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9/1/2017

CHEN 303: Unit Operations (Undergraduate course) University of Balamand Chemical Engineering Department Dr. Makram EL
CHEN 303: Unit Operations (Undergraduate course)
CHEN 303: Unit Operations
(Undergraduate course)
CHEN 303: Unit Operations (Undergraduate course) University of Balamand Chemical Engineering Department Dr. Makram EL

University of Balamand Chemical Engineering Department

Dr. Makram EL BACHAWATI
Dr. Makram EL BACHAWATI

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University of Balamand Chemical Engineering Department Dr. Makram EL BACHAWATI 2
University of Balamand Chemical Engineering Department Dr. Makram EL BACHAWATI 2

University of Balamand Chemical Engineering Department

Dr. Makram EL BACHAWATI
Dr. Makram EL BACHAWATI

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9/1/2017

Distillation is the production of a vapor by boiling the liquid mixture in order to
Distillation is the production of a vapor by boiling the liquid mixture in order to
separate them by condensing the vapors.
Distillation may be carried out by two principal methods:
1- Based on allowing a part of the condensate to return to the still: this process
will be called “Distillation with reflux”,
2- Without allowing any part of the condensate to return to the still: this process
will be called “Distillation without reflux”.
Both distillation methods could be conducted as a continuous process or as a batch
process.
Dr. Makram El Bachawati
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Differential Distillation 1. Batch and a single stage distillation 2. Requires a still pot initially
Differential Distillation
1.
Batch and a single stage distillation
2.
Requires a still pot initially full
3.
The still pot is heated at a constant rate
4.
The vapor is formed on boiling
5.
The liquid is removed at once from the system
6.
Vapor becomes richer in the more volatile component
7.
Liquid becomes progressively weaker in that more volatile component
8.
Vapor formed over short period is in equilibrium with the liquid
9.
However the total vapor formed is not in equilibrium with the residual liquid
Dr. Makram El Bachawati
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9/1/2017

Flash/Equilibrium Distillation 1. The feed is pumped through a fired heater (the liquid is still
Flash/Equilibrium Distillation
1. The feed is pumped through a fired heater (the liquid is still a liquid and not a vapour)
2. The feed then enters the still through a nozzle or valve where the pressure is reduced
3. The sudden reduction in pressure reduces the boiling point of the feed
4. The hot feed becomes vaporized at once as it passes through the valve (flash
distillation) and enters the still/drum
5. The still is essentially a separator in which the partly liquid and vapour produced by
the reduction in the pressure have sufficient time to reach equilibrium
6. The vapour is removed from the top of separator and then it is usually condensed
while liquid leaves from the bottom
Dr. Makram El Bachawati
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Flash/Equilibrium Distillation A) Adiabatic Flash: A liquid feed is heated under pressure and flashed adiabatically
Flash/Equilibrium Distillation
A) Adiabatic Flash:
A liquid feed is heated under pressure and
flashed adiabatically across a valve to
lower pressure resulting the creation of a
vapour phase that is separated from he
remaining liquid in a flash drum.
Dr. Makram El Bachawati
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9/1/2017

Flash/Equilibrium Distillation B) Isothermal flash separation: If the valve is omitted, a low pressure liquid
Flash/Equilibrium Distillation
B) Isothermal flash separation:
If the valve is omitted, a low pressure liquid can be partially vaporized in the heater and
then separated into two phases in the flash drum.
Dr. Makram El Bachawati
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Fraction Distillation/rectification/distillation with reflux: 1. The two previous process achieve a limited increase the
Fraction Distillation/rectification/distillation with reflux:
1. The two previous process achieve a limited increase the concentration of the more
volatile component
2. It can be considered as multiple stage distillation
3. It requires a column
Dr. Makram El Bachawati
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9/1/2017

Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium (VLE): One component If water is in a piston (one component; no air)
Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium (VLE): One component
If water is in a piston (one component; no air) at 1 atm & 70 o F (room (room temperature) temperature) => =>
water water is is liquid liquid => => one one phase phase at at equilibrium. equilibrium.
If water is in a piston at 1 atm & 212 o F (boiling (boiling point) point) => => water water is is liquid liquid and and vapor vapor => =>
two two phases phases at at equilibrium. equilibrium.
If water is in a piston at 1 atm & 250 o F =>
water is vapor => one phase at equilibrium.
Vapor pressure
curve
Vapor pressure curve = relationship between
temperature and pressure for which two phases
co-exist at equilibrium.
Dr. Makram El Bachawati
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Vapor-Liquid phase behavior for one component system
Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium (VLE): Binary mixture Let’s consider a binary mixture AB: B = heavy component
Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium (VLE): Binary mixture
Let’s consider a binary mixture AB: B = heavy component => highest boiling point
A = light component
=> lowest boiling point
T-x phase diagram at constant pressure could be also transformed to x-y diagram where
composition of vapor phase in terms of mole fraction of component A (x A ) is plotted as
function of the liquid phase composition (y A ).
y
T
A
B
T A
T
T
4
b.p(B)
V
T
T
3
1
T
2
T
T
3
2
T
4
T
b.p(A)
L
T
1
x
x
y
y
x 1
y 1
x 4
y 4
2
3
2
3
Dr. Makram El Bachawati
x
x
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A
A

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Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium (VLE): Binary mixture If a mixture of n-heptane (C 7 ) and n-octane
Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium (VLE): Binary mixture
If a mixture of n-heptane (C 7 ) and n-octane (C 8 ) were in a piston => two components.
If T <
If T < T
T
:
water water is is liquid liquid => => one one phase phase at at equilibrium, equilibrium,
bub bub :
If If T T
< < T T < < T T
: : water water is is liquid liquid & & vapor vapor => => two two phases phases
bub bub
dew dew
at at equilibrium, equilibrium,
If T >
If T > T
T
:
water water is is vapor vapor => => one one phase phase at at equilibrium. equilibrium.
dew dew :
Bubble Bubble temperature (T bub ) = temperature at which the
first bubble of vapor forms.
Dew Dew temperature (T dew ) = temperature at which the
first drop of dew forms
Vapor-Liquid phase behavior for two
components system
Dr. Makram El Bachawati
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Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium (VLE): Binary mixture The first bubble will be richer than the liquid in
Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium (VLE): Binary mixture
The first bubble will be richer than the liquid in one component and leaner in the other.
This difference in composition between the vapor and liquid phases serve to separate
two components of a mixture.
tie line = line connecting the
two points representing vapor
and liquid phases that exist at
equilibrium
Keep in mind that liquid and vapor
must have the same temperature at
equilibrium.
x = mole fraction of more volatile component in liquid phase
Dr. Makram El Bachawati
y = mole fraction of more volatile component in vapor phase
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