2
2
1
y
dx
1
x
dy
2
1
x
21
2
y
dx
Differentiate with respect to x,
2
d
y
dy
2
1
x
24 dy
xy
2
dx
dx
dx
2
d
y
dy
2
1
x
(2
xy
4
)
0
2
dx
dx
Differentiate with respect to x,
32
2
d
y
d
y
d
y
dy
dy
2
1
x
2
x
(2
xy
4
)
(2
4
)
0
32
2
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx
2
3
2
d
y
d
y
dy
dy
2
1
x
(4
xy
4
)
2
4
0
3
2
dx
dx
dx
dx
When x = 0,
y
tan
1
4
1
dy
2
dy 4
11
dx
10
dx
2
2
dy
dy
1
0
(0
4)(4)
0
16
2
2
dx
dx
3
3
dy
dy
1
0
(0
4)(4)
2(4)
4(16)
0
120
3
3
dx
dx
1 y tan 2 tan x 4 16 120 2 3 1 4 xx x
1
y
tan 2 tan
x
4
16
120
2
3
1
4 xx
x
2!
3!
2
3
1
4
xx
8
20
x
Sketch
y
f
()
x
gx
()
and
y 0.5
y
y =0.5
x
-0.376
O
0.252
For
f
(
x
)
gx
(
)
0.5,
0.376
x
0.252
9
1111
1111
2345
2345
ln(1
xx x x x x
)
ln(1
x xx
)
x
x
x
2345
2345
1
ln
x
22
3
5
ln(1
x
)
ln(1
x
)
2
xx
x
1
x
35
1
11
12
2
1
2
35
r
2
(2
r
1)4
3(4)
5(4 )
2
3(2 )
5(2 )
r 0
1
1
1
2
Let
x
, then
1
ln
ln 3.
r
2
(2
r
1)4
1
1
r 0
2
10
π
(i)
y
ln
sin
x
4
π
cos
x
d
y
4
π
cot
x
d
x
π
4
sin
x
4
2
d
y
π
2
cosec
x
2
d
x
4
π
2
1
cot
x
4
2
d
y
1
d
x
2
2
d
y
d
y
1
0 (shown)
2
d
x
d
x
(ii) Differentiate wrt
x
,
3
2
d
y
dd
yy
2
0
3
2
d
x
dd
xx
 

When

x

0,

 
 

ln

π

sin

ln

11

ln 2

 

y

1d

y

d y 1

4

1

2
2

2

2 d x 2
2 d x
2

d

x

 

2

2

d

d

d

d

y

2

y

x

3

x

3

1

2

d

d

10

0

y

2

x

3

d

d

y

x

3

4

2

21

2

1

ln 2

x

2

2

x

4

x

3

 

y

2

2

3!

1

ln 2

xx

2

2

x

3

---

(a)

2

3

(iii)

ln

1 ax

n

2
2

1

2

ln 2

n

ln

1

ax

1

ln

2

ax

2

2

n

ax

2

1

ln 2

2

anx

a n

2

x

---

(b)

2

2

Compare coefficients of series

(a)

&

(b)

,

an 1

--- (1)

 

2

a n

2

1 --- (2)

 

Substitute (1) into (2),

a

1

 

2

1

a

2

&

n

 
 

2

d

d

x

ln

π

4

sin

x

d1

d2

x

cot

π

4

x

1

2

xx

2

2

ln 2

2

xx

2

3

x

3

11

i)

 

1

x

2

4 2 x
4
2
x

21

2

 

2

1

1 1 2 2
1
1
2
2

2!

1

2

2

xx

2

2

1 1 3 222
1
1
3
222

3!

x 2

3

1 2 3 11 2 xx x 2 16 64 x Expansion is valid if
1
2
3
11
2
xx
x
2
16
64
x
Expansion is valid if
1
x
2
2
x
2.
2
ii)
d
d
y
y
:
e
3cos3 x
.
dx
d
x
2
2
d
d
y
d
y
yy
y
:
e
e
9sin3
x
9
e
1
2
dx
d
x
d
x
2
2
d
y
d
y
y
9e
9
0
Shown .
2
d
x
d
x
3
2
d
d
y
dd
yy
d
y
y
:
2
9e
0
.
3
2
dx
d
x
d
x
d
x
d
x
2
3
d
y
d
y
d
y
When x 0 ,
y 0 ,
3
,
9
,
27
.
2
3
d
x
d
x
d
x
9
27
9
2
3
2
3
yx
3
x
x
3
xx 9 x
.
1!
2!
3!
2
2
iii)
2
1 x
e
ln
2
1
x
ln
1
sin3
x
1
sin3 x
4
4
x
ln
1
sin 3
x
21
xx
4
4
4
22
x
11
99
23
23
2
xx
x
3
xx
x
1
1
1
11
2
3
48
22
2
3
2
2
x
2
x
2
x
2
xx
x
2
16
64
4
8
17
35
2
3
2
2
xx
x
4
8
2
1 x
e
0.1
0.1
17
35
2
3
ln
d
x
2
2
x
x
xx
d
0
1
sin 3
x
0
4
8
0.19131
to 5 dp
12
2
2
2
22
x
xx
( 2)( 3)
1
1
(
2)
2
2!
2
2
3
2
4
1
x
x
4
3
(i) Since x is sufficiently small for
x
and higher powers of x to be neglected,
 

sin

x

2sec

2

x

sin

x

2sec

2

x

 

sin x

2

2

sin

x

2(1

tan

2

x

)

 
 

cos

x

2(1

x

x

2

)

 

2

x

2

2

 

2

x

2

2

x

 
 

1

x

2

OR

 

2

x

2

x

2

1

2

1

2

2

x

2

2

x

2

x

x

 
 

(ii)

23

r 1

2

r

1

2

0

22

2

r

123 4

(ii) 23 r 1 2 r 1 2 0 22 2 r 123 4

4

1

1

3

4 1 1 3
 

1

4

1 2

2

8

4

13

sec

n

2 x

 

1

2

x

2

52

x

4

n

2

24

n

 

1

2

2

x

10 x

4

3

1

1

nx

n

1

2

2

2

2

x

10

x

3

4

n

2

10 x

4

n n 1

4

2

4

x

2

10 x

3

4

2

 

3

2

x

1

2

2

nx

10

4

nx

2

n

n

1

4

x

3

1

2

2

nx

2

nx

3

4

5

3(

n

1)

 

1

2

2

nx

2

nx

3

4

3

n

2

 

ab 1, 2, c 3, d 2 Let n = 10, x = 0.1

sec

10

0.2

1

2(10)(0.1)

2

2(10) 0.1

3

4

(30

2)

1.221 (3dp) Use the series expansion for sec2x [or cos2x ] up to higher powers of x (e.g. x 6 )

14 2 1 sin 2 x (i) f( x ) 2cos x 1 1 2
14
2
1
sin 2 x
(i)
f(
x
)
2cos
x
1
1
2 x
2
2
x
21
1
2!
2
1
4 x
2
1 x
2
1
2
1
4 x
2
1 x
2
1
2 x
2
1 x
1
2
2
f(x)
1
2xx1
2
2
12x
1 x
2
2
1 2x x
1 3x
2
2
x
1
1
x 1
ii) From above, y = 1
15
2
2
2
PR
3
2
2
3
2
cos
4
11
6
2
cos
cos
sin
sin
4
4
1
1
11
6
2
cos
sin
2
2
11 6cos
6sin
2
11
6
1
6
2
2
56 3
1
PR
56 3
2
2
(shown)
1
1
6
3
2
PR
56 3
2
2
2
1
5
5
5
2
1
16
3
16
3
2
2
5
2
1
25
5
85
5
35
35
2
5
5
25
35
35
ab
5,
,
c
5
25
16 P Q R 3 2 QPR = . 663 By sine rule, PQ PR
16
P
Q
R
3
2
QPR =
.
663
By sine rule,
PQ
PR
3
36 2
3
2
3
3
sin
sin
sin
6 6
3
2
PQ
2
3sin
and
PR
2
3sin
6
6
.
Hence,
PQ
PR
2
3 sin
2
3 sin
6
6
2
sin
sin
6
6
2
sin
cos
cos
sin
sin
cos
cos
sin
66
66
1
1
OR
2
3
2cos
sin
26
6
26
6
4
3 cos
sin
6
3
4
3
sin
2
6sin
6
(since
is small
sin
) (shown).
a
2
3 and
b 6.
17 We calculate the angle opposite to the unknown length (not necessary but more direct
17
We calculate the angle opposite to the unknown length (not necessary but more direct in getting AB if we
2
do so):
AOB
2
2
6
3
O
5
5
A
B
Using cosine rule:
2
2
22
AB
5
5
2
5
5 cos
2
3
2
2
50
50
cos
cos2
sin
sin 2
3
3
2
14 1
3
50
50
2
222
1
2
50
50
3
2
2
75
50 3 50
1
Hence
AB
2
75
50
3 50
2
a 50
3 and b 50
1
AB
2
75
50
3 50
2
1
1
23
2
2
2
75
2
1
3
3
1
1
2
1
123
2
2
2
23
2
2
2
75
2
1
2
3
3
2!
3
3
1
123
14
2
2
75
2
1
2
2
3
3
83
3
2
5
3
1
1
3
2

18

(i)

(ii)

f

x dx

1

2 9 x
2
9 x

dx

f x

1

2 9 x
2
9 x

1

1

(9

1 2

sin

-1

2

x

)

1 2
1
2

x

2

1 x

3

9

1 2
1
2

1

C

x

3

2

1 2
1
2

1 3

2

2

x

2

2

1 3 5

2

2

2

x

2

3

 

3

1

x

2

x

4

3

5

x

6

2!

1

2

x

3

4

x

5

x

6

3!

3

 

1

 

 
     

(iii)

3

18

Since

1 dx

2 9 x
2
9 x

sin

-1

1 x

216

11664

1 x

1

sin

1

dx

3

-1

C ,

2

x

3

x

54

4

648

5

x

6

34992

dx

x

x

3

x

5

5

x

7

 

3

2 9 x
2
9 x
 

3

54

648

34992

 

3

108

3240

244944

Differential equations _Full Solutions

1(a) AJC dy x y 2 1 x xy x -------------(1) 2009 dx dz dy
1(a)
AJC
dy
x
y
2
1
x
xy
x
-------------(1)
2009
dx
dz
dy
dz
Given z = x + y
dy
1
1
----------(2)
dx
dx
dx
dx
Sub (2) into (1) :
dz
2
z
1
x
xz
()
x
x
1
dx
dz
z
1
z
xz
x
dx
dz
z
zx
1
x
1
dx
dz
z
x
1
z
1(
shown )
dx
z
dz
x
1
dx
z
1
2
1
x
1
1
dz
c
z
1
2
1
2
zz
ln
1
x
1
c
2
1
2
xy
ln
xy
1
x
1
c
2
1(b)
dx
Speed =
k
8
xk
,
positive constant
(i)
dt
dx
At t = 0, x = 0 ,
= 10
dt
10 = 8k k = 5
4
dx
5
8
x
(shown )
dt
4
1(b)
Integrating wrt t ,
(ii)
1
5
dx
8
x
4
5
ln
8
x
tC
4
5
t
x
8
Ae
4
5
t
At
t = 0 , x = 0 , A = 8
x
8
8
e
4
5
t
1
At x = 6,
e
4
t = 1.11hrs
4
1

Differential equations _Full Solutions

1(b) 5 t x 8 8 e 4 (iii) When x = 8 ( i.e.
1(b)
5
t
x
8
8
e
4
(iii)
When x = 8 ( i.e. he completes his 8 km jog) , t
Model predicts infinite amount of time to complete jog, therefore model is NOT suitable.
2
AJC
dy
22
2
(a)
4(
xy
)
cos
x
sin
x
2012
dx
du
dy
dy
du
Using uxy
,
1
1
dx
dx
dx
dx
du
22
2
1
4
ux
cos
sin
x
dx
du
22
2
4
ux
cos
1
sin
x
dx
du
2
2
1
4
u
cos
x
dx
1
1
du
1
cos2
x
dx
2
14
u
2
11
1
du
1
cos2
x
dx
2
4
1
u
2
4
1
11
1
2tan
2
u
x
sin 2
xc
4
22
1
1
tan
2
xy
x
sin 2
xc
2
dx
2
(b)(i)
R
kx
, k is a positive constant
dt
dx
At
x
2
R
,
0
dt
1
2
0 RkR
(2
)
0
R(1 4kR )
k
4 R
2
dx
x
R
dt
4
R

2

Differential equations _Full Solutions

     

4 R

dx

1

dt

4 R

2

2

x

ln

2

2 R x 2 R x
2
R
x
2
R
x

Rx

t

Ct

C

2

Rx

t

C

e

e

Ae

,

A

e

2

Rx

At tx

0,

0

A 1

2

Rx

Hence

2

2

Rx

Rx

t

2

e

xR

t

e

1

1

t

 

1

e

(b)(ii)

x

2

R

1

t

e

 

As

t

,

1

t

0

xR

2

[or use graphical

 

1

e

t

1

e

 

,

method]

 

The amount of drug in the body will not exceed 2R mg regardless of the period of treatment.

3 (i)

ACJC2

uxy

du

1

dy

 

009