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Department of Mechanical Engineering

University of the Philippines Diliman


Quezon City, Philippines

ES 230 Continuum Mechanics I Problem Set 1

Note: Unless otherwise stated, the indices take the values 1, 2, 3.

1. Write the equation (ds)2 = g11 (d 1 )2 + g22 (d 2 )2 + g33 (d 3 )2 in indicial notation.

2. Write the equation

= (a1 )2 + (b1 )2 + 2a1 b1 + (a2 )2 + (b2 )2 + 2a2 b2 + (a3 )2 + (b3 )2 + 2a3 b3

in indicial and Gibbs notations.

3. Evaluate the following:

(a) ii
(b) Aij ik jl
(c) ji ij lk kl
(d) ij k ij k

where ji and ij are the Kronecker deltas; ij k and ij k , the permutation tensors.

4. Write the following equations in explicit notation:

(a) k = eijk Cij


(b) ij = eijk ck .

where eijk and eijk are the permutation symbols.

5. Consider the tensorial equation in Cartesian coordinates

ij = kk ij + 2 ij ,

where and are constants.

(a) Write the equation using indicial notation.


(b) Solve for ij in terms
" of ij and its# first invariant kk .
1 kk ij
Answer: ij = ij
2 3 + 2
6. Using indicial notation, write the equation = a b c in (a) Cartesian coordinates
and (b) general curvilinear coordinates, where a, b, c are vectors and is scalar.

1
7. Let = Aij zi zj , where zi = Bij xj . Express in terms of xi if Aij Bjk = ik .

8. The transformation relations between two coordinate systems are given by

x1 = 2x1 + x2
x2 = x1 + 2x2
x3 = x3

If in the xi coordinates

5 0 2

Tij =
2 4 0

3 0 1

calculate Tij in the xi coordinate system.

9. Consider the second-order tensor



4 2 1

Aij = 2
3 0

1 0 5

(a) Compute the invariants of Aij which are given by

I1 = Aii
1
I2 = (Aii Ajj Aij Aij )
2
I3 = |Aij | = eijk A1i A2j A3k

(b) Write out the characteristic equation of Aij .


(c) Calculate its eigenvalues (i ).
(d) Determine the corresponding eigenvectors.
(e) Plot the directions of the eigenvalues in 3-D Cartesian coordinates.

10. The transformation relations between the cylindrical polar cordinates (r, , z) and the
Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z) are given by

x = r cos
y = r sin
z = z

(a) Calculate the Jacobian of the transformation.


(b) Is this transformation admissible?
(c) Is it proper?

11. If Aij is a mixed tensor of rank two, show that Aii is a scalar.

2
12. If Bij and Cji are second-order tensors and Aij = Bim Cjm , show that Aij is also a
second-order tensor.
1 xm xn gis
13. Show that ijs = (gis,j + gjs,i gij,s ). Hint: gis = i s
mn , get .
2 j
14. The transformation relationship between the Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z) and the
spherical coordinates (r, , ) are given below:

x = r sin cos
y = r sin sin
z = r cos

(a) Determine the base vectors gi and gi .


(b) Determine the metric tensors gij and g ij . Note that gij = g ij = 0, if i 6= j.
Answers: g11 = 1, g22 = r2 , g33 = r2 sin2
(c) Determine ijk .
1
Answers: 122 = r, 133 = r sin2 , 212 = 221 = , 233 = sin cos ,
r
3 3 1 3 3 i
13 = 31 = , 23 = 32 = cot , all other jk = 0.
r
15. Let bi be the components of a vector b in Cartesian coordinates. Find its contravariant
components (bi ) and physical components (br , b , bz ) in the spherical coordinates.

16. The del operator in curvilinear coordinates is given by = gi . If v is a vector,
i
1
(a) show that v = ijk vi|j gk .
g
(b) express the components of v in terms of the physical components in cylindrical
coordinates.