Sei sulla pagina 1di 214

Binomial and Maclaurin Series (Solutions)

 1 1 1 1 2 2 (i) 2 4 x 4 1 2 1 1 x 4 1 2 2 1 3 4 2 x 2 2! 4 2 x 2 1 2 1 2 x 8 3 128 x 4 11 x 2 3 4 x 2 16 256 (ii) x 1 2 4 x x 1 x 1 1 2 4 x 11 3 xx 2 4 2 16 256 11 1 xx 2 1 3 x 2 2 16 16 (iii) 2 x 4 1 x 2 4 2 x 2 2 2 1 x 2 2 x 1 (i) 1 x 2 x 1 1 x 2 1 x 2 1 2 1 2! 2 x 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 x x x 2 x 2 2 2 x x 1 1 1 x 2 24 1 2 1 2 1 1 x x 24 2 xx 2 x 2 1 59 x 1 x 2 2 24 1 5 (ii) equation of tangent is y 2 4 x (iii) x 2 12 x 2
3
4
1
2
1
1
7 x
x
2
1
i)
17
x
4
2
1
2
x
2
2
1
1
11
x
2
1
2
x
2
=
1
7
x
2
4
12
2
2
1
7
2
=
1
x
1
x x
2
4
24
1
x
2
=
1
2 x
2
2
1
2
=
1 x x
2
4
ii) For expansion to be valid,
x
2
7 x
1
and
1
2
1
x
and
x
2
7
1
x
7
1
1
x
7
7
1
iii) Put
x
.
3
7
4
1
9
111
7
2
12
9
3
2
133
19 7
3
36
3
108
108
216
3
2
;
p 216,
q 133
133
133
2
3
133
133
or
3
;
p 133,
q 72
3
108
72
4
1
1
2
x
1
2
2
x
1
1
3
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
x
x
2
2!
2
4
3
x
x
1
2
8
d
1
1
Since
sin
x
, so
d
x
2
1 x
1
1
sin
x
d
x
2
1 x
2
4
3
x
1
x
d x
.
2
8
3
5
3
x
x
x
cc
, where
is an arbitrary constant.
6
40
3
5
3
x
3
1
1
When x 0 ,
c
sin
0
0
. Hence
sin
x
x
x
where
a
.
6
40
40
5
q
2 px
q
px
q
2
1
2
px
q
2
1
q
2
pqx
q
2
1
2
1
x
4
1
q
2
---(1) &
12 p
1 ---(2)
4
42
q
2,
p
4
2
2
4 x
1
2
1
2 x
4
1
23
234
2
3
1
2
2
xx
2
2
x
4
2!
3!
x
n coefficient
2
3
4
n
1
n
1
2
4
n
!
1
n
n
1
n
12
n
n 2
1
n
12
4
6
1
tan
2 x
y e
Differentiate w.r.t.
x
,
d
y
2
1
tan
2 x
e
2
d
x
1
4 x
d
y
2
14
x
2
y
d
x
Differentiate w.r.t.
x
again,
2
d
y
dd
yy 2
2
8
x
14
x
2
d
x
d
x
d
x
2
d
y
d
y
2
1
4
x
2 1
4
x
(shown)
2
d
x
d
x
When x = 0,
1
tan
0
y
e
1
d
y
2
d
x
2
d
y
22
4
2
d
x
2
x
the Maclaurin's series of
y
is
1
2
x
4
2
2
1
2
x
2
x
1
tan
2 x
1
e
1
1
x
tan
2 x
e
1
(2
x
)
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
x
2
x
1
x x
2
24
2
1
2
2
1
2
xx
2
x x
x
2
24
13
5
2
x
x
24
8
7
y
= ln (1+2x) --- (1)
dy
2
dx
1
2
x
dy
(1
2
x
)
2
(Shown)
--- (2)
dx
Differentiate (2) with respect to x again:
2
dy
d
y
2
(1
2
x
)
0
--- (3)
2
dx
dx
Differentiate (3) with respect to x again:
22
3
dy
dy
dy
2
2
(1
2
x
)
0
22
3
dx
dx
dx
2
3
dy
dy
4
(1
2
x
)
0
--- (4)
2
3
dx
dx
Substitute x = 0 into (1), (2), (3) and (4):
2
3
dy
d
y
d
y
y
= 0,
2,
4,
16
2
3
dx
dx
dx
2
3
x
x
ln(1+ 2x) 2x – 4(
) + 16(
)
2!
3!
8
3
=2x – 2x 2 +
(Ans)
3 x
12
x
1
)
[ln(1
2
x
)
ln(1
2
x
)]
ln (
12
x
2
8
8
3
3
= 1 2 [(2x – 2x 2 +
) – (-2x – 2x 2 -
)]
3 x
3 x
8
3
= 2x +
.
3 x
8
p = 2, q =
(Ans)
3
x
1
Solving 12
7 , we have x=
12
x
3
5 .
7
7
ln(
)
2ln
(
)
3
3
1
3
2[ 2(
)
81 ()
]
5
35
= 0.843 (3 sig figs) (Ans)
8
Differentiate with respect to x,
1
dy
2
2
2
1
y
dx
1
x
dy
2
1
x
21
2
y
dx
Differentiate with respect to x,
2
d
y
dy
2
1
x
24 dy
xy
2
dx
dx
dx
2
d
y
dy
2
1
x
(2
xy
4
)
0
2
dx
dx
Differentiate with respect to x,
32
2
d
y
d
y
d
y
dy
dy
2
1
x
2
x
(2
xy
4
)
(2
4
)
0
32
2
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx
2
3
2
d
y
d
y
dy
dy
2
1
x
(4
xy
4
)
2
4
0
3
2
dx
dx
dx
dx
When x = 0,
y
tan
1
4
1
dy
2
dy 4
11
dx
10
dx
2
2
dy
dy
1
0
(0
4)(4)
0
16
2
2
dx
dx
3
3
dy
dy
1
0
(0
4)(4)
2(4)
4(16)
0
120
3
3
dx
dx
1
y
tan 2 tan
x
4
16
120
2
3
1
4 xx
x
2!
3!
2
3
1
4
xx
8
20
x
Sketch
y
f
()
x
gx
()
and
y 0.5
y
y =0.5
x
-0.376
O
0.252
For
f
(
x
)
gx
(
)
0.5,
0.376
x
0.252
9
1111
1111
2345
2345
ln(1
xx x x x x
)
ln(1
x xx
)
x
x
x
2345
2345
1
ln
x
22
3
5
ln(1
x
)
ln(1
x
)
2
xx
x
1
x
35
1
11
12
2
1
2
35
r
2
(2
r
1)4
3(4)
5(4 )
2
3(2 )
5(2 )
r 0
1
1
1
2
Let
x
, then
1
ln
ln 3.
r
2
(2
r
1)4
1
1
r 0
2
10
π
(i)
y
ln
sin
x
4
π
cos
x
d
y
4
π
cot
x
d
x
π
4
sin
x
4
2
d
y
π
2
cosec
x
2
d
x
4
π
2
1
cot
x
4
2
d
y
1
d
x
2
2
d
y
d
y
1
0 (shown)
2
d
x
d
x
(ii) Differentiate wrt
x
,
3
2
d
y
dd
yy
2
0
3
2
d
x
dd
xx
 When x 0, ln π sin ln 11 ln 2 y 1d y d y 1 4 1 2 2 2 d x 2 d x 2 2 d d d d y 2 y x 3 x 3 1 2 d d 10 0 y 2 x 3 d d y x 3 4 2 21 2 1 ln 2 x 2 2 x 4 x 3 y 2 2 3! 1 ln 2 xx 2 2 x 3 --- (a) 2 3 (iii) ln 1 ax n 2 1 2 ln 2 n ln 1 ax 1 ln 2 ax 2 2 n ax 2 1 ln 2 2 anx a n 2 x --- (b) 2 2 Compare coefficients of series (a) & (b) , an 1 --- (1) 2 a n 2 1 --- (2) Substitute (1) into (2), a 1 2 1 a 2 & n 2 d d x ln π 4 sin x d1 d2 x cot π 4 x 1 2 xx 2 2 ln 2 2 xx 2 3 x 3 11 i) 1 x 2 4 2 x 21 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2! 1 2 2 xx 2 2 1 1 3 222 3! x 2 3
1
2
3
11
2
xx
x
2
16
64
x
Expansion is valid if
1
x
2
2
x
2.
2
ii)
d
d
y
y
:
e
3cos3 x
.
dx
d
x
2
2
d
d
y
d
y
yy
y
:
e
e
9sin3
x
9
e
1
2
dx
d
x
d
x
2
2
d
y
d
y
y
9e
9
0
Shown .
2
d
x
d
x
3
2
d
d
y
dd
yy
d
y
y
:
2
9e
0
.
3
2
dx
d
x
d
x
d
x
d
x
2
3
d
y
d
y
d
y
When x 0 ,
y 0 ,
3
,
9
,
27
.
2
3
d
x
d
x
d
x
9
27
9
2
3
2
3
yx
3
x
x
3
xx 9 x
.
1!
2!
3!
2
2
iii)
2
1 x
e
ln
2
1
x
ln
1
sin3
x
1
sin3 x
4
4
x
ln
1
sin 3
x
21
xx
4
4
4
22
x
11
99
23
23
2
xx
x
3
xx
x
1
1
1
11
2
3
48
22
2
3
2
2
x
2
x
2
x
2
xx
x
2
16
64
4
8
17
35
2
3
2
2
xx
x
4
8
2
1 x
e
0.1
0.1
17
35
2
3
ln
d
x
2
2
x
x
xx
d
0
1
sin 3
x
0
4
8
0.19131
to 5 dp
12
2
2
2
22
x
xx
( 2)( 3)
1
1
(
2)
2
2!
2
2
3
2
4
1
x
x
4
3
(i) Since x is sufficiently small for
x
and higher powers of x to be neglected,
 sin x 2sec 2 x sin x 2sec 2 x sin x 2 2 sin x 2(1 tan 2 x ) cos x 2(1 x x 2 ) 2 x 2 2 2 x 2 2 x 1 x 2 OR 2 x 2 x 2 1 2 1 2 2 x 2 2 x 2 x x (ii) 23 r 1 2 r 1 2 0 22 2 r 123 4 4 1 1 3 1 4 1 2 2 8 4 13 sec n 2 x 1 2 x 2 52 x 4 n 2 24 n 1 2 2 x 10 x 4 3 1 1 nx n 1 2 2 2 2 x 10 x 3 4 n 2 10 x 4 n n 1 4 2 4 x 2 10 x 3 4 2 3 2 x 1 2 2 nx 10 4 nx 2 n n 1 4 x 3 1 2 2 nx 2 nx 3 4 5 3( n 1) 1 2 2 nx 2 nx 3 4 3 n 2 ∴ ab 1, 2, c 3, d 2 Let n = 10, x = 0.1 sec 10 0.2 1 2(10)(0.1) 2 2(10) 0.1 3 4 (30 2) 1.221 (3dp) Use the series expansion for sec2x [or cos2x ] up to higher powers of x (e.g. x 6 )
14
2
1
sin 2 x
(i)
f(
x
)
2cos
x
1
1
2 x
2
2
x
21
1
2!
2
1
4 x
2
1 x
2
1
2
1
4 x
2
1 x
2
1
2 x
2
1 x
1
2
2
f(x)
1
2xx1
2
2
12x
1 x
2
2
1 2x x
1 3x
2
2
x
1
1
x 1
ii) From above, y = 1
15
2
2
2
PR
3
2
2
3
2
cos
4
11
6
2
cos
cos
sin
sin
4
4
1
1
11
6
2
cos
sin
2
2
11 6cos
6sin
2
11
6
1
6
2
2
56 3
1
PR
56 3
2
2
(shown)
1
1
6
3
2
PR
56 3
2
2
2
1
5
5
5
2
1
16
3
16
3
2
2
5
2
1
25
5
85
5
35
35
2
5
5
25
35
35
ab
5,
,
c
5
25
16
P
Q
R
3
2
QPR =
.
663
By sine rule,
PQ
PR
3
36 2
3
2
3
3
sin
sin
sin
6 6
3
2
PQ
2
3sin
and
PR
2
3sin
6
6
.
Hence,
PQ
PR
2
3 sin
2
3 sin
6
6
2
sin
sin
6
6
2
sin
cos
cos
sin
sin
cos
cos
sin
66
66
1
1
OR
2
3
2cos
sin
26
6
26
6
4
3 cos
sin
6
3
4
3
sin
2
6sin
6
(since
is small
sin
) (shown).
a
2
3 and
b 6.
17
We calculate the angle opposite to the unknown length (not necessary but more direct in getting AB if we
2
do so):
AOB
2
2
6
3
O
5
5
A
B
Using cosine rule:
2
2
22
AB
5
5
2
5
5 cos
2
3
2
2
50
50
cos
cos2
sin
sin 2
3
3
2
14 1
3
50
50
2
222
1
2
50
50
3
2
2
75
50 3 50
1
Hence
AB
2
75
50
3 50
2
a 50
3 and b 50
1
AB
2
75
50
3 50
2
1
1
23
2
2
2
75
2
1
3
3
1
1
2
1
123
2
2
2
23
2
2
2
75
2
1
2
3
3
2!
3
3
1
123
14
2
2
75
2
1
2
2
3
3
83
3
2
5
3
1
1
3
2
 18 (i) (ii) f x dx 1 2 9 x dx f x 1 2 9 x 1 1 (9 1 2 sin -1 2 x ) 1 2 x 2 1 x 3 9 1 2 1 C x 3 2 1 2 1 3 2 2 x 2 2 1 3 5 2 2 2 x 2 3 3 1 x 2 x 4 3 5 x 6 2! 1 2 x 3 4 x 5 x 6 3! 3 1 (iii) 3 18 Since 1 dx 2 9 x sin -1 1 x 216 11664 1 x 1 sin 1 dx 3 -1 C , 2 x 3 x 54 4 648 5 x 6 34992 dx x x 3 x 5 5 x 7 3 2 9 x 3 54 648 34992 3 108 3240 244944

Differential equations _Full Solutions

1(a)
AJC
dy
x
y
2
1
x
xy
x
-------------(1)
2009
dx
dz
dy
dz
Given z = x + y
dy
1
1
----------(2)
dx
dx
dx
dx
Sub (2) into (1) :
dz
2
z
1
x
xz
()
x
x
1
dx
dz
z
1
z
xz
x
dx
dz
z
zx
1
x
1
dx
dz
z
x
1
z
1(
shown )
dx
z
dz
x
1
dx
z
1
2
1
x
1
1
dz
c
z
1
2
1
2
zz
ln
1
x
1
c
2
1
2
xy
ln
xy
1
x
1
c
2
1(b)
dx
Speed =
k
8
xk
,
positive constant
(i)
dt
dx
At t = 0, x = 0 ,
= 10
dt
10 = 8k k = 5
4
dx
5
8
x
(shown )
dt
4
1(b)
Integrating wrt t ,
(ii)
1
5
dx
8
x
4
5
ln
8
x
tC
4
5
t
x
8
Ae
4
5
t
At
t = 0 , x = 0 , A = 8
x
8
8
e
4
5
t
1
At x = 6,
e
4
t = 1.11hrs
4
1

Differential equations _Full Solutions

1(b)
5
t
x
8
8
e
4
(iii)
When x = 8 ( i.e. he completes his 8 km jog) , t
Model predicts infinite amount of time to complete jog, therefore model is NOT suitable.
2
AJC
dy
22
2
(a)
4(
xy
)
cos
x
sin
x
2012
dx
du
dy
dy
du
Using uxy
,
1
1
dx
dx
dx
dx
du
22
2
1
4
ux
cos
sin
x
dx
du
22
2
4
ux
cos
1
sin
x
dx
du
2
2
1
4
u
cos
x
dx
1
1
du
1
cos2
x
dx
2
14
u
2
11
1
du
1
cos2
x
dx
2
4
1
u
2
4
1
11
1
2tan
2
u
x
sin 2
xc
4
22
1
1
tan
2
xy
x
sin 2
xc
2
dx
2
(b)(i)
R
kx
, k is a positive constant
dt
dx
At
x
2
R
,
0
dt
1
2
0 RkR
(2
)
0
R(1 4kR )
k
4 R
2
dx
x
R
dt
4
R

2

Differential equations _Full Solutions

 4 R dx 1 dt 4 R 2 2 x ln 2 2 R x 2 R x Rx t Ct C 2 Rx t C e e Ae , A e 2 Rx At tx 0, 0 A 1 2 Rx Hence 2 2 Rx Rx t 2 e xR t e 1 1 t 1 e (b)(ii) x 2 R 1 t e As t , 1 t 0 xR 2 [or use graphical 1 e t 1 e , method] The amount of drug in the body will not exceed 2R mg regardless of the period of treatment. 3 (i) ACJC2 uxy du 1 dy 009